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k|yd k|sfzg ldltM lj.;+. 1991 kmfu'g

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lj=;+= @)&$ r}t
ljifoqmd
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1. x:tfIf/÷ ofbj v/]n 3
ljdn ef}sfhL
2. ljb]zL cg'jfb syf÷ 8]dg /gof]g 4
3. sljtf÷ gd{b]Zj/ k|wfg 8
dfgfy{ ;b:o 4. rf}tf/L÷ /fh]Gb| ljdn;Fu gf/fo0f ltjf/L 16
k|bLk lul/
5. :tDe M xif{–^]jf÷ b'uf{nfn >]i7 17
hLjf nfld5fg]
6. syf÷ /fddl0f kf]v/]n 18
;Nnfxsf/ 7. sljtf÷ ;'gLn k'/L 23
8f= b'a;' If]qL 8. ;+:s[lt÷ ?lSd0fL >]i7 24
9. uLt÷ lzjxl/ /fO{ 30
k|aGw lgb]{zs 10. :tDe M gy{ Sof/f]nfOgf ;flxTo÷ Clif a:tfsf]6L 31
c~h"nIdL k|wfg 11. lgaGw÷ k'0o sfsL{ 32
12. uhn÷ nLnf/fh bfxfn 35
cGt/f{li^«o k|ltlglw 13. ;+:d/)f÷ rGb|sfGt cfrfo{ 36
gLnd sfsL{ lgxfl/sf
14. sljtf÷ sf}lznf l/;fn 42
15. ;dfnf]rgf÷ u'?k|;fb kf]v/]n 43
sfg"gL ;Nnfxsf/
16. n#'syf÷ ljk'n l;hfklt 49
clwjQmf /fdaxfb'/ /fpt
17. ;+:s[lt÷ 8f= w'|jk|;fb e§/fO{ 50
18. lgaGw÷ lqe'jgrGb| jfUn] 55
k|sfzs
zfGtaxfb'/ dNn 19. s}lkmot 60
ljdn ef}sfhL

sf] &]ufgf sharadamasik@gmail.com


bimalbhaukajee@hotmail.com
zf/bf r}t–@)&$ (Mob : 9849-305949) 1
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jif{ $, cª\s !@, k"0ff{ª\s $*, lj=;+= @)&$ r}t lbgdfg u'd{5fg, ag]kf
dLgs'df/ gjf]lbt, lj/f6gu/

zf/bfsf ljlzi^ ;xof]uLx¿


d"No ¿. 90÷– k"0f{ j}B, sf7df8f}F
s[i0fnfn k|wfg, eQmk'/
ef/tdf ef. ¿. 90÷– k|lt;/f ;fo\ld, sf7df8f}F
ljb]zdf $ 2.00 8f= cfgGb hf]zL, sf7df8f}F
dbgk|;fb dNn, sf7df8f}F
lzjk|sfz, af]:6g, cd]l/sf
nlnt yfd], sf7df8f}F
Sharada Masik 3gZofd /fhsl0f{sf/
A collection of Contemporary Nepali Literature nId0fs[i0f tfd|fsf/

;fh;HhfM e]ifaxfb'/ /fpt …cfgGbÚ

d'b|)fM lxl; ckm;]^ lk|G^;{


hdn, ;]tf]b/af/, sf&df*f}F
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ofbj v/]n
uflosf M b]ljsf jGbgf

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 3
ljb]zL
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syf

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h a …hf] b hf]s/Ún] xFl;dhfs ul/;s]kl5 d}n]


pm;Fu s'/f ug{ z'¿ u/]F .
– …s] 5 lg hf] < sfd–wGbf s:tf]
rln/x]5 <Ú
p;n] hf]l;FbF}eGof]– …cr]n ahf/df h]–
h:tf] rln/x]5, To;nfO{ x]bf{ wGbf 7Ls7fs}
dfGg'knf{ .Ú
k|]d#f^ ha d}n] p;nfO{ /f];fsf] af/]df ;f]w,F] of] ;'g/]
pm v"a} hf]8n] xfF:of] .
…cfhef]ln /f];f / k|m] s
+ L Ps};fy 3'Dg] u/]sf] s'/f
klg ;'Ggdf cfPsf] 5 . b'j} hgfsf] l5§} lax] x'g
nfu]sf] 5 /] ÛÚ olt eg]/ pm k'gM xfF:g yfNof] .
…ltd|L :jf:gL c¿;Fu} ljjfx ug{ uO/x]sf] 5,
ltdL eg] a8f dHhfn] xfFl;/x]sf 5f}+ . uHha
5 af ÛÚ d}n] cfZro{ JoQm u/]F .
– …s'/f g} xfF:gnfos 5, d s] u¿F lsgls
ha b'j} hgf ;Fu} a:5g\ eg] < t/ Toltv]/
k|]m+sLn] yfxf kfpF5, ha p;n] ;]tf] xfQL
kfn]h:t} x'G5 . of] s'/f p;nfO{ s] yfxf < /f]zf
lgs} vrf{n' cfOdfO{ x'g\ . of] s'/f l;k{m dnfO{
dfq yfxf 5 .Ú
oL ;a s'/f d}n] …hf] b hf]s/Úaf6 yfxf
kfPsf] lyPF . x'g t /f];f / k|m] s + Lsf] kl/ro cgf}7f]
nfUof] . h'g /f];fsf] lax]eGbf klxn]sf] lyof] . pgL
tab]lv ltgnfO{ k|d] ub}{ cfO/x]sf lyP, hab]lv
pgL gfO6 Snadf gfRg] sfd uly{g\ . of] k|d]
/f];fsf] lax]kZrft\ klg n'sLrf]/L eO/x]sf] lyof] .
8]dg /gof]g
t/ …hf] b hf]s/Úaf6 of] k|d] l5k]sf] lyPg . of]

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k|d] ha aflx/ cfpg yfNof] ta k|m] s + Lsf] cfly{s k|ltåGåLnfO{ ;dfKt ug{sf nflu k|m] s + Ln] Ps
l:ylt dha't eO/x]sf] lyof] eg] …hf] b hf]s/Úsf] vt/gfs t/Lsf ckgfpg nfu]sf] lyof] .
7ØfSs} pN6f] . /f];fsf nflu ca u/La k'?if;Fu p;n] cfˆgf zq'nfO{ dfg{ / ltgsf] nfznfO{
/xg' c;fWo kL8fh:t} eof] . af]/fdf sf]r/] ;8sdf kmfNg] uYof]{ . o;n] Ps
…ca s] l:ylt 5 <Ú d}n] zfGt x'bF } ;f]wF] . lsl;dsf] cftª\s g} dRrfPsf] lyof] . k'ln;;d]t
…ca l:ylt o:tf] eof], /f];f ca k|m] s + L;Fu} o; 36gfn] lgs} cK7Øf/f]df k/] . o:tf 36gf
a:g yfn]sL l5g\ . dnfO{ 5f]8g\ e' Gbf klxn] pgn] s;n] / s'g p2]Zon] ul//x]5, s;}n] klg
of}6f kq n]vs ] L lyOg\ . To;df dnfO{ 5f]8/] hfg k'ln;nfO{ atfpg 8/fpFy] lsgls ltgLx¿nfO{
nfu]sf] s'/f lyof] . cab]lv ltdLn] d]/f] k|tLIff /fd|/L yfxf lyof], h;n] o;af/] atfpF5 ltgsf]
gug"{ egL To;df pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] . xfnt klg af6f]df aGb x'gs ] f] l:yltdf k'UYof] /
d}n] ;xfg'el" t b;f{pbF } …hf] b hf]s/ÚnfO{ Tof] ;8ssf] s'gfdf b]vfkYof]{ .
eg]–F …x]/ ldq, ltd|f] syf ;'g/] a8f] ckm;f]r s]xL lbgkl5 ;8sdf …hf] b hf]s/Úsf] efO
nfUof] t/ s]xL 5}g . ltdL;Fu d]/f] ;fy ;w}F dfOsnsf] nfz k]mnf k¥of] . of] k|m] s + Lsf] …hf]ÚnfO{
/xg]5 .Ú r]tfjgL lyof] . ha pm /f];f;Fu l5§} ;DaGw
…oL ;a} s'/f dnfO{ Tolt h?/t 5}g d]/f] ljR5]b u5{, ta k|m] s + Lsf] /f];fl;t lax] ug]{ af6f]
ldq . o;sf] h?/t Hofbf ca k|m] s + LnfO{ 5, v'NYof] . olb p;n] o:tf] u/]g eg] p;n] klg
Tof]eGbf sd dnfO{ .Ú olt eg]/ …hf] b hf]s/Ú efOsf] h:tf] xljut a]xf]gk{' g]{ x'G5 .
k'gM hf]8–hf]8n] xfF:g nfUof] . d}n] …hf]Úsf ldqx¿af6 of] klg ;'gF] ls pm
xFl;dhfs ug]{ …hf] b hf]s/Ú;Fu c¿ t/Lsf /f];fl;t ;DaGw ljR5]b ug{ s'g} xfntdf tof/
klg 5g\ . pm s'g} ;fj{hlgs 6]lnkmf]g a'ydf b]lvPg . To;sf] nflu h'g;'s} ;hfo ef]Ug'k/]
hfG5 / ToxfFaf6 ltgL /]i6'/F fdf k'uL gDa/ klg s]xL 5}g .
8fon u5{ / s'g} s]6Lsf] h:tf] cfjfh lgsfn]/ To;sf] s]xL ;dokl5 d}n] …hf] b hf]s/ÚnfO{
eG5– …x]gf];{ ,\ d]/f] oxfF Ps kf6L{ x'bF } 5 . tkfO{n+ ] 6f9} /]i6'/fFghLs} 3'ld/x]sf] b]v]F . d pgsf]
%) bh{g ;}08ljr k7fOlbg' xf]nf Û To;sf] b[li6af6 ar]/ cufl8 a9\g vf]Hb} lyPF . lsgls
aLnsf] e'Qmfg ;}08ljr lnP/ cfpg] JolQmnfO{ d pmh:tf JolQmsf] cufl8 b]vfkg{ rfxGgy],F
t'?Gt} ul/lbg] 5' . s[kof of] c8{/ rfF8} k7fOlbg' h;sf] lbg ca w]/} nfdf] lyPg .
xf]nf . d To;sf] k|tLIffdf x'g5 ] ' .Ú t/ …hf] b hf]s/Ún] dnfO{ b]vk] l5 cfjfh
xf]6nsf] JolQm ha ;}08ljr lnP/ k'U5, lbP/ af]nfof] . ha d pgsf] ;fd'Gg] clgR5fk"js {
ToxfF ;}08ljr lng] sf]xL df}hb' x'bF g} . k'uF] . pm d':s'/fpFb} lyof], …ltdLnfO{ o;af/] w]/}
To;sf] s]xL lbgkl5 d}n] l5d]sLdfk{mt Ps s'/f yfx 5}g xf]nf . cfpm, d ltdLnfO{ s]xL
;dfrf/ kfPF . of] ;'gk] l5 dnfO{ …hf] b hf]s/Úsf] gofF s'/f ;'gfpF5' . of] s'/f t ltdLnfO{ klg
eljio b]v/] 8/ nfUg yfNof] . ;dfrf/df o:tf] cjut} xf]nf, /f];f / k|m] s
+ Lsf] ;DaGwaf/] . /f];fn]
n]lvPsf] lyof]– cfˆgf] Jofj;flos tyf cGo k|m] s
+ LnfO{ af]nfP/ elg5g\ . ltgn] p;nfO{ eg]/

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 5
ljb]zL cg'jfb syf

dnfO{ o; s'/fsf] nflu /fhL u/fpg vf]Hof] . ltdLn] k|m|] s+ l;t s'g} xFl;dhfs gug'{ g} 7Ls
/f];fl;t d]/f] ;DaGw ljR5]b u/fpg ;lhnf] xf]nf / pgL;Fu ;t{s /xg' j]z xf]nf .Ú
xf];\ eg] 7fGof] . k|m] s
+ LnfO{ o:tf] nfUof] . ha ls d]/f] ;Nnfx ;'lg;s]kl5 ;f]rdUg eof]
pm d]/f] / /f];faLrsf] dgd'6fj x6fpg ;S5 . clg hjfkmdf …hf] b hf]s/Ú km]l/ xfF:g yfNof]
o;sf nlu pm /f];fnfO{ e]6g\ rfxGYof] .=== / xfF:b} eGof]– …ldq, k|m]| s
+ LnfO{ ltdLn] eGbf a9L
===yfxf 5}g, p;sf] /f];fl;t s] s'/f eof], t/ d}n] a'em] sf] 5' . ;a} hgf pmb]lv 8/fpF5 t/
pm ;s'zn ckf6{dG] 6af6 kms]g{ . p;sf] nfz d pmb]lv 8/fpFlbgF . pmleq To:tf] s] lrh 5,
klg ;8ssf] s'gfdf aGb af]/fdf k]mnf k¥of] . dnfO{ yfxf 5}g h;af6 8/ pTkGg u5{ < ltdL
d To;sf] nflu k|m] s + L / /f];f b'jn
} fO{ lhDd]jf/ x]b{} hfpm, ca s]–s] x'G5 <Ú
dfGb5' . o;sf] abnfdf d o; t/Lsfn] lnG5' . – …cflv/ ltd|f] cfOl8ofdf s] 5 <Ú
/f];f ;DaGw ljR5]b ug{;d]t 8/fpg] l5g\ . – …c/] Û cfOl8of t o:tf] 5 ldq, ;'Gg]lalQs}
ltgn] o;afx]s c¿ s'/f ;f]Rg ;Sb}g .Ú w8\sg a9\g yfN5 . d]/f] of] of]hgf c;kmn x'g
olt eg]/ pm xfF:g yfNof] . dnfO{ pgsf] of] ;Sb}g . h;/L klg of] ;kmn x'G5 . eGb5g\
s'l6n xfF;f] lgs} eofgs nfUof] . s]xL JolQm lg, g /xG5 afF; g aH5 afF;/' L . o;/L df/]/
cfˆgf] efOsf] q'm/ xTofkl5 o; k|sf/ s;/L af6fdf kmfNg] JolQm :jod\nfO{ h]nleq rfF8}
xfF:g ;s]sf] xf]nf Û rfx] pmh:tf] xFl;dhfs ug]{ b]Vg kfOg]5 .Ú
:jefj ePsf] JolQm g} lsg gxf];\ . – …of] s'/f ltdL s;/L eGg ;S5f}, ha ls
cfˆgf] xF;fO ;lsPkl5 p;n] h'g s'/f dnfO{ ltd|f] of] of]hgf sbflk c;kmn x'bF g} eg]/ <Ú
;'gfof] Tof] ;'g/] cfk}mn F fO{ ljZjf; ePg . h'g' d}n] lh1fzfk"js { ;f]wF] .
s'/f d}n] ;'g,F] s] Tof] s'/f ;To xf] t < t/ Tof] – …o;/L c;kmn x'bF g} . ha of] of]hgf k"0f{
s'/f ;To xf], lsgeg] …hf]Ún] a8f] Odfgbf/Lsf ¿kdf ;kmntflt/ a9]sf] 5 eg] of] ;kmn x'gd' f
;fy eg]sf lyof] . tyflk pm xFl;dhfs kf/fn] d]/f] l;jfo k|m|] s
+ Lsf] 3lgi6 ldqsf] klg xft /x]sf]
oL s'/f atfpFb} lyof] . 5 . /]K;n] d;Fu e]l6;s]sf] 5 . /]K; k|m]| s + Lsf]
p;n] ;xh 9ª\un] eGof]– …d q'm/ k|m]| s + Ll;t ljZjf;gLo ;xfos xf] / p;n] cfˆgf zq'nfO{
Ps uDeL/ xFl;dhfs ug{ rfxG5' . d]/f] lbdfudf dfYof]{ / af]/fdf /fv]/ ;8sdf kmfNg] uYof]{ . of]
of}6f uhasf] cfOl8of cfof] .Ú lhDd]jf/L p;sf] lyof] . k|m]| s + Ln] p;nfO{ of] sfd
d r'krfk a;]F . cGtdf d af]Ng afWo ePF, ;'Dk]sf] lyof] .Ú
;+odk"js { eg]–F …x]/ hf], ltdLn] d;Fu s'g} ;Nnfx – …To;f]eP ltd|f] efO dfOsnfO{ df/]/ kmfn]sf]
dfu]sf] klg 5}gf}, t/ d}n] ltdLnfO{{ of}6f ;Nnfx klg p;n] g} xf]nf lg ÛÚ
lbg h?/L 7fg]F . k|m]| s + L o:tf] JolQm xf] h;n] – …xf]Og, xf]Og, /]K; d]/f] klxn]bl] vsf] ldq xf]
:jod\ g s;};uF xFl;dhfs ug{ hfg]sf] 5 g / p;n] cfˆgf aRrfx¿sf] s;d vfP/ dnfO{
s;}nfO{ dgk/fpF5 . To:tf;Fu s'g t/Lsfn] eg]sf] lyof], p;n] d]/f] efOnfO{ df/]sf] x}g . of]
xFl;dhfs ug]{ xf] < To;}n] of] g} plrt xf]nf, sfddf k|m] s + L cyjf /f];fsf] xft x'gk' 5{ .Ú

6 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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– …To;f]eP /]K;n] ltdLnfO{ s;/L ;xof]u dnfO{ /flvPsf] af]/f vf]Ng]5, Toltv]/ k]:tf]nn]
ug]{ eof] t <Ú uf]nL xfg]/ k|m] s + LnfO{ d ;bfsf] nflu vQd
– …xfd|f] of]hgfd'tflas /]K; uP/ k|m]| s + LnfO{ kfl/lbG5' . /]K;n] dnfO{ ToxfFaf6 lxkmfht;fy
eGg]5– pm, dnfO{ cyf{t\ …hf] b hf]s/ÚnfO{ aflx/ Nofpg]5 .Ú
af]/fdf xfn]/ p;sf] ;fd'Gg] k]z ug{ ;Sb5 . olt eg]/ …hf] b hf]s/Ú ;';N] b} uP .
k|m|] s
+ LnfO{ o;k|lt s'g} ;Gb]x /xg] 5}g . To;kl5 tab]lv cfh;Dd pm;Fu e]6 ePsf] 5}g .
/]K; dsxfF cfpg]5 / dnfO{ af]/fdf /fv]/ k|m|] s + L d}n] Ps ljZj:t ;"qaf6 of] yfxf kfPF ls
a;]sf] ufpFdf k'¥ofpg]5 .Ú /]K; :jod\n] af]/f lnP/ cfPg . p;n] cs}{
…s] eGb} 5f} ltdL < o;/L af]/fdf aGb u/]/ JolQmdfk{mt af]/f k||]m+sLnfO{ k7fPsf] lyof] .
nu]df cfwf 3G6fleq} ltdL dg{ ;S5f} / olb hLljt} Tof];uF } of] klg n]v/] k7fof] ls af]/f cfk}mn F ]
/x] klg k|m] | s
+ Ln] ltdLnfO{ TolQs} 5f8\g] 5}g . To;}n,] sbflk gvf]Ng" Û olb vf]Nof} eg] …hf]Ún] ltdLnfO{
oL b'j} l:yltdf ltd|f] xfnt lgs} gfh's b]lvG5 . k]:tf]nn] xfg]/ vQd kfl/lbg] 5 .
of] a'em] / klg ltdL cfk"mnfO{ ;ª\s6lt/ ws]Nb} k|m]| s
+ Ln] af]/f prfn]/ 3/sf] cG8/u|fp08df
5f} .Ú d}n] cftª\lst :j/df p;nfO{ eg]F . nUof] . ha cG8/u|fp08df k'Uof], af]/fnfO{ e'OdF f
– …/]K;n] af]/fdf xfNg'eGbf klxn] ToxfF la;fof] / bgfbg k]:tf]naf6 uf]nL a;f{pg
xfjfsf] nflu of}6f Kjfn /flvg]5 . o; k|sf/ yfNof] . Ps lrTsf/;Fu} af]/fdf aGb ePsL /f];f
d k|m]| s+ LsxfF k'Ubf hLljt} k'Ug]5' / ha k|m] s + Ln] xd];fsf nflu lr;f] eof] .

cg'= M P;=kL= >]i7

n]vs kl/ro – 8]dg /gof]g (Damon Runyon) sf] hGd cd]l/sfsf] DofgXof6gdf $ cS6f]a/
!**) df ePsf] lyof] . pgL k]zfn] Ps kqsf/ x'g\ . ctM pgsf] ;flxTodf klg ljz]if e'msfj lyof] .
5f]6f–5f]6f syfdf pgsf] of]ubfg dxŒjk"0f{ dflgG5 .
pgsf …u'jfOh P08 8N;Ú / …df]/ 8Øfg ;d0xfO{Ú k|dv ' s[ltx? x'g\ . cd]l/sg 6L=eL=sf]
;+of]hgdf pgsf s]xL /rgfnfO{ lyP6/df d~rg u/fOPsf lyP . o;} u/L …n]8L km/ c 8]Ú, …u'jfOh
P08 8N;Únufot s[ltdf rnlrq;d]t lgdf{0f ePsf 5g\ . ljz]iftM pgsf] ;Demgfdf SofG;/ l/;r{
kmfp08]zg klg vf]lnPsf] 5 .
pgsf /rgf ljz]if u/L /f]df~r / sf}tx" nk"0f{ x'G5g\, h;df /x:on el/Psf] kfOG5 . ly|n/ /
hf;';L /rgf ug{ vlKk; dflgg] 8]dgsf] Go"of]s{ df !) l8;]Da/ !($^ df b]xfGt eof] .

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 7
sljtf

cfF;' eGg' kfgL dfq xf]Og


xf], cfF;'sf] kfgL
Pslgd]ifdf
3fdn] ;'sfpg ;S5 .

cfF;' cfF;'sf] kfgL ;'Sb}df t/


:jod\ cfF;' ;'Sb}g dxfzo Û
cfF;' t 3fp xf] 3fp
t/n 3fp
aUg] 3fp .
ha;Dd
ltd|f] r'KkL
wfl/nf] eOlbG5
eg"F wfl/nf] eO/xG5
cfF;'sf] 3fp alNem/xG5===
alNem/xG5=== .
gd{b]Zj/ k|wfg

8 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
rf}tf/L k]m;a'ssf] …syfÚaf^

;flxTosf/ /fh]G› ljdn -hGd M lj=;+=@))#_ g]kfnL


syf;flxTodf Ps dxŒjk" 0 f{ Pjd\ k| l ;Wb gfd xf] .
…kf]:6df6{dÚh:tf] rdTsfl/s sNkgfzLntfn] el/Psf] pTs[i6
syf n]v/] k|ydk6s g} rrf{ a6'Ng ;kmn x'ge ' Psf] pxfFn]
;dsfnLg hLjgsf cg]s syf n]v/] k|l;l4 k|fKt ug{e ' Psf]
5 . pxfFn] ;dfnf]rgf, lgaGw, uLt, uhn, gf6s cflb ljwfdf
klg snd rnfpg] u/] tfklg cfˆgf] ;j{lk|o ljwf syfnfO{ g}
dfGg'ePsf] 5 . nfdf] cjlw k|fWofkg k]zfdf JotLt ug{e' Psf
ljdn …hubDaf>LÚh:tf] dxŒjk"0f{ k'/:sf/af6 ;d]t ;Ddflgt
eO;Sg' ePsf] 5 .
syfjftf{ M /fh]G› ljdnl;t gf/fo0f ltjf/L

!_ ;fdflhs ;~hfnsf] k]m;a'sdf ;~rflnt …syfÚ ;d"xsf nflu tkfO{+l;t …syfjftf{Ú ug{
nflu/x]sf] 5', :jfut 5 . x]b}{ x'g'x'G5 xf]Og of] …syfÚ < s:tf] nflu/x]sf] 5 <
– syf / syfsf/af/] kl/rofTds b:tfa]hLs/0fsf] of] Pp6f P]ltxfl;s k|of; xf], h;n]
plbt / pbLodfg syf–k|ltefsf] ;'/le–k|;f/sf nflu ;femf k"mnjf/L lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 .
@_ ljB'tLo ;~rf/sf] o; o'un] ;flxTosf/x¿nfO{ klg r'k nfu]/ a:g lbPg . ;flxTosf]
k|j4{gdf jf ;flxTonfO{ hg–dgdf k'¥ofpg] sfo{df o;n] ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 ls, ;flxTo
>[hgfdf cj/f]w, s:tf] 7fGg'x'G5 <
– >[hg :j–lj:tf/sf] k|fs[lts k|lqmof xf] . ljB'tLo ;~rf/n] o;nfO{ ult lbP/ dg–dg;Dd
k'¥ofpg] >]o:s/ k|of; u/]sf] 5, h'g clegGbgLo 5 .
#_ k|fWofkg k]zfaf6 cjsf; ePkl5 of] pknAw ;don] ;flxTo–>[hgfdf slQsf] a9f]Q/L
u/]sf] xf]nf, jf gxf]nf, s] eGg'x'G5 <
– hLjgsf] rfnL; jif{;Dd k|fWofkg k]zfdf ;+nUg /xFb} Pp6f ;kmn lzIfs l;4 x'g]
p2]Zod} ;Dk"0f{ pmhf{ nufPF / cjsfzkl5 k"0f{sflns n]vs eP/ g]kfnL ;flxTosf] e08f/
e/L o;nfO{ ljZj–;flxTos} ;dsIfdf k'¥ofpmFnf eGg] efjgf ;fFr]/ /fv]F . cjsfzkl5
/f]uu|:t / jo–hh{/ eP/ lzlyn aGg'knf{ eGg] yfxf ePg . of] d]/f] nflu Pp6f qf;bL
xf] . hflu/sfndf eGbf clxn] clns a9L n]Vt5', t/ rfx]sf] dfqfdf n]Vg g;Qmf dleqsf]
/rgfsf/ qmGbg ub{5 . ;ft 8fF8fkfl/ k'Ug' lyof] . Pp6f 8fF8f] gsf6\t} emdSs ;fFem
k¥of] . stf hfpmF < s] u¿F <<

