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 Declaration 02
 Acknowledgement 03
 Preface 04
 Abstract 05
 Introduction 06
 History Of Clw 07
 How To Reach 09
 Quality Policy Of Clw 10
 Environmental Policy Of Clw 10
 Safety And Health Policy Of Clw 11
 General Description Of A Locomotive 12
 Specification Of Locomotive 17
 Different Type Of Electric Loco 18
 Locomotive Gallery 22
 Manufacturing Procurement 23
 Steel Foundry 24
 Sand Plant 26
 Method Section 30
 Moulding Shop 33
 Heat Treatment Shop 37
 Wheel Shop 42
 Tool Room Shop 46
 Electric Loco Fabrication For Underframe 48
 Electric Loco Fabrication For Shell 52
 Electric Loco Mechanical Assembly Shop 54
 Machine Treatment Shop 55
 Material Handling System In CLW 56
 Special Features In CLW 57
 Conclusion 58
 Bibliography 59

I, Atanu Pandit, University registration no. 121020110196 of 2012-2013, student

of Mechanical Engineering (2012-16) at Kalyani Government Engineering
College(KGEC),Kalyani hereby declare that the Vocational Training Report
LOCOMOTIVE WORKS(CLW)” is an original work and the same has not been
submitted to any other Institute for the award of any other degree.
A Vocational Training Report was submitted on ________________________ and the
suggestions as approved by the faculty were duly incorporated.


Signature of Presentation In-Charge Signature of the Candidate

(Atanu Pandit)

Director/Principal of the Institute

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With deep reverence and profound gratitude, I would sincerely like to thank Mr.
Subrata Ghosh,Principal, Technical Training Institute(TTC), Mr. C.P. Tayal,General
Manager,Chittaranjan Locomotive Works(CLW) and Mr. Mrinal Kundu, CTI,who gave
me the golden opportunity to get trained in CLW and do this project work on
fulfilment of the training.
Secondly, I must say that the Senior Section Engineers’(SSE) and the Junior
Engineers’(JE) of those shops (Sand Plant, Method Section, Moulding Shop, Heat
Treatment Shop, Wheel Shop, Tool Room Shop, Electric Loco Fabrication Shop,Electric
Loco Bogie Shop,Traction Motor Design Office Shop where I was sent for my training
helped me a lot in this report. Despite their busy schedules, they took time out for us
and explained to us the various aspects of the working of the plant, from the
production shops. Writing this report and perusing the vocational training wouldn’t
have been completed without them.

I feel deep sense of gratitude towards Mr. Santanu Das, Head of the Department,
Mechanical Engineering,Kalyani Govt. Engg. College for arranging my vocational
training at CLW and being a constant source of motivation and guidance throughout
the course of my training.

At last I would like to convey my thanks to all the members of the staff of CLW who
have helped me at every stage of training by giving their helpful suggestions. Without
their continuous help and guidance the training could not have materialized.


Atanu Pandit,
Department of Mech. Engg.
Kalyani Govt. Engg. College

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The main and fundamental objectives of the vocational training are to learn
something about industries practically and to be familiar with the working
style of a technical person to adjust simply according to the industrial
It is rightly said practical life is far away from theoretical one. We learn in
class room can give the practical exposure or real life experience no doubt they
help in improving the personality of the student, but the practical exposure in
the field will help the student in long run of life and will be able to
implement the theoretical knowledge.
As, a part of academic syllabus of four year degree course in Mechanical
Engineering, every student is required to undergo a practical training to be
familiar with various practical approach.
I am student of third year mechanical and this report is written on the basis
of practical knowledge acquired by me during the period of practical training
taken at Chittaranjan locomotive works at Chittaranjan . There are so many workshop
for various aspects in CLW.It is not possible for a student to cover all of the
workshop’s details in four week time duration .As per schedule, prepared by
Technical Training Centre we have to go those shops and collect the details of the
shops from respective Senior Section Engineers and workmen.

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This report is prepared in the need of partial fulfilment of the four year bachelor
degree course. I undergone at Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CLW) during the
period of 22rd June’15 to 19th July’15. The report begins with acknowledging the
persons whom I am grateful to, for training me with utmost stretching their helping
hand towards us in various aspects during our training. Then a brief history of CLW is
provided to get accustomed with this mammoth factory and its environment and its
stories of successes in the history of Indian Railway.

The Training covers following shops and Offices

Sand Plant, Method Section, Moulding Shop, Heat Treatment Shop, Wheel Shop, Tool
Room Shop, Electric Loco Fabrication Of Underframe And Shell, Electric Loco Design
Office Shop, Machine Treatment Shop.

This vocational training also covers some important laboratory associated with the
respective shop. Sand stage laboratory, central laboratory, hot furnace laboratory,
material testing lab etc. These laboratories make the connection between the
theoretical approach and practical approach. This laboratory determines the quality
of various products manufactured at different shop.

However, basic outline of the work performed in those shops has been provided
along with necessary segregation of the shop.
Pictures available are supplied as required. The number of pictures available very
much less as need in completion the whole report, because it is NO PHOTOGRAPHY

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The economic development of a country is dependent on well-developed and
efficient transportation systems. The transport system comprises a number of distinct
modes and services, namely, inland, waterways and airways. Railways and roads are
the dominant means of inland transport carrying more than 95% of total traffic
generated in India. However, when considered in terms of tonne-kilometres hauled
per unit of energy consumed, rail transport is more efficient than road transport.
Therefore, the nation’s visionaries recognized the need for development of an
efficient railway system in India even before the independence.
The locoworks originally called ‘Loco Building Works’ was initially established
for production of 120 average sized steam locomotives with the capacity to
manufacture 50 spare boilers. Production of steam loco commenced on 26th January,
1950. The first President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad dedicated the first steam
locomotive to the nation on 1st November, 1950 and on the same day the Loco
Building Factory was rechristened and named after the great Patriot, Deshbandhu
Chittaranjan Das and became Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. Apart from meeting
the growing and varied needs of Indian Railways, CLW has been, right from inception,
adopting modern designs and upgrading technology, gradually enhancing the haulage
capacities and speeds of locomotives.
It is the only major Electric Locomotive manufacturer in the country. It is
situated at the border of West Bengal and Jharkhand and is at about 32 km from
Asansol and 237 kms from Kolkata. The place where today CLW is situated was
actually a cluster of small villages. The locoworks has a stores purchase office in
Kolkata and inspection cells in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Bangalore. The
Workshop and the township are spread over an area of 18.34 Sq. Km.
The production of Diesel Hydraulic Locomotives was taken up during 1968.
After manufacturing 2351 Steam Locomotives of 5 types and 842 Diesel Hydraulic
Locomotives of 7 types, production of steam and diesel hydraulic locomotives was
discontinued from 1973-74 and 1993-94 respectively. CLW is now manufacturing
main line Electric Locomotives only. Upto September 2014, 5518 Electric Locomotives
of different class have been produced by CLW.
In a word, development of our country in case of transportation system is
solely dependent on her world class manufacturing sector.CLW continuously update
itself to be one of the greatest supplier of modern railway engine considering the
increasing demand of passengers and freight transport. After all ,geometrical
position, good work culture, good relationship with workers, up-to-date technology
transfer, government policy are the main factors which are responsible for changing
the story of CLW’s success in Indian Railway from the very beginning.
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Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CLW) is the dream of the nation’s visionaries,
coming true. The planners of the Nation with their deep insight and foresight set to
build a Loco building Factory in West Bengal and CLW is that vision, coming true. On
the 9th of January 1948, survey of the proposed area was done.
The rocky soil was an advantage in erecting foundations for heavy structural
work and the undulating terrain solved the problem of drainage for the township
while the schemes of the DVC envisaged hydro-electric and thermal power stations in
the vicinity assured cheap power availability in the near future. It is the only major
Electric Locomotive builder in the country. It is situated just at the Border of West
Bengal and Jharkhand and is at about 32 km from Asansol and 237 kms from Kolkata.
The place where today CLW is situated was actually a hamlet of small villages. The
locoworks with its ancillary workshops has a stores purchase office in Kolkata and
inspection cells in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Bangalore. The Workshop has an
area of 18.34 Sq. Km.
The issue of setting up a loco building unit continued to be under active
consideration of the Central legislature and in the late thirties, a committee
consisting of M/s. Humphries and Shrinivasan was appointed to investigate the
possibility of establishing a locomotive manufacturing unit and to consider its
economic viability. The initial project, at Chandmari, a place near Kanchrapara, in the
state of West Bengal, could not mature due to partition, which inevitably
necessitated a change of site. This present site at Chittaranjan was selected after a
fresh survey and Railway Board’s approval was obtained in the year 1947. The
locoworks was initially established for production of 120 average sized steam
locomotives with the capacity to manufacture 50 spare boilers.
The inaugural production of WG class of steam locomotive commenced on 26th
January, 1950. Smt. Basanti Devi wife of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das
inauguratedthe production. The first president of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad dedicated
the first steam locomotive christened as “Desh Bandhu “ on 1st November, 1950 and
on the same day the factor was named as “Chittaranjan Locomotive Works” after the
great patriot Chittaranjan Das. It manufactured 2351 Steam locomotives of five
types. The production of steam locomotives at CLW was discontinues from 1973-
74. The production Diesel Hydraulic Locomotives was taken up during 1968 and after
manufacturing 842 Diesel Hydraulic Locos of 7 types the production was discontinued
from 1993-94.Still now diesel locomotive is manufactured at Disel Locomotive Works
(DLW),Benaras.But the use of diesel locomotive is continued those places where no
overhead electric line does exist.the production of steam and diesel engine change
the socio-economic status of India.
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CLW was entrusted for the manufacture of Electric Locomotives in the year 1961.
The first 1500V DC Electric Locomotive named “LOKMANYA” was commissioned
and dedicated to the nation by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of
India on 14th October, 1961. The first electric loco turned out from CLW,
christened as “Bidhan” was a Broad Gauge 25 kV a.c. Freight Locomotive (WAG-
1) of 2840 hp with maximum speed of 80 km/hr.


Since then CLW has continuously updated and upgraded the technology towards
the manufacture of Electric Locomotives. So far 3006 Electric Locomotives of
different types have been manufactures till the year 2001-02, upgrading its horse
power from 2840HP to 6000HP and maximum speed from 60 Km/h to 160
Km/h.CLW has become the first production unit in developing countries, second
in Asia and fifth in the world to manufacture 3-phase, state of the art GTO
Thyrister controlled electric loco with the inauguration of 6000HP freight type
WAG-9 Loco christened as “NAVYUG” on 14th November, 1993. CLW is also
manufacturing the passenger version of the three phase loco type WAP-5 with
the maximum speed of 160 Km/h and having a potential up to 200 Km/h. By
indigenization of three phase technology CLW has been successful in bringing
the towering imported cost of Rs 35 crores to 12.5 crores. In addition to the two
new versions of the three phase locomotives viz. WAP-7 and WAG-9H has been
started from the year 2000-01. Today CLW has the capacity to produce 150
locomotives in a year. The production of traction motor and control equipment
commenced on April 1967 and steel foundry was set up on 1962-63 for
manufacturing cast steel loco components. Currently DC and 3phase AC traction
motors are being manufactured. Apart from manufacturing CLW has machining
of bogies, machining and assembly of wheel set which includes modern CNC
machines, plasma cutting machines, MIG welding sets, inert gas welding sets etc.
CLW has never been behind in the field of quality assurance also. It acquired
1SO-9001 certification for loco works on 13th July, 1996 and ISO-9002
certification for steel foundry on 8th August, 1996. CLW has been awarded with
ISO-14001 certification also on 26-04-2002.

Apart from its expertise in rolling out state- of-the-art electric locos and
providing Indian Railways much needed motive power, Chittaranjan is also a hot
spot for nature lovers, and all those who want to soothe their frayed nerves in
the lap of mother nature. River Ajay flows past CLW along its northern side.

