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5V Power Supply using 7805 Voltage Regulator with Design

By Manoj Shenoy Electronics, Power Supply 13 Comments

In most of our electronic products or projects we need a power supply for converting mains AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage. For making a
power supply designing of each and every component is essential. Here I’m going to discuss the designing of regulated 5V Power Supply.

Let’s start with very basic things the choosing of components

Component List :

1. Step down transformer

2. Voltage regulator
3. Capacitors
4. Diodes

Let’s get into detail of rating of the devices :

Voltage regulator :

As we require a 5V we need LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC.

7805 IC Rating :

 Input voltage range 7V- 35V

 Current rating Ic = 1A
 Output voltage range VMax=5.2V ,VMin=4.8V

LM7805 – Pin Diagram

Transformer :

Selecting a suitable transformer is of great importance. The current rating and the secondary voltage of the transformer is a crucial factor.

 The current rating of the transformer depends upon the current required for the load to be driven.
 The input voltage to the 7805 IC should be at least 2V greater than the required 2V output, therefore it requires an input voltage at least
close to 7V.
 So I chose a 6-0-6 transformer with current rating 500mA (Since 6*√2 = 8.4V).

NOTE : Any transformer which supplies secondary peak voltage up to 35V can be used but as the voltage increases size of the transformer and
power dissipation across regulator increases.
Rectifying circuit :

The best is using a full wave rectifier

 Its advantage is DC saturation is less as in both cycle diodes conduct.

 Higher Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF).
 1N4007 diodes are used as its is capable of withstanding a higher reverse voltage of 1000v whereas 1N4001 is 50V

Center Tap Full Wave Rectifier

Capacitors :
Knowledge of Ripple factor is essential while designing the values of capacitors

It is given by

 Y=1/(4√3fRC) (as the capacitor filter is used)

1. f= frequency of AC ( 50 Hz)

2. R=resistance calculated

R= V/Ic

V= secondary voltage of transformer

 V=6√2=8. 4
 R=8.45/500mA=16.9Ω standard 18Ω chosen

3. C= filtering capacitance

We have to determine this capacitance for filtering


Vac-rms = Vr/2√3

Vdc= VMax-(Vr/2)
Vr= VMax- VMin

 Vr = 5.2-4.8 =0. 4V
 Vac-rms = .3464V
 Vdc = 5V
 Y=0 .06928

Hence the capacitor value is found out by substituting the ripple factor in Y=1/(4√3fRC)

Thus, C= 2314 µF and standard 2200µF is chosen

Datasheet of 7805 prescribes to use a 0.01μF capacitor at the output side to avoid transient changes in the voltages due to changes in load and a
0.33μF at the input side of regulator to avoid ripples if the filtering is far away from regulator.

Circuit Diagram
5V Power Supply Circuit using 7805 Voltage Regulator

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rusman • 4 years ago


thanks for the post.

when calculating R it should not be from secondary transformer since during discharge current direction is into the load.

so R = Vc / load into current via 7805.

do you agree ?

see more

Abiola Aminu • 2 months ago

what if the source to the circuit is a 12v DC input(battery), how do i calculate the value of the capacitors since there wont be need for
transformer and bridge recitifier
see more

Shivanand Ganji • 8 months ago

great article. simple for power supply design. transformer and other components actually makes it bulky.

power supply should be in Component form. like smps.

Ravindran DVL • a year ago

As per the data sheet of7805 the min input voltage should be 7.2 volts. Here in the circuit diagram it is shown 6 volts. Please clarify.

zeineb • a year ago

and if i want output max 5V 2A? what should i add to the circuit?
plz answer me!

giridhar • 2 years ago

18ohm, sorry

Ligo George Mod giridhar • 2 years ago

It is the assumed load resistance.

Nidheesh • 2 years ago

Whether the output will be 5V 1A DC?

Ligo George Mod Nidheesh • 2 years ago

Yes, 7805 maximum output capacity is 1A. So you should always use a current below it. And the current rating of the
transformer also matters.

zeineb Ligo George • a year ago

and if i want output max 5V 2A? what should i addto the circuit plz?

Johanan Prime • 3 years ago

hi there. im trying to design this in the Multisim program but i am unable to obtain the desired 5V output. instead, I am getting a constant
0.926pV output. I've tried changing the component values but I'm unable to obtain the expected result.