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 9
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$_ slxn]b]lv n]Vg yfNg'ePsf] xf] < d]/f] dtna ;flxTo ;fwgfsf] k|f/lDes sfnaf/] s]xL
atfOlbg'xf];\ g Û
– d]/f] klxnf] syf !(%( O{=df …cfof{jt{Ú -k6gf, ljxf/af6 k|sflzt lxGbL b}lgs ;dfrf/kq_
df k|sflzt ePsf] lyof], afn–:tDedf . zLif{s lyof]– …v6dn cf}/ h"FÚ . ;g\ !(^@ df
…cfof{jt{Údf Pp6f lgs} nf]slk|o syf k|sflzt lyof]– …srgf/sf k]+8Ú . g]kfnL kq–klqsf
To;a]nf t/fO{lt/ sd cfpg] u/]sf]n] xf]nf, g]kfnL ;flxTodf d]/f] /rgf -d"ntM ;dLIff_
;g\ !(^^ lt/ :yfgLo kq–klqsfdf 5flkg yflnP .
%_ syf–n]vgdf rflxF nfUg'ePsf] slxn]b]lv xf]nf <
– n]Vg t !@–!# jif{s} pd]/b]lv n]Vy]F / ;/:jtL dfWolds ljBfno, hgsk'/df x'g] ;fF:s[lts
uf]i7Ldf ;'gfpFy]F . g]kfnL klqsfdf d]/f] klxnf] syf 5fKg] >]o …dw'ks{ÚnfO{ 5 . ;DejtM
;+jt\ @)%) df d]/f] …kf]:6df6{dÚ syf k|sflzt eof], h;sf] k|z+;fdf dnfO{ k7fOPsf
nueu %)) kqn] dnfO{ n]Vg 7"nf] xf};nf k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] .
^_ g]kfnL syf;flxTodf cfˆgf] ljz]if klxrfg agfpg ;kmn x'g'ePsf] 5 . s] eGg'x'G5,
;Gtf]if nfu]sf] 5 xf]Og <
– g]kfnL ;flxTo–;+;f/n] dnfO{ sNkgftLt :g]x / ;Ddfg lbPsf] 5 . sltko ;fyLx¿n]
;flxlTos …u'6aGbLÚ, …pkTosf / df]km;nÚ–sf s'/f ug{'x'G5 . d cToGt efUozfnL 5',
dnfO{ l;ª\uf] g]kfnn] cyfx dfof u/]sf] 5 . d d]/f] b]zsf] C0fL 5' .
&_ syf n]Vg] k|]/0ff s;/L, sxfFaf6 k|fKt ePsf] xf], s]xL To:tf ;Gbe{ 5g\ ls Û
– afNosfndf lxGbLsf k|]drGbsf] syf–;flxTon] k|]l/t u¥of] . SofDk;df k9fpg] a]nf
slxn]sfxLF 8f= r'8fdl0f …aGw'Ún] g]kfnLdf syf n]Vg xf}:ofpg'x'GYof] . t/, g]kfnL kxf8L
u|fDo hLjg / u|fDo efiffdf cfˆgf] cNk1tfn] ubf{ cfF6 cfpFbg} Yof] . kl5, cfk"mn] b]v–] ef]us ] f
s'/f g} n]Vg] ljrf/ u/]F / pbf/ g]kfnL kf7saf6 sdfnsf] xf};nf kfPF .
*_ syfafx]s klg w]/} ljwfdf snd rnfpg'ePsf] 5 . tL ljwf s'g\– s'g\ x'g\ xf]nf < tkfO{+sf]
;a}eGbf lk|o ljwf syf g} xf]nf lg, xf]Og <
– xf], ;dfnf]rgf, lgaGw, uLt, uhn, gf6s cflb ljwfdf klg n]Vg t n]V5', t/ lk|o ljwf
syf g} aGg k'u]sf] 5 .
(_ tkfO{+ ldlynfjf;L x'g'x'G5 . cyf{t\ t/fO{jf;L jf dw];jf;L egf}F . clg, d}lynL tkfO{+sf]
dft[efiff . t/, g]kfnL efiffdf nfdf] cjlw k|fWofkg ug{'eof] . ;flxTo >[hgf klg g]kfnL
efiffdf . syf klg w]/} n]Vg'eof] g]kfnL efiffdf . of] g]kfnLefiffk|ltsf] tkfO{s
+ f] k|d
] , ;b\efj
xf] ls, cGo klg s'g} sf/0f 5g\ <
– g]kfnL efiff ;Dk"0f{ g]kfnLnfO{ Ps;"qdf afFWg] ;femf ;Dks{ efiff xf] . g]kfndf d]rLb]lv
dxfsfnL;Dd a:g] ;a} hft, hghflt, blntsf] nf]s;flxTo, nf]s;+:s[lt / hLjgz}nL
klg g]kfnL ;flxTosf] d"nwf/sf] ljifoj:t' aGg ;Sg'k5{ . o;n] /fli6«o PstfnfO{ ;'b[9

10 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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agfpg]5 . of] xfd|f] b]zsf] jt{dfgsf] ;aeGbf 7"nf] r'gf}lt / bfloTj xf] . o; dd{nfO{
a]n}df a'‰g'k5{ eGg] Oltxf;–af]wn] dnfO{ g]kfnLdf n]Vg lg/Gt/ k|]l/t ub{5 .
!)_ d}lynLdf klg syfx¿ n]Vg'ePsf] xf]nf . g]kfnL / d}lynLdWo] s'g efiffdf n]vs ] f syfx¿df
tkfO{+ cfk"mnfO{ ;kmn dfGg'x'G5 <
– g]kfnLdf . d}lynLdf kq–klqsfsf] cefj 5, kf7s klg b'ef{Uojz ;Lldt 5g\ .
!!_ lxGbL jf cGo efiffdf klg n]Vg'ePsf] 5 ls Û
– xf], lxGbL / cª\u|]hLdf klg n]v]sf] 5' . lxGbLdf syfx¿ k|sflzt 5g\ . cª\u|]hLdf s]xL
efiff j}1flgs / cGo n]v k|sflzt 5g\ . cª\u|]hL efiffd} lgs6 eljiod} Pp6f k':ts
k|sflzt x'Fb} 5– …The religion beyondÚ .
!@_ syf lsg n]Vg'x'G5 < cyf{t\ syf n]v]/ o;af6 ;dfhnfO{, /fi6«nfO{ s]xL of]ubfg lbg
;lsG5 eGg] nfu]sf] 5 ls Û
– ;fdflhs ¿kfGt/0fsf] d"n xf] r]tgfut ¿kfGt/0f . ;+jb] gfxLg x'bF } uPsf] jt{dfg ;+;f/df
r]tgfut ¿kfGt/0fsf nflu syf ;zQmtd dfWoddWo] cu|0fL xf] . syfn] ;dfhdf, /fi6«df
/ ljZjdf j}rfl/s qmflGt NofP/ gofF ;dfh, /fi6« / ljZjsf] lgdf{0f ug{ ;Qm5 . d]/f]
k|]/0ffsf] pT; oxL d"No–af]w xf] .
!#_ …kf] i 6df6{ d Úh:tf] zlQmzfnL syf n] V g' e of] . Tof] syfsf] lzNk Pjd\ sNkgf
rdTsfl/s nfu]sf] lyof] . d}n] dw'ks{df k|ydk6s Tof] syf k9]F / cToGt k|efljt
ePsf] lyPF . s;/L n]Vg ;Sg'x'G5 To:tf] rdTsfl/s, :t/Lo syf < s]xL ;"q
5g\ ls Û jf, cfˆgf] syf–n]vgsf] k|j[lQaf/] ;ª\If]kdf …syfÚsf kf7sx¿nfO{ s]xL
atfOlbg'xf];\ g Û
– s'g} klg /rgfsf] k|lqmof uef{wfg / k|;jsf] k|lqmofl;t w]/} ldNb5 . hLjg ef]usf]
qmddf s'g} zlQmzfnL efjgf jf ljrf/sf] z'qmsL6n] dg–dl:tisdf ue{sf] ¿k wf/0f ug{
;kmn x'G5, s}of}+ lbg, ;ftf, dlxgf jf slxn]sfxLF jif{;Dd kl/kSj gx'~h]n x'F8ln/xG5
/ kl/kSj ePkl5 k|;jsf nflu >i6fnfO{ /Gygfpg yfN5 . To; efjgf jf ljrf/nfO{
lzNkljz]ifdf s'Fb]/ hGd lbg] a]nf d a|Xdf aGb5', tyf w]/} 3f]lTnP/ To;nfO{ ;s];Dd
;'Gb/ / k|efjzfnL lglZrt cfsf/ lbG5' .
!$_ tkfO{+sf] …P]Fh]¿Ú zLif{ssf] syfn] klg w]/} xnrn NofPsf] b]lvof] . kxf8] ;d'bfodf of] syf
w]/} lk|o eof], ?rfOof] . of] dw]; cfGbf]ngdf b]lvPsf] kxf8] ;d'bfok|ltsf] j}dgZotflj?4
5 . t/, o; syfnfO{ dw]; cfGbf]ngnfO{ Iflt k'¥ofPsf] cy{df lnOof] ls cfGbf]ngsf/LnfO{
o;n] cfk;L eft[Tj / ;b\efjsf nflu k|]/0ff lbof] < s] eGg'x'G5 <
– dw];df dnfO{ …horGbÚ, …efOsf] 5ftLdf 5'/f w:g]Ú, …dft[xGtfÚ cflb n]Vg] kqsf/x¿
ePsf] cj:yfdf klg / dw]; cfGbf]ng r/ddf k'u]sf] a]nf klg …ho g]kfn, ho g]kfnÚ
eGg] uLt uNnL–uNnLdf u'~hfPsf] lyPF . g]kfnL 6f]kL nufpg] …ck/fwÚdf dnfO{ …sfnf]

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 11
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;"rLÚdf xflnof] / ;dfh–alxis[t ul/of] . k|yd dw]; cfGbf]ngtfsf cfGbf]ngsf/L h'n; ' n]
dnfO{ b]Vgf;fy …kxf8] bnfn d'bf{jfbÚ eg]/ gf/f nufpFy] . s]xL /fhgLlts j[Qdf ddfly
…dw];sf] d'2fnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpg]Ú cf/f]k 5 . c;dembf/Ln] dk|lt 3[0ff / cfqmf]zn]
/fFlsg]x¿sf] hdft ;fgf] 5}g . t/, d]/f] ;fgf] a'emfOdf oL k"jf{u|xx¿ kfgLsf kmf]sf x'\g\ .
efjL Oltxf;n] pRr dfgjLo d"Nosf] cfwf/df afFRg] / cGwsf/sf lj?4 cfnf]s–:tDe
eP/ PSn} eP klg nl8/xg] JolQmx¿sf] dfq} ;Ddfg ug]{5 .
!%_ ;DejtM o; …P]h F ¿
] Ú syfs} k|/] 0ffn] klg x'g ;S5, bf]>f]– dw]; cfGbf]ngdf kxf8] ;d'bfok|lt
klxn]h:tf] t/fO{af6} nv]6g\ h
] :tf] sfo{ ePg . s] of] tkfO{s+ f] syfn] NofPsf] xnrnsf] kl/0ffd
lyof] < jf, cGo s'g} s'/fsf] k|efjn] ;d'bfo–;d'bfoaLrsf] j}/efjdf sdL cfPsf] xf] <
– cfGbf]ngsf/Lx¿df o; syfnfO{ k9\g] ;ª\Vof z"Gojt\ g} lyof] xf]nf . To;}n], o;n] s'g}
k|efj kf/]sf] s'/fdf zª\s} 5 . s'g} ;flxlTos /rgfn] ;dfhsf] r]tgfdf o:tf] o'ufGtsf/L
kl/jt{g Nofpg ;Sg] cj:yf cfpg] dª\un–d'x"t{sf nflu xfdLn] ce}m w]/} k|tLIff ug{'k5{ .
bf]>f]– dw]; cfGbf]ngdf b]lvPsf] j}rfl/s kl/jt{g /fhg}lts /0fgLltsf] cª\u lyof] jf
hfu|t cfTdaf]w– ce}m vf]hLsf] ljifo 5 .
!^_ ;flxTodf klg ljleGg l;4fGt 5g\ . vf; u/]/ ;dfnf]rsx¿ o;nfO{ cYof{p5 F g\ . tkfO{sf]
syf–n]vgsf] klg 3f]lift s'g} l;4fGt 5g\ ls Û
– 5 . cg'e"t hLjg ;Tosf] snfTds cleJolQm .
!&_ ;flxTo jf syf / /fhgLltaLr s]–s:tf] ;DaGw /x]sf] x'G5 xf]nf < ;flxTodf /fhgLlt
cfpg' x'G5 jf x'Fb}g <
– ;flxTo hLjgsf] ;du|tfk"0f{ lrq xf] . hLjg–hut\sf 36gfx¿ s'g} /fhg}lts …jfbÚsf] cfwf/df
lgof]lht eP/ dfq 3l6t x'bF g} g\ . ;flxTo hLjghut\sf 36gf–kl/36gfsf] k|ltlqmofdf plAhg]
cg'et" ;To x'g] ePsf] xFb' f s'g} vf; /fhg}lts …jfbÚsf] em08f dfq leg]{ ;flxTo kf6L{sf]
…;flxlTos krf{Ú xf] . t/, ;flxTo ;dsfnLg kl/j]zdf afFRg] ljleGg ju{sf JolQmx¿sf]
cy{–;fdflhs cj:yf, ;+:s[lt, cf:yf / ljZjf; cflbk|lt ;hu /x]h:t} o;n] cfˆgf] /fhg}lts
kl/j]zk|lt klg hfu?s eP/ ljs[ltlj?4 kl/jt{gsf] zª\vgfb ug{ ;Sg'kb{5 .
!*_ k|ultzLn jf k|ultjfbL ;flxTok|lt tkfO{+sf] wf/0ff s]–s:tf] /x]sf] 5 <
– PskIfLo ;flxTon] hLjgsf] ;du|tfk"0f{ lrq k|:t't ug{ ;Q}mg . ;du|tfk"0f{ lrqsf] cefj
k|ultjfbL ;flxTosf] C0ffTds kIf nfu] klg o:tf] ;flxTosf] s]G›Ls[t pmhf{n] dfgj
Oltxf;df NofPsf] kl/jt{gsf] dxŒjnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ldNb}g . xfdL n]vsLo :jtGqtfsf]
kIfw/ xf}F .
!(_ sf]xL eG5g\, ;flxTo k|ultzLn jf cultzLn s]xL x'Fb}g . sf]xL eG5g\, hgtfsf nflu
n]lvg], hg–dg 5'g] ;flxTo k|ultzLn ;flxTo xf] . sf]xL eG5g\, of] ljefhg g} unt 5,
;a} ;flxTo k|ultzLn x'g\ . tkfO{+ s] eGg'x'G5 <

12 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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– …k|ultjfbÚ Pp6f ¿9 / /fhg}lts If]qsf] k|fljlws zAbh:t} xf] . o;sf] ;DaGw ;fDojfbL
ljrf/ / bz{gl;t 5 . t/, ;flxTo :jefj}n] …k|ultzLnÚ x'G5 . x'g' klg kb{5 . ;dfhsf]
pQ/f]Q/ ljsf;df lgi7f /fVg] k|ultzLn ;flxTo ;fdflhs k|ultlt/ g} nlIft x'G5 .
@)_ Pp6f syfsf nflu …syfÚ aGg 36gf jf ljifoj:t' / z}nL, lzNk jf ;flxlTostf– s;nfO{
dxŒjk"0f{ dfGg'x'G5 <
– syf Pp6f …Composite ArtÚ xf], hl6n snf xf] . o;df syfgs, rl/qlrq0f, kl/j]z–
k|:t'lt, ;+jfb–of]hgf, sYo–syg, z}lNks cª\u/fu, eflifs Tj/f cflb ;a}sf] k|efjzfnL,
;zQm / snfTds ;'u'Dkmg ck]lIft x'G5 . Pp6f tTj sdhf]/ eP klg syf sdhf]/
x'G5 .
@!_ xfdLn] syfdf n]Vg] eg]sf] xfd|} kl/j]z, ;d:of, lj;ª\ult / hLjgnfO{ xf] lg xf]Og <
tkfO{+sf] kl/j]z, e"uf]n dw]; hLjgsf] s]G›df dw]; / dw];sf] ;d:of dfq} 5 ls Û
– xf], lghL cg'e"ltsf ;Tos} w/ftndf tTjx¿sf] cfg'k"lj{s ljlzi6 ;+of]hgåf/f syfsf]
tfhdxn pEofOG5 . To;}n] d]/f clwsf+z syfdf hgsk'/ jl/kl/sf] kl/j]z af]Nb5 .
t/, ltgsf] cGtMr]tgfdf p7\g] Wjlgt/ª\udf dfgjLo ;+j]bgfsf] /flugL 5 . To;}n], tL
;fj{ef}d / ;fj{hgLg x'g\, d]/f] ljgd| ljrf/df .
@@_ dw];df rln/x]sf] dw];jfbL cfGbf]ngn] p7fPsf] dw];sf] ;d:of / tkfO{+n] n]Vg] syfdf
k|s6 x'g] dw];sf] ;d:ofdf s] km/s 5 < Pp6f ;flxTosf/sf] gftfn] elglbg' xf];\ t,
vf;df dw];sf] ;d:of xf] s] <
– hft, hflt, e"uf]n, wd{, lnª\u, ;+:s[lt, ljQLo ju{, 5'jf5't Joj:yf cflbsf] cfwf/df d]/f]
kl/jf/n] dfG5]–dfG5]df e]b u/]g / ;+of]un], g]kfnnfO{ lxdfn, kxf8 / dw];nfO{ 6'So|fP/
x]g{] ;+:sf/ d]/f] kl/jf/df slxNo} /x]g . l;ª\uf] g]kfn xfd|f] 3/ xf] . clwsf/–k|flKtsf] gfddf
jf cfˆg} ljrf/nfO{ :yflkt ug]{ gfddf ;ª\3if{ ubf{ s'g} tKsfn] 3/d} cfuf] nufpg', 3/
eTsfpg', cfˆg} bfh'efO, lbbL–a}gLk|lt 3[0ff jf lx+;fefj /fVg'nfO{ s'g} klg dfgjwdL{n]
;dy{g hgfpg ;Q}mg . o:tf] k|j[lQnfO{ ljkmn t'Nofpg' ;Dk"0f{ g]kfnLsf] /fi6«wd{ dfq
geO{ dfgjwd{ klg xf] .
@#_ elgG5, ;flxTo laqmL x'g] lbg cfP . s:tf] nfU5, To:tf] lbg cfPs} xf] < ls, ;flxTosf]
gfddf cs}{ yf]s lals/x]sf] 5 <
– klxn]sf] eGbf laqmL a9]sf] 5 . ;flxTo laS5 eGg] ;fFrf] lbg Tof] a]nf cfpg] 5, ha
;flxTosf/ n]v]/} ;Ddfgk"0f{ / u'0f:t/Lo hLjg afFRg] cj:yfdf k'Ug]5g\ . Tof] cj:yf
gcfP/} sltko n]vsx¿n] cfh cZnLn, ljs[t jf ;:tf ;flxTo n]vg u/]/ ;flxlTos
jf/fª\ugf–j[lQnfO{ cfˆgf] j[lQ agfPsf 5g\ .
@$_ cfhsfn xNnfdf ;flxTo rln/x]sf 5g\ h:tf] nfU5 < s] r'krfk n]lv/x]/ ;flxTosf/
x'g] lbg ;lsPs} x'g\, s] eGg'x'G5 <

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– ;flxTo cfˆgf] hLjgLzlQmn] afFRt5 . ;flxTo–>[hg cyf]{kfh{g, kb–k|flKt, /fhg}lts


cj;/–k|flKt jf ldYof ;Ddfg–k|flKt, k'/:sf/–k|flKtsf] ;fwg geP/ :jod\d} ;fWo / ;fwgf
xf] . …;fwgÚ gagfO{ …;fwgfÚ agfpg]x¿sf lbg slxn] ;lsg] 5}gg\ .
@%_ k]ml/ syfs} s'/f Û tkfO{+sf] ljrf/df s] xf] syf < kl/eflift ug{'kbf{ s;/L ug{'x'G5 <
– syf k/:k/ ;Da4 s]xL kfqx¿sf] hLjgdf 3l6t, ;Defljt jf sNkgLo 36gf If0fnfO{
sfo{–sf/0f >[ªv \ nfdf snfTdstfk"js { ;'ul' Dkmt ul/Psf] Pp6f ;flxlTos ljwf xf], h;sf]
dfWodn] syfsf/ Pp6f ljlzi7 hLjgb[li6 jf hLjg–d"Nosf] :yfkgf ug]{ ceLK;f /fVt5 .
@^_ tkfO{+n] n]v]sf syfx¿ ;ª\Vofdf u0fgf ubf{ clxn];Dd slt xf]nfg\ <
– 5}gg\ w]/} . krf; / ;osf] aLrdf xf]nf .
@&_ clxn];Dd sltj6f syf;ª\u|x k|sflzt eP < c¿ klg k|sfzgsf] qmddf 5g\ ls Û
– g]kfnLdf b'O{6f syf;ªu|x k|sflzt 5g\–
-s_ /fh]G› ljdnsf syfx¿– au/ kmfp08];g, sf7df8f}F
-v_ ;dosf cfFvf– ;flª\u|nf a'S;, -k|sfzg_ sf7df8f}F
z]if syfx¿ kq–klqsfdf 5l/Psf 5g\ jf kf08'lnlksf ¿kdf 5g\ .
@*_ n]v]/ s] kfpg'eof] < ls, s]xL u'dfpg'eof] <
– n]vgn] d]/f] hLjgnfO{ ;fy{s agfof] .
@(_ g]kfnL syf;flxTosf] l:ylt s:tf] b]Vg'ePsf] 5 < ;Gtf]ifhgs ls, :t/Lo syf ce}m s;}n]
n]Vg ;s]gg\h:tf] nfU5 <
– g]kfnL syf;flxTo ljZj–syf;flxTosf] ;dsIftfdf k'Ub} 5 . d gf]a]n k'/:sf/ g]kfnL
syfsf/n] kfpg] d'x"t{sf] k|tLIffdf 5' .
#)_ tkfO{n+ ] dgk/fpg'ePsf s]xL syf / syfsf/x¿sf] gfd lng'k¥of] eg] s;nfO{ ;Demg'xG' 5 <
– u'¿k|;fb d}gfnL, /d]z ljsn, ljZj]Zj/k|;fb sf]O/fnf, ejfgL leIf', pdf ;'jb] L, gf/fo0f
ltjf/L, dg' a|fhfsL, ;gt /]UdL, gog/fh kf08], /fhj, s'df/ 1jfnL, cflb–cflb u/L ;DemFb}
hfFbf d]/f lk|o syfsf/x¿sf] ;"rL nfdf] x'g5 ] . logsf nueu ;a} syf dnfO{ dgk5{g\ .
#!_ tkfO{+ w]/} k|efljt x'g'ePsf] :jb]zL–ljb]zL syfsf/x¿ sf]xL 5g\ ls Û
– ljb]zL M cf]= x]g/L, ;d/;]6 dd, PG6g r]va, xf8L{, jlh{lgof j'Nkm cflb .
g]kfnL M u'¿k|;fb d}gfnL, /d]z ljsn .
#@_ tkfO{+ cfk}mn
F fO{ dgkg]{ tkfO{n
+ ] n]vs
] f s]xL cfˆg} syfx¿sf] gfd lng'k¥of] eg] s'g–s'gnfO{
pNn]v ug{ rfxg' xf]nf <
– kf]:6df6{d, pwf/f] h'Qf, aNbf] eljio, gofF g]kfnL sf]szf:q, lemªgL, oIfk|Zg, P]Fh]¿,
n+sfsf08 .
##_ s]xL ;lqmo syfsf/x¿ klg pQ/f4{df sd n]Vg yfn]sf] jf n]Vg g;s]sf]h:tf] a'lemG5 .
o;sf] sf/0f s] x'g ;S5h:tf] 7fGg'x'G5 <

14 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
rf}tf/L

– cyf]k{ fh{gsf] ;d:of, kfl/jfl/s cj:yf, zf/Ll/s cj:yf, /f]u–Joflw cflbn] >[hg–ultnfO{
:jfefljs ¿kn] k|efljt u5{g\ . hLjgsf] pQ/f4{df hh{/ x'Fb} hfg] sfofn] ubf{ ;f;} wfGg]
;d:of qmdzM o;/L ljs/fn, ljs/fnt/ / ljs/fntd xF'b} hfG5 ls hLjgsf cGo ;kgf
/ nIonfO{ af]sL lxF8\g] x'tL g} x/fpFb} hfG5 . kL8fd'Qm eP/ afFRg] ;d:ofsf cufl8 cGo
s'/f uf}0f ePsf] a]nf, zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s Ifdtf lzlyn ePsf] a]nf, n]vfOsf] ult dGb
jf aGb x'g' :jfefljs xf] .
#$_ syfsf/ jf ;flxTosf/sf nflu ;a}eGbf 7"nf] s] xf] eGg'x'G5– kl/jf/, k|b]z, b]z, dfG5]
jf ;f/f ljZj < k|fyldsLs/0f s;/L ug]{ xf]nf <
– a|Xdfn] u/]sf] >[hg cyf{t\ ;Dk"0f{ >[li6 / To;df rNg] hLjg–syf . t/, d]/f] cg'ejsf]
;Ldfleq d]/f] b]z dfq c6fPsf] x'Fbf, d]/f] syfsf] kl/j]zn] lxdfno tyf bzuHhf gf£bf
ck|dfl0fstf cfpg] vt/f x'G5 .
#%_ tkfO{+nfO{ Ps ;flxTo;]jLsf x}l;otn] /fi6«n] ;Ddfg u/]sf] 5 eGg] 7fGg'x'G5 ls, cfk"mn]
k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf] t'ngfdf sdL ePsf] 5 h:tf] nfU5 <
– dnfO{ d]/f] b]zsf hgtfn] d}n] u/]sf] of]ubfgeGbf a9L dfof u/]sf 5g\ . /fhgLltn]
slxNo} kTofPg . s'g} klg /fhg}lts bnsf] ;b:o aGg g?rfpg] s'g} klg g]kfnLnfO{
s'g /fhg}lts bnn] slxn] kTofPsf] 5, xfd|f] b]zdf << bnLo c+za08fsf] b]z xf] of] .
#^_ tkfO{+ klg dw];jf;L jf t/fO{jf;L, d klg . t/, tkfO{+ dw];L c/], d kxf8L jf kxf8],
o:tf] lsg xf]nf <
– /fhg}lts k"jf{ux| n] ul/Psf kl/efiffsf] dd{ a'‰g vf]Hbf lrQ tkfO{s
+ f] klg b'Vg]5, d]/f] klg .
efjgfTds lsQfx¿sf rf/ lsNnf geTsfP xfd|f] ef}uf]lns rf}x2L cv08 /fVg clt ufx|f]
x'g5] . x]Ssf /fvf}–F ljv08gjfbLx¿ / lje]bsf/Lx¿ ;Dk"0f{ g]kfnLsf ;femf zq' x'g\ .
#&_ /fh]G› ljdnsf] of] …ljdnÚ zAb pkgfd xf] h:tf] nfU5 . To;} xf] ls y/ xf] < of] pkgfd
jf ;flxTo l;h{gfsf nflu pkof]u ug{'ePsf] gfd xf] eg] o; pkgfd /fVg'sf k5fl8 s]xL
sf/0f 5g\ ls Û
– d s'g} ;ª\sL0f{ ;Ldfdf afFlwg rfxGgF . d o; >[li6sf] c:yfoL gful/s x'F– d'QmfTdf,
ljdn cfTdf . ;DejtM of] k|dfl0ft ug{ jf of] ljZjf; kfpg cg]s h'gL nfUg ;S5 .
#*_ k|;ª\u abnf}F Û g]kfnL efiffdf s]xL ;docl3 rn]sf] efiff ljjfbnfO{ ghLsaf6 lgofln/xg'
ePsf] xf]nf . s:tf] nfU5, ;docg';f/ efiffnfO{ ;/nLs/0f ub}{ n}hfg' t 7Ls} lyof] lg,
xf]Og / < ls rlncfPsf] efiff Jofs/0fnfO{ 5'g}, rnfpg} gx'g] xf] <
– efiffn] ;jod\ cfˆgf] ult, dfu{ / :j¿k u|x0f ub{5– vf]nfsf] kfgLe}mF . k/Dk/fut Jofs/0f
eflifs c/fhstfnfO{ /f]Sg] jf~5gLo k|of; xf] . cfd hgtfn] k|of]u ug]{ efiff, sfnfGt/df
:jod\ :jLsfo{ x'g hfG5 . s[lqd ¿kn] JolQm–JolQmn] dgkbL{ lsl;dn] Jofs/l0fs lgoddf
kl/jt{g ug{ yfNof] eg] eflifs c/fhstf emg\ rls{G5 / efF8e}nf] dlRrG5 .