CLW has complied fully with the provisions of the Industrial Safety Act, 1948.
CLW in its safety policy aims to ensure 100% safety for all workers working in
Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. CLW is the proud recipient of the Safety
innovation award 2006. The award was conferred on CLW on 6th September,
2006 by the Safety and Quality forum of the Institute of Engineers (India).


Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CLW), located in the land of Viswa Bharati , a

great educational and cultural seat in the world, is the premier electric loco
producer in this country. Situated at the border of West Bengal and Jharkhand,
it is about 32 kms away from Asansol and 237 kms from Kolkata, the capital of
West Bengal. The place where CLW is situated today was a small unknown
hamlet of Santhals in the pre-industrialization era. Once the construction of the
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locomotive unit started, a wave of all round development reached this distant
place and gradually it has become a modern railway township equipped with all
modern facilities.
CLW is an ISO-9001 unit and has a well-established quality system. The
locoworks of CLW obtained its ISO-9001certification on 13.07.96 while the ISO-
9002: 1994 certification for Steel Foundry was obtained on 08.08.1996.
Upgradation to ISO 9001:2001 for both Loco Works and Steel Foundry was
completed on 25.09.2003. First Surveillance Audit was conducted during
06.10.2004 to 08.10.2004 and the Second Surveillance Audit was conducted
during 06.09.05 to 09.09.05. Renewal audit was conducted from 28 th August to
30th August, 2006. It is worth mentioning that CLW acquired ISO- 9001:2008
certificate on 22nd Oct 2009 for another three years for our commitment to
Quality Management system.
The quality policy adopted by CLW is as follows:
 Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, the leader in manufacture of Electric
Locomotives, Traction equipment and Rolling Stock Castings, is committed
to meet customer’s requirement.
 Our quality policy is communicated and understood by all in the
organisation and reviewed periodically.
 We are dedicated to ensure customer satisfaction by establishing
a quality management system and reviewing the quality policy
and quality objectives for continual improvement.

Since the implementation of the ISO – 9001, CLW has benefited

immensely by way of reduced rejections and re-work. Further,
customer feedback i.e. feedback from the various electric loco
sheds of the IR are being given considerable attention. Based on
customer feedback, suitable corrective and preventive actions
are being initiated through Design Modifications and
Correction of manufacturing processes.


CLW achieved ISO-14001 on 25th April, 2002. 1st surveillance

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Audit was conducted from 28th to 30th April, 2003. The 2nd
Surveillance audit was conducted from 20th to 23rd June in
2004. Renewal audit was conducted during 6th September to
9th September, 2005. Updated version of ISO 14001: 2004
is also available in CLW.
 Improved Environmental Management System, prevention of pollution
and continuous improvement of environment performance.
 Compliance with relevant environmental legislation and requirements as
determined by appropriate regulatory and other corporate bodies.
 Conservation of natural resources and implementation of fundamentals of
waste management.
 Setting environmental objectives and Targets and monitoring progress for
sustainable development.
 Ensure awareness of all employees and contractors regarding their
environmental roles and responsibilities.
 Waste generated in Shops have been reduced by 5% from the previous
year by improvement of operational procedures.

 Air Pollution Control Device has been installed in Integrated Paint Shop to
reduce air pollution.

 Dust collector has been installed in Sand Plant/SF for reduction of air

 To reduce air pollution, stack height of D.G.sets in Central Power House

has been increased.

 Air Pollution Control Device has been installed at GEC Arc Furnaces in
Steel Foundry.

 Consumption of water in plant area has been reduced by 5% by arresting

major leakages and provision of water meters have been made for regular
monitoring of water consumption.

 Consumption of electricity in plant and Township has been reduced by use

of energy efficient lights, installation of capacitor bank etc.

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 50,000 trees have been planted in the CLW Township. Another 50,000
trees will be planted during the current year.


Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CLW) is committed to provide safety and health
of its all employees, contractors, suppliers during their work. This is in adherence
to statutory legislature in vogue-active participation and representation of
workers in its benevolent touch.The main policy are:

 Continual improvement of Health and Safety of staff at work place for

better performance.
 Continual improvement in reduction of injury to staff and loss of property
through safety checks and inspection.
 Striving for compliance of all Health and safety legislations.
 Striving for ‘Right First Time’ and safe working practice through system
improvement, training and awareness.
 Ensure awareness of all employees for their OG and S roles and

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Fig. 01 Safety Equipment Used In CLW

LOComotive engine
1. Roof equipments. 2. Driver's cab. 3. Machine room. 4. Bogie

1)ROOF EQUIPMENTS:The high tension current for feeding of loco is taken from
catenaries lines by means of Pantographs. The locomotive is equipped with two
pneumatically controlled pantographs PT-1 and PT-2

Pantographs: - Power at 25KV is taken from the catenaries by means of two

pantographs, only one works at a time. The main functions of pantographs are to
maintain a link between the overhead line and power circuit of the loco at
varying speeds and wind. The min. air required for complete extension is 4.5Kg
per sq. cm.

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Pantograph selection switch(ZPT): The ZPT is fitted on driver’s desk, one in each
cabin. The switch controls the working of pantograph. Rating voltage of ZPT is 1

Double pole earthlings switch: For securing the safety of operation during
maintenance that is carried out in the loco a hand operated switch is HOM
makes it possible to earth simultaneously the entire roof line high voltage one
phase terminals of the loco lock after lowering the pantograph when this switch
cuts the compressed air supply of the pantograph.

ET Surge arrester: - The protection of loco against, surge voltage is secured by

means of two surge arresters with spark discharger ET-1 mounted on support of
the isolator of HT connection and ET-2 mounted on HT one phase terminals of
the loco.

2.DRIVER’S CABIN: Since a loco consists of two cabins i.e. cab- 1 and cab-2 and
usually one cabin is used by the driver which are fitted with driver's desk, by
means of which the driver performs different operations to run a locomotive

3.MACHINE ROOM: The machine room constitutes the entire important

equipments :
a) B.A Panel. b) Loco Transformer. c) Arno converter. d) Rectifier. e) Smoothing
Reactor. f) Inductive shunt. g) Air compressor. h) Exhauster. i) Battery. j)
Traction Motor.
B.A. Panel: B.A Panel stands for "Block Aperture Panel". There are tree B A
panels in a loco viz. BA-1.BA-2.BA-.3.1t is also called as the heart of loco. B A
panel has following parts:
1. Various rating resistors.
2. Shunting Contactors:- These are used to increase the speed of the loco. These
are kept in parallel with the field of the traction motor. As these contactor
introduced in the circuit the field gets weakened and there by the flux reduces
hence increases the speed. All shunting contactors are pneumatically controlled.
This pneumatic control is done by electro valve assembly.
3. Relay QD- 1 (Differential Relay).
4. CTF-1 Inverter TR/BR or change over switch: - These are two electro valves
assembly for CTF-1, one for TR (traction) side operation and another for BR
(Breaking) side operation.

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5. J-1 (Reverser):- The electro valve assembly for J-1 reverser one for forward
direction operation of J-1 and another for reverse direction side operation of J-1.

BA-2 and BA-3 contains the following accessories:-

1. Field weakening resistance.
2. 2 Line contactor-All are pneumatically controlled.
3. Shunting contactor.
4. CTF-2(BA-2), CTF-3(BA-3).
5. J-2 reverser.
6. QD-2: Differential relay for slipping.
7. Q-20: Relay o/p voltage.

Loco-Transformer: The main transformer of the electric loco is an auto

transformer with 32 taps and a step down transformer with two separate
secondary windings. The primary winding of the step down transformer is
connected to one of the 32 taps by means of tap changer GR, which is driven by
pneumatic servometer. The main transformer comprises more over of an
auxiliary winding TEWA for winding feeding the auxiliary circuit; the circuits for
auxiliary are connected to 400+/-22% voltage AC supply. The main transformer
are protected by capacitors CAPTFP-1-2 against over fault voltage. The two
secondary winding of the step down TFP are protected against excess voltage by
means of surge arresters ETTFPT-2 condensers CAPTFP-3-4 and recombination.

Arno-Converter: Since the main supply of the traction overhead catenary is at

single phase and the auxiliaries are required to have 3-phase because the motors
required for auxiliary drives are 3-phase induction motors. The main function of
the Arno-converter is to convert 1-phase to 3phase supply. Arno-converter is
basically an induction motors. The single phase supply of 400V AC is fed directly
to the 'U‟ and „V' phase of the Arno, since the Arno is connected to single phase
supply no torque is developed. For starting Arno the split phase has been
employed. The W-0 phase winding is connected to the supply through a starting
resistor R-118 and starting contactor C-118. Thus the unbalanced 3-phase
voltage is impressed to each phase winding of Arno and starting torque is
developed. Arno picks up speed within 5 secs. After Arno has gained sufficient
speed the phase W-0 is opened from the starting circuit by starting circuit by
starting contactor.
Rating of Arno-converter: -
Single phase Three phase
150 KVA 120 KVA
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380 V 380 V
395A 190A
Angular frequency - 1495 rpm, Connection-Star. Frequency-50 Hz. Three phase
AC o/p of Arno-converter is supplied to the auxiliary circuit. The o/p of one
reactor is fed to three motor and the o/p of the second reactor are fed to the
rest of the three traction motors. The rectifiers are arranged in bridge

Smoother Reactor: The dc o/p of rectifiers specially from a single phase supply
is pulsating and contains ripples. The magnitude of ripples which is alternating
component at 100Hz has to be limited to 20% to 30% from 40% to 50%. These
a.c harmonics besides producing heating in the magnetic circuit of the motor
produces commutation troubles. Smoothing reactor is introduced in between
o/p terminals of the reactors and d.c motors and its main job is to smoothen out
ripples in the d.c o/p of the rectifiers. It is made of rectangular Cu-conductors
wound over a laminated core. Spaces are put in between turns to help cooling
the reactor by blower air cooled type mounted usually on the under frame.
Smoothing Reactor for Higher H.P Loco: -
Technical Features SL-30 No. of turns/coil 30*3
Current Rating 1350 A C/s of coil conductor (3*35*5.35)min
Inductance at 50Hz 3.6mH Class of insulation "Class F"

Rectifier: There are two rectifiers for rectification of the single phase ac supply
fed from the transformer to the d.c output. The supplies to the two rectifiers are
from the secondary of the transformer through the terminals. The rectification is
needed to feed the traction motors which are d.c operated i.e. the o/p of the
rectifiers are fed to the d.c motor through SL.
Rating of the Rectifiers is
Voltage-1222 Amperes-3300
Cycles- 50 Hz Voltage-750

Inductive Shut: This is a device to restore the bypassing current used through
the field weakening resistance to active designed per formation from the
traction motor. This also reduces the wear on the fringe contacts of the field
weakening shunting contactors, due to arching. The inductive shunt controlled in
series with the resistances connected in parallel with the field coil of the traction
motor. The field of traction motor can be controlled by changing the resistance in
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Salient features for inductive shunt (S.J): -
Rated voltage- 750V
Insulation- Class H
Cooling - Natural

Traction Motor: CLW started Traction Motor manufacture from 1969 with
Alsthom design of MG-1580 motors and TAO-659 motors and switched over to
HS15250A, 850 HP Traction Motors for which technology was received from
Hitachi, Japan. HS15250A Traction Motor production started in 1988-89. Now
with the advent of three phase technology of locomotives from Bombardier
Transportation, Switzerland, CLW has geared up to manufacture 1000 HP and
1500 HP state-of-the-art 3- Phase Traction Motors for freight (WAG-9) and
passenger (WAP-5 & WAP-7) locomotives. Cumulative production of Traction
Motors during the year 2007-08, has touched an all time high of 1225 Traction
Motors .This is the Best ever in the 53 years history of CLW .CLW has achieved
the rare distinction of being the only Production Unit in the country which can
cross 1000 Traction Motors production mark in a year.
The different types of Traction Motors manufactured at CLW are following:-
I. 3-phase traction motor type 6FRA6068 & 6FXA7059: 3-Phase Traction Motors
type 6FRA6068 for WAG-9 and WAP-7 locomotives & 6FXA7059 for WAP-5
locomotive are being manufactured indigenously by CLW since the financial year
1998-99 & 1999– 2000 respectively. With the production of 3 – phase Traction
Motor, CLW has entered the era of State of the art, 3-phase technology.
II.Hitachi traction motor type HS15250A: - Hitachi Traction Motor is one of the
most critical and vital equipment in Conventional Electric Locomotives type
WAG–7 & WAP–4 under production at CLW. The production of Hitachi TM is now

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3 phaseTM type 6FXA 7059 3-
phaseTM type 6FRA6068 Hitachi traction motor type HS15250A

BOGIE: A bogie is a wheeled wagon or trolley. In mechanics terms, a bogie is a

chassis or framework carrying wheels, attached to a vehicle, thus serving as a
modular subassembly of wheels and axles. Bogies take various forms in various
modes of transport. A bogie may remain normally attached or be quickly
detachable; it may contain a suspension within it; it may be mounted on a
swivel, as on a railway locomotive, or additionally jointed and sprung.
At CLW two types of bogie are manufactured – Cast Bogie & Fabricated
Bogie. For WAP -4 cast bogies are used & for other type of LOCO fabricated
bogies are used.

