Lessons Learned from Post-Disaster Recovery in Yogyakarta and Central Java, Indonesia | Emergency Management | Indonesian Rupiah

REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA STATE MINISTRY FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING/ NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AGENCY

Dr. Suprayoga Hadi (suprayoga@bappenas.go.id) Director for Special Area and Disadvantaged Region LEARNING FROM THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI: Asian Development Bank's RESPONSE IN INDONESIA Manila, 7-8 December 2009

Magnitude : 6,2 Richter scale Occurred at 5.55pm for 57 seconds Epicenter in the Indian Ocean at about 33 kilometers south of Bantul district Human toll: 5,716 killed The damage was very heavily concentrated on housing and private sector buildings

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(Rp Trillion)

Damage
Housing Social sector Productive sector Infrastructure Cross Sectoral TOTAL 13.9 3.9 4.3 0.4 0.2 22.8
13.7

Losses
1.4 0.1 4.7 0.2 0.1 6.3
2.5

TOTAL
15.3 4 9.0 0.6 0.3
16.2

3.3 5.9 2.3 27.2

7.7 2.2 3.7 14.2

11.1 8.1 6.0

29.1 41.4

Aceh-Nias Figures

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Yogya-C.Java

DAMAGE AND LOSSES (Billion Rp.)

(Rp Trillion)

6,398

22,751

Aceh-Nias
16.6

Damage

Losses

Damages & Losses, Aceh vs. Yogya:
27.3

1. Aceh: Damage (27.3T) > Losses (16.2T) 2. Yogya: Damage (22.7T) > Losses (6.4T)

Damage

Losses
4

DAMAGE AND LOSSES IN MAIN AFFECTED SECTORS

Yogya-C.Java
16000

14000

12000

10000 R p B illio n

8000

6000

4000

2000

Aceh-Nias
14 12

0 Housing Productive Sectors Social Sectors Infrastructure Cross Sectoral

Damage

Losses

10

Rupiah Trillion

Main affected sectors, Aceh vs. Yogya:
1. Aceh: Housing > Infrastructure > Economic 2. Yogya: Housing > Economic > Social
Housing Transport Industry Education Energy Agriculture Fishery

8

6

4

2

0

Damage

Losses

5

THE RECOVERY POLICY AND PROGRAM
1.

2.

The action plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction prepared by Bappenas, in close collaboration with the provincial government of Yogyakarta and Central Java The principle of post disaster recovery: utilization of rehabilitation and reconstruction to recover livelihood and promote community resilience towards the potential natural disaster in the future The main element of the recovery program comprised:
a) b) c) d)

Housing and settlement infrastructures Public infrastructures Revitalization of regional economy The timeframe for rehabilitation and reconstruction 18 months (until the end of 2007 but in due course extended until December 2008) Reconstruction /retrofitting damaged infrastructures Provision of small grant assistant/stimulant for housing reconstruction and micro/small businesses revitalization Provision of regulation for development acceleration

3.

The recovery policy framework:
a) b)

c)

4.

The recovery process implemented by the local government with policy and funding support from the central government
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Presidential Decree (Keppres) Nr.9/2006 President RI

Line Ministries

The Steering Committee

Line Ministries

The Implementing Committee Province Yogyakarta

The National Technical Team The Coordination Team For Rehabilitation and Reconstruction

The Implementing Committee Province Central Java

The Implementing Agencies

The Implementing The Implementing Agencies Agencies
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Financed by private/ company/ community Housing and settlement Infrastructure

Financed by community / private with government support Physical rehabilitation Physical rehabilitation : electricity water, telecom

Government Expenditure, support by community

Finance by Government Expenditure

Physical rehabilitation : market-place Physical rehabilitation : culture/national and world heritage, health, education

Social sectors

Physical rehabilitation: road, bridge, irrigation Physical rehabilitation: government offices, public facilities

Economic sectors

Financial stimulation, and regulatory support : economic sector in general

Financial stimulation and regulatory support : SME

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Total Damages and Losses (IDR trillion)

Government Financed (IDR trillion)

%
46%/60% 70%/24% 14%/11% 60%/3% 66%/2% 40%/100%

Housing Social Sector Productive Sector Infrastructure Cross-Sector TOTAL

15.3 4 9.0 0.6 0.3 29.2

7,0 2,8 1,3 0,4 0,2 11,7

(Exclusive IDR 400 billion for emergency response)
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Prioritization for housing reconstruction and preparation of earthquake resistance building guideline

