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# Path Integral

## Mahbub Alam Mjaumdar

1 Department of Physics

Summer 2018
Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics
First Slide Title
Optional Subtitle

## I * what is the amp to go from x1 , t1 − > x2 , t2 ?

Ans : < x1 t1 |x2 t2 >
I By rule :P
Amp = all possible amp for process to occur
X
= < x1 t1 |x2 t2 >i (1)
i
I *suppose now N holes , amplitudes < x2 t2 |x1 t1 >
X
Amp = < x2 t2 |x1 t1 >i (2)
i
I now suppose we have M screens So ,

Z
< xn+1 tn+1 |x0 t0 >= < xn+1 tn+1 |xn tn >< xn tn |xn−1 |tn−1 > ....

## —x1 t1 >< x1 t1 |x0 t0 > dx1 dx2 ...dxn (3)

I Dirac Said :
i
Rt
2 Ldt
e~ t1
correspond to < x2 t2 |x1 t1 >

(4)

Thus :
< xn+1 tt+1 |xn tn > ..... >< x1 t1 |x0 t0 >
i i i
R R R
=e ~ R xS(n+1,n) e ~ S(n,n−1) .....e ~ S(0,1)
i n +1 Ldt
=e ~ x0 ∗ normalization constant
i
S(1,0)
=e ~ ∗ normalaization constant
(5)
I By Superposition of amplitude rule :
X i
< xn+1 |x0 t0 >= e ~ S(1, x)
all paths

R i
= Dx e ~ S(1, x)
(6)

## I What is Dx? Use Free Particle Special Case :

Z tn
mẋ 2
S(n, n − 1) = dt ( − V (x) )
tn−1 2
mẋ 2
R tn
= tn−1 2 dt
=∆t( m2 )( xn −x
∆t
n−1 2
) (7)
Path Integreals in Quantm Mechanics

## I Example : Screen Suppose there are N holes on a screen :

X
Amp = < x2 t2 |x1 t1 >n i
i

## P now ¡x2 t2 |x1 t1 >=

so
all possible ways to go through M screens, N holes set to x2 , t2
(8)
I Suppose M− > ∞, hi − > ∞ => No screens
Z
< x2 t2 |x1 t1 >= dz1 ∗ dz2 .. ∗ dzM A(x2 t2 , z1 , ..zm , x1 t)

R z =x2 t2
= z0m+1
=x1 t1 Dx A(z path)(9)
I What is A (z path)?
I the role of A(z path) is to create interference effects. Thus
expect A≡ imaginary
A= e if (path )
I what is f(path)?
I in classical => 0 limit should give you the classical path, all other
path should cancel out.
˜
R
I f should depend
R on the path, thus be an integral dx f (x) , ω if
slice path by dt f (x, t)
I f should be a scalar
I how to cancel out non-classical paths? What is classical path
?
R
I class path given by extremizing S = f dt
I Remann-Lebesque theorem says:
Z
lim dx e iaf (x) = saddle point of inegral (10)
a−>∞
1
in classical limit ~− > 0 => ~− >∞
I

I thus:
i i
R R
S dt S dt
A(z paths) = e ~ = e~
i
R
¡x2 t2 |x1 t1 >= Dz e ~ S dt (11)
R
Dirac’s Feynman’s Formalism

Z
< xn+1 tn+1 |x0 t0 >= < xn+1 tn+1 |xn tn >< xn tn |xn−1 tn − 1 >< ...|x1 t1
(12)