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Fig.02 Fabricated Bogie Fig. 03 Cast Bogie

In the basis of axle arrangement bogies are of two types – COCO type & BOBO
type.Only WAP -5 are of BOBO type & other are of COCO type.

First letter (Gauge): -
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W - Broad Gauge (1.676 m)
Y- Meter Gauge (1 m)
Z - Narrow Gauge (0.71 m; 0.76 m)
Middle Letter (Motive Power): -
A – Overhead AC (25 KV)
C – Over head DC (1500 V DC)
CA – Overhead AC or DC
D – Diesel
Last Letter (Job Type): -
P – Suitable for passenger carry
G – Suitable for carrying goods
S – Shunting low HP locomotives
M – Mixed purpose
Suffix (Model No): -
4,5,7,9 – Model No.
H – Rectified model no.
Example: "WAP 5"
"W" means broad gauge
"A" mean AC electric traction motive power
"P" means suitable for Passenger service
"5" denotes that this locomotive is chronologically the fifth electric
locomotive model used by the railways for passenger service.
The WAP-5, WAP-7 are a high-speed 3 phase main line Electric locomotive for
hauling passenger trains and WAG-9 is used for hauling goods trains. The
conventional loco used in goods train is WAG-7 and for passenger train is WAP-4.
These locomotives have a double-ended design, which means that there is a
driver's cab and coupling elements at both ends of the loco.
1.WAG-9: This locomotive is the Heavy Haul freight locomotive of Indian
railways. Rail Freight market which is registering a remarkable growth since
2000, has also triggered buoyancy in demand for Electric Freight locomotives.
Almost 60 – 65 % of IR’s freight handling takes place over IR’s Electrified Golden
Quadrilaterals and Diagonals, though it accounts for only 25 % of its route
kilometrage. Golden Quadrilateral and Diagonals being saturated routes, need
heavy throughput and faster sectional clearance. This is where these heavy haul
and speedier WAG-9 locos play a significant role. This Gem of a loco is indeed a
rail operator’s delight. This six axle loco with axle and nose suspended drive is
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designed to give a starting tractive effort of 460 KN and maximum braking effort
of 260 KN. Rated 6000 hp, the loco has also been successfully adapted to give
508 KN of starting tractive effort with additional ballast This loco also is capable
to give 6000 hp on rail upto its rated speed of 100 kmph which gives superior
section clearing capability especially in handling speed restriction.
1. Gauge 1676 mm
2. Continuous Power 6000 HP
3. Starting Tractive effort 460KN (47t)
4. Max, Speed 100 kmph
5. Breaking Air, Regenerative
6. Wheel Arrangement Co-Co.
7. System Voltage 25KV AC, 50 Hz.
8. Weight of loco 123t.
9. Type Freight

2.WAP-7:This is the heavy haul passenger locomotive of Indian railways. Intercity

and interstate fare friendly Passenger market has of late shown a strong and
sustained growth in recent times. This market needs very powerful Electric locos
which can haul 24 to 26 coaches at speeds in the range of 130/ 140 kmph. To
meet the surging demands of this amazingly exploding Passenger market
segment, CLW has come out with a 6000 H.P loco premium Electric loco product
– WAP-7.WAP-7 class loco is based on WAG-9 platform and differs from WAG-9 in
gear ratio and the control software. Locomotive rated at 6000 hp is design to the
starting tractive effort of 323 KN and maximum braking effort is 260 KN.

1. Gauge 1676 mm(Broad Gauge)
2. Continuous Power 6000 HP
3. Starting Tractive effort 460KN (47t)
4. Max, Speed 100 kmph
5. Breaking Air, Regenerative
6. Wheel Arrangement Co-Co.
7. Wheel Diameter 1092 mm (New ), 1016 mm (Full Worn)
8. Supply System Voltage 25KV AC, 50 Hz.
9. Weight of loco 123t.  1 %
10.Length over buffer 20562 mm
11.Panto locked down 4255 mm

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12.Traction motors 6FRA 6068
13.Starting Tractive effort 323 kN
14.Max. Service Speed 140 kmph
15.Brake System Air, Regenerative & parking
16.Drive System 3 phase Drive with GTO Thristors
and microprocessor based VVVF Control.
17.Type Freight

5.WAG-7: WAG-7 is the name of a type of electric locomotive used in India. It is

a very powerful locomotive in Indian Railways' fleet. Its maximum speed is 100
km/h and it used DC traction motor. WAG-7 is an updated version of WAG-5
locomotive with high capacity transformer, rectifier, traction motor, compressor
and other matching associated equipments. In the locomotive vehicle market
WAG 7 is more economical option and one of the cheapest in the world.

1. Supply System 25 KV, AC, 50 Hz

2. Class Of Loco WAG-7

3. Track Gauge 1676 Mm(Broad Gauge)

4. Axle Arrangement Co-Co

5. Traction Motor Type HS15250

6. Tration Motor Suspension Axle Hung And Nose-


7. Traction Motor Ratings 630 KW (840 HP), 750 V, 900 A

8. Gear Ratio WAG-7 : 65:16 And 18:64

9. Power Supply To The Wheel 5000 HP

3.WAP-5: WAP-5 class locomotives employ advanced control and propulsion

technology and are capable to deliver 5400 hp on rail. The locomotive has all the
hallmarks of a high-speed propulsion unit viz. light weight, fully suspended drive
and disc brake. Though presently, it has been certified for 160 kmph operation,
the locomotive has been designed to give a service speed of 200 kmph with test
speed potential of 225 kmph. Since IR is currently facing severe competition in
Premium Passenger business market from commercial airlines, sooner or later, IR
will have to introduce medium high speed intercity Passenger Services. This
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emerging market will call for powerful Electric locos with 150 kmph plus speed
potential to be deployed in the immediate future and WAP-5 is the locomotive of
choice for this Passenger Services market of Indian Railway.
1. Horse Power 5400
2. Supply system 25 kV, AC, 50 Hz.
3. Track Gauge 1676 mm (Broad Gauge)
4. Axle Arrangement Bo-Bo
5. Total weight 78  1% t
6. Axle Load 19.5 + 2%t.
7. Wheel Diameter 1092 mm (new ),
1016 mm (Full Worn)
8. Length over buffers 18162 mm
9. Panto locked down height 4237 mm
10.Max. Service Speed 160 kmph
11.Type of Traction motors FXA 7059
12.Traction Motor Mounting Fully suspended
13.Continuous Power at wheel rim 4000 kW (5450 hp)
14.Starting Tractive Effort 258 KN
15.Control System Voltage 110 V dc
16.Drive System 3 phase Drive, GTO Thyristors
and microprocessor based VVVF
17.Hauling Capacity 26 coaches at 140 km/ hr

4.WAP-4: This 5000 HP locomotive was evolved to meet the requirement of

hauling longer trains of 24 coaches at higher speed up to 130 kmph over Indian
railways. This loco is presently hauling important high-speed trains on Indian
Railways. These are six axles loco with axle and nose suspended drive.
1. System 25 KV, AC, 50 Hz.
2. Class of Loco WAP-4
3. Track Gauge 1676 mm (Broad Gauge)
4. Axle arrangement Co-Co
5. Brake System Air and Rheostatic
6. Total weight 112.8 + 1% t.`
7. Wheel Diameter 1092 mm (New) , 1016 mm (Full worn)
8. Length over buffers 18794 mm
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9. Panto locked down height 4232.5 mm
10.Traction Motor type HS 15250A, DC Series Motor
11.Continuous Power at Wheel 5000 HP
12.Starting Tractive Effort 30.8 t
13.Control System Voltage 110 V DC

Page 24 of 71
TOTAL WEIGHT 123 T 112T 123 T 123 T 78 T
CONTINUOUS POWER 5000 HP 5000 HP 6000 HP 6000 HP 6000HP
MAX. SPEED 100 KM/H 140 KM/H 100 KM/H 140 KM/H 160 KM/H
STARTING TRACTIVE 41 T 30.8 T 52 T 52 T 26.3 T


GEAR RATIO 16:65 23:58 15:77 20:72 17:67


TYPE OF TRACTION HS15250AH HS15250AH FRA6068 (3- FRA6068 (3- FXA7059(3-





Page 25 of 71



PLANT PROCUREMENT: - Manufacturing group of shops consist
of Heavy machine shop, wheel shop, light machine shop, smithy & forge shop,
Heat treatment shop and tool Room, Millwright and Electrical maintenance
shops look after maintenance of all M&Ps of loco works, power supply and
distribution inside loco works.MPP cell deals with planning and process for
procurement of machines sanctioned by Rly. Board under M&P plan Head -4100
& 4200 and also look after TPT shop including road and industrial vehicle

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maintenance work with shunting work. M&P section deals with commissioning
of new machines and issues PTC.
1.Wheel Shop: - The Wheel shop manufactures Wheel Sets for loco production
as well as spares to Zonal Railways. Presently wheel sets for WAP-4, WAP-5,
WAP-7, WAG-7 and WAG-9 locos are manufactured.

2.Heavy Machine Shop: - Heavy Machine Shop undertakes the machining of

components for loco production as well as meeting the spares required for zonal
railways such as suspension tube , 3-phase Stator for WAG 9 & WAP 5 locos,
Hitachi Magnet Frame, Equalizer & Compensating beams etc. Machining work of
Steel castings from Steel Foundry like casnub bogie bolster & side frame, brake
beam, center pivots for UIC/Casnub Bogie are also done in HMS. (iii)
Smithy & Forge shop: - SFS undertakes fabrication of End structure, Head stock
of WAG-7 loco, forging of small component of loco assembly, assembly of casnub

3.Light Machine Shop: - LMS manufactures small components like various types
of pins, bushes, traction motor blower holding plates etc. to meet the
requirement of loco production as well as spares required for zonal railways.

4.Tool Room: - Tool Rooms supplies toolings, gauges, jigs and fixtures for
production requirements of various shops and also carries out calibration of
various gauges, fixtures, instruments etc. to meet the ISO requirements.

5.Heat Treatment shop: - Heat Treatment Shops undertakes heat treatment of

bogies manufactured in Loco Shops and other items e.g. Magnet Frame,
Equalizer, Compensating Beams etc. manufactured in Heavy machine shop.

procurement and commissioning of M & Ps required for production of
components of different types of locos and spares in loco works as well as M&Ps
for Steel Foundry, Hospital, Central Power House, etc.