4

3

Administrative arrangement for fund channeling

Establishment of Community Group 2

1 Consolidation and socialization to the affected community

5

Fund Channeling and housing reconstruction

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1. The Government adopted a community-driven development approach for house reconstruction: one of the largest community-based housing projects in the world: total number of heavily damaged or destroyed houses = 177,469 for Yogyakarta and = 104,084 for Central Java 2. The government assistance for constructing seismic resistant core housing units of 36 sq. meters: construction of sound foundations, frames, and roof; and technical support and community education for incorporating improved seismic standards in reconstruction and the local government issues building permits free of charge 3. The provincial government of Yogyakarta decided to distribute funds through a priority-based, phased approach, which completed prioritized houses first <<<>>> The provincial government of Central Java, adopted an equity-based approach whereby funds were distributed simultaneously to all beneficiaries in multiple phases. 4. One year after the earthquake, more than 140,000 houses had either been completed or were under construction; communities realized that good construction for their houses ensures they will live in safe and healthy homes
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In reference to Bappenas’ 2 years evaluation on rehabilitation and reconstruction, funding gap FY 2008 identified on the are a as following :

Funding Needs

Funding Available

Funding Gap

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1. The National Coordinating Board for the Management of Disaster (BAKORNAS PB), along with provincial and local authorities took a lead role in coordinating emergency response mechanisms on the ground and work together with the UN’s Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), and non-UN Agencies Immediate requirements after the disaster: shelter support, water and sanitation, health and nutrition, child protection and education, emergency telecommunication, logistics, early recovery, and coordination 2. Very different donor response compared with the Aceh 2004 tsunami a) The interim support prior to the start-up reconstruction diminished by early 2007. b) The number of remaining international agencies thereafter small: ie UNDP, GTZ, JICA, AUSAID followed by some major donors joining the Java Reconstruction Fund. c) The total donor assistance for Yogyakarta and Central Java approx. 15% of total IDR 7.9 trillion allocated funding by the end of FY 2008. 3. Contrasting funding situation: a) Multi Donor Fund Aceh-Nias: $ 676.08 million in commitments b) Java Reconstruction Fund: $ 94,76 million in commitments
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1.

The JRF – using a governance structure similar to the Aceh-Nias MDF -governed by a Steering Committee responsible for:
a) b) c) d)

e)

endorsing overall priorities endorsing project financing proposals reviewing fund progress ensuring coherence and collaboration with activities funded by the government’s action plan the results framework

2.

3.

The Steering Committee also serves as a forum for policy dialogue with the government on issues relating to the reconstruction and development efforts Members of the Steering Committee are:
a)

b) c) d)

a representative from the National Coordinating Team, formed to coordinate and implement the reconstruction efforts in Yogyakarta and Central Java The contributing donors to the JRF The World Bank as trustee The Indonesian government representative co-chairs the steering committee, along with the European Commission, as the largest donor, and the World Bank
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1.

From JRF’s total funds of US$ 79.9 million, to date 66.7 million has been committed to reconstruct housing and community infrastructure projects. The remaining funds are planned to finance projects restoring livelihoods. Transitional Housing: The JFR aimed to provide safe and durable transitional housing while permanent houses were rebuilt; thereby promoting early resumption of household activities. Permanent Housing and Community Infrastrucure: The JFR rebuild 15,153 earthquake-resistant houses and community infrastructure, and implement disaster preparedness and mitigation investments in 100 villages, using a community-driven approach to planning, prioritization, and implementation. Livelihoods: The Restoring Livelihoods Program plans to provide livelihood recovery in the affected areas in Yogya and Central Java based on the required gaps identified during a livelihood assessment in April 2007.

2.

3.

4.

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Pledges: Seven donors committed and disbursed a total of $94.06 million

Source 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 European Commission Government of the Netherlands Government of the United Kingdom Asian Development Bank Government of Canada Government of Finland Government of Denmark

$ million 51.17 12.00 10.77 10.00 6.53 1.99 1.60 94.06

Total Contributions

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1.

Overall GoI reconstruction efforts delivered more than 270,000 houses in 18 months – this is an achievement unprecedented worldwide In accordance to TTN’s evaluation; 80% housing construction have met the seismic resistant standard Retrofitting to the unqualified standard to be implemented through the sector program The CDD approach generates community contribution in many forms: capital, work force, building material and equipment One of the major contributing factors of success – giving the implementation task to the provincial government of Yogyakarta and Central Java Although inferior in reconstruction fund supports, both provinces managed to recover the function of basic services, and shifting paradigm from disaster response to prevention Both province promptly adopted the Law 24/2007 on Disaster Management to reform their local development policy and institutional framework for disaster management
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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

YOGYAKARTA & CENTRAL JAVA
1.

ACEH & NIAS ISLAND
1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

9.