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 15
rf}tf/L

#(_ of] klg ;lDemPF– lj=;+= @)^( ;fpg @& ut] sf7df8f}dF f Ps ;df/f]xsf aLr tkfO{s + f] …;dosf
cfFvfÚ zLif{ssf] syf;ª\ux| nf]sfk{0f ePsf] lyof] . o;nfO{ k|sfzg u/]sf] lyof] ;fª\lu|nf
k|sfzgn] . h;df d klg pkl:yt lyPF . laqmLsf lx;fan], of]ubfgsf lx;fan], ?rfOPsf]
lx;fan] o; syf;ª\ux| af6 slQsf] ;Gt'li6 ldNof] xf]nf < kf7sx¿nfO{ atfOlbg' x'G5 ls Û
– of] lstfa lgs} laSof] / o;n] dnfO{ nf]slk|o agfpg of]ubfg klg u¥of] . w]/}n] o;af/]
zf]w klg u/]sf 5g\ .
$)_ k|fWofkg k]zfdf hLjg JotLt ug{e ' of] . To; gftfn] ;dfnf]rgfdf klg snd rnfpg'ePsf]
5 ls Û
– xf], x'g t u|Gyfsf/ k|sfzg Pp6f dfq 5– …uB, kB / gf6sÚ, t/ ;dLIffTds cfn]vx¿
Ot:ttM k|sflzt 5g\ .
$!_ tkfO{+ dbg k'/:sf/ u'7Laf6 k|bfg ul/g] Vofltk|fKt hubDaf>L k'/:sf/af6 ;d]t ;Ddflgt eO;Sg'
ePsf] 5 < syfs[ltsf nflu lbOg] dbg k'/:sf/af6 ;Ddflgt u/] x'g] lyof]h:tf] nfUb}g <
– ;DejtM d]/f] syf–>[hg–;fwgf clxn] ck"0f{ 5 .
$@_ g]kfndf lbOg] k'/:sf/x¿ ljjfbdf kg]{ u/]sf klg b]lvG5g\ . Pp6f ;Rrf >i6fsf nflu
s] k'/:sf/ k|fKt ug{' h?/L 5 < o;df tkfO{+sf] wf/0ff s:tf] xf]nf <
– 6fN;6fo, uf]sL{, xf]d/, ;f]kmf]lSnh, xf8L{, k|]drGb, z/trG›, hoz+s/…k|;fbÚh:tf ljZjsf
dxfg\ ;flxTosf/x¿n] s'g–s'g k'/:sf/ k|fKt u/], dnfO{ yfxf 5}g . kf7ssf] cfgGb /
pTk';mNntf ;jf]{Qd k'/:sf/ xf] h:tf] nfU5 .
$#_ gofF syfsf/x¿ hf] syfn]vgdf cfslif{t eO/x]sf 5g\, o; …syfÚ ;d"xdf klg ljrf/
ul//xg' ePsf] xf]nf . pgLx¿nfO{ tkfO{+n] lbg] ;'emfj s]xL 5g\ ls Û
– b'O{6f dfq ljgd| ;'emfj 5g\ M
!= ljZj syf;flxTosf] lg/Gt/ cWoog
@= k|lta4 >[hg–;fwgf
$$_ cGTodf, of] ;f]lwPsf] eP x'GYof] eGg] s]xL eGg 5'6]sf s'/fx¿ 5g\ ls Û
– tTsfn olQ .
$%_ o; …syfjftf{Úsf nflu cfˆgf] cd"No ;do lbg'ePsf]df tkfO{n + fO{ xflb{s wGojfb 5 . hLjg
pmhf{do xf];,\ ;'vdo xf];–\ xflb{s z'esfdgf Û
– cfˆgf] af/]df atfpg] cj;/ lbg'eof], cfef/L 5' .
dª\unfzLif lz/df yfKt5' .

k|:t'tstf{ M gf/fo0f ltjf/L

16 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
:tDe M xif{–^]jf
cg'jfb
uLt

k"mnsf] cfFvdf k"mn} ;+;f/


:jf+of ldvfo\ :jf+ x] ;+;f/
sfF8fsf] cfFv}df sfF8} ;+;f/
s+of ldvfo\ s+ x] ;+;f/
e'mlNsG5 x} 5fof j:t' c+;f/
k"mnsf] cfFvfdf n'ofjO v+nf lsrM j:t' psy+
sfF8fsf] cfFvfdf===
sFof ldvfo\...
lrQ z'4 xf];\ d]/f] af]nL a'4 xf];\
lrQ z'$ h'Odf lhu' ar+ a'$ h'Odf
d]/f] k}tfnfn] sL/} gd/f];\
lhu' t'ltknf+ sL x] dl;df
;ª\nf] dgdf v'N5 x} ;ª\n} ;+;f/
or' g'uno\ rsgL or'u' x] ;+;f/
sfF8fsf] cfFvfdf===
sFof ldvfo\...
6x6x h"g b]v"F sfnf] /ft}df
emMemMwfu' ltldnf :jo\vg]df Vo"Fu' axgL
hLjg ;+uLt ;'g"F d ;'Vvf kft}df
hLjg n;o\ Gog] lh+ u+u' xMn o\
/fd|f] cfFvfdf v'N5 /fd|} ;+;f/
le+ ldvfo\ rsgL le+u' x] ;+;f/
sfF8fsf] cfFvfdf=== .
sFof ldvfo\.... =

b'uf{nfn >]i7
cg'jfb M w|'j dlwsdL{

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 17
syf

c ;f/ dlxgfsf lbg lyP . aª\ufnsf] vf8Laf6


axg] xfjfn] k"jL{ g]kfndf kfgL kb}{ lyof] . tLg
lbgb]lv cfsfzdf lah'nL rDsg], sfnf] afbn
d8fl/g] u8Øfªu'8'ª eO/x]sf] lyof] . /ftel/
kfgL al;{of] . gbLx¿n] cfˆgf] zlQm a9fP .
;8s kfgLn] el/P . ;8s5]psf gfnf gf3]/

w}o{ kfgL aUb} lyof] .


laxfg pHofnf] x'bF f kfgL kg{ 5f8]sf] lyof] .
cfˆgf] lgolt ;dod} ;"o{n] cfˆgf ls/0f
lkmFhfP .
ls;fgx¿ cfˆgf] lgoldt sfddf nfUb}
lyP . afysf] la/fdLsf] sf/0f cfh la5Øf}gf
5f8\g l9nf eof] . z/L/ Ps k|sf/ l;tfª\u
ePsf] lyof] . sfd ug]{ hfFu/ lyPg . s/}n]
laxfg p7]/ cfˆgf] lgoldt sd{ ;s]/ lrof
lkPF . /]l8of] af]ln/x]sf] lyof] . cvaf/L ;dfrf/
lgoldt ¿kdf ;dfrf/ cflb k|rf/ ub}{ lyof] .
Tolt sfg yfKg EofPsf] lyOgF . eg"F, sfg
sd ;'Gg yfn]sf] lyPF . lbdfudf s'/f cl8g
of yfldg 5f8]sf lyP . cfˆgf] v]t /f]Kg] 7fpF
lyPg . ufdf] uf8\g] v]t gePkl5 lxnf]df
kfOnf 6]Sg sf] hfg] < lxnf]df kl;Fb}g lyof] .
bnfgdf a;]/ /]l8of]sf] cfjfhdf sfg yfk]/
emf]qmfO/x]sf] lyPF . PSsfl; b'O{ hgf dflg;
cfFugdf kfOnf /fVg cfOk'u] . Ps hgf k'?if
/ csf]{ dlxnf lyP . kl/lrt lxddfoflbbLn]
cfFugdf pleFb} elgg\ …efO, s]xLIf0f d]/f] 3/
/fddl0f kf]v/]n
cfOlbg' k¥of] . Pp6f ;fgf] k~rfotdf 5nkmn

18 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
syf

æpgL d;Fu lgs6 x'g'sf] Pp6f


dfgjLo / dgf]j}1flgs sf/0f klg 5 . pgL a;fOF cfP/
ufpFdf kl/ro x'g] qmddf ufpFsf w]/} JolQmn] pgnfO{ æ
efph"sf] gftf nufPsf lyP .
5 . w]/} a]lnlj:tf/ s] nfpmF oxfF Û pxLF d]/f] x'g nfu]sf lyP . oxLF cfP/ pgn] h]7L 5f]/f]sf]
3/ k'uk] l5 yfx x'G5 . c¿ klg ufpFnx] ¿ e]nf ljjfx ug{ ePsL lyOg\ . yf]/} P]nfgL hdLgdf
ePsf 5g\ . h;/L eP klg efOn] To; e]nfdf lyof] pgsf] 3/ . yf]/} af/Ldf ;fu;AhL
k'Ug] si6 p7fOlbg' k¥of] .Ú pgL cflQPsL nufPsL lyOg\ . v/n] 5fPsf] e'mk8L lyof],
lyOg\ . pgsf] cg'xf/ sfnf]gLnf] ;f]xf]l/Psf] aLrdf af/ nufP/ b'O{ sjn agfPsf] . kl5
lyof] . cfFvf /ftf l/;fPh:tf lyP . pgnfO{ h]7f] 5f]/f h'7n
] ] ljb]zaf6 /sd k7fPkl5 3/sf]
7"n} cfktn] 3]/]h:tf] efg x'GYof] pgsf] lxF8fO ;'wf/ ePsf] lyof] .
/ af]nfOaf6 . lxddfoflbbL d]/f] kl/jf/;Fu lgs} ghLs
em08} tLg ldg]6sf] pEofOkl5 tL b'j} hgf lyOg\ . To;sf] Pp6f sf/0f klg 5 . xft
d]/f] 3/sf] cfFugaf6 aflxl/P . csf]{ o'js vfnL ga:g] :jefj lyof] pgsf] . s'g} ;do–
pgsf] gft]bf/ lyP Sof/, ;f]wk'5 ul/Pg, rfv lbpF;f] of laxfg d]/f 3/ cfOg\ / sndf h'7f
/flvgF klg . efF8f b]lvg\ eg] df‰g yflNyg\ . pgsf] 3/
cfheGbf nueu !) jif{cl3 tL lxddfoflbbL hª\unsf] 5]pdf lyof] . laxfg d]/f 3/sf] af6f]
of] ufpFdf a;fOF cfPsL lyOg\ . kxf8sf] Ps st} hfg'k¥of] eg] sfvLdf Rofk]/ ;fgf] 8fn]
cgs06f/ 7fpFdf lyof] pgsf] klxnfsf] 3/ . 3fF;sf] la6f] lnP/ klg cfpg] uly{g\ .
b'O{ 5f]/L / b'O{ 5f]/fnfO{ logs} sfvdf ;'Dk]/ pgL d;Fu lgs6 x'g'sf] Pp6f dfgjLo
logsf a"9f– pbodfgn] :ju{sf] af6f] ttfPsf / dgf]j}1flgs sf/0f klg 5 . pgL a;fOF
lyP . pbodf d[To'sf] t]>f] jif{ ufpFdf 7"nf] cfP/ ufpFdf kl/ro x'g] qmddf ufpFsf w]/}
jiff{ eof] . To} jiff{df klx/f] uP/ ufpF au], JolQmn] pgnfO{ efph"sf] gftf nufPsf
3/ v]t / af/L au] dflg;sf . To} ;ª\s6df lyP . Ps lbg rf]sdf pleP/ xfdL s]xL
afFr]sf] Hofg k'gM arfpg lxddfoflbbL cfˆgf ufpFn] JolQmx¿ k"j{ hfg] uf8L klv{/x]sf
;Gtfg / ePsf yf]qf–yfd|f efF8fs'8f 8f]sfdf lyof}F . tL lbbL klg ToxLF cfOk'lug\ . Ps
sf]r]/ of] 7fpFdf a;fOF cfPsL lyOg\ . pgsf] hgf d]/f ldqn] lxddfoflbbLnfO{ efph" eg]/
gftf eg]sf] o; 7fpFdf ;Gtnfn kl/of/sf] ;Daf]wg u/] . of] ;'g]/ dnfO{ nfh nfUof] .
kl/jf/ dfq lyof] . tL JolQmsf] cg'xf/df cfˆgf cfFvf hf]t]/
kxf8sf] lr;f] xfjfkfgLn] ;+/If0f u/]sf] eg]F– …efOn] t lbbLsf kf]OnfO{ sltkN6 e]6\g'
pgsf] z/L/ Åi6k'i6 g} lyof] . 5f]/f b'j} hjfg ePsf] lyof] <Ú

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 19
syf

d]/f jrg ;'g]/ ldq eml:sP, cSsdSs e]nf ePsf ufFpn]x¿ Ps r/0f cfˆgf ts{
eP/ rf/}lt/ x]g{ yfn] . ghLs} a;]/ tL lbbL /fv]/ df}g eO{ emf]qmfO/x]sf /x]5g\ .
cfˆgf ;]tf bfFt b]vfP/ d':s'/fpFb} lyOg\ . 5nkmn k|f/De ePsf] lgs} ;dokl5
pgnfO{ klg Tof] efph"sf] gftf nufPsf] k'u]sfn] d c;d~h;df k/]F . jf:tljs s'/f
dgk/]sf] /x]g5 . efph" gftf nufpg] ldqnfO{ a'‰g uf/f] ef] . 3f]l/P/ a;]F . cf]7 sFkfpFb}
d}n] eg]–F …oL lbbLsf] kf]O;Fu e]6 ePsf] ;Demgf h'7]n] dnfO{ a:g] cfu|x u¥of] . ToxfF ePsf
cfof] t <Ú s]xL JolQmsf cfFvf dlt/ ;f]lemP .
o;k6s eg] pgn] l/;fPh:tf] eP/, d]/f d'9fdf a;]/ d}n] eg]F– …jf:tljs s'/f s]
d'vdf x]b}{ eg]– …s] s;}nfO{ gftf nufpg klg xf] t < a'‰g kfpmF g ÛÚ
;lDemg'k5{ / Û s;}nfO{ gftf nufpbf k':tfjnL s]xLIf0f ;Ggf6f 5fof] . ;'g;fg, ;a} df}g,
hf]8\g' vf]Hg'k5{ t <Ú s]xLn] 3f];] d'06f] nufP/ e'OF sf]6ØfP .
tL ldqsf] k| Z gsf] hjfkm d} n ] g/d ToxfF e]nf ePsfdWo] ;a}eGbf a"9f]– ufnf
t/Lsfn]– cfˆgf kfol/ofn] vfPsf kx]nf bfFt rfp/L k/]sf] cg'xf/ ePsf] JoflQm, 5f]6]n]
b]vfpb} o;/L lbPF– …x]/ efO, gl/;fpm Û oL eGof]– …s] x'g] xh'/, of] lxdf d]/L elthL k5{] .
lxddfoflbbLsf kf]OnfO{ xfdL oxfF ufpFn]n] oL s]6fx¿ gflt k5{g\ . shf{ sf8]/ of] h]7f]
s;}n] klg b]v]gf}F . gb]lvPsf] JolQmnfO c[Zo gflt h'7]nfO{ ljb]z k7fO{ elthLn] . 3/df
gftf hf]8]/, oL ef}lts z/L/ lnP/ xfdL;Fu} lxdf / p;sf] sfG5f] 5f]/f] uf]/] h'7]sL :jf:gL
plePsL dlxnfnfO{ efph" eGg' s;/L Û gftf / ;fgf s]6fs]6L b'Mv–;'v u/]/ a;]sf lyP .
t k|ToIf kf] x'G5 t ÛÚ xfdL u/Lasf] ;fydf s] x'G5 / Û sDd/df
Tof] rf]sdf plePsf !)÷!! hgf dflg;n] v's/' L, slrof, sfFwdf a~r/f], lk7Ø"d F f 8f]sf] .
Ps};fy tfnL ahfP/ d]/f ts{nfO{ ;dy{g afv|f–kf7f kfn]/ csf{sf] alga'tf] u/]/ hLjg
u/] . dnfO{ klg v'zL nfUof] . tL ldqn] klg l3;fb}{ 5f}F . pd]/ kfkL x'G5, cGwf] x'G5, gftf
cfk"mnfO{ ;RofP . lxddfoflbbLsf] dgf]an klg eGb}g, hf]zdf xf]z xF'b}g . lar/L lxdfn] d];f]
pRr eof] . kfOg . kfPsL eP tTsfn s]xL pkfo uyL{
±±± xf]nL . uf]/] df]/fn] efph"nfO{ k]6 af]sfOlbP5 .
lgDtfkl5 ufx|f] dfg]/, s/nfluh:tf] eP/ of] 5nkmnsf] ljifo o} xf] .Ú nfdf] lg/fzfsf]
d tL lbbLsf] cfFuglg/ k'u]F . d k'Ubf cfFugdf ;f; k]mb}F a"9fn] jf:tljstfsf] hfgsf/L
dfgj–eL8 nfu]sf] lyof] . sf]xL cfFugdf u/fP .
yf]qf u'G›L / yfsnsf] kftn] a'g]sf rfOdf 5f]6]bfOsf] Ps k|sf/sf] tLtf] / jf:tljs
a;]sf / sf]xL d'9fdf a;]sf lyP . cfFugsf] aofg ;'g]kl5 d 5Ss k/]F . dgdf s'/f
Ps5]pdf a'xf/L /ftf]kL/f] cg'xf/ kf/]/ emfFqmf] v]nfPF . ljk/Lt lnª\uLo cfs{if0f, Pp6} 3/,
lkmFhfP/ a;]sL lyOg\ . b'O6{ f 5f]/f Ps–csf{nfO{ Pp6} efG;f, d]nfkftdf sfd ug]{ ;dfhdf
sf6f}F–df/f}Fh:tf] u/]/ a;]sf lyP . pgLx¿sf] pd]/ 3fdsf ls/0fdf /fv]sf] srf}/f]

20 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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l3p kulnPh:t} eP5 . klZrdf d'n'sdf lxdfn] elgg\– …g8/fO{ gnhfO{ eg\ Û h] x'g'
eP o:tf] 36gf / Jojxf/ ;fdfGo x'GYof] . t eof] . t]/f] ljrf/ s] 5 < h'7] / uf]/] b'j}
xfdL k"jL{o ;+:s[lt dfGg] dflg; ePsfn] of] d]/f] 5f]/f x'g\ . tF a'xf/L xf];\ . sfvdf ePsf
36gfn] ;ª\s6 Nofof] . a8f] cndnsf] l:ylt gfltgfltgf x'sf{pg' / k9fpg' klg 5 .Ú
l;h{gf eof] . d}n] uf]/]sf cg'xf/df b[li6 k'¥ofPF . uf]/]
…h"7]sL :jf:gL emDfsLgfgLnfO{ sf];Fu uDeL/ d'b|fdf lyof] . lg/fz eP/ lgwf/
a; eGg] < l;Gb"/–kf]t] h'7]n] u¥of] . p;sf] v'DRofP/ a;]sf] lyof] . Sjf/SjftL{ c¿nfO{
;Dks{af6 b'O{ ;Gtfg eP . k'gM uf]/]sf] k]6 x]b} lyof] . af]n]sf] lyPg .
af]sL . emDfsLnfO{ g} eGg lbpmF, s] eGbL /lx5 emDfsLn] af]Ng of cfˆgf] jf:tljstf
t <Ú d}n] cfˆgf ts{ k|:t't u/]F . atfpg cgsgfPkl5, d}n] uf]/]nfO{ cfˆgf]
d}n] lxdflbbL / emDfsLsf] cg'xf/sf cfˆgf jf:tljstf atfpg cfb]z u/]F– …ltdL dgdf
gh/ k'¥ofPF . lxdflbbL lg/fz b]lvlGyg\ . d}n] nfu]sf / cfk"mn] ef]u]–u/]sf s'/f eGg k'mSsf
emdsLsf] cg'xf/ lgofn]F, emDfsLsf] d'xf/df 5f} . lgM;ª\sf]r eg ÛÚ
s'g} kZrfQfksf] /]vf lyPg . lg/fzf lyPg . uf]/]n] PskN6 ;':s]/f xfNof] . nfdf] ;f;
p;sf cfFvf r~rn / pHofn} b]lvGYof] . tfGof] / eGof]– …bfh' ljb]z uPsf] !% dlxgfkl5
…emDfsLgfgL, ltdL klg t hLjgnfO{ p;n] k};f k7fPsf] 5', cfO{PdO{df uP/ lng"
a'‰g] eof} . b'O{6f ;Gtfg wtL{df v]N5g\ . eg]/ kmf]gdfk{mt hfgsf/L u/fof] . To} gDa/
/dfpF5g\ . h'7]n] ljb]zaf6 b'Mvn] sdfPsf] lnP/ d / efph" k};f lng uof}F . gDa/
wg klg xft kf¥of} . b]j/;Fu n;k; u/]sf] ldnfP/ k};f a'‰of}F . k};f d}n] af]s]F . xf]6ndf
jf:tljStf ltd|} z/L/n] ;ª\s]t u¥of] .=== uP/ vfhf vfof}F . ahf/ klg 3'Dof}F . of] k};fsf]
ef]lnsf] lbg s;/L pHofnf] xf]nf t eGg] ;'g lsgf}F eg]/ efph"n] elgg\ . xf]Og, cfwf
nfu]sf] 5 < hLjg t nfdf] 5 lg ÛÚ d}n] /sd ;fx"sf] 5ks] Aofh lnPsf] 5, lt/f}F /
gd|tfk"j{s pgnfO{ eg]F . afFsL /sdn] rfdn lsgf}F, Ps–Ps hf]/ sk8f
s]xLIf0f t pm af]Ng} rflxg . emfqmf] ;a}nfO{ lsgf}F, cfdf;Fu ;Nnfx u/f}F eg]/ d}n]
lkmFhfP/ emf]qmfO/xL . kf]tf] a;]sf cfˆgf ufnf pgsf] lrQ a'emfpg vf]h]F .=== uf]hLdf k};fsf]
5fld/xL . la6f] ePkl5 lkpg dgnfUof] . b'j} hgf uP/

æ d]/f] uNtL eof] . cfk"mn] glrtfPsf] >d g vr{sf] wg


xftnflu ePkl5 dlxnfsf] dg a/flnFbf] /x]5 . olb d}n] dg k]6
glbPsf], cfTdLotf gb]vfPsf] eP zfob uf]/]nfO{ d]/f] z/L/sf] æ
5]p;Dd klg cfpg] lxDdt x'Fb}gYof] .