TRANSPORT SHOP (TPT): - Transport shop maintains all road vehicles consisting
of passenger vehicles like cars, Jeeps, Mini Buses and industrials vehicles like

Page 27 of 71
Truck, forklift, Dumpers, tractors, Platform Trucks/Listers sky lifts for movement
of material.

YARD ORGANISATION: - For movement of traffic wagons, departmental wagon

and locomotives/locomotive shell on dummy bogies, four shunting engines
(3WDM2,E.Rly) have been deployed. These locomotives are maintained and
operated by Andal Diesel Shed. Shunting requirement is met in three shifts. Yard
organisation also keeps liaison with the Asansol Division for movement of traffic


1500nos. M&Ps including 115 nos. EOT Cranes in loco works, out of which about
50% of M&Ps are over aged. The breakdown as well as preventive maintenance
of all M&Ps is carried out by Plant Maintenance Organisation consisting of
Millwright Shop (MTS-56) and Electrical repair shop (Shop59). Plant
maintenance organization deals with repairing, reconditioning, re-engineering,
retro fitment of machineries and plant. Installation of new small machineries and
Plants, condemnation & uprooting of old M&Ps are also carried out by these

INTRODUCTION: Steel Foundry was set up at CLW in 1963 in collaboration with
M/s F.H. Lloyd of U.K. for production of steel castings for Steam Locomotives
being produced in CLW/Chittaranjan. After achieving self-sufficiency in Steam
Loco production, CLW changed over to manufacture of Diesel & Electric
Locomotives and Traction Motors. Consequently, heavy Steam Locomotive
castings gradually tapered from 1972- central 73 onwards and gave way to
intricate, lightweight steel castings for Electric/Diesel Locomotives, Traction
Motors and High Speed Wagons. Steel foundry plays a very important role in
achieving a great success in government manufacturing sector. It consists of
several shops like sand plant, moulding shop, pattern and core shop, melting
shop, fettling shop, heat treatment shop. There are some laboratories in steel
foundry for testing of the property of casting product. Central laboratory, hot
furnace laboratory, sand stage laboratory etc plays a significant role in case of
better quality of casting product.

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Fig. 04 Moulding Shop Fig. 05 Melting Furnace

MODERNISATION OF TECHNOLOGY:-Steel Foundry was modernized with the

state-of-art technology of M/s Rockwell International Corporation (now M/s
Atchison Castings, USA) a leader in casting technology for Bogies and has
changed over completely to this technology from 1995-96.Recently,a electric arc
furnace has been installed in steel foundry for precise and perfect melting and
mixing of another non metallic component with iron. Now-a-days x-ray test and
ultrasonic test has been done for finding out the defect in casting product.

QUALITY: - Steel Foundry is accredited with prestigious ISO 9001:2000

certification for its quality system. Steel Foundry has come up with flying colours,
reassuring our commitments to quality and dedication to customer satisfaction.
Steel Foundry has strived constantly to improve the quality and developments
suggested by its employees and introduction of new materials and processes.


Sand is collected from river Ajay and stored into sand store room.

Property of sand is tested in central laboratory.
Page 29 of 71

According to the result, the lot of sand is accepted or rejected.

The accepted lot of sand is sent to the sand plant.

As per requirement, different type of sand is prepared.

Sample of prepared sand is sent to the Sand stage laboratory in every 15

If the desired properties of sand are not found then necessary steps are taken
for better sand preparation.

Green sand is supplied to the moulding shop and no bake resin bonded sand to
the core shop for making core.

In method section, according to the required job’s specification, the layout of
pattern is made.

Mould is prepared by facing sand and core is made by No bake resin bonded

Melting metal, carried by a ladlle, is poured to the pouring basin of mould.

After one or two days, the casting product is removed from mould and sent to
the shot blasting machine.

In fettling shop, surface finish of casting product has been done.

In heat treatment shop, required property is imparted by different heat
treatment process.

After testing, the mechanical properties of cast products, they are sent to the

Page 30 of 71
INTRODUCTION :A suitable and workable material possessing high refractoriness
in nature can be used for mould making. But the moulding sand is the most
common utilized moulding material because of its certain inherent properties
namely refractoriness, chemical and thermal stability at higher temperature,
high permeability and workability along with good strength. Moreover, it is also
highly cheap and easily available. The main constituents of moulding sand
involve silica sand, binder, moisture content and additives. In sand plant,
different type of sand is prepared as per requirement like Facing Sand, Baking
Sand, No Bake Resin Bonded Sand, Parting Sand, Dry Sand, System Sand, Zircon
Sand and Return Sand.
classified according to their use into number of varieties which are:

GREEN SAND: Green sand is also known as natural sand which is a just prepared
mixture of silica sand with 18 to 30 percent clay, having moisture content from 6
to 8%. The clay and water furnish the bond for green sand. It is fine, soft, light,
and porous. Green sand is damp, when squeezed in the hand and it retains the
shape and the impression to give to it under pressure. It is commonly employed
for production of ferrous and non-ferrous castings.

DRY SAND: Green sand that has been dried or baked in suitable oven after the
making mold and cores is called dry sand. It possesses more strength, rigidity
and thermal stability. It is mainly suitable for larger castings. Moulds prepared in
this sand are known as dry sand molds.

Page 31 of 71
Fig No. 06 Mulling machine Fig No. 07 Sand Mixer
FACING SAND: Facing sand is just prepared and forms the face of the mould. It is
directly next to the surface of the pattern and it comes into contact molten
metal when the mould is poured. Initial coating around the pattern and hence
for mold surface is given by this sand. This sand is subjected severest conditions
and must possess, therefore, high strength refractoriness. It is made of silica
sand and clay, without the use of used sand. Different forms of carbon are used
to prevent the metal burning into the sand. From 10 to 15% of the whole
amount of molding sand is the facing sand.Measured quantity of new silica sand
& ingredients (Bentonite and Dextrin) are loaded in sandwich manner in the skip
of batch mill for preparing FS-1 and FS-2 respectively. The loaded material is
taken into the Batch mill. It is first dry milled and then well-milled and moisture
is kept at 4% to 5% range (depending upon weather condition).Material is
released for supply or stored in disc of batch mill as per requirement, after
testing at sand stage laboratory. Mainly ttypes of facing sand are used in CLW
Steel foundry. They are facing sand-1 and facing sand-2.

Page 32 of 71

FS-1 100% 1.5%-2% OF THE 7% OF 4%-5%

FS-2 50% 1.5%-2% OF THE 6% OF 4%-5%

Both the facing sand has same property. Green strength of FS-1 and FS-2 is 8-11
psi and permeability is 130-300 .
RETURN SAND: Return sand directly collected from different shop by knock out
& stored into the bankers. It is taken into the hoppers of batch mill & continuous
mill for preparing facing sand & baking sand.
BAKING SAND: Backing sand or floor sand is used to back up the facing sand and
is used to fill the whole volume of the moulding flask. Used moulding sand is
mainly employed for this purpose. The backing sand is sometimes called black
sand because that old, repeatedly used moulding sand is black in colour due to
addition of coal dust and burning on coming in contact with the molten metal.
Return sand directly taken into the continuous mill. Simultaneously water is
added to keep moisture at 3% to 4% range (depending upon the weather
condition).After milling materials released continuously for supply after testing
at sand stage laboratory. Green strength of baking sand used in CLW is between
7-10 psi and permeability lies between 130-300.
PARTING SAND: Parting sand without binder and moisture is used to keep the
green sand not to stick to the pattern and also to allow the sand on the parting
surface the cope and drag to separate without clinging. This is clean clay-free
silica sand which serves the same purpose as parting dust.
NO BAKE RESIN BONDED SAND: No bake resin bonded is used for making cores
and it is sometimes also known as oil sand. This is highly rich silica sand mixed
with oil binders such as core oil which composed of linseed oil, resin, light
mineral oil and other bind materials. Chemical composition of No bake resin
sand DRY SILICA is as

Page 33 of 71

After 2 hr. 150 25 min

After 4 hr 200

After 4 hr. 60 20 min

After 24 hr. 120

[Standard test sample of size 50mm diameter & 50 mm height cylindrical. Shape
are prepared by three stroke of rammer & tested]
SAND TEST: Moulding sand and core sand depend upon shape, size composition
and distribution of sand grains, amount of clay, moisture and additives. The
increase in demand for good surface finish and higher accuracy in castings
necessitates certainty in the quality of mould and core sands. Sand testing often
allows the use of less expensive local sands. It also ensures reliable sand mixing
and enables a utilization of the inherent properties of moulding sand. Sand
testing on delivery will immediately detect any variation from the standard
quality, and adjustment of the sand mixture to specific requirements so that the
casting defects can be minimized.. Generally the following tests are performed to
judge the moulding and casting characteristics of Steel foundry of CLW.
1. Moisture content Test 2. Strength Test 3. Permeability
SAMPLE PREPARATION: The shape of the test specimen differs a lot according
to the nature of the test for all types of the strength tests can be prepared with
the help of a typical rammer and its accessories. To prepare cylindrical specimen
bearing 50 mm diameter with for testing green sand, a defined amount of sand
is weighed which will be compressed to height of 50 mm. by three repeated
rammer stroke. The predetermined amount of weighed moulding sand is poured
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into the ram tube mounted on the bottom. Weight is lifted by means of the hand
1ever and the tube filled with sand is placed on the apparatus and the ramming
unit is allowed to come down slowly to its original position. Three blows are
given on the sample by allowing the rammer weight to fall by turning the lever.
After the three blows the mark on the ram rod should lie between the markings
on the stand. The rammed specimen is removed from the tube by means a
pusher rod.
1. Rapid moisture content Test: The percentage of moisture content in the
moulding sand can be determined in fact more speedily by an instrument known
as a speedy moisture teller. This instrument is based on the principle that when
water and calcium carbide react, they form acetylene gas which can be
measured and this will be directly proportional to the moisture content. This
instrument is provided with a pressure gauge calibrated to read directly the
percentage of moisture present in the moulding sand.
2. Strength test: Green compression strength test is performed on the specimen
of green sand (wet condition). The sample specimen may of green sand or dry
sand which is placed in lugs and compressive force is applied slowly by hand
wheel until the specimen breaks. The reading of the needle of high pressure and
low pressure manometer indicates the compressive strength of the specimen in
kgf per sq. cm. Generally sand mixtures are tested for their compressive
strength, shear strength, tensile strength and bending strength. The various tests
can be performed on strength tester. The compression strength of the moulding
sand is determined by placing standard specimen at specified location and the
load is applied on the standard sand specimen to compress it by uniform
increasing load using rotating the hand wheel of compression strength testing
setup. As soon as the sand specimen fractures for break, the compression
strength is measured by the manometer.



MOISTURE 4%-5% 4%-5% 4%-5% 3.6%-4.2% .5%(Max)


GREEN 8-11 8-11 8-11 7-9 .........

STRENTH (in psi)

PERMEABILITY 130-300 130-300 130-300 130-300 .........

Page 35 of 71
INTRODUCTION: After preparation of different type of moulding sand as per
requirement, next step is to design the pattern and core according to expected
casting product’s specific dimensions. A pattern prepares a mould cavity for the
purpose of making a casting. It may also possess projections known as core
prints for producing extra recess in the mould for placement of core to produce
hollowness in casting. It may help in establishing seat for placement of core at
locating points on the mould in form of extra recess. It establishes the parting
line and parting surfaces in the mould. It should have finished and smooth
surfaces for reducing casting defects. Runner, gates and risers used for
introducing and feeding molten metal to the mould cavity may sometimes form
the parts of the pattern. So design of pattern along with core, riser, gate etc is
very important consideration to get a defect free and sound casting. Method
section of steel foundry of CLW does this job very precisely.