Ligo George Mod Johanan Prime • 3 years ago

7805 is a proven voltage regulator. You will get it for sure. Try in hardware.

arjun shinde • 3 years ago

thanks for giving specification of ICs 7805

5V Simple Power Supply for Digital Circuits

Summary of circuit features
 Brief description of operation: Gives out well regulated +5V output, output current capability of 100 mA
 Circuit protection: Built-in overheating protection shuts down output when regulator IC gets too hot
 Circuit complexity: Very simple and easy to build
 Circuit performance: Very stable +5V output voltage, reliable operation
 Availability of components: Easy to get, uses only very common basic components
 Design testing: Based on datasheet example circuit, I have used this circuit succesfully as part of many electronics projects
 Applications: Part of electronics devices, small laboratory power supply
 Power supply voltage: Unreglated DC 8-18V power supply
 Power supply current: Needed output current + 5 mA
 Component costs: Few dollars for the electronics components + the input transformer cost

Circuit description
This circuit is a small +5V power supply, which is useful when experimenting with digital electronics, and easy to build. Small inexpensive wall
tranformers with variable output voltage are available from any electronics shop and supermarket. Those transformers are easily available, but
usually their voltage regulation is very poor, which makes then not very usable for digital circuit experimenter unless a better regulation can be
achieved in some way. The following circuit is the answer to the problem.

This circuit can give +5V output at about 150 mA current, but it can be increased to 1 A when good cooling is added to 7805 regulator chip. The
circuit has over overload and therminal protection.

Circuit diagram of the power supply.

The capacitors must have enough high voltage rating to safely handle the input voltage feed to circuit. The circuit is very easy to build for
example into a piece of veroboard.
Pinout of the 7805 regulator IC.

 1. Unregulated voltage in
 2. Ground
 3. Regulated voltage out

Component list
7805 regulator IC
100 uF electrolytic capacitor, at least 25V voltage rating
10 uF electrolytic capacitor, at least 6V voltage rating
100 nF ceramic or polyester capacitor

Modification ideas
More output current

If you need more than 150 mA of output current, you can update the output current up to 1A doing the following modifications:

 Change the transformer from where you take the power to the circuit to a model which can give as much current as you need from output
 Put a heatsink to the 7805 regulator (so big that it does not overheat because of the extra losses in the regulator)

Other output voltages

If you need other voltages than +5V, you can modify the circuit by replacing the 7805 chips with another regulator with different output voltage
from regulator 78xx chip family. The last numbers in the the chip code tells the output voltage. Remember that the input voltage muts be at least
3V greater than regulator output voltage ot otherwise the regulator does not work well.

Other Common 5V Power Supply Circuit Diagrams

How to calculate the values of capacitors for 5V DC power supply
up vote 6 down vote favorite

I am trying to make a power supply of 5 V; as we all know it uses a bridge circuit, then capacitors and LM7805.

But I want to know how the value of capacitance is calculated. What is the formula for it?

If the formula is C=It/VC=It/V

Then what will be the value of II and VV? What is tt?
I have 220V, 60Hz main supply. What are the calculations?

2 Answers
active oldest votes

up vote 5 down vote

Answer to this question depends on a few things:

First of all in addition to these components you would need a step down transformer in order to make the full-wave
rectified output voltage of your bridge rectifier small enough. You can't feed the rectified 220 V, directly to LM7805,
because LM7805 operates in the input ranges of 7 V to 20 V (and has a maximum input rating of 35 V).
If we assume that your step down transformer reduces the amplitude of 60 Hz sine wave from 220 V to 15 V, and if we
assume that your 5 V power supply will need to output at most I_max = 1 A current, then we can start making some
calculations. Now, as in this wikipedia article , your reservoir capacitor, which you will place after the bridge rectifier,
will have V_max = 15 V on it, which is the amplitude of your sine wave. In the image:

you see that capacitor discharges during almost the whole period of half-wave rectified wave (in our case this discharge
is caused by the I_max = 1 A load current going into LM7805). The discharge time of reservoir capacitor in the case of
half-wave rectifier is T_discharge = T = (1/f) = (1/60 Hz) = 16.6 ms, however, notice that, in our case we have a more
sophisticated rectifier (Diode bridge) which gives a full-wave rectified output. So, the discharge time will be T_discharge
= T/2 = (1/2*f) = 8.3 ms.
Now, at the beginning of each discharge period our capacitor is charged up to V_max = 15 V. In order to prevent our
capacitor voltage going below V_min = 7 V (which is the lowest input operating point for LM7805 voltage regulator) in
the end of the discharge period, our capacitor value should be chosen with the equation:

C >= (I_max*T_discharge)/(V_beforedischarge-V_afterdischarge)
Using the values; V_beforedischarge = V_max = 15 V and V_afterdischarge = V_min = 7 V and I_max = 1 A and
T_discharge = 8.3 ms, we can calculate that:
C_min = (1 A)*(8.3 ms)/(15 V - 7 V) = 1 mF. You can see that if you use a step down transformer which reduces the
220 V input into 20 V instead of 15 V and if your power supply will require at most I_max = 0.5 A current, you can use
an even smaller capacitance with the value:

C_min = (0.5 A)*(8.3 ms)/(20 V - 7 V) = 0.32 mF.


you can see an example design which uses LM7805 just like you are, and they picked a capacitor value of 0.47 mF,
which is close to the values we calculated above.

share improve this answer


edited Jul 23 '14 at 11:16

Capacitor value should be large enough that it can provide enough voltage(+2 volts means 7v for 7805) to the
regulator IC, means voltage across capacitor should not go below 7v. I have found a article where Capacitance
calculation has been explained well,it may be useful for others,

Capacitance calculation for 5v DC


Steps to Convert the 230V AC to 5V DC using Step

Down Converter
Every electrical and electronic device that we use in our day-to-day life will require a power supply. In general, we use an AC supply of 230V
50Hz, but this power has to be changed into the required form with required values or voltage range for providing power supply to different types
of devices. There are various types of power electronic converters such as step-down converter, step-up converter, voltage stabilizer, AC to DC
converter, DC to DC converter, DC to AC converter, and so on. For example, consider the microcontrollers that are used frequently for developing
many embedded systems’ based projects and kits used in real-time applications. These microcontrollers require a 5V DC supply, so the AC 230V
needs to be converted into 5V DC using the step-down converter in their power supply circuit.

Power Supply Circuit

Step Down Converter Circuit

Power supply circuit, the name itself indicates that this circuit is used to
supply the power to other electrical and electronic circuits or devices.
There are different types of power supply circuits based on the power
they are used to provide for devices. For example, the micro-controller
based circuits, usually the 5V DC regulated power supply circuits, are
used, which can be designed using different techniques for converting
the available 230V AC power to 5V DC power. Generally the converters
with output voltage less than the input voltage are called as step-down
4 Steps to Convert 230V AC to 5V DC
1. Step Down the Voltage Level
The step-down converters are used for converting the high voltage into low voltage. The converter with output voltage less than the input voltage
is called as a step-down converter, and the converter with output voltage greater than the input voltage is called as step-up converter. There are
step-up and step-down transformers which are used to step up or step down the voltage levels. 230V AC is converted into 12V AC using a step-
down transformer. 12V output of stepdown transformer is an RMS value and its peak value is given by the product of square root of two with
RMS value, which is approximately 17V.
Step-down Transformer

Step-down transformer consists of two windings, namely primary and secondary windings where
primary can be designed using a less-gauge wire with more number of turns as it is used for carrying
low-current high-voltage power, and the secondary winding using a high-gauge wire with less number
of turns as it is used for carrying high-current low-voltage power. Transformers works on the principle
of Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction.

2. Convert AC to DC
230V AC power is converted into 12V AC (12V RMS value wherein the peak value is around 17V),
but the required power is 5V DC; for this purpose, 17V AC power must be primarily converted into
DC power then it can be stepped down to the 5V DC. But first and foremost, we must know how to
convert AC to DC? AC power can be converted into DC using one of the power electronic converters
called as Rectifier. There are different types of rectifiers, such as half-wave rectifier, full-wave rectifier and bridge rectifier. Due to the advantages
of the bridge rectifier over the half and full wave rectifier, the bridge rectifier is frequently used for converting AC to DC.

Bridge Rectifier
Bridge rectifier consists of four diodes which are connected in the form a bridge. We know that the diode is an uncontrolled rectifier which will
conduct only forward bias and will not conduct during the reverse bias. If the diode anode voltage is greater than the cathode voltage then the
diode is said to be in forward bias. During positive half cycle, diodes D2 and D4 will conduct and during negative half cycle diodes D1 and D3
will conduct. Thus, AC is converted into DC; here the obtained is not a pure DC as it consists of pulses. Hence, it is called as pulsating DC power.
But voltage drop across the diodes is (2*0.7V) 1.4V; therefore, the peak voltage at the output of this retifier circuit is 15V (17-1.4) approx.
3. Smoothing the Ripples using Filter
15V DC can be regulated into 5V DC using a step-down converter, but before this, it is required to obtain pure DC power. The output of the diode
bridge is a DC consisting of ripples also called as pulsating DC. This pulsating DC can be filtered using an inductor filter or a capacitor filter or a
resistor-capacitor-coupled filter for removing the ripples. Consider a capacitor filter which is frequently used in most cases for smoothing.