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Pp6f xf]6]ndf k;]/ df;'–lrp/f / bf? lkof}F . / x'g]jfnf klg .Ú h'7]n] g/d :j/df yKof] .
;fFemdf 3/ cfof}F . 3/ cfpFbf af6f]df d}n] ToxfF pkl:yt ePsf ;a} dflg;x¿ df}g eP .
efph"nfO{ zf/Ll/s ;DaGwsf] k|:tfj /fv] . ;xdltsf] ;ª\s]t lyof] Tof] .
vfg] s'/fn] vfg] vf]Hb5, ltdLnfO{ rfxgf 5 g/wf]h gfdsf Ps hgf JolQmn] eg]–
eg] d t dlxnf x'F, lsg c:jLsf/ ug]{ < t/ …ltdLx¿ olt l5§} uNg] /x]5f}, s]xLIf0fklxnf
;ts{ ag Û cfdfn] yfxf kfOg\ eg] af; p7\5 ltdL b'O{ bfh'efO t Hofgdf/f g} 7xl/G5f}h:tf]
elgg\ . d ToxLF r's]F .===Ú u/L plk|mPsf lyof} . ca s'/f] ;lsof] . xfdL
k]ml/ Psk6s nfdf] ;f; tfg]/ uf]/] af]Ng klg af6f] nfU5f} . lxdfa}gL, ca ltdL lglZrGt
nfUof]– …PskN6 r's]kl5 dflg; k6s–k6s ag ÛÚ
r'Sb} hfFbf] /x]5 . k|lqmof bf]xf]l/Fb} uof] / of] olta]nf;Dd emDfsLn] cfˆgf] d'v vf]n]sL
l:yltdf k'luof] . bf];|f]kN6 bfh'n] k};f k7fof] . lyOgg\ . 5] p df gfgL /fv] / 3f] l Tn/x] s L
of] bf];|f]kN6 k7fPsf] k};f lnP/ st} efuf}F, lyOg\ . af]Ng] df}sf lbFbf cgsgfP/ af]lnsL
k"j{lt/ uP/ s'g} zx/–ahf/df lrofk;n u/]/ lyOgg\ . 5nkmndf e]nf ePsf JolQmx¿
a;f}F;Dd klg eg]/ efph"n] eg]sL lyOg\ . t/ 5nkmn 6'ª\UofP/ af6f] nfUg'eGbf klxnf ;a}n]
dnfO{ :jLsfo{ ePg . h]xf];\, d]/f] uNtL ePs} ;d:ofsf] hu ag]sL emdsLnfO{{ klg Psk6s
xf] . daf6 dfgjLo sdhf]/L eof] . d dfkmL cfˆgf] /fo k|s6 ug{ bafj lbP .
dfUb5' . hGd]sf] ;Gtgf cfˆg} kl/jf/sf] x'g5 ] . lgs} ;dosf] cfgfsfgLkl5 emdsLn] cfˆgf
;dfhdf hf/ lt/]/ >LdtL Nofpg] rng 5 . cfFvf /l;nf kfb} elgg\– …;a}eGbf 7"nf] uNtL
efph" efph"s} 7fpFdf a;"g\ Û d cfdf kfN5' . d]/f] xf] . d}n] cfk"mnfO{ ;DxfNg ;lsgF .=== oxfF
bfh' leGg eP/ a;f];\ Û xf]Og eg] d ljjfx 3/df af/L g lj?jf gf} d'/L tf]/L eg]e}mF s]xL
u/]/ leGg eP/ a:5' . bfh'n] cfdf kfnf];\ Û 5}g . :jf:gL / 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] cg'xf/ x]//] dfq k]6
csf]{ ljsNk, 8fS6/;Fu ;Nnfx u/]/ k]6 ;kmf el/Fb}g . ltdL ljb]z hfpm eg]/ d]/} bafjdf
ug]{ t/Lsf ckgfpmF ÛÚ h'7]nfO{ k};f sdfpg ljb]z k7fPsL x'F . d}n]
uf]/]sf s'/f ;'g]kl5 Ps k|sf/n] ;d:of w}o{tf u/]/ a:g ;Sg'kYof]{ ;lsgF . d]/f] uNtL
;dfwfg ePh:tf] cg'ej u/]F d}n] . h'7]sf eof] . cfk"mn] glrtfPsf] >d g vr{sf] wg
cg'xf/df x]b}{ ;f]r]F, s'g} klg JolQmnfO{, s'g} xftnflu ePkl5 dlxnfsf] dg a/flnFbf] /x]5 .
ljlwljwfgåf|f/f, OGb|Lo ef]uaf6 jl~rt ug{ olb d}n] dg k]6 glbPsf], cfTdLotf gb]vfPsf]
g;ls|Fbf] /x]g5 . of] Ps k|sf/sf] cfj]u / eP zfob uf]/]nfO{ d]/f] z/L/sf] 5]p;Dd klg
cfsif{0f /x]5 . zfob hLjgsf] ;f}Gbo{ /x]5 cfpg] lxDdt x'Fb}gYof] .
of] . olt egL emdsLn] k'n'Ss h"7]tk{m x]l/g\ .
…xfdL tLg} hgf cf–cfˆgf] :yfgdf plecf}F Û h"7]n] pg}tk{m lgofln/x]sf] lyof] .
afn aRrfx¿ cfˆg} :yfgdf x'G5g\ . ePsf

22 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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of] x'/L
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5 . To;df klg c¿ lrhsf] eGbf ux'Fsf]
kL7f]af6 ;of}F k|sf/sf] /f]6L / cGo kl/sf/
agfpg ;lsG5 . Oltxf;df cfheGbf #)
xhf/ jif{cl3b]lv dfgjhfltn] /f]6L agfO{ vfg
hflg;s]sf] s'/f Oltxf;af6 kQf nfu]sf] 5 .
To;avt dflg;n] df6f]dl' g kmNg] cfn'h:t}sf]
/f]^Lsf] Oltxf; / j:t'nfO{ 9'ª\ufn] lyr]/ w"nf]kL7f] agfO{ 9'ª\u]
g]jf/ ;+:sf/df /f]^L tfjfdf ksfO{ vfg] ub{y] . o:tf] rngdf
/x]sf] 9'ª\u] tfjf ¿; / r]s u0f/fHo tyf
O6nLdf k]mnf k/]sf] 5 . cg';Gwfgstf{x¿sf
cg';f/ cfhsn rkf6L eGg] ux'Fsf] /f]6L zfob
cflbdsfnsf dfgjx¿n] k|of]u u/]sf] /f]6Ls}
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df+zfxf/L egL dflgPsf]df /f]6L vfg] u/]sf] kQf
nfu]kl5 dfgjhflt zfsfxf/L ju{df g} k/]sf]
dfGg ;lsG5 .
ljZjsf] Oltxf;df s/La %&))
jif{cl3b]lv g} ld> b]zdf /f]6Lsf] rngrNtL
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;ª\ u | x fnodf #%)) jif{ c l3b] l vsf] ld>
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/f]6Lx¿sf] cfsf/ s'g} rf/kf6], s'g} tLgs'g],
s'g} uf]nf], s'g} df5fsf] cfsf/df 5g\ .
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pRr:t/sf] lrh dflgg] / sfd ug]{x¿nfO{
?lSd0fL >]i7
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24 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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d[To' ePdf nfz;Fu} n'uf–uxgf dfq xf]Og tyf la:s'6df ;'Gb/ lrqx¿ cª\lst u/L a9L
d[ t ssf] :ofxf/;' ; f/ ug] { ;' ; f/] x ¿sf] cfslif{t kfl/Psf] 5 . lrqdf /f]dg ;fd|fHosf]
;fy} dL7f–dL7f vfg]s'/f, xL/f–hjfx/ftsf] /fhlrGx tyf s'lng kl/jf/x¿sf] t:jL/,
cfsf/sf] /f]6L tof/ u/L w]/} jif{;DdnfO{ hF8Øfxf nf]Ug]nfO{ tfg]/ uf8Ldf xfNb} 3/df
k'Ug] u/L uf8\g] rng lyof] . nfg nfu]sL :Jff:gLdflg;sf] b[Zo, ljleGg
O:jL ;g\ !)) jif{ k'Ubf;Dddf ld> b]zdf kz'kIfL, k"mn / rvf{ rnfO/x]sL dlxnfsf]
/f]6L agfO{ laqmL ug]{ ;+:yfx¿ dfq} @%* lrqnfO{ k|d'vtf lbOPsf] 5 . ;fy} oL lrqx¿
;Dd k'u]sf] lyof] . To;avt /f]6L agfpg] ;'ulGwt t'Nofpg ;f]+km cflb j:t'sf] k|of]u
t/Lsf l;sfpg] :s"n;d]t v'ln;s]sf] lyof] . ul/Psf] 5 . To:t} Pp6f dfglrqdf ljZjsf
/f]dgx¿n] o'/f]k lhlt;s]kl5 o'/f]kel/ /f]6L b'n{e /f]6Lsf] lrq 5 . ;g\ !(!^ df hd{gLdf
agfpg]af/] xf]8jfhL x'GYof] . ca t /f]6L agfpg] hf/L ul/Psf l;Ssfx¿nfO{ klg k|bz{gLdf
Joj;fo ljZjJofkL eO;s]sf] 5 . klxn]–klxn] /flvPsf 5g\, h'g ef]sf dflg;x¿nfO{ /f]6L
/f]6LnfO{ 3fddf ksfP/ vfg] ub{y] . cr]n pknAw u/fpgsf nflu k|rngdf NofOPsf]
/f]6L cfuf]df kf]n]/, ;]s]/, aˆofP/, l3p–t]ndf lyof] . ;ª\u|xfnodf kfiff0f o'ub]lv lnP/
8'afP/ ksfO{ vfg] rng a9]sf] 5 . xfn;Ddsf v]tL ug]{ k4lt, cGg lk:g] /
p;avt /f] 6 L ksfpg] n fO{ Bayker /f]6L agfpg] pks/0fx¿sf ;fy} /f]6L agfpg]
-a]s/_ elgGYof] . dWosfndf a]s/n] k|mfG;sf] k|frLg ljlwx¿ klg k|blz{t 5g\ . cGt/f{li6«o
/fhdxnnfO{ b}lgs !) k|sf/sf] /f]6L agfO{ afnjif{sf] cj;/df ;ª\u|xfnoaf6 Pp6f
lbg] ub{Yof] . To;avt dfUg]nfO{ / kfx'gfnfO{ k'l:tsf k|sflzt u/L ;f]af6 k|fKt ;Dk"0f{
/f]6L agfpFbf km/s–km/s cfsf/df agfO{ lbg] cfDbfgL ljZjsf ef]sf afnaflnsfx¿nfO{
rng lyof] . /f]6L pknAw u/fpgsf nflu o'lg;]kmnfO{
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laqmLdf nfg]x¿rflxF s]6Lx¿ x'Gy] / ltgLx¿nfO{ k|mfG;, ci6]«lnof / a]lNhodh:tf b]zx¿df
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v08df bf]ifLnfO{ tLg hgf JolQm df/]sf] a/fa/ c¿ b]zdf eGbf ef/tdf rfdnsf] kL7f]sf]
;hfo lbOGYof] . /f]6L w]/} agfpg] rng j}lbs wd{u|Gydf
klZrd hd{gLsf] …lk|m ckm pndÚ gfds pNn]v ePsf] kfOG5 . dWo Pl;ofdf k|fu
zx/df /f]6Lsf] ;ª\u|xfno 5, h'g !(%% P]ltxfl;ssfnb]lv /f]6Lsf] rng eO;s]sf]df
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y/L–y/Lsf /f]6Lx¿sf cltl/Qm lqm;d; Oi6/ ePsf] b]lvG5 . g]kfndf dNnx¿sf] cfudgkl5
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k|efj w]/} k/]sf] 5 . vf; u/L dNnsfndf jf l3pdf 8'afP/, tfjfdf ksfP/ vfg] rng
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ls/fFtsfneGbf klg cufl8 g]kfnsf] df}lns kL7f]af6 af/f /f]6L agfOG5 eg] df;' lsdf
/f]6L–rfdn / ux'Fsf] kL7f]sf] k|efj lyof] . u/]/ nfkL -df;'sf] af/f_, nfUjM -nfcf]_ df;'sf]
tL /f]6Lx¿ ljleGg kj{–kj{sf] k"hf ljlwdf / n•' klg agfOG5 . t/sf/Ldf lrlrG8f, d'nf,
;+:sf/df rngrNtL ePsf] h'g cGoq sxLF km;L{ cflbsf] klg af/f agfO{ vfg] rng 5 .
gePsf kl/sf/x¿ lyP . t/sf/L, u]8fu'8Lsf] /f]6L s'df/ ifi7Lsf lbg
g]kfndf vf; u/L g]jf/hfltdf rngrNtLdf vfg] rng 5 eg] df;'sf] af/f / n•' 7"nf–7"nf
/x]sf] /f]6Lx¿ nfvfdx|L, o; /f]6L ;d"xdf– -s_ k"hfdf / ;xef]hg, *$ Jo~hgo'Qm ef]hgdf
P]+Yof, -v_ dy -cyjf ;jO{_ -u_ hf]k|;fb -3_ / ljjfx, kf:gL, eLd/yf/f]x0f cflb sfddf
Ujf/fdlx| -8Nnf]_ -ª_ u'lndlx| -r_ df5f, Eofu'tf, geO{ gx'g] /f]6L x'g\ . ljleGg kj{ / ;+:sf/df
k/]jf, eFu]/fsf] hf]8L cflb -5_ ;tjt' /f]6L lgDgadf]lhdsf] /f]6Lx¿ rngrNtLdf 5g\ M
-c:yLk~h/sf] cfsf/sf]_ . oL /f]6Lx¿ clxn] != ;fVjfdlx| -;tkmn], v?dlx| klg elgG5
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gx'g] ;]6 x'g\ . klxn]–klxn] of] ;]6 nfvf lbg] kj{ k"hfsf] l;nl;nfdf cflZjg s[i0f
eg]/ ljjfx x'g] s'/f kSsf u/]kl5 lbg] rng t[tLofsf] lbg a;'Gw/f b]jLsf] j|t k"hfsf]
lyof] . cr]n 5'§} nfvf lbg] rng 5}g . t/ nflu klg of] /f]6L clgjfo{ 5 .
t'nfw/, u'efh", zfSo / dxh{gx¿df obfsbf @= ltno'Qm /f]6L– cg;f{ M nIdLk"hfdf
of] /f]6L nfvfsf] ¿kdf lbg] rng cBflk 5 . nIdLnfO{ r9fpg of] /f]6L clgjfo{ 5 .
>]i7 ;d'bfodf nfvf lbg] sfd k|foM #) jif{bl] v #= cIftdlx| M df3 dlxgfdf >L :j:yfgL j|t
g} x6fO;lsPsf] 5 . oL ;d"xdf nfvfsf] ;§f ;f+u] k"hf ug{ of] ljz]if /f]6L rflxG5 .
;'kf/L lbg] avtdf g} hf]8]/ k7fpg] rng $= :ofpnfdlx| M ux's F f] kL7f]nfO{ rtfdlx|h:t}
cr]n 5 . g]jf/ ;dfhdf rngrNtLsf c¿ ksfP/ dl5Gb|gfysf] ef]6f]hfqfdf ljz]if
/f]6Lx¿ dfNkf, :jf/L, tk{0fsf] nflu vfhf, of] vfg] rng 5 .
lg;nf dlx|, ;]n/f]6L, 3§df lkGg] ux'Fsf] df]6f] %= e;+dlx| -kmfk/sf] /f]6L_ M af/fh:t} ksfO{
/f]6L, rtf+dlx|, oMdlx|, rf}dlx|, To:t} ux'Fsf] ifi6L s'df/nfO{ r9fpg] rng 5 .
kL7f]af6 ;"dlx|, nfl/nf}/f -hl8a'6L d;nfo'Qm ^= ;ft' M oifi6L s'df/ / dl5Gb|gfysf]
n•'_ a+unl;xM dlx|, ci6 d+un dlx|, ;Dos ef]6f]hfqfdf dl5Gb|gfynfO{ / ;Ktljwfg
dlx| cflb x'g\_ . To:t} rf8–kj{df dfq xf]Og k"hfdf of] clgjfo{ 5 .
;+:sf/df klg rngrNtLdf ljleGg cfsf/ / &= dfnkf :jf/L, xn'jf, ck'ª M ;Togf/fo0f, ;Ktfx,
k|sf/sf] /f]6L rflxG5 . gjfxdf gf/fo0fnfO{ r9fpg] rng 5 .

26 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
;+:s[lt

*= /f]y M of] /f]6L ljz]if uf]/vgfynfO{ !)* gf:tfsf] ¿kdf ;Ddfg :j¿k lbg] /f]6L
r9fpg] rng 5 . xf] .
(= lhnfdlx| M eQmk'/sf] tn]h' ejfgLnfO{ !^= P]+Yof M ljjfxsf] nfvf dlx| ;d"xdf k/]sf]
jif{el/df @^ k6s ljleGg kj{k"hf ubf{ 7"nf–7"nf ef]h ljjfx, u'7Ldf kfx'gfnfO{
of] /f]6L clgjfo{ 5 . To:t} eQmk'/sf sf] pkxf/ :j¿k ef]hkl5 lbP/ k7fpg
sf]xLsf] yfk"Hff -ljz]if k"hf_ ug]{ a]nfdf o;sf] k|of]u x'G5 eg] *$ Jo~hgo'Qm
of] /f]6L clgjfo{ dflgG5 . ;xef]hg u/fpg] ef]hg efudf klg
!)= uf]hfdlx| M eQmk'/sf afl;Gbfx¿sf] h'7f] sf]xLsf] k~r ksjfgsf] ;§fdf of] /f]6L
rf]Vofpg] sfdsf] nflu rflxg] b/j:tL /fVg] rng 5 .
tf]ss ] f JolQmx¿ k'/f]lxt, gfp / sf/~hLt !&= 3Mdlx M 3§df hfFbf klxn]–klxn] kL7f]sf]
-dxf a|fXd0f_nfO{ lgdGq0ffjfkt of] uf]hf /f]6L 9'ª\u] tfjfdf ksfO{ vfg] df]6f] /f]6L,
dlx| clgjfo{ lbg'kg]{ rng 5 . of] /f]6L cr]n k|rngdf 5}g .
ePg eg] pNn]lvt JolQmx¿ hhdfgsf] !*= ux'Fsf] /f]6L M /f]kfO{sf] ;dodf v]tfnfnfO{
3/df sd{ s f08sf] sfddf ;xefuL gf:tfsf] ¿kdf klxn]–klxn] vfg lbg]
x'bF g} g\ . To:t} rng oxfF sf7df8f}dF f klg rng lyof] . cr]n 5}g . t/ rkf6L jf
obfsbf 5 . ;'Vvf /f]6L egL cr]n b}lgs vfglkgdf
!!= ;fv;nf -ltnf}/L, n§]_ M df3 dlxgfdf k|of]u x'G5 .
laxfg lgTo dfwj gf/fo0fsf] ehg !(= sf]bf]sf] /f]6L M klxn] lakm/ cfPsf]nfO{
ug]{nfO{ k|;fbsf] ¿kdf lbg] rng klxn] v'jfpg] rng lyof] . cr]n To:tf] 5}g .
lyof], clxn] 5}g . t/ sf]bf] v]tL x'g] ufpF3/df b}lgsL
!@= ltnsf] n•' M u0f]znfO{ r9fpg / sf]xLsf] ef]hgdf k|of]u x'G5 .
hGdlbgdf bfg lbg / cflzif lbg k|of]u @)= u'nMdlx| M of] ;Dos dxfbfgdf geO{ gx'g]
x'G5 . ;fy} df3] ;+qmflGtdf klg vfg] Ps k|sf/sf] /f]6L xf] .
rng 5 . @!= rtf+dlx|, rf}dlx| M of] bLjfnL / u'7Ldf
!#= /fof]sf] n•' M u0f]znfO{ r9fpg / bfg geO{ gx'g] rfdnsf] kL7f]sf] /f]6L xf] .
ug{nfO{ k|of]u x'G5 . @@= of]dlx| M wfGo k"l0f{dfsf] lbg wfGonIdL
!$= cflt/f]6L M of] g]jf/ a|fXd0fsf] kf6gdf k"hf ug{ dl5Gb|gfysf] gl/jn hfqf, k|To]s
g/l;+x hfqfdf geO gx'g] /f]6L xf] . g]jf/sf] s]6fs]6Lsf] hf]/–jif{ @, $, ^, *,
To:t}, ;fFv'df !^ nIdLk"hf ug]{nfO{ / !) / !@ jif{ ;Ddsf] jif{–aw{gdf of]dlx|åf/f
eQmk'/df tn]h' ejfgLnfO{ *$ k|sf/sf] cleif]s lbg] / dfnf nufpg] ;+:sf/df
/f]6L r9fpg]df of] /f]6L klg k5{ . k|of]u x'G5 . csf],{ eLd/yf/f]x0fdf / s'g}
!%= ltuln/f]6L M of] g]jf/x¿sf] 7"nf–7"nf b]j–b]jLsf] jif{–jw{gdf klg cleif]ssf]
ef]hdf kl/sf/ agfpg] efG;]x¿nfO{ nflu of]dlx| k|of]u x'G5 .

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 27
;+:s[lt

@#= k6' r fdlx| M rfdnsf] kL7f] lbof] k'u]kl5 ljjfxdf b'nfxf x'g] s]6f] a]n
cfsf/df agfO{ aˆofPsf] ltxf/df Dxk"hf ljjfxsf] ;dodf ;'j0f{ s'df/ -lji0f'_ eO{
/ efO6Lsfsf] lbg d08kdf aQL afNg sGofbfg yfk]sf] g} lji0f' x'g\, To;}sf]
k|of]u ug]{ rng 5 . k|df0f :j¿k of] /f]6L xf] egL dflgPsf]
@$= nf]+rfdlx| M rfdnsf] kL7f]s} d'ÝL agfO{ 5 . To:t} csf]{ kl/sf/, df5f, k/]jf,
aˆofPsf] /f]6L . eFu]/f -rv]jf_ / Eofu'tfsf] hf]8L klg
@%= ohfdlx M of]dlx|h:t} cfsf/sf], t/ /fVg'sf] cy{ oL hLjx¿ slxNo} g5'l§g]
d'v g6fNg] / leq s]xL g/fv]sf], ux'Fsf] x'Fbf logLx¿;/x g} ;Fu} afFRg] ;Fu} /xg]
kL7f]af6 agfP/ l3pdf 8'afO{ ksfpg] / k|0f :j¿k k|:t't u/]sf] dflgPsf] 5 . -@_
rf:gLdf 8'afPsf] k~r ksjfgsf] ¿kdf hf] k|;fb cyjf hL k|;fbnfO{ kßsf] k|tLs
xf]d ug{nfO{ *$ Jo~hgsf] ef]hgdf /fVg dflgPsf] 5 . -#_ ;jO{ cyjf dy /f]6LnfO{
agfOG5 . of] /f]6L xn'jfO{n] dfq ksfpg] rqmsf] k|df0f dflgPsf] 5 eg] 8Nnf] Ujf/f
rng 5 . dlx|nfO{ ubfsf] ¿kdf dflgcfPsf] 5 .
@^= u]8fu'8Lsf] /f]6L M of] ljleGg tflGqs klxn]–klxn] of] /f]6L s/La $–% lsnf]sf]
ljlwsf] k"hfdf / s'df/ ifi7Lsf] lbgdf 8Nnf] nfvfh:t} agfO{ rf:gLsf] kfsdf
ksfpg] df;sf] af/f, d'ª, s]/fp, d';/' , 8'afP/ agfOGYof], cr]n rng 5}g .
e6df;, af]8L cflbsf] af/f xf] . df;sf] @(= slndlx| M of] ljjfxsf] ;dodf ;fOkftf
af/f ljleGg tflGqs k" h f ljlwdf k7fpFbf / b'nxLnfO{ dfOtaf6 ->[ª\uf/
;doalhsf] nflu / ;u'0fdf c08f;Fu ug{_ ;FKofs]u' egL 5f]/LnfO{ ljjfxsf]
/fVg k|of]u x'G5 . ef]lnkN6 k7fpg ;/;fdfgdf -dlx|sl;_
@&= l;+u8f/f]6L M -/fFufsf] 6fpsf]h:tf] cfsf/_ 7"nf] xfF8Ldf 8Nnf]/f]6L !@ j6f /fvL
of] /f]6L tn]h' ejfgLnfO{ *$ k|sf/sf] k7fpg'kg]{ rng 5 . of] /f]6LnfO{ slndlx|
/f]6L r9fpg]df k|of]u x'G5, ;fy} csf]{ elgG5 . of] /f]6L nfvfdlx|x¿ agfpFbf
;xef]hgdf klg k|of]u x'G5 . pla|g] 6'qmf6'qmL ldnfP/ ;v/df d'5]/
@*= nfvf/f]6L M o;sf] kl/sf/x¿df d'Vo * s/La b' O { – tLg kfpsf] 8Nnf] agfP
k|sf/sf] ;d"x -!_ P]+Yof, zª\vsf] cfsf/ /flvG5 . xfF8L -leq_df /fVg] /f]6L x'Fbf
-@_ hf] k|;fb, rqmsf] cfsf/ -#_ ;jO{ sl;dlx|sf] cke|+z slndlx| x'g uPsf]
yjf dy /f]6L, sndsf] k"mnsf] cfsf/ a'lemG5 . cr]n Ujf/fdlx| o;}nfO{ g} eGg]
-$_ Ujf/fdlx| u8fsf] ¿kdf -8Nnf]_ oL u/]sf] kfOG5 .
rf/ k|sf/sf] /f]6L z+v, rqm, kß / ubf #)= ;t'jtdlx| M of] xfd|f] z/L/sf] 9f8 cfsf/
lji0f'sf] k|tLs dflgPsf] 5 . sGof s]6Lsf] jf cl:yk~h/h:tf] 5 . of] nfvfsf]
a]n ljjfxdf ;'j0f{sd ' f/sf] k|tLs a]nnfO{ ;d"xdf g} kg]{, ;'kf/L lbFbf of] klg /fVg]
sGofbfg u/L gf;f] /flvg] x'Fbf s]6L pd]/ ul/G5 .