PATTERN ALLOWANCES: Patterns used in CLW mainly made from metal. The
Pattern carries an additional allowance to compensate for metal shrinkage. It
carries additional allowance for machining. It carries the necessary draft to
enable its easy removal from the sand mass. It carries distortions allowance also.
Due to distortion allowance, the shape of casting is opposite to pattern.
1. Shrinkage Allowance : In practice it is found that all common cast metals
shrink a significant amount when they are cooled from the molten state. The
total contraction in volume is divided into the following parts: 1. Liquid
contraction, i.e. the contraction during the period in which the temperature of
the liquid metal or alloy falls from the pouring temperature to the liquidus
temperature. 2. Contraction on cooling from the liquidus to the solidus
temperature, i.e. solidifying contraction. 3. Contraction that results thereafter
until the temperature reaches the room temperature. This is known as solid
contraction. The first two of the above are taken care of by proper gating and
risering. Only the last one, i.e. the solid contraction is taken care by the pattern
makers by giving a positive shrinkage allowance. This contraction allowance is
different for different metals. The contraction allowances for different metals
and alloys such as Cast Iron 10 mm/mt.. Brass 16 mm/mt., Aluminium Alloys. 15
mm/mt., Steel 21 mm/mt., Lead 24 mm/mt..

2. Machining Allowance: It is a positive allowance given to compensate for the

amount of material that is lost in machining or finishing the casting. If this
allowance is not given, the casting will become undersize after machining. The
Page 36 of 71
amount of this allowance depends on the size of casting, methods of machining
and the degree of finish. In general, however, the value varies from 3 mm. to 18

3. Taper allowance: It is also a positive allowance and is given on all the vertical
surfaces of pattern so that its withdrawal becomes easier. The normal amount of
taper on the external surfaces varies from 10 mm to 20 mm/mt. On interior
holes and recesses which are smaller in size, the taper should be around 60

4. Shake Allowance: Before withdrawing the pattern it is rapped and thereby the
size of the mould cavity increases. Actually by rapping, the external sections
move outwards increasing the size and internal sections move inwards
decreasing the size. This movement may be insignificant in the case of small and
medium size castings, but it is significant in the case of large castings. This
allowance is kept negative and hence the pattern is made slightly smaller in
dimensions 0.5-1.0 mm.

5. Distortion Allowance: This allowance is applied to the castings which have the
tendency to distort during cooling due to thermal stresses developed. For
example a casting in the form of U shape will contract at the closed end on
cooling, while the open end will remain fixed in position. Therefore, to avoid the
distortion, the legs of U pattern must converge slightly so that the sides will
remain parallel after cooling.


1. Parting line should be selected carefully, so as to allow as small portion of the
pattern as far as possible in the cope area
2. The thickness and section of the pattern should be kept as uniform as
3. Sharp corners and edges should be supported by suitable fillets or otherwise
rounded of. It will facilitate easy withdrawal of pattern, smooth flow of molten
metal and ensure a sound casting.
4. Surfaces of the casting which are specifically required to be perfectly sound
and clean should be so designed that they will be moulded in the drag because
the possible defects due to loose sand and inclusions will occur in the cope.
5. Proper material should always be selected for the pattern after carefully
analyzing the factors responsible for their selection.

Page 37 of 71
6. The use of offset parting, instead of cores as for as possible should be
encouraged to the great extent.
7. If gates, runners and risers are required to be attached with the pattern, they
should be properly located and their sudden variation in dimensions should be
8. Proper allowances should be provided, wherever necessary. This allowances
should be shrinkage, machining, draft and distortion allowances.
9. As for as possible, the pattern should have a good surface finish because the
surface finish of the casting depends totally on the surface finish of the pattern
and the kind of facing of the mould cavity.
PATTERN LAYOUT: After deciding the suitable form of pattern, Method Section
has planned for the development of complete pattern which may be in two
different stages. The first stage is to prepare a layout of the different parts of the
pattern. The next stage is to shape them. The layout preparation consists of
measuring, marking, and setting out the dimensions on a layout board including
needed allowances. The first step in laying out is to study the working drawing
carefully and select a suitable board of wood that can accommodate at least two
views of the same on full size scale. The next step is to decide a working face of
the board and plane an adjacent edge smooth and square with the said face.
Select a proper contraction scale for measuring and marking dimensions
according to the material of the casting. Further the layout is prepared properly
and neatly using different measuring and making tools specifying the locations of
core prints and machined surfaces. Finally on completion of the layout, check
carefully the dimension and other requirements by incorporating all necessary
pattern allowances before starting construction of the pattern.
PATTERN CONSTRUCTION: On preparing the pattern layout, the construction for
making it is started by studying the layout and deciding the location of parting
surfaces. From the layout, try to visualize the shape of the pattern and
determine the number of separate pieces to be made and the process to be
employed for making them. Then the main part of pattern body is first
constructed using pattern making tools. In CLW the patterns used in heavy
casting usually are cast iron pattern. Cast iron patterns have some specific
advantages over wood pattern. For small part like core box is made by wood
pattern.The direction of wood grains is kept along the length of pattern as far as
possible to ensure due strength and accuracy. Further cut and shape the other
different parts of pattern providing adequate draft on them. The prepared parts
are then checked by placing them over the prepared layout. Further the different
parts of the pattern are assembled with the main body in proper position by
gluing or by means of dowels as the case may be. Next the relative locations of
Page 38 of 71
all the assembled parts on the pattern are adjusted carefully. Then, the
completed pattern is checked for accuracy give final coat of shellac. Finally
different parts or surfaces of pattern are coloured with specific colours mixed in
shellac or by painting as per colouring specifications.

After completing sand preparation and pattern construction, next step is to make
mould cavity which is nothing but the impression of pattern in moulding sand of
flask. To get a better surface finish of casting product, it is required to have a
clean and smooth surface of mould cavity.

Fig. 08 Moulding Shop Fig.09 Mould Filling

This is only possible when patterns have own good and clean surface. The
metallic pattern is placed into the moulding flask and then the flask is filled by
moulding sand in suitable manner by suitable moulding machine. After proper
filling up of sand, the pattern is removed from the moulding flask without
damaging the mould cavity. Proper channel for flowing of molten metal into the
mould cavity is also made in moulding shop. There is some rule that has been
strictly followed in CLW steel foundry shop.Strengthning of mould cavity is very
important consideration during pouring of molten metal. Otherwise, defect in
casting product is the ultimate result in Steel Foundry.

Page 39 of 71
1. Initially a suitable size of moulding box for creating suitable wall thickness is
selected for a two piece pattern. Sufficient care should also be taken in such that
sense that the moulding box must adjust mould cavity, riser and the gating
system (sprue, pouring basin, runner, gates etc.).
2. Next, place the drag portion of the pattern with the parting surface down on
the bottom (ram-up) board.
3. The facing sand is then sprinkled carefully all around the pattern so that the
pattern does not stick with moulding sand during withdrawn of the pattern.
4. The drag is then filled with loose prepared moulding sand and ramming of the
moulding sand is done uniformly in the moulding box around the pattern. Fill the
moulding sand once again and then perform ramming. Repeat the process three
four times,
5. The excess amount of sand is then removed using strike off bar to bring
moulding sand at the same level of the moulding flask height to completes the
6. The drag is then rolled over and the parting sand is sprinkled over on the top
of the drag
7. Now the cope pattern is placed on the drag pattern and alignment is done
using dowel pins.
8. Then cope is placed over the rammed drag and the parting sand is sprinkled
all around the cope pattern.
9. Sprue and riser pins are placed in vertically position at suitable locations using
support of molding sand. It will help to form suitable sized cavities for pouring
molten metal etc.
10. The gaggers in the cope are set at suitable locations if necessary. They should
not be located too close to the pattern or mould cavity otherwise they may chill
the casting and fill the cope with moulding sand and ram uniformly.
11. Strike off the excess sand from the top of the cope.
12. Remove sprue and riser pins and create vent holes in the cope with a vent
wire. The basic purpose of vent creating vent holes in cope is to permit the
escape of gases generated during pouring and solidification of the casting.
13. Sprinkle parting sand over the top of the cope surface and roll over the cope
on the bottom board.
14. Rap and remove both the cope and drag patterns and repair the mould
suitably if needed and dressing is applied
15. The gate is then cut connecting the lower base of sprue basin with runner
and then the mould cavity.

Page 40 of 71
16. Apply mould coating with a swab and bake the mould in case of a dry sand
17. Set the cores in the mould, if needed and close the mould by inverting cope
over drag.
18. The cope is then clamped with drag and the mould is ready for pouring
molten metal.
VENTING OF MOULD: Vents are very small pin types holes made in the cope
portion of the mould using pointed edge of the vent wire all around the mould
surface. These holes should reach just near the pattern. The basic purpose of
vent holes is to permit the escape of gases generated in the mould cavity when
the molten metal is poured. Mould gases generate because of evaporation of
free water or steam formation, evolution of combined water (steam formation),
decomposition of organic materials such as binders and additives (generation of
hydrocarbons, CO and carbon-di-oxide), expansion of air present in the pore
spaces of rammed sand. If mould gases are not permitted to escape, they may
get trapped in the metal and produce defective castings. They may raise back
pressure and resist the inflow of molten metal. They also may burst the mould. It
is better to make many small vent holes rather than a few large ones to reduce
the casting defects.
1. Sharp corners and abrupt changes in at any section or portion in gating system
should be avoided for suppressing turbulence and gas entrapment. Suitable
relationship must exist between different cross-sectional areas of gating systems.
2. The most important characteristics of gating system besides sprue are the
shape, location and dimensions of runners and type of flow. It is also important
to determine the position at which the molten metal enters the mould cavity.
3. Gating ratio should reveal that the total cross-section of sprue, runner and
gate decreases towards the mould cavity which provides a choke effect.
4. Developing the various cross sections of gating system to nullify the effect of
turbulence or momentum of molten metal.
5. Streamlining or removing sharp corners at any junctions by providing
generous radius, tapering the sprue, providing radius at sprue entrance and exit
and providing a basin instead pouring cup etc.

Page 41 of 71
Fig. 56 Diagram Of Gating System


1. FREEZING TIME: A) For producing sound casting, the molten metal must be
fed to the mould till it solidifies completely. This can be achieved when molten
metal in riser should freeze at slower rate than the casting.
B) Freezing time of molten metal should be more for risers than casting
2. FEEDING RANGE: A) When large castings are produced in complicated size,
then more than one riser are employed to feed molten metal depending upon
the effective freezing range of each riser.
B) Casting should be divided into divided into different zones so that each zone
can be feed by a separate riser.
C) Risers should be attached to that heavy section which generally solidifies last
in the casting.
D) Riser should maintain proper temperature gradients for continuous feeding
throughout freezing or solidifying.
3. FEED VOLUME CAPACITY: A) Riser should have sufficient volume to feed the
mould cavity till the solidification of the entire casting so as to compensate the
volume shrinkage or contraction of the solidifying metal.
B) The metal is always kept in molten state at all the times in risers during
freezing of casting. This can be achieved by using exothermic compounds and
electric arc feeding arrangement. Thus it results for small riser size and high
casting yield.
C) It is very important to note that volume feed capacity riser should be based
upon freezing time and freezing demand. Riser system is designed using full
considerations on the shape, size and the position or location of the riser in the shop:


Page 42 of 71
Moulding machine acts as a device by means of a large number of co-related
parts and mechanisms, transmits and directs various forces and motions in
required directions so as to help the preparation of a sand mould. The major
functions of moulding machines involves ramming of moulding sand, rolling over
or inverting the mould, rapping the pattern and withdrawing the pattern from
the mould. Most of the moulding machines perform a combination of two or
more of functions. However, ramming of sand is the basic function of most of
these machines.

PATTERN DRAW MACHINES: These machines enable easy withdrawal of patterns

from the moulds. They can be of the kind of stripping plate type and pin lift or
push off type. Stripping plate type of pattern draw machines consists of a
stationary platen or table on which is mounted a stripping plate which carries a
hole in it. The size and shape of this hole is such that it fits accurately around
the pattern. The pattern is secured to a pattern plate and the latter to the
supporting ram. The pattern is drawn through the stripping plate either by
raising the stripping plate and the mould up and keeping the pattern stationary
or by keeping the stripping plate and mould stationary and moving the pattern
supporting ram downwards along with the pattern and pattern plate.