We know that a capacitor is an energy storing element. In the circuit, capacitor

stores energy while the input increases from zero to a peak value and, while the
supply voltage decreases from peak value to zero, capacitor starts discharging. This
charging and discharging of the capacitor will make the pulsating DC into pure DC,
as shown in figure.
4. Regulating 12V DC into 5V DC using Voltage Regulator
15V DC voltage can be stepped down to 5V DC voltage using a DC step-down converter called as voltage regulator IC7805. The first two digits
‘78’ of IC7805 voltage regulator represent positive series voltage regulators and the last two digits ‘05’ represents the output voltage of the voltage
IC7805 Voltage Regulator Internal Block Diagram

The block diagram of IC7805 voltage regulator is shown in the figure

consists of an operating amplifier acting as error amplifier, zener diode used
for providing voltage reference, as shown in the figure.

Zener Diode as Voltage


Transistor as a series pass element used for dissipating extra energy as heat;
SOA protection (Safe Operating Area) and heat sink are used for thermal
protection in case of excessive supply voltages. In general, an IC7805
regulator can withstand voltage ranging from 7.2V to 35V and gives
maximum efficiency of 7.2V voltage and if the voltage exceeds 7.2V, then
there is loss of energy in the form of heat. To protect the regulator from over
heat, thermal protection is provided using a heat sink. Thus, a 5V DC is
obtained from 230V AC power.
We can directly convert 230V AC into 5V DC without using transformer, but we may require high-rating diodes and other components that give
less efficiency. If we have 230V DC power supply, then we can convert the 230V DC into 5V DC using a DC-DC buck converter.
230v to 5v DC-DC Buck Converter:
Let us start with the DC regulated power supply circuit designed using a DC-DC buck converter. If we have 230V DC power supply, then we can
use a DC-DC buck converter for converting the 230V DC into 5V DC power supply. The DC-DC buck converter consists of Capacitor, MOSFET,
PWM control, Diodes and Inductors. The basic topology of a DC-DC buck converter is shown in the below figure.
DC to DC Buck Converter

Voltage drop across the inductor and the changes in electric current flowing through the device are proportional to each other. Hence, the buck
converter works on the principle of energy stored in an inductor. The power semiconductor MOSFET or IGBT used as switching element can be
used to alternate the buck converter circuit between two different states by closing or opening and off or on using the switching element. If the
switch is in on state, then a potential is created across the inductor due to in-rush current which will oppose the supply voltage, thereby reducing
the resultant output voltage. As diode is reverse biased, no current will flow through the diode.
If the switch is open, then current through the inductor interrupts suddenly and the diode starts conduction, thus a return path is provided to the
inductor current. The voltage drop across the energized inductor gets reversed, which can be considered as primary source of output power during
this switching cycle and this is due to the this quick change in the current flow. The stored energy of the inductor is continuously delivered to the
load and thus inductor current will start to drop until the current rises to its previous value or the next on state. The continuation of delivering
energy to the load leads to drop in the inductor current until the current rises to its previous value. This phenomenon is called as output ripple
which can be reduced to an acceptable value using a smoothing capacitor in parallel with the output. Thus, DC-DC converter acts as step-down
DC to DC Step-down Converter using PWM Cotrol

The figure shows the working principle of the DC to DC step-down converter controlled using a PWM oscillator for high-frequency switching and
a feedback is connected with an error amplifier.

All the embedded system based electronics projects require a fixed or an adjustable voltage regulator which is used for providing the required
supply to the electrical and electronic circuits or kits. There are many advanced automatic voltage regulators capable of adjusting the output voltage
automatically based on the criteria of application. For more technical help regarding the power supply circuit and step down converter, please post
your queries as comments in the below comment section.

Example for calculate the resistor color code:

(Band 1) (Band 2) X (Band 3) with tolerance of Band 4

Consider yellow (4), violet (7), orange (1000), gold (+/- 5%) so the value of resistor is 47K ohm with +/- 5% tolerance.