28 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
;+:s[lt

#!= u'lndlx| M nfvf dlx|e}mF ;fgf]–;fgf] uf]nf] k|of]u ul/G5 eg] rf:gLdf 8'afPsf] /f]6L
6'qmf /f]6L, o;nfO{ dlx| -cyf{t\ d';fsf] vfgnfO{ k|of]u ul/G5 .
ln8h:tf] cfsf/ ePsfn]_ klg elgGYof] . #%= k'/L M b]jb]jLnfO{ r9fpg /ª\uLg / vfhfsf
ljjfx ef]hdf s]6Ltk{msf ef]hdf b'nxL;Fu nflu ;fbf ksfOG5 .
;'kf/L lnO;s]kl5 Ps d'7L of] /f]6L #^= rfdnsf] kL7f]sf] /f]6L M rfdnsf] kL7f]sf]
lbOGYof] / d'v x]g{ hfg]nfO{ ;Ddfg :j¿k afSnf] 3f]n]/ tfjfdf ksfPsf], vfhfsf]
of] /f]6L Ps d'7L / kfg d;nf;Fu} /S;L nflu o;sf] k|of]u x'G5 .
!–@ Kofnf v'jfpg] rng lyof] . cr]n #&= Ujf/fdlx| M kL7f] 3f]n]/ t]ndf k'm/fPsf]
rng 5}g . /f]6L vfhfsf] nflu k|of]u x'G5 .
#@= lg;nfdlx| M of] ;fgf] afn';fO{h:tf] #*= sf7df8f} F d f s' d f/L hfqfsf] ;dodf
agfO{ rf:gL /fv] s f] lkt[ >f4 ug{ ljleGg k|sf/sf /f]6L r9fpg'kg]{ lgodx¿
g;Sg] n ] hnbfg jf cGg bfg lbg] 5g\ . To;df y'dlx| -/f]6L /f]n u/]sf] cyf{t\
avtdf g]jf/ ;d'bfodf u'efh" k'/f]lxt a6f/]sf] /f]6L_, dy, /f]y, hf]k|;fb, lkmgL
x'g]x¿n] lrp/f cb'jf / Pp6f of] /f]6L vfhfs} uf]nf] cfsf/sf], ds}sf] s5'jf,
/fvL bfg lbgdf k|of]u x'GYof] . csf]{ ds}sf] s6x/ cfsf/sf] /f]6L / df6fsf]
jxfn, jlxnsf] r}To k"hfdf k"0f{ kfqsf] xfF8Lleq Ujf/fdlx| 8Nnf]] slndlx| klg
¿kdf klg lrp/f / of] /f] 6 L /fvL /fVg'k5{ .
r9fpg] rng 5 . #(= ;"dlx| M of] /f]6L :jf/L cfsf/sf] aLrdf
##= kfxfF Ajgfdlx| M of] lg;nf dlx|s} 7"nf] Kjfn /fv]/ t]ndf 8'afP/ ksfOPsf]
cfsf/sf] /f]6L xf] . of] /f]6L t'nfw/, x'G5 .
u'efh"sf] sf]xL gft]bf/ d[To' ePdf ljrf/ $)= ;"cf] M of] df;sf] af/f aLrdf Kjfn
ug{ cfpg] cfkmGt tyf ;fyLefOx¿nfO{ /fvL ;] n h:tf] u/L t] n df 8' a fO{
d[tssf] gfddf jflif{s jf cw{jflif{s jf ksfOPsf] x'G5 . eQmk'/sf /fhf]kfWofo
dfl;ssf sfo{df af]nfO{ ef]h v'jfO;s]kl5 a|fXd0fx¿sf] ljjfxdf of] /f]6Lsf] aLrdf
k|;fbsf] ¿kdf Ps–Ps lg;nf dlx| klg k'm;]| l;Gb"/ nufP/ hf]8L agfO{ sfFrf]
lbP/ k7fpg] rng cBflk 5 . of] 7"nf] wfuf]n] afFw]/ ef]h cfPsf kfl/jfl/s
vfnsf] kfx'gfkf;fnfO{ lbg] u/]sf]n] o;sf] hf] 8 LnfO{ Ps–Ps hf] / lbO{ k7fpg]
gfd g} kfxf Jjgf -kfx'gfnfO{ lbg]_ /f]6L rng clxn] klg 5 . of] /f]6L ;w'jfn]
x'g uPsf] 5 . ksfpg'kg]{ / ;w'jf hf]8LnfO{ dfq lbg]
#$= vfhf/f]6L M of] b'O{ lsl;dsf] 5 . !–@ rng 5 .
O~rsf] nfdf] kq] / csf]{ rf/kf6] kq] /f]6L dNnsfndf g]kfnleq ef/tLo ;+:s[ltsf]
;fbf jf rf:gLdf 8'afPsf] x'G5 . ;fbf ;fy;fy} /f]6Lx¿ klg lelqPsf] kfOG5 .
;fgf] vfnsf] ljz]if u/L lkt[nfO{ r9fpg eQmk'/ tn]h' dlGb/df dNnsfnb]lv clxn];Dd

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 29
;+:s[lt

kj{–kj{df lg/Gt/ r9fO{ cfPsf] /f]6Lx¿ lgDg -$#_ cflt -$$_ ;jOj]n -$%_ l;o'n8'
k|sf/sf b]lvG5g\– -$^_ ld7fO{ -$&_ blx|jfnf -$*_ v08jfnf
-!_ k:df -@_ v;v; -#_ PnfOrL bfgf -$(_ rsnf -%)_ lqsf]0f -%!_ aneb|ef]u
-$_ d/r bfgf -%_ 5'r'+dx|L -^_ y'ªf -&_ -%@_ n'roL -%#_ nfs/L -%$_ ;s{jfnf -%%_
srjnL -*_ zs/jfnf -(_ n8' a'08L -!)_ d'uof ;jO{ -%^_ dfyf ;fvn Tj+sf -%&_
jfn';foL -!!_ u'hL -!@_ cd[lt -!#_ hn]aL lemlnlj s:tL Tj+sf -%*_ dfyfn8' -%(_
-!$_ bge]/f -!%_ u'+lhvlt -!^_ akmL{ -!&_ gf/L -^)_ kßgf/L -^!_ ;fvt;nf kn] -^@_
kmg;]k' -!*_ k'jf -!(_ k]8f -@)_ x];dL -@!_ 3]n y'ªf n8' -^#_ b]jL k|;fb -^$_ d'lt
vfhf -@@_ d'lQ r'Nof -@#_ rfs'df3L -@$_ lemNnf -^%_ lgjf; dlx -^^_ ;fv;nfk'
s] dfyf ;fvn tf]+sf -@%_ r'df{n8' -@^_ -^&_ uf]nf] j}Bf -^*_ e'jNne -^(_ yfs'n
b'b' y'ªfn8' -@&_ vf]df{ -@*_ u'hLn8' -@(_ ef]u -&)_ d'uof n8' -&!_ df]xg ef]u -&@_
e'l6 -#)_ lt/af/ -#!_ jtf;f -#@_ df;dfyf j]n;fpoL -&#_ nfoflemNnf -&$_ nfofn8'
s:tL y' G of -##_ dfNk' j f -#$_ lemNnf -&%_ 3f]sf -&^_ 3f]uL -&&_ vlnsf -&*_
-#% ;sfGtn8' -#^_ b]u'kfof tjsnf -#&_ cfk -&(_ tj;L -*)_ kmn;] -*!_ wfn]
b'b'df3] dfyf -#*_ s]n b'jf -#(_ hxflu/jfn -*@_ d'lt r'Nof .
-$)_ v08jlt -$!_ b08jfnf -$@_ dfwf

uLt

k"mnsf] y'Fuf r9fOlbg" d} d/L uPdf


;Demgf /xf];\ k/Gt';Dd cfkmGtx¿df .

of] lhGbuLsf syf / Joyf xhf/–xhf/ 5g\


afFr'~h]n of] :jfyL{ dgdf nf]e / O{Zof{ 5g\
ljlzi6 jL/ d/]/ hfG5 snfsf/ j}/ª\uL
k|f0fn] 5f8] lj/fgf] eOG5 sRrf 5 lhGbuL .

d d/] klg s] 5 / nfg] pkxf/ :ju{df


u'l~h/xf];\ oL d]/f efj s;}sf] ofbdf
lzjxl/ /fO{ wg / an, 1fg / u'g pkflw–pkdf
5f8]/ ;f/f hfg' 5 ;vL Tof] :ju{nf]sdf .

30 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
:tDe M gy{ Sof/f]nfOgf ;flxTo

uhn

ar]/f u'F8 5f]8L p8]sf r/fsf] s'/f ug{' 5 .


kft em/L l;q}m Tof] ¿vsf] h/fsf] s'/f ug{' 5 .
3/af/L aGwsL /fv]/ lg:s]5g\ gf}hjfg t,
eTs]sf] s'nf] / kFw]/f], ux|fsf] s'/f ug{' 5 .
;Dkbf xfd|f ;lsP, dlGb/df 306L ;'lgGgg\,
sxfF uof] xfd|f] ;+:s[lt, x/fÚsf] s'/f ug{' 5 .
Oltxf; xfd|f] Ho'Fb} 5 kfgL lg gvfO{ n8]sf],
:jfledfg ;a} ;s]/ 8/fÚsf] s'/f ug{' 5 .
…hggL hGde"ld:rÚ dgleq} ;asf] n]v]/,
Clif a:tfsf]6L efjgf Pp6} agfpF+b} w/fsf] s'/f ug{' 5 .

-slj s[i0f k|wfgåf/f lnlvt sljtf;ª\u|x …:ju{Úsf]


ljdf]rg ;df/f]x, @)&$÷!@÷!)–sf7df8f}F_

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 31
lgaGw

lk tfhL x'gx' G' Yof] / d lyPF . cfh lktfhL x'gx' G' g,


d 5'OgF . cyf{t\ lktfhLsf] cj;fgl;t} d]/f]
klg cj;fg ePsf] 5 . lktfsf] d[To'l;t}
x/]s k'qsf] d[To' x'g] u5{ . k'qsf] cl:tTjdf
lktfsf] cl:tTj plePsf] x'G5 . lktfsf]
lktfsf] d[To'l;t} cl:TfTjdf k'qsf] y]luPsf] x'G5 . d}n] a'af
eg]/ af]nfpg] dflg;sf] ef}lts cl:TfTj afFsL
5}g o; wtL{df . pxfF w"jfF eO{ p8\g'eof]
gLnuugdf . v/fgL eO{ ldNg'eof] lqo'ufsf]
zLtn hnk|jfxdf . a'af x'g'x'GYof] / d
5f]/fsf] ¿kdf lj/fhdfg lyPF . cfh x/38L
d}n] k'sfg{] a'af klg x'g'x'Gg . a'afn] k'sfg{]
5f]/f] klg 5}g cfh . a'afl;t 5f]/fsf] klg
cGToli6 x'Fbf] /x]5 . ha a'af eGg'kg{] dfG5]
o; wtL{df /xFb}Gf, ta pm 5f]/fsf] ¿kdf
sf]af6 ;Daf]lwt x'g ;S5 / Û a'afl;t} 5f]/fsf]
klg OxnLnf ;dfKt x'Fbf] /x]5 . x'g t ce}m d
;f; k]ml//x]sf] 5' . n'v'/n'v'/ lxFl8/x]sf] 5',
vfO/x]sf] 5', xfFl;/x]sf] 5', af]ln/x]sf] 5' . t/
5f]/fsf] ¿kdf eg] af–cfdfl;t} d dl/;s]sf]
5' . afFsL 5' eg] d s;}sf] klt, lktf, efO,
HjfOF, ;fnf], elgh, dfdfsf] ¿kdf afFsL 5' .
5f]/fsf] ¿kdf eg] d]/f] klg dftf–lktfl;t}
cGToli6 eO;s]sf] 5 .
elgG5, s'g} gfgL hlGFdbf gfgL dfq
hlGd/x]sf] x'Fb}g Pp6L gjof}jgf o'jtL,
cfdfsf] ¿kdf klg hlGd/x]sL x'lG5g\ . hGdsf]
k'0o sfsL{
jvt b'O6} lrhsf] ;Fu;Fu} hGd eO/x]sf]

32 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
lgaGw

x'G5 . Psflt/ k'qk'qLsf] hGd eO/x]sf] x'G5, gftfuf] t f cfkmGtLhgsf cfofdx¿df


csf{]lt/ ;fy;fy} lktf–dftf klg hlGd/x]sf cg] s f} F k| l tsDkg l;h{ g f ub{ 5 . sf/0f
x'G5g\ . Psflt/ dftf–lktfn] 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] JolQmsf] d[To'l;t} cyf{t\ lktfsf] d[To'l;t
¿kdf hlGdg] ;f}efUo lbO/x]sf x'G5g\ eg] k'qsf] d[To', cfdfsf] d[To'l;t 5f]/Lsf] d[To',
csf{]kl§ hlGdPsf 5f]/f5f]/Ln] dftf–lktf aGg] sfsfsf] d[To'l;t elthfsf] d[To', dfdfsf]
;f}EffUo klg k|bfg ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . g 5f]/f d[To'l;t ef~hfef~hLsf] d[To', lbbL–legfh'sf]
5f]/Lsf] cl:TfTjlagf afa'–cfdf ;DEfj 5, g d[To'l;t ;fnf;fnLsf] d[[To', k'mk"–k'mkfh'sf]
afa'–cfdfsf] cl:tTjlagf 5f]/f5f]/L x'g ;Dej d[ T o' l ;t ebfeb} g Lsf] d[ T o' , efph" s f]
5 . cl:TfTjsf] oxL bf]xf]/f] ;DaGWfnfO{ xd]zf d[To'l;t b]j/–b]j/fgLsf] d[To', gGb–cfdfh"sf]
d[To'n] l5Gbf] /x]5 . afa'–cfdfsf] d[To'l;t} d[To'sf cg]sg z[ª\vnf nx/h:tf] k}mlnPsf
5f]/f5f]/L ¿ksf] d[To' x'g', dfdfsf] d[To'l;t} x'G5g\ .
ef~hfef~hLsf] ¿k d[To' x'g', kltsf] d[To'l;t} gfd lal;{PF, s'g} n]vssf] s[ltdf pNn]lvt
gf/Lsf] kTgL ¿ksf] d[To' x'g', clg kTgLsf] Ps ;Gbe{ ofb 5, s'g} dflg; cfˆgf] v'ª\vf/
d[To'l;t} k'?ifsf] kltsf] d[To' x'g'nfO{ o; zq'sf] d[To'kl5 lbglbg} d'emf{pFb} uPsf],
s8Ldf hf]8]/ x]g{ ;lsG5 . lzlyn / sfGt aGb} uPsf] b[Zo lyof] ToxfF .
cfhef]ln s;}sf] d[To' x'g]lalQs} To; o; ljifodf p;nfO{ ;f]Wbf p;n] eG5, p;sf]
d[To'sf] bfo/f slt km/flsnf] 5 / Tof] slt d[To'n] d klg db{} uPsf] 5' . pm lyof] / d
lkmFhfl/P/ uPsf] 5, To;nfO{ s]nfP/ x]g{ hLjGt lyPF . pm lyof] / d ;lqmo lyPF .
yfn]sf] 5' . Pp6f JolQmsf] d[To' s]jn t/f]tfh lyPF . hLjGt zq' x'g'n] dgleq
Pp6f dfG5] s f] d[ T o' dfq xf] O g /x] 5 . klg Ps ;lqmo pmhf{ k| j flxt ul//xF b f]
p;sf] d[To'n] p;sf ;DaGwsf cfofdx¿df /x]5 . p;n] hLjgdf Ps r'gf}lt lbO/x]sf]
sxfF–sxfF d[To' 3l6t u/fpF5, Tof] dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . To; r'gf}ltnfO{ nnsfg{ cfk"mleqsf
s'/f /x]5 . u'?sf] d[To'df u'?l;t} r]nf] klg ;Dk"0f{ tGt'x¿ Ps Tj/fdf, Ps cfj]udf,
db{5 . gf]s/sf] d[To'df dflns klg db{5 . Ps pQ]hgf / hf]zdf ;hLa ag]sf x'G5g\ .
clg dflnssf] d[To'df gf]s/ klg db{5 . dnfO{ hLjGt /fVg] d]/f] zq'sf] d[To';Fu} ca
zq'sf] d[To'df dfG5] cfk}mF dl/;s]sf] x'G5 . d uNg nfu]sf] 5', 9Ng nfu]sf] 5' . jf:tjdf
d[To'sf] ult Ps t/ª\uh:tf] 5 . h;/L zfGt Ps hLjGt zq'sf] d[To' klg JolQmsf] cfˆg}
kf]v/Ldf ;fgf] 9'ª\uf xfGof] eg] To;sf] rf]6n] d[To' aGbf] /x]5 .
cgluGtL nx/x¿ l;h{gf u5{ . aLrdf p7]sf] dfG5] hLjt 5Fb}, oxL b]xdf k|f0f cl8Fb}
nx/ qmdzM k}mlnFb} lsgf/ftk{m k}mlnG5 . ;DaGwsf] cfofddf qmdzM Pskl5 csf{] u/L
cg]sf}F c:klz{t cfofdnfO{ To; t/ª\un] db{} hfFbf] /x]5 . ef}lts b]xsf] 8f]sf] la;fpg'
5'Fb} cfk"mdf ;dflxt ub{} n}hfG5 . s;}sf] t cflv/L d[To' g xf] . z'¿df $ jif{sf]
klg d[To't/ª\un] o;/L g} Oi6leq, efOaGw', slnnf] pd]/d} ddtfdoL cfdf v:g'eof],

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 33
lgaGw

pxfFsf] d[To'l;t} dleqsf] cfdfsf] efusf] kf] x'g] xf] ls Û cltzo df]xjz lg:s]sf oL
5f]/f] klg v:of] . To;kl5 dfjnLlt/sf cg'e"ltn] dnfO{ cwL/ kfYf{] .
xh'/af / 3/lt/sf] xh'/cfdf laTg'eof] . cflv/ (@ jif{ s f] lzv/ jfw{ S odf
pxfFx¿sf] d[To'l;t} dleqsf] gflt¿k klg lktfhLsf] rf]nf p7Øf] . wtL{sf c¿ k'qn]
v:of] . k'mk"x¿ v;]kl5 dleqsf] ebf]¿k a]xf]/]h:t} lkt[zf]s d}n] klg a]xf]g'{k¥of] .
klg v:of] . sfsfsfsL v:g'eof], dleqsf] e|dsf] 7"nf] 5fFuf]af6 v;]/ d s6' oyfy{sf]
elthsf] ¿k klg v:of] . lktfhL o;kfln l8ndf plePsf] lyPF . d] / f] ;f] r fOsf]
laTg'eof] . dleqsf] afFsL k'q¿ksf] klg ljk/Lt p;} u/L alu/Xof] hLjgsf] ult .
;w}Fsf lglDt cj;fg eof] . o;/L ;DaGwsf ;f] r ] s f] /x] 5 ' , lktfsf] cj;fgl;t} ;a}
cg] s cfofddf xfdL hLljt 5F b } dbf{ lrhsf] cGTo]li6 x'g] xf] ls Û hLjg–hut\df
/x]5f}F . qmdeª\utf cfpg] xf] ls Û v"a sxflnPsf]
lxhf]–cl:t;Dd lktfhL hLljt x'g'x'GYof] . lyPF t/ ;dosf] ult / no x]bf{ s]xL km/s}
dleq Ps c6"6 e/f];f 6gf6g vfFlbP/ /x]sf] gk/Lsg k|s[ltjt 9ª\un] pbfof] lbg p;}
lyof] . h:t} ljkt\ / ;ª\ s 6sf 38Ldf u/L 5fof] /ft . ljof]usf] s'lx/f] la:tf/}–
klg a' a fsf] :d/0f cfpgf;fy k| s fzsf] la:tf/} kftlnFb} uof] .
pkl:yltdf cGwsf/ lanfPh:tf] ;d:ofx¿ Pp6f dflg;sf] d'6'sf] w8sg aGb x'g'n]
xn'sf–xn'sf aGg yfNy] . pxfFsf] zLtn s] km/s kfbf{] /x]5 / ;tt\ ultdf 3'ld/xg]
5fxf/Ldf d lyPF, pxfFaf6 y'k|} cfzLjf{b k[YjLnfO{ Û Pp6f dflg;sf] ZJff;–rqm cj?4
xfdLdfly al;{/x]sf] lyof] . pxfF ;w}F 9f8;sf] x'g'n] s] km/s kfbf{] /x]5 / ;tt\ ultdf
efiffdf af]Ng'x'GYof], d]/f zfvf;GtfgnfO{ 3'ld/xg] k[YjLnfO{ Û Pp6f dflg;sf] Zjf;–
d /x'~h]n s]xL x'Fb}g . pxfFsf] ckf/ k|]d rqm cj?4 x'g'n] s] km/s kfbf{] /x]5 ;wF}
/ cfzLjf{bn] dnfO{ Psflt/ ;an, ;zQm, pbfpg] h"g–tf/fx¿nfO{ Û Pp6f dflg;sf]
cf:yfjfg\ / lqmofzLn klg agfPsf] lyof] . wtL{ 6]Sg] Pshf]/ kfOtfnf oxfFaf6 cnk
csf{]lt/ dnfO{ sfFt/ / sfo/ klg agfpFb} x'g'n] s] km/s kfbf{] /x]5 / ;w}F–;Wf}F pbfO{
nu]5 Sof/] . lsgeg] a'afsf] cl:TfTjlagf cfPsf] 3fdnfO{ Û
of] hut\ ;'nlnt ultdf rNg ;Snf / Û lktfsf] d[To'kl5 klg p;} u/L 3'ld/Xof]
;Gb]xsf] s'lx/f]n] dnfO{ 5f]KYof] . pxfFsf] k[YjL . p;} u/L rdrd rlDs/x] h"g–tf/f .
d[To' ;f]Rtf;DDf klg hLjgsf] ;f/f Joj:Yff p;} u/L pkmfgdf bf}l8/Xof] gbLsf] t/n
etfe'ª\u xf]nf . >[li6–rqmd} qmdeª\u kf] k|jfx . p;} u/L pbfof], p;} u/L c:tfof]
xf]nf ls Û To;kl5 d s;sf] dfu{bz{g, a"9f] 3fd . clt cfTdLo lk|ohgsf] d[To'df
cfzLjf{b / ;flGgWodf afFRg' xf]nf < o; k[YjLsf] ult pn6k'n6 kf] x'g] xf] ls Û
lsl;dsf clgi6 k|Zgx¿n] lrd6\Yof] . pxfFsf] o:tf] sNkgf t df]xu|:t lrQn] l;h{gf
cl:TfTja]u/ hLjg hLjg /xnf / Û k|no g} u/]sf] qf;b eol;jfo s]xL xf]Og /x]5 .

34 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
lgaGw

cfh klg cfsfz ;fIfL 5 . h" g –tf/f km/s k5{ eGg] ;f]lr/x]sf] 5 cg'/fudf
;fIfL 5g\ . xfjfsf nx/x¿ ;fIfL 5g\ , 8'a]sf] lrQn] .
8fF 8 fsfF 8 f jghª\ u n ;fIfL 5g\ , sf] x L lktfhL gx'g'n] dg pbf; 5 . cfFvfx¿
dbf{ klg hut\nfO{ s]xL km/s k/]g . sf]xL zf]sfs"n 5g\ . Åbo 3fon / Jolyt 5 . t/
dbf{ klg >[li6–rqmnfO{ s]xL km/s k/]g . d]/f] k"mnjf/Lsf k'tnLx¿ oL ;a} s'/faf6
wtL{af6 slt–slt a'4x¿ labf eP . oxL a]va/ 5g\ . pgLx¿ t k'm/k'm/ gflr/x]5g\ .
df6f]af6 slt–slt ;'s/ftx¿ ;Noft;'n't r/fx¿ p;} u/L lrla{ / fO/x] s f 5g\ .
x/fP, /Úklg >[li6–rqmsf] kfª\u|f] p;} u/L dflg;x¿ p;} u/L af6f]df bf}l8/x]sf 5g\ .
u'l8/Xof] . Ps ldg]6 /f]lsPg . ;do t cfˆgf] 5ftL 5fD5', p;} u/L rln/x]5 d'6'sf]
;a} s f] d[ T o' d f plQs} zfnLg, lglj{ s f/ :KfGbg . t/ Ps csf6Ø ;To lktfhLsf]
lg/fkb ultdf alu/x]sf] 5 . ;tt\ nodf d[To'l;t} pxfFsf :g]lxn xftn] ;'d;'DofPsf]
au]sf] cl:tTjnfO{ s]xLn] km/s kfg{ ;s]sf] dleqsf] k'q¿k klg lrxfgdf glapFlemg] u/L
5}g . km/s ul//x]sf] 5 dfG5]sf] dgn], ;'lt;s]sf] 5 .

uhn

x'Ss], 9f]s], xh'/]sf] c8fg sxfF x'G5


dfuL u'hf/f ug]{sf] zfg sxfF x'G5 Û

b]z clg hgtfsf] cfpg} k5{ t:jL/


;sL–g;sL ufP/ /fi6«ufg sxfF x'G5 Û

;a} s'/f 7Ls7fs 5 egL lxF8] klg


e'OFdf u'8\g] d]lzgsf] p8fg sxfF x'G5 Û

c¿nfO{ ªØfSg] clg s'Nrg vf]Hg]nfO{


;w}Fel/ k"mndfnfn] ;Ddfg sxfF x'G5 Û

k/f]ksf/ / ;]jf efjdf 8'aL x]/ ;fyL


9'ª\uf clg dlGb/df eujfg\ sxfF x'G5 Û
nLnf/fh bfxfn

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 35
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2 )$@ ;fnlt/ xf], xfd|f] kl/jf/ cyf{t\ d,


lgd{nf / b'O{ 5f]/Lx¿ df]lgsf / d[b' a}t8Ldf
/xg'ePsf lgd{nfsf lbbL–legfh'nfO{ e]6\g]
/ Tot}af6 g}gLtfn 3'd]/ cfpg] p2]Zon]
a}t8L hfg nfUof}F . Tolta]nf g]kfnu~haf6
a}t8Lsf] kf6g;Dd xjfO;]jf ;'rf? lyof] .
sf7df8f}Faf6 uPsf] hxfhn] g} g]kfnu~h
a}t*L, g}gLtfn / k'¥ofP/ ToxfFsf ofqL ptfg]{ / ptf hfg] ofqL
sf&df*f}F a;fn]/ a}t8L n}hfg] rng lyof] . To;}n]
xfdL 9'Ss eP/ 5f]/Lx¿;lxt sf7df8f}Faf6
g]kfnu~h uof}F . t/ ToxfFaf6 ptfsf] cj:yf
7Ls 5} g eg] / a} t 8Lsf] p8fg /2 ug{
yflnof] . xfdL s]6fs]6L;lxt aLr af6f]df
k'u]sf ofqL cK7Øf/f]df k¥of}F . lgd{nfn]
kfOn6x¿;dIf ;fgf 5f]/Lx¿nfO{ s'/f ug{
nufOg\ . cj:yf v/fa eP/ ghfg] ePdf
To;sf] s]xL c;/ kb}{gYof] xf]nf, t/ Tolt
v/fa l:ylt geP/ xf]nf, ;fgf gfgLx¿sf]
cg'/f]w :jLs[t eof], xfdL ;s'zn kf6g ofqf
ug{ ;dy{ eof}F .
g] k fnu~hb] l v kf6g k' U bf;Dd gLnf]
csfzsf] ;' G b/ b[ Z o / To; ;' G b/tfdf
b}n]v, 8f]6L, 88]Nw'/f, aemfª cflb lhNNffsf
xl/of kxf8x¿sf] /f] r s b[ Z o ylkF b f
cToGt dgdf]xs jftfj/0f >[hgf ePsf]
lyof] . hxfh a}t8Lsf] kf6gdf ;xh ¿kn]
plqof] . xfdL cToGt v'zL eof}F . a}t8Lsf
rGb|sfGt cfrfo{
k| d ' v lhNnf clwsf/L lgd{ n fsf legfh'