Fig. 10 Sand Rammer Fig.12 Nail Fig 13. Mould Box


Page 43 of 71
Heat treatment is a heating and cooling process of a metal or an alloy in the
solid state with the purpose of changing their mechanical properties. It can also
be said as a process of heating and cooling of ferrous metals especially various
kinds of steels in which some special properties like softness, hardness, tensile-
strength, toughness etc, are induced in these metals for achieving the special
function objective. It consists of three main phases namely (i) heating of the
metal (ii) soaking of the metal and (iii) cooling of the metal. The theory of heat
treatment is based on the fact that a change takes place in the internal structure
of metal by heating and cooling which induces desired properties in it. The rate
of cooling is the major controlling factor. Rapid cooling the metal from above the
critical range, results in hard structure. Whereas very slow cooling produces the
opposite affect i.e. soft structure. In any heat treatment operation, the rate of
heating and cooling is very important. A hard material is difficult to shape by
cutting, forming, etc. During machining in machine shop, one requires
machinable properties in job piece hence the properties of the job piece may
requires heat treatment such as annealing for inducing softness and
machinability property in work piece.
Objectives of heat treatment: The major objectives of heat treatment are
1. It relieves internal stresses induced during hot or cold working.
2. It changes or refines grain size.
3. It increases resistance to heat and corrosion.
4. It improves mechanical properties.
5. It helps to improve machinability.
6. It increases wear resistance
7. It removes gases.
8. It improves electrical and magnetic properties.
9. It changes the chemical composition.
10. It helps to improve shock resistance.
11. It improves weldability.
There are many types of heat treatment process but only normalizing and
annealing is done here.
NORMALIZING: Normalizing is a defined as softening process in which iron base
alloys are heated 40 to 50°C above the upper-critical limit for both hypo and
hyper eutectoid steels and held there for a specified period and followed by
cooling in still air up to room temperature.
Objectives: 1. To soften metals 2. Refine grain structure 3. Improve
machinability after forging and rolling 4. Improve grain size 5. Improve structure
of weld 6. Prepare steel for sub heat treatment.
Page 44 of 71
Fig. 14 Temperature Range For Heat Treatment Process

ANNEALING: It is a softening process in which iron base alloys are heated above
the transformation range held there for proper time and then cool slowly (at the
of rate of 30 to 150°C per hour) below the transformation range in the furnace
itself. Heating is carried out 20°C above upper critical temperature point of steel
in case of hypo eutectoid steel and the same degree above the lower critical
temperature point in case of type eutectoid steel.
Objectives:The purpose of annealing is to achieve
1.Soften the steel.
2.Relieve internal stresses
3.Reduce or eliminate structural in-homogeneity.
4.Refine grain size.
5.Improve machinability.
6. Increase or restore ductility and toughness.
HARDENING: Hardening is a hardness inducing kind of heat treatment process in
which steel is heated to a temperature above the critical point and held at that
temperature for a definite time and then quenched rapidly in water, oil or
molten salt bath. It is some time said as rapid quenching also. Steel is hardened
by heating 20-30°C above the upper critical point for hypo eutectoid steel and
20-30°C above the lower critical point for hyper eutectoid steel and held at this
temperature for some time and then quenched in water or oil or molten salt
HEAT TREATMENT FURNACE: Many types of furnaces are used for heating heat
treatment purposes.mainly one types of furnace has been used here Car
Bottom Type Furnace.

Page 45 of 71
Fig. 15 Heat Treatment Furnase Fig. 16 Car Type Furnase
1.CAST ITEMS: a) Casnub Bolster. b) Casnub Side Frame. c) Yoke for Cd
Coupler. d) Ballast Blocks for WAG-9 loco. e)Wheels for Narrow Gauge loco.
f)Wheels for Tower Car. g) Wheels for Power Car. h) Knuckle for CB Coupler. i)
Rotor Clamp for Hitachi TM. j) Centre Pivot for WAP-4 loco. k) Wheels for
Narrow Gauge Coaches. l) Suspension tube for WDM-3D loco. m) Coupler Body
for CB Coupler.
n) Flexicoil Bogie for WAP-4 loco. o) Suspension tube for BHEL TM. p) Striker
Castings for CB Coupler. q)Ballast Weights for WAG-7 loco. r) Flexicoil Bolster
for WAP-4 loco. s) Suspension tube for Hitachi TM. t) Commutator Spider for
Hitachi TM. u) HS Casnub Bogie for BOXNHL wagons. v) Co-Co Bogie BG for
WAG-5 & WDM-2 Loco. x) Wooden Cleats, Wedges, Battery Boxes, etc. y)
Centre Pivot Top and Bottom for Casnub Bogies. z) Counter Weight Slabs for
140T Slabs for 140T Breakdown Cranes.

Page 46 of 71
2) FABRICATED ITEMS: a) Long Beams & End Structure for WAP-4 Loco.
b) End Structure & End Box for WAG-7 .


Steel Foundry manufactures steel castings generally complaint with
grades IS-1030 and AAR-201. To meet the requirements of different
products, Steel Foundry had earlier been processing eight different
grades of metal. This has resulted in improvement in productivity.
Different grades of steel for castings are as follows:-
GRADE C% Mn% S%(max) P%(max) Si%(max)
GRADE-I 0.22-0.26 0.80-1.00 0.025 0.025 0.50

RIC BOGIE 0.18-0.25 0.80-1.00 0.025 0.025 0.30-0.60

GRADE-II 0.18-0.22 0.70-0.90 0.040 0.040 0.50

MDC O.3O-0.34 1.32-1.50 0.050 0.050 0.50

IRC-T-29-2000 1.00-1.40 11.0-14.0 0.030 0.060 0.50

GRADE-B 0.32 0.90 0.030 0.030 0.60

SPECIAL GR. 0.17 1.00-1.50 0.020 0.020 0.60

GRADE-E 0.28-0.33 0.28-1.10 0.030 0.030 0.40-0.60

Page 47 of 71






IRS-T-29-2000 CMS-XING



1. IS 1030 GR-I C/S/F & 30.59 50.98 20 30 25 J 0 NORMA-
FC 25.2 42 20 36 0 0 do
RIC BOGIE 33.86 52.82 23 40 26.5 J 0 do
MG BOGIE 26.70 49.2 24 36 0 137- do
RIC,F BOGIE 33.65 53.02 23 40 26 0 do
2. IS 1030 GR- GM BOGIE 24 42 24 36 0 137- do
AS PER 25.31 44.65 24 36 0 137- do
DLW 170
IS 1030-98 SUSPENSION 28.55 53.02 18 25 22 J 0 do
GR 280- TUBE
3. MDC NG WHEEL 27.5 55 12 0 0 169- do

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4. GR-E STR-48 KNUCKLE, 70.3 84.35 14 30 27.17 J 261-291 QUENCH
GR-B STR-48 STRIKER 26.7 49.2 24 36 20.30 J 137- N0RMA-
BD-98 208 LISING
5. IRS-T-29- CMS-XING 0 0 0 0 0 229 WATER
[The unit of yield stress and ultimate tensile stress are given in kg per sq. mm.
And hardness no is given in Brinell scale.The unit of impact is given in joule.]

Testing of cast product is accomplished for the purpose of for estimating the
behaviour of metal under loading (tensile, compressive, shear, torsion and
impact, cyclic) of metal and for providing necessary data for the product
designers, equipment designers, tool and die designers and system designers.
The material behaviour data under loading is used by designers for design
calculations and determining whether a metal can meet the desired functional
requirements of the designed product or part. Also, it is very important that the
material shall be tested so that their mechanical properties especially their
strength can be assessed and compared.


Loco shop, is the heart of Chittaranjan Locomotive Works(CLW), a big unit of
manufacturing, fabrication and assembly of various component of locomotive. It
consists mainly Mechanical and Electrical shop. Mainly Wheel shop, Tool room
shop, Electric Loco Fabrication shop for underframe and shell, Electric Loco
Repairing shop, Painting shop, Electric Loco Assembly shop, Machine Treatment
shop, Smithy And Forge shop –these shop belongs to the mechanical shop. On
the other hand, Traction Motor shop, Static Equipment shop, Central Power
house, Traction Motor Design shop belongs to the electrical shop.Difrrent type
of operation have been done in these shop. After performing some operation on
a particular component, the same component is sent to another shop for
another operation.85% of total work has been completed in the loco workshop.

Page 49 of 71
Fig. 16 Shell Of Loco

INTRODUCTION: In this shop, machining operations on the wheel and axel are
performed to get desired shape and size for functional requirement .Assembly of
wheel-axle along with gear box, suspension tube, axle box and bearing are
completed in this shop . As it is known that, the wheel wears throughout its life.
When at work the profile and diameter of the wheel constantly changes. To
improve it’s working and for security reason, it is repaired and given correct
profile with proper diameter. Wheel can be used certain minimum diameter
after which it is discarded. Wheels are imported from Durgapur Still Plant (DSP)
of desired mechanical properties. In CLW, machining operation (boring) is
performed on wheel set only for increasing internal diameter for mounting axel.
Hydraulic press machine is used for mounting of wheel on the axle. Usually, all
the locomotive in CLW uses wheel of same diameter i.e. 1092 mm in newly
condition, 1054 mm in half worn condition and 1016 mm full worn condition.

WHEEL ARRANGEMENTS: Electric locomotive’s wheel arrangements are

described using a system where the axles of a loco are counted, with powered
axles being described using letters and the unpowered axles indicated by digits.
A set of two independently powered axles on a bogie is indicated by ‘Bo’ and a
set of three independently powered axles on a bogie is indicated by ‘Co’.

Hence, a loco with two bogies, each having two separately powered axles is
classified ‘Bo-Bo’; with three such bogies it would be ‘Bo-Bo-Bo’; with two bogies
each with three powered axles it would be ‘Co-Co’. Sometimes locos have some
Page 50 of 71
leading or trailing unpowered axles too, so for instance a loco with two bogies,
each having three powered axles and one unpowered one is indicated ‘1-Co-Co-
1’. The ‘o’ in the powered axle description is left off to indicate that the axles are
not independent, but coupled mechanically – the same motor drives all axles in
the bogie (‘B-B’ instead of ‘Bo-Bo’).

A single powered axle on a bogie is indicated by ‘A’, a set of 4 powered axles is

indicated ‘D’ or ‘Do’; there don't appear to be any locos in India using such
arrangements, but outside India arrangements such as ‘A1A-A1A’, ‘1-D-1’, etc.
have been used. A ‘+'’ may be used to separate trucks of articulated locos.
Multiple unit locos are shown by parenthesizing the unit specifications and
prefixing a number corresponding to the number of units, e.g., 2(1-D-1) for a 2-
unit loco, each unit having one unpowered leading axle, one unpowered trailing
axle, and a 4 coupled powered axles. Only WAP-5 uses Bo-Bo type wheel
arrangement. The other locomotives use Co-Co type arrangement. In this loco
there is no leading and trailing unpowered wheel.

MACHINING OF AXEL: Machining of axel is performed in this shop to get

required size and shape.Firstly, cyndrical preformed workpiece is imported from
outside(Bangalore). Then in CNC axle turning lathe and CNC axel grinding
machine, the cylindrical workpiece is given the specified dimensions very
accurately and precisely. There are six CNC machine for completing the axel of
different type of locomotive like WAG-9,WAP-7,WAP-5,WAG-7 and WAP-4.The
dimensions of axel is totally different for different type of loco. Again, for a
particular type of loco, the cross sectional area of axle is not uniform i.e. it has
different diameter at different section. The diameter of the section at which
wheel is mounted is totally different from the diameter at the section where axle
box is engaged. There is another diameter for suspension tube and gear
mountings. The whole axle is not symmetric with respect to its middle section.
Again, the length of axel is also different for different type of loco. For WAG-9
type of loco ,the axel length is about 2439 mm.The length for WAP-4 is 2440 mm
and for WAG-7,the length is 2450 mm. Always a particular amount of tolerance is
given to the axel so that it can fulfil the requirement. All the axel component is
not defect free. After proper test ,it it decided whether the axel has to be
rejected or accepted.