The impact of earthquake only received “standard” media coverage and lesser attention when the emergency response expired The local government still fully functional aftermath the disaster The central government entrusted the task for rehabilitation and reconstruction to the provincial government APBN (national) projects implemented through the line ministries, APBD (provincial) projects through the local sector agencies Donor projects coordinated by the central government and monitored by the local government Housing reconstruction fully adopted the CDD approach DRR approach mainstreamed into development framework Except the JRF governs by the central agency and donors, there is no other trust fund established by the central government The Tim Keppres 9/2006 mandate expired on April 2008

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The impact of earthquake and tsunami received extensive media coverage and drew the attention of international assistance The local government function incapacitated by the massive impact of tsunami The central government set up BRR to implement the rehabilitation and reconstruction APBN projects implemented through BRR, with participation of the local government Donor projects coordinated and monitored by BRR Housing reconstruction implemented through mixed approach (contractors and CDD) DRR approach in the initial recognition stage Except the MDF, the Implementing Agency BRR established RANTF to collect donations BRR mandate expired on April 2009

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YOGYAKARTA & CENTRAL JAVA
1.

ACEH & NIAS ISLAND
1.

2.

3.

4.

The handing-over mechanism from Tim Keppres 9/2006 to the central and local government was less complicated The provincial and district government at both provinces carry on development activities in FY 2008 through regular development processes and mechanism Asset transfer managed through regular process at the Ministry of Finance Both provinces established Local DM Agency and provide DRR feed back for the local development framework

2.

3. 4.

Prior to BRR’s departure April 2009, the central government made transitional arrangement through Perpres 47/2008 and Perpres 3/2009 The central agencies took over the remaining BRR responsibility FY 2009 for reconstruction through the PMU-RRI (led by MPW) and other sector by relevant line ministries The asset transfer managed through the Tim Likuidasi at the MoF Bappenas facilitated Bappeda Aceh and North Sumatera to prepare the Action Plan for Development Continuation at both affected provinces until 2012

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REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORM ON DM
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Law No 24 year 2007 on Disaster Management Law No 26 year 2007 on Spatial Planning Law No 27year 2007 on Small Islands and Coastal Management Government Regulation No 21/2008 on DM Operations, Government Regulation No 22/2008 on Funding & Management of Disaster Assistance, 6) Government Regulation No 23/2008 on Participation of International Institutions and Foreign Non-Government Institution in DM 7) Government Regulation No 26 / 2008 on National Spatial Planning 8) Presidential Regulation No 8 / 2008 on the establishment of BNPB 9) Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No 46/2008 on BPBD Organization and Works Mechanism 10)Head of BNPB Regulation No 3/ 2008 on the establishment of BPBD

1) Establishment of National DM Agency (BNPB) 2) Establishment of Local DM Agency (BPBD) in a number of provincial and district/city levels 3) Establishment on National Platform on DRR 4) Establishment of Mitigation Forum
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Post‐Disaster Needs Assessment DaLA & 
Humanitarian  Relief Needs Ass’t

Needs  Identification
Early Recovery Needs

Recovery  Action Plan
Rehabilitation

Recovery  Financing Plan

Human Effects

Damages Recovery Needs Losses Reconstruction

Recovery Financing
1. Nat’l Budget 2. Local Budget 1. Donors 2. Communities

Post-Disaster Risk Assessment

Post-Disaster DRR Needs

Long-term Recovery
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1.

The simplicity of Yogyakarta and Central Java recovery framework has been replicated (with locality modification) at post earthquake in Bengkulu-West Sumatera (2007), and recently post earthquake in West Java-Central Java (2009) and West Sumatera (2009) The existing public funding regulations and mechanisms does not allow a quick response to post disaster needs, except from the restricted “on-call” resources managed by the National Disaster Management Agency Immediately after humanitarian relief, an interim intervention is required to address the on-going crisis for the provision of transitional shelter, water and sanitation, temporary health and education facilities, food allowance, protection etc. to the affected communities To fill-out the gap for interim intervention and scarcity of fund for longer term recovery, international assistance is required

2.

3.

4.

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A national post disaster reconstruction fund may be an alternative mechanism to address current and future disaster response in Indonesia; it should have the following features:
1.

Provide flexible financing instrument for systematic response to disaster, preferably for longer-term and future use if desired Have a streamlined approval process through flexibility in preparation, use of emergency and early recovery procurement procedures and policy for rapid response to crisis and emergency Have a focus on financing critical post disaster needs ie: housing, community infrastructure, livelihoods, disaster risk reduction, technical assistance for quality assurance, monitoring and evaluation Government-led with appropriate roles for the participating donors, when possible the secretariat attached to the lead government institution

2.

3.

4.

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