36 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
;+:d/)f

r"8fdl0f pkfWofo xfdLnfO{ lng Po/kf]6{df 5]8f];Dd b]lvGYof] . ToxfFaf6 cf]/fnf] nfu]/
cfpg'ePsf] lyof] . lhNnfk|d'v ToxfF cfPsfn] w]/} tn 9Ls uf9, b]ynf x'Fb} ;8s rdlnof
ToxfF /x]sf ;/sf/L sfo{fnox¿sf clwsf/L gbLsf] lsgf/fdf k'Ug] /x]5 . rdlnofsf]
pxfFnfO{ e]6\g cfpg' :jfefljs lyof] . t/ csf]{ lsgf/fdf bfr'{nf lhNnfsf] uf]s'n] eGg]
a}t8Ldf nfdf] ;do ;8s ;e]{If0fsf] sfddf /dfOnf] 7fpFdf To;a]nf s]xL ;dosf] nflu
nfu]sf] x'gfn] d;Fu klg a}t8L–bfr'{nf ;8s xjfO{;]jf ;~rfng ul/Psf] lyof], kl5 aGb
cfof]hgfsf k|d'v w'|j/fh hf]zLsf] /fd|f] ePsf] xf] .
ldqtf lyof] / pgn] cfˆgf] lgjf;df xfdL ;tafhaf6 xfdLnfO{ k|wfgdGqL
;a}sf] nflu ef]hgsf] Joj:yf u/]sf /x]5g\ . nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGbsf] 3/ ePsf] ufpF klg
lhNnfsf k|d'v clwsf/L / sf7df8f}Faf6 b]vfOPsf] lyof] . ;tafhdf cToGt /fd|f]
cfPsf pgsf gft] b f/x¿nfO{ ;8ssf :ofp v]tL x'Gf] /x]5 . :ofp ;ª\sng s]Gb|
sd{rf/Lx¿n] /fd|f] ;Tsf/ u/] . k|=lh=c= klg /x] 5 . xfdLn] dL7f :ofp vfof} F /
r"8fdl0fn] ToxfF cfk"mnfO{ k|d'v cltlysf] ToxfFaf6 klZrd w]/} k/;Dd t];f]{ af6f]df
¿kdf g;De]m/ aflx/af6 cfPsf xfdLx¿nfO{ u'8\g /dfOnf] eof] . b]xLdf08f} eGg] 7fpFaf6
/ of]hgf k|d'vnfO{ ;d]t s]–s:tf] ?lr x'G5 af6f] cf]/fnf] nfUof] . Tolta]nf;DDf af6f]
eg]/ cfk}mF ;Tsf/ ug{ cl3 ;bf{ lhNnfs} sRrL g} lyof] / cln cK7Øf/f] af6f]df
tk{maf6 lbOPsf] :jfut ef]hh:tf] ePsf] ;ts{tfk"j{s rnfpg] rfnsåf/f ;lhn};Fu
lyof] . Tolt 6f9f cfpFbf klg cfˆg} 7"nf] xfdL ;b/d' s fd a} t 8Lsf] tNnf] efudf
afafsf] 3/h:tf] nfUg] To; 7fpFdf 5f]/Lx¿ k'Uof}F . dfly r'r'/f]df u9L eGGf] 7fpFdf k|d'v
klg /dfP / xfdLnfO{ sf7df8f}Faf6 ;'b"/ lhNNff clwsf/Lsf] sfof{no / cfjf; /x]sf]
klZrdf~rn If]qsf] ;'b"/ lhNnf a}t8L uPsf] 7fpFdf xfdL lelqof}F .
x}g ls cfˆg} 3/ uPsf]h:tf] cg'ej eof] . lhNnfsL k| y d dlxnfsf] ¿kdf lbbL
ToxfFaf6 lhNNff sfof{nos} uf8Ldf xfdL sdnf zdf{ e]l6Fbf / c¿ sd{rf/L kl/jf/;Fu
a} t 8L lhNNffsf] ;b/d' s fdlt/ nfUof} F . kl/ro x'Fbf k'gM Tolt 6f9f cfPsf] geP/
z'¿df psfnf] r9]/ w]/} prfOdf cjl:yt emg\ ghLs cfˆg} 3/df /dfOnf] jftfj/0fdf
;tafh eGg] cToGt ;'Gb/ 7fpFdf k'luof] . lelqPsf] cg'ej eof] . k|zf;lgs clws[t
ToxfFaf6 a}t8Lsf dfq geP/ bfr'{nf, aemfª, ;'wL/ zd{f, lghsL cToGt ;ÅboL kTgL,
88]Nw'/f, 8f]6Lnufotsf lhNnfx¿sf kj{t ;/sf/L jlsn slj lbg] z clwsf/L /
>[ª\vnf Psflt/ / csf]{lt/ ef/tsf] s'dfp jlsNgL;fx] a cflb w] / } clws[ t x¿ Tfyf
If]qsf kxf8;d]t b]lvg] x'Fbf uf8Laf6 aflx/ ltgsf kl/jf/;Fu lrghfg x'Fbf Pp6f 7"nf]
lg:s]/ xfdLn] Tof] /dfOnf] b[Zo x]g{ nfUof}F . ldq;d"x agfpg kfOPsf] cg'ej eof] . s]xL
ToxfFaf6 bfr'{nf n}hfg] ;8s pQ/lt/ nfUg] lbgsf] ToxfFsf] a;fOdf lhNnfsf uGodfGo
/x]5, s]xL af6f] vlgPsf] b[Zo pQ/lt/ Pp6f JolQmx¿;F u klg kl/lrt x' g ] ;' c j;/

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 37
;+:d/)f

ldNof] . lhNNffaflx/af6 ljz]if sfdn] cfpg] nfu] klg xfd|f dg eg] g]kfnlt/ g} /x] .
JolQmx¿dWo] 8f= r] t /fh kGt;F u klg g]kfn cfˆgf] b]z ;a}sf] nflu Kof/f] nfU5 .
Tolta]nf g} kl/ro ePsf] xf] . a}t8L lhNNff d]/f] s]xL ;dosf] sfo{–If]q klg
a}t8Laf6 g}gLtfn hfg] qmddf xfdLn] xf], To;}n] dg Tot}lt/ uPsf] xf] ls eGg]
5f]/Lx¿nfO{ ToxLF 5f8Øf}F . s]xL lbgkl5 klg nfUof] . t/ To;f] xf]Og, kxf8sf] xl/ofnL
lbbL–legfh' sf7df8f}F hfg] sfo{qmd /x]sfn] / cGo /d0fLo k|fs[lts b[Zo otf emg\
xjfO{hxfhdf 5f]/Lx¿ sf7df8f}F k'Ug] x'Fbf a9L 5g\ . cfˆgf] b]z eg]/ d}n] /fhgLlts
xfdLnfO{ ef/t e|d0f ;lhnf] kg]{ cfzon] ;Ldfleqsf] If]q dfq dgk/fpg] u/]sf] 5}g .
To:tf] of] h gf agfOof] / xfdL u9Laf6 cfk"mnfO{ cfsif{0f ug]{ ljifoj:t' / k|s[lt 7"nf
;b/d'sfds} uf]7fnfkfgL eGg] 7fpFdf em¥of}F s'/f x'g\ . w]/} jif{klxn] uf]/vk'/af6 b]x/fb'g
/ e'mnf3f6 hfg] cf]/fnf] nfUof}F . af6f]af6 hfFbf /]ndf Tolt /dfOnf] nfu]sf] lyPg .
lqk'/f;'Gb/L b]jLsf] dlGb/ b]lvG5 . lbbL / nvgplt/ af] l ng] lxGbL efiff klg pb" {
sd{rf/Lsf kl/jf/;Fu lgd{nf Ps laxfg ldl;P/ xf] ls stf–stf ckl/lrt efiffh:tf]
o; dlGb/df bz{g ug{ k'u]sL x'g\ eg] d}n] nfUYof] . t/ xl/åf/ k' u ] / /] n :6] z gdf
6f9}af6 w]/}k6s dlGb/ cjnf]sg ug]{ cj;/ pb\3f]if ul/Psf] agf/;df af]lng]h:tf] lxGbL
kfPsf] 5' . dlGb/leq k'luof] ls k'luPg, efiff ;'Gbf dg k|k'mlNnt ePsf] xf] . To;kl5
clxn] ;Demgf ePg . To; dlGb/sf] ghLs} hlt b]x/fb'g ghLs x'Fb} lyof], Tolt g]kfnsf
7"nf] ufpF 5, To;df w]/}h;f] e§x¿ /x]5g\ . ufpF3/;Fu ldNbf kl/b[Zo b]lvFb} lyP . clg
xfd|f ;fyL 8f= ch'{gb]j e§sf] 3/ klg ToxLF t dg} /dfof], tg} /dfof] . t/ oxfF t To:t}
/x]5 . afofFlt/ ufpF 5f8]/ ;Lw} cf]/fnf] kl/b[Zox¿ b]lvFb} uP klg xfd|f dg eg]
nfUbf lgs} sl7g af6f] 5 . d w]/}k6s a}t8Llt/ g} c8\lsP lsgeg] ToxfF g]kfn dfq
lx8]sf] 5' . cf]/fnf] embf{ h;/Lt;/L lxF8\g' lyPg, ToxfF lyP d'6'sf 6'qmf xfd|f 5f]/Lx¿ .
g} a]z x'G5, Tof] af6f]dfly cfpFbf eg] k}bn lgd{nf Totf kms]{/ /f]O/lxg\ eg] d lkyf}/fu9
lxF8\g ufx|f] x'G5, xfdL ;w}F ef8fsf 3f]8fdf lhNNffsf ufpF–a:tL x]b}{ dg axnfpg] k|oTg
lg:sg] u/]sf xf}F . tn uO;s]kl5 k'nkfl/ ub}{ /x]F .
ef/tsf] emf]nf3f6af6 uf8L r9\g kfOG5 ca xfdL k' U of} F lkyf} / fu9, g] k fnsf]
eGg] dgl:yltn] cf]/fnf] embf{ hlt;'s} ufx|f] ;Ldfgfsf] 7" n f] zx/ . klZrd g] k fndf
eP klg cTof; nfUb}g . To:t} dgl:ylt 5f]/fx¿nfO{ k9fpg'k5{ eGg] hfu[lt cfpFbf
agfP/ xfdL ;':t–;':t tn em¥of}F / kfl/ k}bn lxF8]/ eP klg uP/ k9\g kfOg] 7fpF
uP/ lkyf}/fu9 hfg] a; r9Øf}F . lyof] lkyf}/fu9 . To;}n] ;'b"/ klZrdf~rn
hlt dfly rl9Fb} uof] Tolt g]kfnsf If]qsf vf; u/L a}t8L, bfr'{nf / aemfªlt/sf
ufpF–a:tL b]lvFb} uP / cGttM prfOdf /x]sf] x' g ] – vfg] kl/jf/sf 5f] / fx¿ lkyf} / fu9df
;b/d'sfd a}t8L g} b]lvof] . tg ef/tlt/ k9\ g hfg] uy] { . kl5 klg To; If] q sf

38 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
;+:d/)f

g]kfnLx¿nfO{ k9\g hfgsf] nflu lkyf}/fu9 eGg] s'/f dgleq k:of] . t/ clxn] k]ml/
pko'Qm 7fpF eof] . To;}n] g]kfnLx¿ lzIff /fhgLlts l;dfgfsf s'/f la;]{/ k|s[ltlt/
If]qdf cl3 a9\g'df lkyf}/fu9sf] klg 7"nf] g} Wofg lbg' lyof] / k|s[ltn] xfdLnfO{ g]kfn
e"ldsf 5 . cGo If]qdf vf; u/L g'g–t]n g} k|j]z u/fPsf] lyof] .
cflb g]kfnlt/ gkfOg] hgtfnfO{ cTofjZos cNdf]8faf6 cl3 a9]kl5 af6f]df /fgLv]t
kg]{ ;fdfgx¿ klg klxn]–klxn] lkyf}/fu9 hfg] ;8s pQ/lt/ nfUof] eg] xfdL ;Lw}
k'u]/ Nofpg'kYof]{ xf]nf . a}t8Lsf] l;dfgf klZrd nfUof}F . /fgLv]tlt/ xfdL guP klg
emf]nf3f6 / bfr'{nfsf] l;dfgf wfr'{nfdf g] k fn ;Demfpg] k| s [ l t Totflt/ ePsf]
ahf/ a;]sf] t lgs} kl5 xf]nfh:tf] nfU5 . cg'dfg ul/of] / lr/ k|tLlIft g}gLtfn
l;dfgf;Dd ;8s ag]/ Totf ahf/ a;]kl5 lelqg ;fgf] psfnf] rl9of] . cGtdf xfdL
oftfoftsf] klg ;'ljwf ylkof] / g]kfnLx¿ cfˆgf] uGtJodf k'Uof}F, Pp6f xf]6ndf sf]7f
klg l;dfgffdf k'u]/ ef/t x'Fb} sf7df8f}F / k"jL{ lnP/ zx/ x]b}{ g}gLtfnsf] k|d'v cfsif{0f 7"nf]
g]kfnsf cGo 7fpFdf hfg ;dy{ eP . To;/L tfndf gf}sf laxf/ ug{ uof}F . To; tfnsf]
aflx/af6 bfr'{nf hfg] g]kfnLx¿nfO{ wfr{'nf jl/kl/ g} ahf/ If]q 5 / gfpdf r9]/ zx/sf
k|j]z ug{ kf; lbg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] . ;a} /dfOnf b[Zo /fd|/L b]lvG5g\ .
wfr'{nfaf6 bfr'{nf k|j]z ug]{ dxfsfnLdflysf] g}gLtfnsf] ;fFem /dfOnf] lyof], kmf]6f]
k'n /ftdf aGb /xGYof] . lbpF;f] dfq bfr'{nf / lvlrlbg]x¿n] gfpdf a;fn]/ zx/sf] b[Zo
wfr'{nfdf cfjudg x'GYof] . otf e'mnf3f6df cfpg] u/L kmf]6f] lvlrlbGy] eg] /ftsf] zx/
eg] s'g} lsl;dsf] aGb]h lyPg . 6gsk'/b]lv e|d0f cem /dfOnf] x'G5 eGb} ljleGg 7fpF
lkyf}/fu9;Dd ;8s ag]sfn] ef/tsf] s'dfp n}hfg] ljsNkx¿ w]/}n] b]vfO/x]sf lyP . Tf/
If]qsf nflu / g]kfnsf a}t8L, bfr'{nf cflb xfdL vfgf vfP/ sf]7fdf g} uof}F . xfdLnfO{
lhNnfsf hgtfnfO{ w]/} ;x'lnot lyof] . w]/} of] e|d0f ;f]Fr]h:tf] /dfOnf] ePg, csf]{
kl5;Dd g]kfnLx¿ ef/tsf] af6f] eP/ g]kfn lbg g} sf7df8f}F kms{g sf7 uf]bfdlt/ emg]{
cfpg'kg]{ cj:yf lyof] . / /]nsf] l6s6 ldnfP/ 5f]/Lx¿ a}t8Laf6
lkyf}/fu9af6 ;Lw} klZrd hfg] af6f] sf7df8f}F k'Ug] lbg xfdL klg k'Ug] of]hgf
klg klxn] g} ag]sf] lyof] . xfdL g}gLtfn agfof}F . To:tf] x'g] /x]5 ;Gtfgsf] dfof Û
hfg ToxL klZrd hfg] ;8sdf ofqf ug'{ a}t8Lh:tf] g]kfnsf] b'u{d 7fpFdf ltgLx¿;Fu}
lyof] . To;}n] csf]{ lbg laxfg ;a]/} xfdLx¿ /xF b f s} o f} F lbg /dfOnf] ; F u al;of] eg]
g}gLtfn hfg] a; r9Øf}F . kxf8L af6f]df ofqf ef/tsf] g}gLtfnh:tf] 7fpFdf klt–kTgL b'j}
ubf{ cToGt /dfOnf] ePsf] lyof], t/ cNdf]8f hgf ;Fu} /xFbf klg Ps lbg a9L a:g] dg
k'u]kl5 t g]kfnsf] tfg;]g g} k'luof]h:tf] ePg .
eof] . stf–stf of] If]q g]kfns} lyof], xfd|f ptf lbbL–legfh' eGb} xf]nfg\– …uP a"9fa"9L
k'vf{ o; If]qdf axfb'/Lsf ;fy n8]sf x'g\ xgLd'g dgfpg 5]f/Lx¿nfO{ 5f8]/ ÛÚ d]/f] dg

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 39
;+:d/)f

crfgs efj's eof] / bz jif{klxn]sf s'/f Aflx/ lg:sFbf kms]{/ d}n] To; 9f]sfnfO x]/]F
;Demg nfu]F . / dnfO{ Tolt v'zL k|bfg ug]{ To; If0fnfO
bz jif{klxn] cyf{t\ @)#@ ;fnsf] df3 ;De]mF . cfh d oxfF gcfPsf] eP Û s] x'g
dlxgfsf] Ps lbg d a"9fgLns07 cfjf;Lo ;SYof] / s] x'g] eof] < dflg;sf hLjg
ljBfnosf] lzIfs lgjf;df /d]z zdf{sf] s:tf bf];fFwx¿ x'Fb} laTg] /x]5g\ < clnslt
lgjf;sf] 9f] s fdf 306L ahfpg k' u ] s f] /fd|/L ;f]r]/ xf] of efUo alnof] eP/ xf] of
x'G5' . 9f]sf v'Nb5, t/ d x]/]sf] x]/} x'G5' . a"9fgLns07 eujfg\ gf/fo0fsf] ljz]if s[kfn]
d ;ft–cf7 jif{klxn]sf] sLesf] cf/fdu[xdf xf], s;/L /Tgkfs{af6 l8NnLahf/ clkm;lt/
k'Ub5' . d}n] sNkgf u/]sf] :ju{sf] 6'qmfdf hfg'kg]{df d]/f uf]8f cgfof; hdnlt/ nfu]
s'g} cK;/fnfO{ b]v]y]F . t/ d}n] ;f]Fr]y]F, eGg]df k'gM d 3f]l/O/x]F / cToGt ef/L dg
…cK;/fx¿nfO{ k[ Y jLtndf Nofpg' x' F b } g , lnP/ To; ljBfnosf] u] 6 af6 lelqPsf]
zs' G tnfx¿n] b' M v kfpF 5 g\ .Ú To:tf] dflg; w]/} xn'ª\uf] dg u/fP/ ToxfFaf6
;f]rfOdf /x]/ g]kfn cfPsf] w]/} ;do x'Fbf aflxl/PF .
klg cfˆgf] dgn] vf]h]sL zs'Gtnf e]§fpg ca d sf7df8f}Flt/ hfFb} lyPF . dnfO a;
;s]sf] lyOgF / hLjg lalUf|g]h:tf] nfu]sf] :6k;Dd hfg lxF8\g'k/]sf] lyPg, lsgeg] d]/f
lyof] . t/ a"9fgLns07df To;/L 9f]sf v'Nbf v'§f e'OFdf lyPgg\ . d}n] ;f]FRg yfn]F, ca
To; lgjf;sf] dfq 9f]sf v'n]sf] lyPg, d]/f] d ToxLF /Tgkfs{ k'Ub} 5' . ToxfFaf6 k"j{lt/
hLjgsf] g} 9f]sf v'n]sf] lyof] cyf{t\ d]/f] l8NnLahf/ oyf:yfgdf xf]nf . Tof] d]/f] 8]/f
dgdlGb/df w]/} nfdf] ;dob]lv ;lhPsL b]jL hfg] af6f]df kg]{ c;g, OGb|rf]s, j;Gtk'/
ToxfF k|s6 ePsL lyOg\ . ltgL zs'Gtnfsf] ;a} p;} u/L l:y/ d'b|fdf xf]nfg\ . t/ dnfO{
¿kdf lgd{nf lyOg\ eg] ltgsf] dgdf s]xL eg] s] ePsf] xf] < oL ;a} lsg olt Hofb}
jif{ k lxn] k| j ] z u/fOPsf] JolQmsf] gfd dgkg{ nfu] < of] sf7df8f}F h;nfO{ d}n]
ltgnfO{ s07:y lyof], hf] clxn] pgsf] slxNo} dg k/fOgF, cfh s] eP/ xf] o;sf]
hLjgsf] 9f]sf 9s9sfpg k'u]sf] lyof] . 5ftLdf b'V5 ls eg]h:tf] u/]/ dnfO{ v'§f
tTsfn d To; 9f]sfleq kl;gF, lsgeg] 6]Sg klg dg nfUb}g, o; sf7df8f}FnfO{ d
ca d To; lgjf;sf] 9f]sfdfeGbf klxn] olt ;f/f] dfof ug{ yfn]F .
cfˆgf] hLjgsf] 9f]sfdf k|j]z ug{' lyof] . d]/f] dgn] cfk}mF hjfkm vf]Hof]– of] ToxL
ToxL sfo{nfO{ ;do lbg d sIff–sf]7fdf sf7df8f}F xf], h;sf] s'gfdf d]/f] cfˆgf] dgsf]
k|j]z ug{ nfu]sf /d]zhLnfO{ e]6\g bf}8]F, ljDa n's]/ a;]sf] lyof] . To; ljDanfO{ vf]Hg
h;n] dnfO{ b'O{ 3G6f s'g{ eGg'eof] . cs}{ ;+;f/sf] s'g s'gfdf k'Ug] eg]/ ef}Ftfl/O/x]sf]
sGofsf af/]df s'/f ug{ uPsf] d hLjgsf] a]nfdf Pp6f 306L ahfpg k'u]sf] lyPF . ToxL
lbzf lgwf{/0f u/L To; lgjf;af6 a]n'sLkv sf7df8f}Fsf] Pp6f s'gfdf 9f]sf vf]n]/ Tof]
kmls{PF . ljDa k|s6 eof] / dfq d}n] o; ;+;f/nfO{

40 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
;+:d/)f

lrg]F . jiff}{+ b]z–ljb]z 8'n]/ lrGg g;s]sf] x]¥of] Tot} /dfOnf], s] ePsf] xf] < d}n] o;
;+;f/nfO XjfQ} d]/f] cufl8 NofOlbP/ dnfO{ hLjgdf s]xL 5}g eGg] ;f]Fr]sf] lyPF . t/ oxfF
olt v'zL kfg]{ oxL sf7df8f}F xf] / d ca t w]/} s'/f /x]5 Û of] hLjg w]/} /dfOnf] /x]5
o;nfO dfof u5'{ . d}n] o; sf7df8f}FnfO{ eGg] lgisif{df k'Ub} cToGt lg/fz cj:yfdf
slt cgfb/ u/]F < o;sf] d'6':yndf lelqP laxfg nug6f]nsf] 8]/faf6 lg:s]sf] d a]n'sL
klg slxn] ;ft;d'b|kfl/sf] ¿; ;Demg k'Uy]F cToGt /dfOnf] dgl:yltdf s;}nfO{ dgdf
t slxn] ;ftu08sLkfl/sf] jfª\nf ;Demg n'sfP/ 8]/fdf lelqPF .
k'Uy]F . t/ cfh dnfO{ o;}leqsf uNnL / xf], To;/L dgdf n'sfPsL dflg;nfO{
rf]sx¿sf] dfof nflu/x]sf] 5 / eGg dg cfˆgf] agfpg klg cln ;ts{tf ckgfpg'k/]sf]
nflu/x]sf] 5– …sf7df8f}F, ca ltdL d]/f] xf], t/ xfdL ;kmn eof}F . To;kl5 d}n] kfPsf]
jfª\nf;/x cfˆg} eof}, d ltdLnfO dfof a]nfOtsf] nfdf] cWoog ;do 5f]§Øfpg
u5'{ .Ú gl6ª\ud ljZjljBfnosf] sfo{qmd 5f8]F eg]] !
a"9fgLns07af6 a; r9]/ cufl8 a9\bf gDa/ gfkL uf]Zjf/f, lbQ]mn, vf]6fªdf dnfO{
d}n] k5fl8 kms]{/ lzjk'/L 8fF8fnfO x]/]F, x]b}{ ;?jf ul/Psf]df /fhkqfª\lst låtLo >]0fLsf]
hfF b f gfufh' { g b] l vP, yfgsf] 6 dfly–dfly hflu/af6 g} d}n] /fhLgfdf u/]F . oL ;a} sfo{
8fF8fx¿ b]lvP, k'mnrf}sL / gu/sf]6 b]lvP log} bz jif{leq ePsf lyP / d}n] sfof{nodf
/ ;a} l t/ slt /dfOnf] b] l vPsf] xf] , d a;] / lg0f{ o lbg] k| d ' v gfkL clws[ t sf]
crDd k/]F . Tof] cfsfz g} x]bf{ xf];\ of hflu/ 5f8]/ 8fF8fsfF8f ;e]{ ub}{ bf}8g] af6f]
jfl/kfl/sf af6f, ejgx¿ x]bf{ xf];\, dnfO{ ;dft]sf] x'F . log} bz jif{kl5 aNNf xfdLnfO{
Hofb} /dfOnf] nfUg yfNof] . dnfO{ u'l8/x]s} lbbL–legfh' s f] efiffdf xlgd' g sf] ;fOt
a;af6 xfDkmfn] / tL af6fx¿df bf} 8 g h'/]sf] lyof] . Tf/ xfdLn] To;nfO{ w]/} ;do
dgnfUof] / dnfO{ lrRofO{ – lrRofO{ eGg lbg ;s]gf}F / kms{g] tof/Ldf nfUof}F .
dgnfUof]– …sf7df8f}Fjf;L ldqx¿, xfdL slt xfdL csf]{ lbg g} sf7 uf]bfd em¥of}F
efUodfgL 5f}F Û tkfO{+x¿ Yffxf kfpg'xf]nf, / /]nsf] af6f] uf]/vk'/ x'Fb} g]kfn k:of}F .
of] kz'kltgfysf] sf7df8f}F, of] a"9fgLns07 sf7df8f}F k'Ubf lbbL–legfh';lxt 5f]/Lx¿ klg
gf/fo0f:yfgsf] sf7df8f}F, tkfO{+–xfdLnfO{ k'u]sf lyP . xfdLnfO{ a}t8Lsf] /dfOnf] k'gM
slt w]/} dfof u5{ . To;}n] xfdL ;a} o; k|fKt eof] . To;kl5 eg] g}gLtfnsf] klg w]/}
sf7df8f}FnfO{ dfof u/f}F ÛÚ ;Demgf x'g yfNof] . 5f]/Lx¿ klg lnP/ k]ml/
dnfO{ a;sf ofq'x¿ / af6fdf b]lvg] Totf hfg kfP x'GYof] eGg] eO/Xof] .
dflg;x¿ klg w]/} dfofn' nfUg yfn] . htf

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 41
sljtf

ltdL ev{/ ljb]z lxF8\bf, ofb 5 ltdLnfO{ <


g]kfn–P]gfdf dfgf}F, cfˆgf] cg'xf/ x]/]/
d}n] ltdLnfO{ eg]sf] lyPF
cgnfOgsf] clGtd lrÝLdf–
:jfledfgsf nflu a? ef]sf] k]6 a:5' d
cgnfOg ;+jfb d]/f] b]zsf] uf}/jsf] nflu a? l/Qf] ks]6 lxF8\5' d
k};fdf OHht a]r/] kl/jf/sf] vNtL eg'{ 5}g dnfO{ .
aNn cfh w]/} lbgkl5 ToxL cgnfOgdf
pxL kxf8sf] bf]h{] ltdL, k/b]zL;Fu
k]ml/ d]/f] ;+jfb eof] .
PSsfl; ltdLn] ;f]Wof}–
b]j/fo, ltdLnfO{ 3/sf] 5fgf] 5fpg cfpF5 <
tTIf0fdf g} k]ml/ eGof}–
d ef6f sf6\5', afF; lr5'{
d;Fu d]/f afn] 6f}jf agfPsf]
uf]7 s6]/f] xfn]sf] cg'ej 5 .
cfh ltdLn] clGtd ;+jfb u¥of} ljb]zL e"ldaf6 .
ltdL eGb} 5f}
lxdfnsf] ;'Gb/tfnfO{ gfk]/ rf}/Lsf vs{x¿df
d g]kfn ;hfpg]5' d]/} kl;gfn] l;FlrP/,
ca dnfO{ ;lhg' 5}g d/]/ Ps lbg sf7sf] afs;leq,
dnfO{ d]/f] b]zsf] e"uf]n gfKg' 5
d xn uf]? gf/]/ afFhf] hf]T5'
hxfF d]/L ;FlugL kl5–kl5 aLp 5g{]l5g\ .
:ofaf;\ ltdLnfO{,
ltd|f] cgnfOgsf] clGtd ;+jfbsf nflu Û
sf}lznf l/;fn dnfO{ ljZjf; nfUof], ltdL l5§} g]kfn ks{g]5f} .