Page 51 of 71
Fig.17 CNC Axel Turning Lathe Fig. 18 Finished Axel

INSPECTION OF AXEL: After precise surface finish in CNC axel lathe machine with
specified dimension all the axel are tested by a ultrasonic testing machine for
detecting internal micro crack.. Due to the high safety requirements railway
axles are inspected thoroughly. This inspection especially deals with irregularities
caused by and during the manufacturing process in the axle material. During
later train operation the wheel sets are subject to alternating bending stresses,
which, over a period of time, could cause rise to fatigue cracks. Unnoticed they
cause axle fractures, which in turn, can cause serious accidents. This testing
machine is predominantly designed to inspect full, solid axles. Axles with a
center bore are partly also testable from the outer cylindrical section. The tests
from inside the center bore require additional equipment. According to the
requirements set by the standards the testing machine must be able to carry out
different scanning programs. During the individual scans between the probes
actually required are automatically selected. For this purpose various testing
parameter sets are stored for the relevant type of axle. With this technical aim a
testing system has been developed for cycling times in the range of 3 to 7
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minutes. The cycle time mainly depends from the selected test standard. The
ultrasonic test uses the pulse-transit time method with normal beam probes. For
this application best results are achieved with probes in composite technique -
having a large bandwidth The sound is transmitted into the face side of the axle
by direct contact via a small liquid gap. All sound transmissions, which are
entered from the outer surface into the axle, areusing a larger liquid delay path.
This is beneficial for the axle testing as it allows a fast adaptation to different
types and geometries of axles.when the tested result crosses a particular
value(60 unit) ,the axle has to be rejected.

Fig. 19 Ultrasonic Testing Machine

MOUNTING OF WHEEL: Hydraulic wheel press with a facility of
mounting. The wheel is pressed on the axel with the help of this
machine. Before applying pressure, it is noticed that is there
exist a interference fit between wheel and axel. Otherwise
clearance fit between them will result in a non-effective
assembly .A calculated amount of pressure is applied and the
wheel is pressed. After engagement, the whole assembly of
wheel-axel is heated to a certain limit .as a result of heating,
the mountings of wheel on axel is so tight that it does not
dismantled easily.

Page 53 of 71
Fig.20 Hydraulic Press(Top) Fig. 21 Mounting Accessories On Axel


The tool room shop in CLW is a particular shop where tools are made and
repaired for use throughout the rest of the workshop. The name implies that a
space where tools are made, repaired, inventoried and distributed for use
throughout the rest of loco shop. In this shop,the cutting tool like milling
cutter,jig and fixture is manufactured.production of all the small component of a
loco is completed here.there are conventional lathe machine,drilling
machine,universal milling machine ,boring machine,sloting machine,plaing
machine and shaping machine in this shop in sufficient number. All the imported
and worn out cutting tool from the rest of workshop is re-sharpened here.

PRODUCT OF TOOL ROOM: 1) Forcat (for braking purpose). 2)Axel Guide.

3)Bolt. 4)Cylindrical Cutter. 5) Spot Face Arbar. 6) Adaptor. 7)Suspensory Eye.
8)Reinforced. 9)Holder. 10) Axel Holder.11) Jig and Fixture.

JIG AND FIXTURE: If a component to be produced in small numbers then

procedure adopted is marketing out, setting on machine, clamping to machine
table. Nevertheless. It would not be suitable for producing same component in
large quantities because of economic reason. A faster and more profitable

Page 54 of 71
method calls for a device JIG&FIXTURE. Jig may be described as a plate, or metal
box, structure or a device usually made of which metal is clamped or fastened or
located one after others for the other for specific operation in such a way that it
will guide one or more cutting tools to the same position. Fixture may be
structure for locating holding and supporting a component or work piece
securely in a definite position for a specific operation but it does not guide the
cutting tool. The cutting tool are set in position by machine adjust or by trial&
error method.
1. Sharp corners may be avoided. 2. Adjustment locator must be provided.
3. Locating pins should be tapered. 4. Quick acting, clamps should be provided.
5. Safety criterion should be provided. 6. Accuracy is the basic need should not
be compromised.

Fig.22 Jig Fig. 23 Fixture

MACHINE TOOLS IN TOOL ROOM: There are so many machine

tools in the tool room shop. Mainly, Universal Milling Machine, Central Lathe,
Radial Drill Machine, Surface Grinder, Universal Tool And Cutter Grinder, Shaping
Machine, Saw Machine are found in this shop. Details of few machine tools are
given below:

CENTRAL LATHE: This lathe is the important member of the lathe family and is
the most widely used. Similar to the speed lathe, the engine lathe has all the
Page 55 of 71
basic parts, e.g., bed, headstock, and tailstock. But its headstock is much more
robust in construction and contains additional mechanism for driving the lathe
spindle at multiple speeds. Unlike the speed lathe, the engine lathe can feed the
cutting tool both in cross and longitudinal direction with reference to the lathe
axis with the help of a carriage, feed rod and lead screw. Centre lathes are
classified according to methods of transmitting power to the machine. The
power may be transmitted by means of belt, electric motor or through gears.

RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE: The radial drilling machine consists of a heavy,

round vertical column supporting a horizontal arm that carries the drill head.
Arm can be raised or lowered on the column and can also be swung around to
any position over the work and can be locked in any position. The drill head
containing mechanism for rotating and feeding the drill is mounted on a radial
arm and can be moved horizontally on the guide-ways and clamped at any
desired position. These adjustments of arm and drilling head permit the
operator to locate the drill quickly over any point on the work. The table of radial
drilling machine may also be rotated through 360 deg. The maximum size of hole
that the machine can drill is not more than 50 mm. Powerful drive motors are
geared directly into the head of the machine and a wide range of power feeds
are available as well as sensitive and geared manual feeds. The radial drilling
machine is used primarily for drilling medium to large and heavy workpieces.

UNIVERSAL MILLING MACHINE: It is the most commonly used milling machine

used for general shop work. In this type of milling machine the table
Swivelling head is mounted on the knee casting which in turn is mounted on the
vertical slides of the main column. The knee is vertically adjustable on the
column so that the table can be moved up and down to accommodate work of
various heights. The column and knee type milling machines are classified on the
basis of various methods of supplying power to the table, different movements
of the table and different axis of rotation of the main spindle. Column and knee
type milling machine comprises of the following important parts1. Base 2.
Column 3. Saddle 4. Table 5. Elevating screw 6. Knee 7. Knee elevating handle 8.
Cross feed handle 9. Front brace 10. Arbor support 11. Arbor 12. Overhanging
arm 13. Cutter 14. Cone pulley 15. Telescopic feed shaft.
SHAPING MACHINE: Shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool in which the
ram moves the cutting tool backwards and forwards in a straight line. It is
intended primarily to produce flat surfaces. These surfaces may be horizontal,
vertical, or inclined. In general, the shaper can produce any surface composed of
straight-line elements. A single point cutting tool is held in the tool holder, which
is mounted on the ram. The workpiece is rigidly held in a vice or clamped directly
Page 56 of 71
on the table. The table may be supported at the outer end. The ram reciprocates
and thus cutting tool held in tool holder moves forward and backward over the
SURFACE GRINDING MACHINE: A surface grinder is a machine tool used to
provide precision ground surfaces, either to a critical size or for the surface
finish.The machine consists of a table that traverses both longitudinally and
across the face of the wheel. The longitudinal feed is usually powered
by hydraulics, as may the cross feed, however any mixture of hand, electrical or
hydraulic may be used depending on the ultimate usage of the machine (i.e.,
production, workshop, cost). The grinding wheel rotates in the spindle head and
is also adjustable for height, by any of the methods described previously.
Depending on the workpiece material, the work is generally held by the use of a
magnetic chuck. Modern surface grinders are semi-automated, depth of cut and
spark-out may be preset as to the number of passes and, once set up, the
machining process requires very little operator intervention.The machine has
provision for the application of coolant as well as the extraction of metal dust
(metal and grinding particles

Fig. 24 Central Lathe Fig. 25 Drill Machine Fig. 26 Surface


Page 57 of 71
The under frame is set on fixture, prepared for welding, and tack welded. All the
structures of under frame are marked off and oxy cut to proper sizes. Then the
under frame is mounted on manipulators, and prepared for down hand and
upper hand welding. It is then passed through various surface finishing processes
like grinding, chipping, cleaning slag etc. Assembly of four numbers of reservoirs
is done. Sand boxes are set and adjusted, with under frame and tack welded.
Weld ducting is done and is tested with water. Complete welding is done in all
secondary beam components, collision posts, and slag is cleaned. Foot step is fit
and tack welded. Final cambering is done after fitting of stools.CBC rubber is fit
into the end structure, CBC coupler components with draft is also fitted. Striker
blocks, CBC head also fit brackets, and operating rods are also fitted. Complete
welding is done and tack welded. The gap is filled with filler metal for tacking
and welding. All welded joints are grinded and dressed up.Here Gas metal arc
welding is preferred as the welding 1di-oxide, Oxygen and their mixtures. MIG
welding gives good quality of weld. The wire used in MIG welding is of Mild
steel. Copper coating is provided to increase arc conductivity.
Fabrication Fabrication Fabrication Fabrication Fabrication
of head of central of bolster of central sil of side sil
stock under frame (2 nos) (1 nos) (2 nos)
(2nos) (1 nos)
    
Stage inspectionn of every part component

Place head stock 2 nos,bolster 2 nos,central under frame w nos,infil plates 2 nos

Level and tack weld

Place central sil over the central underframe and bolster and tack weld

Place side sil right hand and left hand and tack weld

Level the entire assembly on the fixture maintaining specified centre

Page 58 of 71
Fit small components and complete final welding

Stage inspection and despatch

FABRICATION OF UNDERFRAME: Underframe assembly is a heavy structural

fabricated assembly designed for a buff load of 400 KN and a drag load of 1800
KN.THE COMPLETE ASSEMBLY is made up of around 300 child components.this
structure is nearly 20 meters long and 3 meter wide.Underframes are fabricated
with due care to ensure designed weld strength. Requisite camber to the
underframe is provided during fabrication itself. Critical welds are tested radio-
graphically. Welder training and their technical competence are periodically
reviewed. High Horse Power (HHP) underframe is fabricated using heavy fixtures,
positioners to ensure down hand welding.Fixtures are used to ensure proper
fitting of components and quality welding in subsequent stages

Fig.27 Head Stock Fig. 28 Underframe

CAMBERING OF UNDERFRAME: Cambering forms an upwards curve in a linear
product relative to its centre. Camber is the amount of deflection induced in the
opposite direction of its load. When a underframe is subjected to vertical
downwards loads in the middle position, it has a tendency of deflecting
downwards. The total load of installation like tranformer, convertor,compressor
etc is transmitted through underframe to the wheel and finnaly to the track. Half
of total installation load is carried by one bogie. Some camber calculations are

Page 59 of 71
based on circular curves. Camber usually is expressed in terms of the maximum
ordinate at midspan. Once the deflections are determined, the desired amount
of camber can be selected. The selection of camber is often arbitrary. The
methods of cambering are relatively crude, and the results are less than precise.
There is little need no justification in meticulous mathematical manipulation or
methodical multifarious meditation when it comes to determining camber
requirements. The types of steel used for structural purposes are ductile, that is,
they have the property of deforming extensively under substantially constant
stress. When we cold camber a underframe, the extreme fibers reach stresses
and deformations that are on the horizontal portion of the stress-strain curve.
With most cold-cambering devices, it is impossible or difficult to maintain a
constant stress. When the external load is retracted, the underframe relaxes and
some residual deformation is evident by the fact that the underframe is no
longer straight. This essentially is the cold-cambering process.

