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Four-stroke cycle

Two- Stroke Cycle


THEORETICAL HEAT CYCLE
PRACTICAL CYCLES
Indicator Diagram
THERMAL EFFICIENCY
Exhaust gas turbocharging
arrangement
Fuel injection
INJECTION AND COMBUSTION

● Although the pressure in the cylinder at this point is likely to be


anything up to 200 bar, the fuel pressure at the atomizer will
be of the order of 1300–1800 bar.

● In the early days of airless injection many ingenious varieties


of combustion chamber were used, sometimes mainly to
reduce noise or smoke, or to ease starting; but often in part to
reduce, or to use modest, injection and combustion pressures.
Direct and Indirect Injection
Direct Injection
● Direct injection is what it says it is: the fuel is delivered directly
into a single combustion chamber formed in the cylinder space
atomization being achieved as the fuel issues from small drillings
in the nozzle tip.
● In the direct injection engine the fuel/air mixing is achieved by the
energy in the fuel spray propelling the droplets into the hot, dense
air. Additional mixing may be achieved by the orderly movement
of the air in the combustion chamber, which is called ‘air swirl’.
● Naturally aspirated engines usually have a degree of swirl and an
injection pressure of around 800 bar. Highly turbocharged engines
with four-valve heads have virtually no swirl, but have an injection
pressure of 1200–1800 bar to provide the mixing energy.

High Pressure, Noise, vibrate


Indirect Injection
● indirect injection is exploited, some high speed engines retain
a pre-chamber in the cylinder head into which fuel is injected
as a relatively coarse spray at low pressure, sometimes using
a single hole. Combustion is initiated in the pre-chamber, the
burning gases issuing through the throat of the chamber to act
on the piston.
● Fuel/air mixing is achieved by a very high air velocity in the
chamber, the air movement scouring the walls of the chamber
and promoting good heat transfer. Thus the wall can be very
hot-requiring heat resistant materials—but it can also absorb
too much heat from the air in the initial compression strokes
during starting and prevent ignition

poor starting, glow plugs


combination of the two systems
One engine designer, SEMT-Pielstick, achieved an
ingenious combination of the two systems by dividing the
pre-chamber between cylinder head and piston crown. At
TDC a stud on the piston enters the pre-chamber to provide
a restricted outlet. On the expansion stroke the restriction is
automatically removed and fuel economy comparable with
normal direct injection engines is attainable
INJECTOR
PUMP
Timing