42 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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lj ifok|j]z
g]kfnL Psfª\sL k/Dk/fdf df]xg/fh zdf{
-!((&_ sf] 5'§} / ljlzi6 :yfg /x]sf] 5 . pgsf
Psfª\sLdf hLjgsf ;"Idtd oyfy{x¿ 3gLe"t
¿kdf k|s6 ePsf 5g\ . dfG5]sf] cl:dtf
:vlnt x'bF } uPsf] oyfy{nfO{ pgn] Psfª\sLdf

…/fhLgfdfÚ k|jfx u/]sf 5g\ . zdf{sf Psfª\sLdf clwsf+z


o'uLg a]lyltaf6 k|tfl8t kfqx¿ pkl:yt x'G5g\
Psfª\sLsf] / ltgsf] k|oTgx¿ hLjgsf cfzfnfO{ ;d]6g\
k|oTgzLn /xG5g\ . To;}n] pgsf Psfª\sLx¿
j:t';Gbe{ hLjgaf6 knfog xf]Og, hLjgk|lt cf:yf sfod
ug]{ hLjgjfbL :j/åf/f dfG5]sf cd"No efjgfnfO{
hLljt t'Nofpg] cfsfª\Iffx¿ cleJoQm ePsf
x'G5g\ . k|d] , hLjg l;h{gf / dfgjr]tgfnfO{
afF R g lbg' k b{ 5 eGg] cGt;{ G b] z zdf{ s f
Psfª\sLdf kfOG5 . To;}n] pgL :j:y, zfGt,
l;h{gzLn dfgjLo ;dfhsf] :yfkgf ug{ rfxg]
Psfª\sLsf/ x'g\ . j:t', lzNkk|ljlw / lrGtgnfO{
PsLs[t kfb}{ snfTds, :j}/sNkgfTds /
cfw'lgs cl:tTjjfbL dfgjtfjfbL ljrf/ k|:t't
ug'{ pgsf] k|jl[ Q xf] .
lj:tf/
Psfª\sLsf/ df]xg/fh zdf{n] …/fhLgfdfÚ
Psfª\sLnfO{ cToGt} gf}nf] t/Lsfn] k|:t't u/]sf
5g\ . Psfª\sLnfO{ d~r;Hhf u/]/ jl0f{t ¿kdf
jf gu/]/} xfpefpåf/f g} klg To;sf] cfef;
u/fO{ k|bz{g ug{ ;lsg] hfgsf/L u/fPsf]
u'?k|;fb kf]v/]n
5 . Psfª\sLdf jt{dfg ;dfhdf b]lvPsf]

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JolQmjfbL, :jfyL{, e|i6 tyf cN5] rl/qx¿ tyf :tDe–n]vgdf Jo:t 5 . pm cfˆgf] pQm n]v
km:6fpFb} u/]sf] lktkqsfl/tf tyf /fhgLlt, l;WofP/ dfq SoflG6g hfg rfxG5 . t/ ;ltz,
lzIffh:tf ljljw If]qdf b]lvPsf] ljs[ltlj?4 e§ lrof vfg hfgsf] lglDt s'l//x]sf x'G5g\ .
Joª\Uo ul/Psf] 5 . /]vf klg k|0foefjdf k|:tfj /fV5] t/ s;}sf]
syfj:t' k|:tfjnfO{ klg :jLsf/ gu/L pm pQm n]v
…/fhLgfdfÚ Psfª\sLdf ;"qwf/sf] ¿kdf l;WofP/ dfq hfg rfxfG5 . ;a} hfG5g\ .
lgb]{zssf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . . pm b[Zo lgb]z{ sn] t];f| ] b[Zosf] ;ª\st] u5{ . t];f| ]
kl/jt{gsf] ;ª\st] ub{5 . Psfª\sLnfO{ z'¿d} b[Zodf– /fs]z cfˆgf] n]v l;WofP/ SoflG6glt/
Jo~hgfTdstf k|bfg ug{ lgb]z { snfO{ k|:t't hfG5 . p;nfO{ b]v/] pmeGbf cufl8 uPsf
ul/Psf] 5 . p;sf b'j} cfFvf aGb 5g\ . 3fF6Ldf ;tLz, e§ cflb l6Kk0fL u5{g\ . ;tLz / /]vf
kmnfdsf] l;qmL dfnfh:t} e'ml08Psf] 5 eg] eg] 5'§} 6]an ' df a;]sf x'G5g\ . /fs]z /]vfsf]
dfnfdf lgb]z { s n]lvPsf] Jofh e'ml08Psf] 5 . 6]an' df uP/ a:5 . /fs]z /]vf a;]s} 7fpFdf
p;sf cfFvffx¿ v'n] klg d'vn] af]Ng ;Sb}g, a:g k'us ] fn] p;sf] rfl/lqs l6Kk0fL x'G5 .
To;}n] pm Zofdk§df n]v/] b[Zo kl/jt{g ub{5 . /]vf / ;tLzaLrdf k|0foefjsf s'/fx¿ x'G5g\ .
Psfª\sLnfO{ ;fgf–;fgf ;ftj6f b[Zodf ;tLz cfˆgf] n]vsf] af/]df s'/f u5{ t/ /]vf
ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 . ljeflht b[Zox¿ Ps} To;nfO{ a]jf:tf u5]{ . /fs]z /]vf;Fu cfFvf
lbgsf] / Pp6} kl/j]z;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\ . h'wfpF5, /]vf of] PsfGt kfs{ geP/ ;fj{hlgs
Psfª\sLsf] klxnf] b[Zodf laxfg !) ah]sf] SoflG6g xf] eGb} o:t} ug]{ xf] eg] cfk"m hfg] wDsL
5 . lgb] { z sn] Zofdk§df n] V g yfn] k l5 ;'gfpF5] / ef]ln k]m;g–zf]sf] pb\3f6g sfo{qmdf
kfqx¿ lg:sG5g\ / d~rdf cfpF5g\ . cfpg] hfg] k|:tfj /fV5] . TolQs}df avtdfg -lkog_
;a} kfqx¿ ;a} kmfF6sf sd{rf/Lx¿ x'G5g\ . sf] k|jz ] x'G5 . pm /]vfnfO{ lrkmn] af]nfPsf]
:tDe / l6Kk0fL n]vsx¿, k|k' m ;+z + f]wg ug]x{ ¿, ;dfrf/ lbG5 clg /]vf klg ;Fu} hfG5] .
kmf]6f]u|fkm/, 6fOlk:6, 6]lnlk|G6/, ˆofS;, rf}yf] b[Zo k|d'v ;Dkfbssf] sf]7fsf] 5 .
sDKo'6/ rnfpg]x¿ cf–cfˆgf sfddf Jo:t l/Qf] sf]7fdf ;Dkfbs xftdf kmf]6fx¿ lnP/
x'G5g\ . o'4:t/df sfd x'g yfn]kl5 lgb]{zsn] s';L{df a:5 . /]vf / avtdfg k'U5g\ .
b[Zo kl/jt{gsf] ;ª\s]t ub{5 . /]vfnfO{ b]v]kl5 e'nSs8 lrkm /]vfnfO{ p;sf]
bf];f| ] b[Zo lbgsf] @ ah]lt/ x'G5 . lrofvfhf kmf]6f]u|fkmLsf] k|z+;f ub]{ kbf]Ggltsf] 3f]if0ff
vfg] a]nf ePsf] x'bF f ;a} sd{rf/Lx¿ cf–cfˆgf] u5{ . lrkm xft ldnfpg cfˆgf b'O{ xft
sfd yGSofP/ SoflG6g hfg] tv{/ u5{g\ . k'mtL{;fy cufl8 ;f5{ t/ /]vf b'O{ xft hf]8\b}
o;}a]nfb]lv Psfª\sLdf ;+jfbsf] z'¿cft ToxfFaf6 lg:sG5] . o;/L oxfF kqsfl/tfh:tf]
x'G5 . o; b[Zodf :tDesf/ ;tLz, /fs]z kljq If]qdf klg dflyNnf cf]xbfdf /x]sfx¿
e§ / kmf]6f]u|fkm/ /]vfaLrsf] 76Øf}nf] kf/fsf] cfˆgf] :jfy{k"lt{sf lglDt pBt /xG5g\ eGg]
;+jfbx¿ 5g\ . /fs]z kmf]xf]/hlt dnfO{ zLif{s s'/fnfO{ b]vfpg vf]lhPsf] 5 . gf/Lx¿dflysf]

44 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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lu4]b[li6 ljBdfg /x]sf] s'/fnfO{ lrkmsf] /fs]z cftª\lst aGb5 . lgb]z { sn] Zofdk§sf]
rl/qn] k|:6ØfpF5 . kf6f] kN6fpF5, ToxfF n]lvPsf] x'G5– a"9L / /f]uL
kfFrf}F b[Zo k'gM ;Dkfbg kmfF6sf] /x]sf] 5 . cfdfsf] ;Demgf . csf]{ kf6f] kN6fpF5, ToxfF
/]vfn] xft gldnfPsLn] lvl;|Ss k/]sf] lrkm n]lvPsf] x'G5– pd]/ k'us ] L cljjflxt alxgLsf]
cfˆgf b'O{ xftx¿ dNb} aflx/ lg:sG5 . ;Dkfbg ;Demgf / csf]{ kf6fdf n]lvPsf] x'G5– gfd
kmfF6sf ;a} sd{rf/Lx¿ lrofvfhf vfP/ sfl6P/ k9\g gkfPsf] efOsf] ;Demgf . o;n]
kmls{G5g\ / /]vfjl/kl/ em'lDdG5g\ / a9'jfsf] p;sf] ljjztfnfO{ ;DemfpF5 . pm a]sf/ eP/
kf6L{sf] k|:tfj /fV5g\ . To;}avt avtdfgsf] kl/jf/sf] lahf]u agfpg c;xdt x'G5 clg
cfudgnfO{ ;a} pT;'stfsf ;fy x]5{g\ . cfˆgf] :tDenfO{ ;Rofpg afWo x'G5 .
/fs]z;lxt b'j} lrkmsf] sf]7flt/ nfU5g\ . clGtd tyf ;ftf}F b[Zo /]vf / /fs]zaLrsf] 5 .
5}7f}F b[Zo k|dv
' ;Dkfbssf] 5 . lrkm /L;sf] k|k' m ;Rofpg nfu]sf] /fs]z ghLs /]vf pkl:yt
cfj]zdf b]lvG5 . pm /fs]zsf] kmf]xf]/ hlt x'G5] / k]m;g–zf]df hfg] s'/f ;DemfpF5] t/ /fs]zn]
dnfO{ :tDedf cfFvf ufl8/x]sf] x'G5 . To;a]nf a]km';s { f sf/0f hfg gkfpg] s'/f atfpFbfatfpFb}
/fs]z / avtsf] k|jz ] x'G5 . oxLFaf6 Psfª\sLn] klg /]vfsf] sf/0faf6 hfg afWo x'G5 . s]xLa]/cl3
r/df]Tsif{tf k|fKt ub{5 / d'Vo nIolt/ pGd'v kl/jf/nfO{ dxŒj lbg] pm clxn] /]vfsf] k|d] nfO{
x'G5 . /fs]zsf] n]vnfO{ lg/fwf/ e"m§f eGb} dxŒj lb+b} eG5– of] ;To c;Ton] g9flsPsf]
o:tf] n]vsn] hgljZjf; u'Dg] s'/f u5{ / a]; . /]vf, of] h:tf] 5 To:t} 5flkof];,\ ;To g}
pm /fs]znfO{ a]9ª\uL tfnn] ljleGg gfdaf6 5flkof];\ . d o;nfO{ ;RofpFlbg . cflv/ ltdLn]
;Daf]wg ul//xG5 . /fs]z cfˆgf] n]v ;To / lhTof} . ca k|d] sf] o; bf;nfO{ 8f]¥ofP/===
;k|df0f /x]sf] bfaL ub{5 . ljsf;sf] gfddf klxnf] cª\ s ;dfKt ePsf] ;ª\ s ] t
ljgfz Pjd\ gfkmf sdfpg] cGwf] k|nf]egdf lgb]{zsn] lbG5 / Psfª\sLsf] cGTo x'G5 .
sd;n ;fdfgx¿sf] k|of]u x'bF f k'n elTsP/ w]/n } ] o;/L …/fhLgfdfÚ Psfª\sLdf ;fdfGo syfgs
Hofg u'dfpg'k/]sf] k|df0f /fs]zn] lrkm;dIf eP/ klg kqsfl/tfh:tf] kljq k]zfdf b]lvPsf
/fVb5 . k/Gt' lgdf{0f sDkgLsf dflns :jod\ ljs[ l tx¿k| l t tLj| Joª\ U o ul/Psf] 5 .
b}lgs …lxdfnL laxfgÚsf dflns;d]t ePsf] hLjgk|ltsf] g}/fZonfO{ k|d ] k|ltsf] cf;lQmn]
x'bF f o:tf ;dfrf/ 5fKg gx'g] s'/f u5{ / Tof] ;xh t'Nofpg] tYonfO{ Psfª\sLn] b]vfpg
k|k' mskLnfO{ ;Rofpg bafj lbG5 / Tof] n]vnfO{ … vf]hs ] f] 5 . Joj:yfks Pjd\ k|zf;ssf] sf/0fn]
cftª\sjfbLx¿n] ad lj:kmf]6g u/fP/ eTsfPsf]Ú kqsf/x¿ s7k'tnLe}mF ePsf] oyfy{ ;Tosf]
agfpg] cfb]z lbG5 . /fs]z ;TonfO{ c;Ton] pb\3f6g Psfª\sLdf kfOG5 . Psfª\sLdf /fs]z
9fSg g;Sg] / Pp6fsf st't{ nfO{ csf{sf] gfddf cl:tTjsf] lglDt ;ª\3if{ ug]{ kfqsf] ¿kdf
gyf]kg]{ s'/f atfpF5 . oL s'/fdf c;xdlt x'bF f b]vfkb{5 . t/ cfˆgf] cfly{s ljjztfsf sf/0f
/fs]znfO{ /fhLgfdf ug]{ cfb]z cfpF5 . o;af6 ;Tof]b3\ f6gdf ;d]t ;dk{0fsf] efj k|s6 ePsf]
Psfª\sLsf] syfn] r/dpTsif{tf k|fKt ub{5 . 5 . a"9L / /f]uL cfdfsf] ;Demgfsf sf/0f pm

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 45
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/fhLgfdf u/]/ :jfledfgL aGg ;s]sf] 5}g . To:t} lhNofpg ;kmn x'G5] . /]vf s'zn kmf]6f]u|fkm/
pd]/ k'u/] klg cfly{s cefjs} sf/0f ljjfx x'g 5] eg] s'zn k|]ldsf klg .
g;s]sL alxgL / k};f ltg{ g;s]/ k9\g g;s]sf] lrkm Psfª\sLsf] b'an { kfqsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] 5 .
efOnfO{ ;De]m/ pm /fhLgfdf ug{ ;Sb}g . pm /]vfnfO{ kbf]Ggltsf] k|nf]egdf cfk"mk|lt cfsif{0f
o;/L Psfª\sLn] cfly{s, /fhg}lts, ;fdflhs ug{ rfxG5 / t'?Gt} xft ldnfpg] axfgfdf /]vfnfO{
/ sd{rf/L ju{df b]lvPsf] pQ/bfloTjk|ltsf] :kz{ ug{ cu|;/ x'G5 t/ /]vfsf] rnfvLkgsf] sf/
a]jf:tfnfO{ b]vfpg vf]hs ] f] kfOG5 . 0f xft df]Ng ljjz x'G5 . csf]l{ t/ /fs]zsf] ;To
l/q lrq0f
rl/q ;dfrf/nfO{ e"m7f] / lagfcfwf/sf] eg]/ ;TonfO{
…/fhLgfdfÚ Psfª\sLdf d'Vo rl/qsf] 9fs5f]k ub{5 . Joj:yfkss} s'sT[ onfO{ pm
¿kdf /fs]z, /]vf / lrkm /x]sf 5g\ eg] ;+/If0f u5{ . pm e'nSs8 5, ;Fu} sfd ug]{ cfˆgf
;xfos rl/qx¿df ;tLz, e§, avt cflb sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ ;d]t pm la;{G5 . Pp6f JolQmnfO{
b]lvG5g\ . To:t} uf}0f rl/qx¿df ;Ltf, cs}{ gfdn] af]nfpF5 . t'?Gt} la;{g] cfˆgf] afgLk|lt
uf}/L cflb b]vfkb{5g\ eg] Psfª\sLdf dxh{g, klg ;r]t 5}g . To:t} ;tLz / e§x¿ sdhf]/
If]qL, uf]kfnh:tf ;"Ro kfqx¿sf] klg k|of]u rl/qs} kfqsf ¿kdf /x]sf 5g\ . pgLx¿ /fs]z
ul/Ps]f 5 . / /]vfsf] k|d] ;DaGwsf] cfnf]rgf u5{g\ . oL b'jn } ]
Psfª\ s Lsf] d' V o kfq /fs] z st{ J o cfˆgf] sfdk|lt Tolt pQ/bfloTjsf] axg u/]sf]
/ bfloTjk|lt k|lta4 5 k/Gt' cfk"meGbf kfOFbg} . avtdfg lkog xf] . pm lrkmsf] eQm 5 .
pRr cf]xbfsf JolQmx¿sf] bafjdf cfˆgf] Psfª\sLdf lrkmsf] rDr] elgP klg To:tf] p;sf]
cl:tTjnfO{ ;ª\s6df pEofpg ljjz 5 . s'g} rfl/lqs sdhf]/L eg] b]lvFbg] . ;Ltf, uf}/L
pm kqsfl/tf k]zfsf] ;xL ;b'kof]u ub}{ ;To Psfª\sLdf uf}0f kfqsf ¿kdf b]lvG5g\ . pgLx¿
;dfrf/ ;+ki]| f0fdf ;l/s /xG5 t/ Joj:yfkssf] /]vfsf] kbf]Ggltdf kf6L{sf nflu dfq ;+jfbfTds
OHhtdf bfu nfUg] x'gfn] k|zf;ssf] bafjdf ¿kdf b]vfk/]sf 5g\ . o;/L x]bf{ Psfª\sLdf ;an
To;df cfk"mnfO{ kl5 kfg{ ljjz x'G5 . o;/L kfqsf] ¿kdf /fs]zn] k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] 5 pm
/fs]z /]vf;Fusf] k|]dsf sf/0f k'gM ;fx; k|fKt lktkqsfl/tf lj/f]wdf 5 . pm ;To ;dfrf/nfO{
ub{5 / ToxL ;dfrf/nfO{ g} 5kfpg] k|0f ub{5 . n'sfP/ /fVg / s'sT[ onfO{ csf]s { f gfddf /fVg
To:t} /]vf Psfª\sLdf s'zn rl/qsf] ¿kdf rfxFbg} . /]vf;Fusf] k|d] k|0fodf cfˆgf] cl:tTjsf]
b]vfk5]{ . lrkmsf] k|;+zfn] klg p;nfO{ vf;} ;+/If0f ug{ ;kmn /fs]zn] Psfª\sLnfO{ pTsif{tf
c;/ kfb}{g . gf/L cl:dtfnfO{ hf]ufP/ /fV5] k|bfg u/]sf] 5 .
k/Gt' k]m;g–zf]df hfg] /]vf Jofjxfl/s ¿kdf ;+jfb
eg] kl/kSj b]lvGg . /]vfn] ubf{ g} cl:tTjaf6 …/fhLgfdfÚ Psfª\sLsf] ;+jfb ;/n /
knfog x'g nfu]sf] /fs]znfO{ pmhf{ k|bfg ;ª\lIfKt 5 . 5f]6f], dL7f] / em/f{ zAbx¿sf]
ub{5 . /fs]zk|lt /]vfsf] k|0foefj 5 . lrkmn] k|of]u ePsf] ;+jfb o; Psfª\sLsf] dxŒjk"0f{
xft ldnfpg cl3 ;fbf{ pm xft hf]8/] lrkmnfO{ ljz]iftf xf] . Psfª\sLdf cª\u|]hL zAbx¿sf]

46 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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afx'No b]lvG5 . ;+jfb Ps zAbb]lv tLg–rf/ kl/j]z


jfSo;Ddsf Psfª\sLdf k|of]u ePsf 5g\ . /fhLgfdf Psfª\sLsf] kl/j]znfO{ x]bf{
kqsfl/tf;Fu ;DalGwt ;+jfb Psfª\sLdf k|of]u zxl/of / b/afl/of ;fwg;DkGg b]lvG5 . Pp6f
ePsf] 5 . h:t}– :yfg, ;do, kl/j]z;Fu ;DalGwt ePsfn] o;
/fs]z M -;'¿kk lrof tfg]/_ a'‰of} /]vf, Psfª\sLdf clGjltqosf] /fd|f] kfngf ePsf]
cfh d]/f] n]v a'n]^ % a'n]^ Û 5 . 36gf Ps lbgsf] 5 . :yfg Pp6} 3/ jf
/]vf M a'n]^ ls rsn]^ gk(L yfxf < clkm;sf] 5 . kfqx¿sf] e]ife'iff, af]nrfn klg
efiffz}nL :yfg, ;do / sfn ;fk]If 5 . o; Psfª\sLn]
…/fhLgfdfÚ Psfª\sLsf] efiffz}nL ;/n, jt{dfg cj:yfdf kqsfl/tf If]qdf b]lvPsf]
;xh, em/f]{, gjLg, cfnª\sfl/s / ;ª\lIfKt ljs[ltnfO{ cfˆgf] kl/j]z agfPsf] 5 . :jfyL{
vfnsf] 5 . h:tf]– / n3';f]r ePsf JolQmx¿sf] xfjL /x]sf]] xfd|f]
/]vf M ca ukm ug]{ hf] dL&f–dL&f %g\ = h:tf] ;dfhdf kqsf/x¿n] klg bafjdf
/fs]z M Tof] eP Ps d'&L lrgL a'SofP/ ;dfrf/ ;+k|]if0f ul//xg' kg]{ tYonfO{ o;
af]n"F t, s'/f ;fx|} dL&f x'G%g\ = Psfª\sLn] b]vfpg vf]]h]sf] 5 . Psfª\sLdf
/]vf M wt\ lrgLn] s'/f] dL&f] kfg'{eGbf t d~rlgb]z { gaf6 g} kfqsf] JolQmTj lrgfpg]
gaf]nL a;]sf] a]; = sfd ePsf] 5 . o;df cTofw'gls j}1flgs
o;/L x] b f{ ;+ j fbdf cfnª\ s fl/stf, d] l ;gx¿sf] k| o f] u n] kl/j] z nfO{ zxl/of
sfJofTdstf / cg'kf| ;dotf kfOG5 . To:t} agfPsf] 5 . o;/L syf / kfqcg'sn " g} kl/j]z
s]xL pvfg–6'Ssfsf] k|of]un] ;d]t Psfª\sLnfO{ o;df cfof]lht b]lvG5 .
sfJofTdstf k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . h:tf]– xfQL l5¥of] zLif{s
k'R5/ c8\Sof], Ps gDa/sf] sGof /flz, lrgLn] …/fhLgfdfÚ Psfª\sLsf] zLif{s Psfª\sLsf] d"n
s'/f dL7f] kfg'{ . To:t}– Psfª\sLdf cª\uh ]| L sYos} cfwf/df /flvPsf] 5 . ;To ;dfrf/nfO{
efiffsf] afx'No b]lvG5 . h:t}– lrkm, k|k' ml/8/, e"m7f] agfP/ g5kfP /fs]zn] /fhLgfdf ug'k{ g]{
kmf]6f]uf| km/ cl;:6]G6, 6fOk;]l6ª, cflb . cj:yf 5 . oxfF ls t /fhLgfdf ls t
Psfª\sLsf] efiffdf st}–st} tfls{stf / :tDesf/dWo] Ps ljsNk /fs]z /f]Hg'k/]sf] 5
af}l4stf b]lvP klg ;/tf / g} o;sf] eflifs eg] pm cfTdfn] c:jLsf/ ubf{ub}{ klg /fhLgfdf
ljz]iftf xf] . st} ;"Id ¿kdf xfF:oefj klg ug{ ;Sb}g / cfˆgf] cfly{s tyf kfl/jlf/s
JoQm ul/Psf] 5 . /]vfn] /fs]z;Fu u/]sf] ;d:ofsf] sf/0f pm hflu/af6 /fhLgfdf ub}g{ .
;+jfbsf k|;ª\ux¿, k|0fod"ns efjx¿ /f]rs o;}nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ Psfª\sLsf] zLif{s
5g\ . d~rLo ;fh;Hhf u/]/ jf gu/]/} clego /flvPsfn] zLif{s pko'Qm b]lvG5 .
ug{ ;lsg] x'gfn] gofF z}nLsf] yk k'li6 x'G5 . p2]Zo
o;/L of] Psfª\sL ;/n, /f]rs, sfJofTds …/fhLgfdfÚ Psfª\sLsf] p2]ZonfO{ x]bf{
efiffdf tof/ kfl/Psf] 5 . kqsfl/tf If]qdf b]lvPsf ljs[ltnfO{ phfu/