MIG WELDING MACHINE: Metal inert gas arc welding (MIG) or more
appropriately called as gas metal arc welding (GMAW) utilizes a consumable
electrode. The consumable electrode is in the form of a wire reel which is fed at
a constant rate, through the feed rollers. The welding torch is connected to the
gas supply cylinder which provides the necessary inert gas. The electrode and
the work-piece are connected to the welding power supply. The power supplies
are always of the constant voltage type only. The current from the welding
machine is changed by the rate of feeding of the electrode wire. Normally DC arc
welding machines are used for GMAW with electrode positive (DCRP). The DCRP
increases the metal deposition rate and also provides for a stable arc and
smooth electrode metal transfer. With DCSP, the arc becomes highly unstable
and also results in a large spatter. But special electrodes having calcium and
titanium oxide mixtures as coatings are found to be good for welding steel with
DCSP. In the GMAW process, the filler metal is transferred from the electrode to
the joint. Depending on the current and voltage used for a given electrode, the
metal transfer is done in different ways.

OXY-FUEL GAS CUTTING: The oxy-fuel process is the most widely applied
industrial thermal cutting process because it can cut thicknesses from 0.5mm to
250mm.There are several fuel gas and nozzle design options that can significantly
enhance performance in terms of cut quality and cutting speed.
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PROCESS FUNDAMENTALS: Basically, a mixture of oxygen and the fuel gas is
used to preheat the metal to its 'ignition' temperature which, for steel, is 700°C -
900°C (bright red heat) but well below its melting point. A jet of pure oxygen is
then directed into the preheated area instigating a vigorous exothermic chemical
reaction between the oxygen and the metal to form iron oxide or slag. The
oxygen jet blows away the slag enabling the jet to pierce through the material
and continue to cut through the material.LPG is used as fuel in metal cutting.

Fig.29 Diagram Of Oxy-Fuel Cutting Fig. 30 Cnc Oxy-Fuel Gas


There are four basic requirements for oxy-fuel cutting:

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A)the ignition temperature of the material must be lower than its melting point
otherwise the material would melt and flow away before cutting could take place
B)the oxide melting point must be lower than that of the surrounding material
so that it can be mechanically blown away by the oxygen jet
C)the oxidation reaction between the oxygen jet and the metal must be
sufficient to maintain the ignition temperature
D)a minimum of gaseous reaction products should be produced so as not to
dilute the cutting oxygen.


In this shop ,side wall of loco, driver cabin(cab-1 and cab-2),roof is mechanically
welded with the underframe of WAG-9,WAP-7,WAP-4,WAP-5,WAG-7.This
components are joined to take advent of welded joint. After performing all the
operations in this shop, all the shell of different locomotive has been sent to the
paint shop where according to the specification of loco, different type of colour
is painted by mechanically controlled painting machine.

Fig. 31 Cabin Fig. 32 Roof Fig.33 WAP-4 &

WAG-7 Shell

All kind of machining process like drilling,boring,grinding is done in this shop for
piping mainly.In this shop,rest of all fabrication work is performed for next stage

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i.e. engaging with bogie.At first,the whole underframe is uprooted by a
malipulator machine and kept in fixture. Then according to the specification of
loco, the cabin is fabricated by MIG welding.If there is a chance of defect welding
,a inspection is done for check up.The side wall also erected according to the
loco.front part of each loco is different from one another.after completing all
type of fabrication work,the shell has been replaced to the electic loco assembly
shop for next operation like painting,electric part installation ,pantograph and
roof fabrication.


The center for design and development is an important unit of CLW Chittaranjan.
Here the main work done is about the modification and alterations in the design
of loco and its equipments, to install new items and for up gradation. It has all
the modern facilities such as scanner, plotter, printers and special purpose
computers for designing purposes. Indian Railways had a Transfer Technology in
the Year in 1996 from ABB All the documents related the transfer of technology
is kept in this center. It has various departments like

 Documentation Room
 CAD Lab
 Calibration Room
 Simulator
Documentation Room: In the Documentation Room all the details of the TOT is
kept. It also contains the data of all the items used In the 3 phase loco supplied
by ABB. The Documentation Room also contains a number of video cassettes,
CD's and a Television. The cassettes and CD's contain videos relating to the
production of 3 phase locomotive

CAD Lab: The CAD Lab contains special purpose CATIA computer used for making
the alterations in the design of the locomotive to acquire the tenders having
specific requirements.

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Calibration Room: The Calibration room contains the standard measuring
Instruments which are stored in special conditions to maintain their accuracy.
The sub standard instruments from the shop are calibrated in this section every
month to maintain their accuracy.
TMDO & ELDO: It is also an important part of CLW. TMDO is Traction motor
design office & ELDO is Electric loco design office. Basically here all types of
design are done & also day by day the designs are developing by engineers.

PLO-LOCO: It is an important part of CLW. Mainly, the whole production of CLW

is controlled by this department. It also control the working time of different
shops & different jobs. Incentive calculations are done here.


The shop 16 is basically a loco assembly shop. It also accommodates for painting,
testing, welding, and installation of lot of different types of items that are
essentially used in loco. The shop generally assembles complete Pneumatic
Piping arrangement, Security Panel, Wheeling, drivers desk, battery box, roof,
foot plate, perforated sheet, bellow, pantograph, cab door, lock out glass, wiper,


 Roof  Wiper  Hand brake Louvers
 Cab doors & Window  Bellow  Pneumatic piping arrangement
 Foot plate assembly  Pantograph  Battery box
 Perforated Sheet  Security panel  After cooler
 Drivers desk  Pneumatic panel  Main & Baby compressor
 Rubber sealing  Wheeling  Different switches and brakes


Receipt of shell from shop-26

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STAGE-1:- Drilling, tapping, welding of stiffeners, brackets, clamps, slotted
channels, etc.

STAGE-2:- Complete painting of shell.

STAGE-3:- Centre shell piping, m/c room piping, Under frame piping and their
leakage tests, TFT mounting, cabling M/c room, Pneumatic panel mounting and
its tests.

STAGE-4:-Equipment mounting such as side wall, louvers, drivers desk, battery
box, compressors ,SR,MVMT & its scavenge blower, MR blower and its scavenge

STAGE-5:- Cable connection and inspection.

STAGE-6:- Cable bunching root trail, OFC laying, cab work, bogie body
connection, dampers fitment, MVMT running TM bellow fitment lowering on
motor bogie.

STAGE-7:- General inspection by CQAM.

STAGE-8:- Rectification and inspection.

STAGE-9:- Continuity test, sequence test, down leading test, GTO firing, polarity
test, sequence test.

STAGE-10:- Pneumatic testing and inspection.

STAGE-11:- Drivers desk cover, rain test.

STAGE-12:- Trial run.

STAGE-13:- Final painting, cab painting.

STAGE-14:- Final rectification and dispatch.

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In Machine Treatment Shop, all type of repairing operation of a damaged
machine tools, machine component, or other production unit and maintenance
of them. When a machine do not perform normal operation then workmen
associated with this machine have to inform to the machine treatment shop.
Then the experts inspect the whole machine and try to find out the main
problem. This damaged machine or any other accessories associated with
manufacturing is condemned until its completation.There are so many section in
machine treatment shop for different type of repairing and maintenance work.
All the machines in CLW is checked at a particular time of interval so that the
stream of flow of production rate does not compromice with time.the name of
the different section of Machine Treatment Shop are enlisted below:

1) Heavy Machine Shop(HMS) 2) Light Machine Shop(LMS)

3) Wheel Maintenance Shop 4) Steel Foundry Repair Shop
5) Traction Motor Machine Section 6) Traction Motor Crane Section
7) Compressor Section 8) Main Assembly Maintenance
9) Oxy-Cutting Repair Section 10) Store Section
11) General Section 12) Main Assembly Crane Section
13) Small Industrial Track Section 14) Machine Section


Material Handling is the field concerned with solving the pragmatic problems
involving the movement, storage in a manufacturing plant or warehouse, control
and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the processes of
cleaning, preparation, manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal of
all related materials, goods and their packaging .The focus of studies of Material
Handling course work is on the methods, mechanical equipment, systems and
related controls used to achieve these functions. The material handling industry
manufactures and distributes the equipment and services required to implement
material handling systems, from obtaining, locally processing and shipping raw
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materials to utilization of industrial feed stocks in industrial manufacturing
processes. Material handling systems range from simple pallet rack and shelving
projects, to complex conveyor belt and Automated Storage and Retrieval
Systems (AS/RS); from mining and drilling equipment to custom built barley malt
drying rooms in breweries. Material handling can also consist of sorting and
picking, as well as automatic guided vehicles.

MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT:- Material-handling equipment is equipment

that relate to the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods
and products throughout the process of manufacturing, distribution,
consumption and disposal. Material handling equipment is the mechanical
equipment involved in the com plete system. Material handling equipment is
generally separated into four main categories: storage and handling equipment,
engineered systems, industrial trucks, and bulk material handling

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CNC MACHINE: CNC Machines are now being widely used in industries to
enhance the production and increase the accuracy .There are total 42 numbers
of CNC machines in C.L.W. Most of the CNC Machines are imported from foreign
countries. There is an increasing demand of CNC machines just because of its
qualities. Smooth operation and precise dimensional accuracy are two main
features of a CNC machine.

ROBOT WELDING: Robot welding is the use of mechanized programmable

tools (robots), which completely automate a welding process by both performing
the weld and handling the part. Robot welding is commonly used for resistance
spot welding and arc welding in high production applications, such as the
automotive industry.Robot arc welding has begun growing quickly just recently,
and already it commands about 20% of industrial robot applications. The
manipulator is what makes the robot move, and the design of these systems can
be categorized into several common types.The robot may weld a pre-
programmed position, be guided by machine vision.

PLASMA CUTTING MACHINE: Plasma is a state between the solid and gaseous
state. In Plasma Cutting Machine a high potential difference is applied in dry air,
which ionizes it and then provides a path of high resistance for the current to
flow. This high resistance liberates a lot of heat and cuts any metal, which comes
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in between the two metal plate.There, is only one plasma cutting machine in
CLW for its precise cutting operation.

Fig. 34 CNC Machine Fig. 35 Robot Welding Fig. 36 Plasma


The four weeks of training at Chittaranjan locomotive works has greatly
benefited me in several ways. I have witnessed the immense power of
technology and how it can be put to productive purposes for the benefit of

I also became aware of my role as a Mechanical Engineer in making this

possible. During my stint at Chittaranjan locomotive works, I have learnt several
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things besides engineering which include, but are not limited to the working of a
giant organization, interaction and communication skills, analytical skills,
importance of safety in industry, time management and the most important fact
that no work is small.

The training has also inculcated in me professionalism and dedication to

work. No textbook would have been able to do all this just within a span of two
weeks. It has proved to be an important milestone in my academic life.

These are the following internet links which assist me at each and every step in
completing this project report without this links, the report could not be possible
in a great extent.

Page 70 of 71 www.railway-

Nptel lectures. Indian Railways fan club

Besides, there are some books associated with railway transportation will also
helpful in preparing the vocational report. The name of the books are enlisted
with their respective author in below:
1. ABB. Maintenance and Repair Manual., 1996
2. ABB. Driver's Manual 1996
3. Production Technology By R.K. Jain.
4. Manufacturing science By A.Ghosh & A.K.Mallick
5. Workshop Technology,Vol 3 &4 by Hazra & Chowdhury
6. Manufacturing Process by Rajender Singh
7. Railway Engineering by A.K. Jain
8. Introduction To Material Handling by S.Ray
9. Various Journal of RDSO and IRFTC

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