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 47
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ug's { f ;fy} lgdf{0fsf gfddf ePsf ljgfz, g}lts b'an { tf tyf k|0foefj Pjd\ 7]sb] f/x¿n]
ljsf;sf gfddf ePsf e|i6frf/ tyf sld;g gfkmf sdfpg] gfddf x'g] u/]sf] e|i6 k|jl[ QnfO{
Pjd\ kqsfl/tfh:tf] ;dfhsf] Ps cª\uleq x'g] cf}NF ofpFb} ;To b|i6fx¿sf] cfFvfdf k§L afFWg
gftfjfb, s[kfjfb clg 7"nf cf]xbfdf /xg]x¿sf] afWo t'Nofpg] Joj:yfks / ;Dkfbsx¿dfly
ljs[t dfgl;stf, g}lts rl/qxLgftfk|lt ljb|fx] tLvf] Joª\Uo ul/Psf] 5 .
/ Joª\Uo k|xf/ ug'{ /x]sf] 5 . cJo:yfks lgisif{
Pjd\ k|zf;sx¿s} e/f}6]x¿sf] cNka'l4sf o; k| s f/ df] x g/fh zdf{ k| o f] u jfbL
sf/0f ;dfhsf ;fdfGo hgtfx¿n] ;To gf6ssf/ x'g\ . pgsf Psfª\sLdf hLjgsf
;dfrf/af6 6f9} /xg'k/]sf] jt{dfg oyfy{nfO{ ;"Idtd oyfy{x¿ 3gLe"t ¿kdf k|s6 ePsf
pb\3f6g ub}{ Psfª\sLn] To:tf s'/fx¿sf nflu 5g\ . dfG5]sf] cl:dtf :vlnt x'Fb} uPsf]
b[9tfk"js { ;ª\3if{ ug'k{ g]t{ k{m ;r]t agfPsf] oyfy{nfO{ pgn] Psfª\sLdf k|jfx u/]sf 5g\ .
5 . a9LeGbf a9L gfkmf sdfpg] k|nf]egdf zdf{sf Psfª\sLdf clwsf+z o'uLg a]lyltaf6
k/]/ sd;n vfnsf] lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] pkof]u k|tfl8t kfqx¿ pkl:yt x'G5g\ / ltgsf]
u/L k'n eTs]sf] xf] eGg] hfGbfhfGb} klg To:tf k|oTgx¿ hLjgsf cfzfnfO{ ;d]6g\ k|oTgzLn
;dfrf/x¿ 5fKbf hgljZjf; u'Dg], klqsfsf] /xG5g\ . To;}n] pgsf Psfª\sLx¿ hLjgaf6
dof{bf / :t/ vl:sg] h:tf s'/fx¿ u/]/ To:tf] knfog xf]Og hLjgk|lt cf:yf sfod ug]{
;dfrf/nfO{ ;'wf/ u/]/ cftª\sjfbLx¿n] ad hLjgjfbL :j/åf/f dfG5]sf cd"No efjgfnfO{
ljikmf]6 u/fP/ k'n eTsfPsf] xf] eGg] h:tf hLljt t'Nofpg] cfsfª\Iffx¿ cleJoQm ePsf
e|fds ;dfrf/ 5kfpg afWo t'NofpF5 . o;/L x'G5g\ . k|d ] , hLjg l;h{gf / dfgjr]tgfnfO{
dflyNnf] txaf6} x'g] u/]sf] nfkjf{xLsf sf/0f afF R g lbg' k b{ 5 eGg] cGt;{ G b] z zdf{ s f
kqsfl/tf h:tf] If]qdf klg :jR5tf x'g g;s]sf] Psfª\sLdf kfOG5 . To;}n] pgL :j:y, zfGt,
tYonfO{ cufl8 ;fl/Psf] 5 . cfˆgf s'/fx¿nfO{ l;h{gzLn dfgjLo ;dfhsf] :yfkgf ug{ rfxg]
:jR5 / lg:kIf 9ª\uaf6 ;k|df0f k|:t't Psfª\sLsf/ x'g\ . j:t', lzNkk|ljlw / lrGtgnfO{
ubf{ub}{ klg pkNnf] bhf{sf egfpFbfx¿nfO{ PsLs[t kfb}{ snfTds, :j}/sNkgfTds /
v'zL kfg{ g;Sbf vfOhLljsfsf] ;|ft] sf] ¿kdf cfw'lgs cl:tTjjfbL dfgjtfjfbL ljrf/ k|:t't
/x]sf] lgDg:t/sf sd{rf/Ldfly k|xf/ ul/g] ug'{ pgsf] k|jl[ Q xf] . pgsf] o; Psfª\sLn]
cgfjZos r]tfjgLsf] lj¿4 cfÇgf] clfy{s kqsfl/tfdflysf] HofbtL, lhDd]jf/ dfG5]x¿sf]
tyf kfl/jfl/s ;d:ofs} sf/0f /fhLgfdf lbg g}lts b'a{ntf tyf k|0foefjk|ltsf] lnK;f
g;sLsg e"m7f tyf e|dfTds ;dfrf/nfO{ Pjd\ 7]sb] f/x¿n] gfkmf sdfpg] gfddf x'g]
;+ki]| f0f ug{ afWo agfOPsf] kqsf/sf] dfgl;s u/]sf] e|i6 k|jl[ QnfO{ cf}NF ofpFb} ;To b|i6fx¿sf]
bzfnfO{ o; Psfª\sLdf gf6sLo 9ª\uaf6 cfFvfdf k§L afFWg afWo t'Nofpg] Joj:yfks /
rl/tfy{ ug{ vf]lhPsf] 5 . o;/L o; Psfª\sLn] ;Dkfbsx¿dfly tLvf] Joª\Uo ul/Psf] 5 .
kqsfl/tfdflysf] HofbtL, lhDd]jf/ dfG5]x¿sf]

48 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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bfuaQL
ljk'n l;hfklt

afa' / 5f]/f kz'kltsf] bz{gkZrft\ k'nsf] af6f] x'Fb} kfl/ hfFb} lyP . afofFkl§ 3f6df kª\lQmdf
nx/} aGb's af]s]/ a;]sf l;kfxLx¿ b]v]/ 5f]/fn] xft tfGb} afa'nfO{ /f]Sof] . b'j} afa'–5f]/f k'n
gf3]/ /fddlGb/sf] 9f]sfghLs} e¥ofªdf a;] / x]g{ yfn] . kfl/ esf/Ldfly k"mnsf ns{gx¿n]
emkSs} ;lhPsf] lrtf lyof] . lrtfsf rf/} ;'/df ufl8Psf] vDafdf klg Wjhfktfsf / k"mnsf
ns{gn] ;hfOPsf] lyof] / rf/} ;'/af6 8f]/L tfg]/ kFx]nf] rFb'jf klg xflnPsf] lyof] .
a|Xdgfndf ;'tfOPsf] nfzsf] d'v x]g,{] kfgL v'jfpg] / >4f~hnL lbg] sfd ;lsPsf]n] kl/jf/hgn]
afF;sf] v6df af]s/] nfz lrtfghLs lnP/ cfP / lrtfsf] tLgkN6 kl/qmdf u/fP/ lrtfdf /fv] .
nfz hnfpg] kf]8n ] ] tof/ kf/]sf] bfuaQL d[tssf] k'qsf] xftdf /flvlbof] . k'qn] nfzsf] d'vd}
bfuaQL /flvlbof] . jfl/ a;]sf l;kfxLx¿n] ;nfdL w'g ahfpFb} ;ts{ pleP/ ;nfdL lbP .
…a'af, of] s] u/]sf] <Ú of] ;a} xl//x]sf] s]6f]n] crDd dfg]/ afa'sf] xft em6\sfb}{ ;f]Wof] .
– …afa", Tof] d/]sf] dfG5] 7"nf] g]tf egf}Fbf] xf], To;}n] bfuaQL lbFbf ;Ddfg lbFb} ;nfdL w'g
ahfPsf] .Ú
…clg Tof] bfuaQLr}F lsg d'vd} lbPsf] a'af <Ú s]6f]n] lh1f;fk"j{s ;f]Wof] .
…hLjge/ e"m7 af]Ng] p;sf] lgs[i6 cª\u ToxL xf], To;}n] klxn] To;}nfO{ kf]n]sf] .Ú afa'rflxFn]
d'v laufb}{ 7"nf] ;Gtf]ifsf] ;f;;lxt hjfkm lbof] .
…clg pm ptf csf]{sf] klg d'v}df bfuaQL lbP t ÛÚ s]6f]n] eid]Zj/sf] csf]{ nfzlt/ cf}FNofpFb}
crDd dfg]/ ;f]Wof] .
…Tof] dfG5] ;fw' lyof], ;w}F ;To af]Ng] kljq cª\u ToxL d'v ePsf]n] >4fn] klxn] To;}nfO{
hnfPsf] .Ú
– …xfdLnfO{ klg d/]kl5 To;} u/L d'v}df bfuaQL lbG5g\ xf] afaf <Ú
– …xf] 5f]/f, ;a}nfO{ o;/L g} bfuaQL lbG5g\ .Ú
– …d'v}df <Ú
– …xf], d'v}df .Ú
– …lsg ÛÚ
…xfd|f] d'vr}F ;w}F ;Tosf] ;dy{g / e"m7sf] k|ltjfbdf df}g a:g] ePsf]n]=== .Ú afa'n] p7]/
5f]/fsf] sfFwdf xft /fVb} hfg] ;ª\s]t u/]/ aa{/fof] .

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 49
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yf ¿ ;dfhdf k/Dk/fb]lv g} nf]suLt, gf]sg[To,


nf]ssyf, nf]sufyf, sxjL -pvfg_, kms8f—lkxfgL
-ufpFvfg] syf_, cflb k|of]u u/]/ dgf]/~hg ug]{
ul/G5 . o; hfltnfO{ nf]s;+:s[lt / nf]s;flxTosf]
k|of]usf b[li6n] cToGt ;DkGg dflgG5 . pgLx¿n]
k|bz{g ug]{ nf]sgfrx¿ 7fpFcg';f/ km/s–km/s
5g\ . oxfF gjnk'/ If]qdf cg]sf}F uLt tyf ufyfx¿
gjnk'/ If]qsf yf¿ ufOG5g\ eg] cg]sf}F g[To k|blz{t x'G5g\ . oxfF
hfltdf k|rlnt uLtdf emD6fsf] rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 eg] ufyfdf ;f]/
7Lsf] rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . k|bz{g x'g] d'Vo gfrdWo]
nf]sg[To tyf d]0f/L, /f;wf/L, e'md/f tyf hf]u8] f gfr÷g[Tosf
af/]df ;fdfGo rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 M
uLtufyfx¿ d])f/L gfr
d]0f/L gfrsf] z'¿jft a8fbz}bF l] v x'G5 .
36:yfkgfsf lbg hd/f /fv]kl5 hd/f hufpg
9f]n÷dfbn ahfOG5 . o;nfO{ bzdLsf lbg klg
ahfpg ;lsG5 . xl/af]lwgL PsfbzLsf lbg
ToxL 9f]n ahfP/ gflrg] gfrnfO{ d]0f/L gfr
elgG5 . of] gfr xl/af]lwgL PsfbzLdf gfrufg
u/]kl5 ;dfKt x'G5 . o; gfrdf #)–$) hgf
jf To;eGbf w]/} k'?ifx¿ ;xefuL x'g ;S5g\ .
;xefuLdWo] !%–@) hgfn] 7"nf–7"nf 9f]n jf
dfbn ahfpF5g\ eg] s]xLn] ‰ofnL / s]xLn] 9fn
/ t/af/ lnO{ o'4 u/]sf] clego u5{g\ . 9f]n
ahfpFbf z'¿df b]jLb]jtfsf gfddf ahfOG5 .
o'4sf] clego ubf{ /fd / /fj0fsf] o'4 jf
dxfef/t;Fu ;DalGwt o'4sf] clego ul/Psf]
8f= w'|jk|;fb e§/fO{
x'G5 . /fd / /fj0fsf] o'4df Pp6fn] !) j6f

50 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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6fpsf nufP/ /fj0fsf] clego u5{ eg] @ hgfn] k"j}{ ;De]m ;"o{ uf];fOF
/fd / nId0fsf] clego u/]sf x'G5g\ . o;sf klZrd} b]jLsf] tfn
cltl/Qm o; ;dodf dxfef/t, s[i0frl/q, tax'F b]jL s/] /Ifkfn
;Ltfx/0f -eFjf/_, /fd / /fj0f;Fu ;DalGwt pQ/} ;De]m xl/sxLF lg/fhg
tyf rl0fj/ -v]t uf]8g\ ] a]nfdf ufOg] uLt_ blIf0f} uª\uf gbLlt/
cflb uLt ufpg] k|rng klg 5 . o; gfrdf afgx'F b]jLsf] /Ifkfn .
;xefuLx¿n] ;]tf] wf]tL / sldh nufPsf o; ;dodf ufOg] ejfF/ uLtsf] gd"gf tn
x'G5g\ eg] 6fpsfdf uD5f a]/s ] f x'G5g\ . 9f]n lbOPsf] 5–
jf dfbnnfO{ ;]tf], /ftf] / kx]n
F f] /ªsf sk8fn] slys/ 8f]Fuf slys/ axfgf
a]//] /ª\uLrª\uL agfOPsf] x'G5 . of] gfr uf]nf] slys/ n]s] ptf} alxkf/
cfsf/df 3'Db} gflrG5 . dfbn / v'§fsf] tfndf rfFks 8f]Fuf rggs axgf
gflrg] of] gfrdf s;}n] t/af/, s;}n] 9fn / ;f]xL n]s] pt/a alxkf/
s;}n] n7\7L lnPsf lnPsf x'G5g\ . t/af/ / sf}g] /fwL a}7] cfu] dx'lgofF
n7\7L lng]n] k|xf/ ug{ vf]Hg] / c¿n] cfk"mnfO{ sf}g] a}7] slnxf/ ..
arfpg] clegosf ;fy gflrG5 . of] gfrdf
cufl8 dfbn], aLrdf 9fn t/af/ jfnf / cGtdf cfu] r9] a}7] /flwsf
‰ofnL ahfpg]x¿ uf]nf] cfsf/df gfR5g\ . uf]n kf5] a}7] ls;'g sfGxf
cfsf/sf] aLrdf uLt ufpg]x¿ /xG5g\ . uLt xfnL xfnL Vof}xL ljb]lzof
ufpg]x¿ uLt ufpFb–} gfRb} klg u5{g\ . o; ;FujfF uOn] al8 b"/
;dodf eFjf/÷;Ltfx/0f, dxfef/t tyf rl0fj/ pQ/] ;] cfj] sfnL uª\uf
cflb;Fu ;DalGwt uLtx¿ klg ufOG5g\ . blIfg];] cfj] /fktL
d]0f/L gfrdf k|To]s 3/af6 clgjfo{ aLrj k/] dlemwf/
pkl:ylt /xG5 . ToxfFsf dflg;df d]0f/L xfln xfln Vof}nL ljb]lzof
gfrdf pkl:yt gePdf 3/–kl/jf/df s'g} ;FujfF uOn] al8 b"/
g s'g} clgi6 x'G5 eGg] nf]sljZjf; 5 . e'md/f
To;}n] o; gfrnfO{ afWofTds dflgG5 . o; em'd/f hlxn] klg gfRg ;lsg] gfr xf] .
gfrnfO{ s;}n] 3/df nu]/ grfpg rfx]df e'md/f zAb e'mdj cyjf e'mDg' zAbaf6 ag]sf]
b]jLnfO{ k"hf u/]/ cyf{t\ dgfP/ nfg] rng dflgG5 . o;sf] cy{ e'mdL–e'mdL gflrg] gfr eGg]
5 . 3/df NofpFbf u'?;Fu dGq]sf] cIftf NofO{ cfpF5 . e'md/f gfr s]xL 7fpFdf dlxnfn] dfq
3/ jf cfFugdf 5/]/ dfq 3/df gfr 6f]nLnfO{ gfRg] gfrsf ¿kdf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 -yf¿, @)^(
leq\ofpg] ul/G5 . d]0f/L gfr cf/fWo b]jLnfO{ M @^$—@^&_ t/ gjnk'/ If]qdf eg] k'?ifx¿
rf/} lbzf 3]/]/ ug]{ k|rng 5 . rf}lbzf 3]bf{ dlxnfsf] j]zdf gflrg] gfr egL atfOPsf] 5
lgDg uLt ufOG5– -lzvf/fd yg]t, jif{ &@, sfjf;f]tL g= kf= !&

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 51
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uf];t{ Laf6 k|fKt hfgsf/L_ . dlxnfsf e]ifdf /x]sf cfpg] / cfk"mnfO{ ToxfF /flvlbPsf lrhlah
k'?ifn] 3fF3/, rf]nf], skfndf d's6' / dlxnfsf] k|of]u u/]/ pm ;Gt'i6 x'G5 / p;sf] cfTdfn]
skfn nufPsf x'G5g\ . gt{sLx¿n] v'§fdf zflGt kfpF5 eGg] dfGotf /flvPsf] x'G5 .
3'3F /' nufPsf x'G5g\ . afhf ahfpg] k'?ifx¿ To;}n] To; ;dodf lsl/of–k'qLsf 5]p5fpdf
eg] k'?ifs} e]zdf ;]tf] wf]tL, s'tf{÷sldh / k};fsf 9snfO{ afnf jf lqz"n u/L lgzfgf
6fpsfdf uD5f afFws ] f x'G5g\ . Pp6f jf b'Oj{ 6f nufO{ /flvPsf] x'G5 eg] o:t} lsl/of–k'qLsf
gt{s, @–# hgf dfbn ahfpg] / %–& hgf 5]p5fp v/fgL 5s{g] jf ToxfF efF8fs'8F f, sk8f,
ufpg] o;df ;xefuL x'G5g\ . o;df ‰ofnL klg lstfa, kmnk"mn, t/sf/L, vfg]s/' f jf cGo o:t}
ahfpg ;lsG5 . gfRg]n] g} dfbn ahfpg ;S5 dfG5]n] k|of]u ug]{ lrh /flvPsf] x'G5 . gfr
eg] gahfpg klg ;S5 . gfRg] cufl8 x'G5g\ ;lsPkl5 cufl8 /flvPsf j:t' otfptf ePsf]
eg] afhf ahfpg] / uLt ufpg] k5fl8 x'G5g\ . jf s]xL lrh rnfOPsf] kfOPdf d[t JolQmsf] of]
gfRg]x¿ cufl8–k5fl8 u/]/, 3'd/] , a;]/, p7]/ rfxgf /x]5, To;nfO{ r9fOlbg' k5{ jf lkt[n]
h;/L klg gfRg ;S5g\ . o;df xF;fpg] hf]s/ Tof] j:t' k|of]u u/]/ ;Gt'i6 eP eGg] dflgG5 .
kfqsf] klg k|of]u ul/Psf] x'G5 . hf]s/n] gt{ssf] ghLs}sf] v/fgLdf /x]sf] kfOnfsf] 8f]anfO{ x]//]
3fF3/ tfg]/, cfˆgf] lha|f] b]vfP/, xftsf cf}n F fn] lkt[ kmnfgf lbzflt/ /x]sf] jf 8f]adf v'§fsf]
ljleGg Ozf/f u/]/ bz{snfO{ xF;fpg] k|of; u/]sf] cfsf/ x]//] lkt[ of] of]lgdf k|jz] u/]sf] /x]5
x'G5 . p;n] lh:SofPsf] b]v/] gt{sn] To;nfO{ eGg];d]t dflgG5 .
nv]6g\ ,] xsfg]{ tyf l/;fPsf] clego ug]{ cflb of] uLtdf klg k'?ifx¿ g} gfR5g\ . o;df
ub{5 . To;af6 hf]s/n] 8/fPsf] clego u/] tanf, 8'uL, ;f/ª\uL, ‰ofnL / 8G6fn -kmnfdsf
klg k]ml/ lh:Sofpg] ub{5 . hf]s/sf] d"n p2]Zo 808L_ ahfOG5 . k|foM 8G6fnnfO{ /f}/fn] ahfPsf]
bz{snfO{ xF;fP/ dgf]/~hg lbg' /x]sf] b]lvG5 . x'G5 . o;df !%–@) hgf;Dd gfR5g\ . of] gfRbf
o; gfrdf cfpg] uLtsf] tfn b't| nosf] x'G5 . 3fF3/ / rf]nf] nufOPsf] x'G5 . 3fF3/nfO{ 3'dfP/
z'¿ dª\unfr/0faf6 ul/g] o; gfrsf uLtx¿ cyf{t\ kmggGg kf/]/ gflrG5 . o; gfrdf
dxfef/t, s[i0fnLnf, ;Ltfx/0f tyf cGo ljleGg k|of]u x'g] uLtx¿ klg ;Ltfx/0f, dxfef/t tyf
;fdflhs ;Gbe{sf x'G5g\ . s[i0fnLnfs} x'g\ tfklg s[i0fnLnf;Fu ;DalGwt
/f;wf/L uLtnfO{ a9L ufOPsf] x'G5 . o;df cfpg] tfn
/f;wf/L gfr h'g;'s} ;dodf gfRg ;lsg] e'md/feGbf s]xL dGb nosf] x'G5 . of] gfr
eP klg of] ljz]if u/]/ wfld{s cyf{t\ k"hfkf7 3'd/] jf clegosf ;fy gflrG5 eg] ufpg] /
ePsf], lsl/of a;]sf] jf d]nfkj{ nfu]sf ;dodf ahfpg]x¿ k5fl8 /xG5g\ . /f;wf/Ldf ufOg]
gflrg] ub{5 . lsl/of–k'qL /x]sf] 7fpFdf lsl/of– uLtsf] gd"gf o; k|sf/sf] 5–
k'qLnfO{ s'gflt/ /fvL cufl8 of] gfr gflrG5 . k"/a vf]hnL klZrd vf]hnL
pgLx¿df s] ljZjf; x'G5 eg] lsl/of–k'qLsf stx'F gldnn] df]/ lkofs] ;Gb]z
cufl8 /f;wf/L gfds g[To b]vfPdf lkt[ ToxfF O;] b'lgofF d] df]xL k/gf k/fO

52 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
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pQ/ vf]hnL bl5g vf]hnL dWod nodf ufpg] / gfRg] ul/G5 . hf]u]8fdf
stx'F gldnn] df]/ lkofs] ;Gb]z h'g;'s} uLt ufpFbf klg o;df …P /fdf xf]Ú
O;] b'lgofF d] df]xL k/gf k/fO . eGg] y]uf] hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . o;df ufOg] uLtsf]
hFT;f/L uLt gd"gf tn lbOPsf] 5–
sxjxLF pkh] Ps hf]/L htjf oxLFk/ uª\uf jxLFk/ hd'gf
sxjxLF pkh] lemg ux'F x] /fdf xf] Û aLrj k/] an'/]t
l;nx6 pkh] Ps hf]/L htjf hd'gfs] lt/] s[i0f uOofF r/fj]F
df]/ªf pkh] lemgL ux'F P /fdf xf] Û j+lzof ahfj]
sf}g b]n] uxFjfF sf}g b]n] df}gL s[i0f uf]lkgL grfj]
;f;" b]n] uxFjfF ggbL b]n] df}gL 3/ 3/ d] s[i0f uf]lkgL s] bxL rf]/fj]
;f}t]gL k7jnL hFT;f/ ;xf/f Uff]lkgL ;as] lblnof al;of rf]/fj]
a'lna'ln xfskf/] r]l/of P /fdf xf] Û uf]lkgL ;a u]n]l;g ;fu/ :gfg
sf}g] 3/ hfFt lu8sfo s[[i0f lblnof lr/ rf]/fj] P /fdf xf] Û
pFrLts s'l/ofjf lgr]t dxlnof emD^f uLt
tfxLF 3/ hfFtL lu8sfo emD6f uLt ufpg'nfO{ emD6f kfg'{ elgG5 .
hfFt gxL rn;f] lgs gxL nutf] emD6f ljz]if u/L lhltofdf kfl/G5 eg] v8]/Ldf
uf] a6xLF wfg /f]o kfgL dfUg b]jtfsf] k|fy{gf ubf{, j|t jf kj{df
/f}/] k6'sjf /fh b/al/of klg kfl/G5 . o:t} v/ sf6\bf, wfg /f]Kbf, uf]8b\ f,
s]s]/] cfFrn /f]/ kf]F5 wfg p7fpFbf, hª\undf hfFbf klg o;nfO{ ufpg]
/f}/ k6'sjf /fhb/al/of ul/G5 . o;df dlxnf / k'?if ldn]/ cg]s
ckg] cfFrnjf /f]/ kf]5 . y/Lsf uLt ufpF5g\ . o;df k|d ] , wd{, ;+:s[lt,
hf]u]*f s[lif, Oltxf; tyf ;dfhsf ljleGg ;Gbe{
Hff]u]8f wfld{s sfo{df gflrg] / ufOg] g[To cfpg ;S5g\ . of] uf]nf] cfsf/df 3'd/] , a;]/,
tyf uLt xf] . o;df !%–@) hgf;Dd gfRg] s'g} sfd ubf{ub}{ jf lxF8b\ } ubf{ klg ufOG5 .
ul/G5 . o;df klg k'?if dlxnfsf] e]ifdf o;df k'?ifn] lrRofP/ ufpF5g\ . lrRofpFbf
x'G5g\ . o;df klg 3fF3/ / rf]nf] nufOG5 . tLvf] :j/ lgsfNg afofF xftn] unf] ;dfpg] /
uLt ufpg] / ahfpg] a;]sf x'G5g\ . gfRg] bfofF xft prfn]/ efjfleJolQm ug]{ ul/G5 eg]
JolQm dfq gfR5g\ . o;df cufl8 / k5fl8 To; ;dodf dlxnfn] To;nfO{ ;fdfGo :j/df
ub}{ gflrG5 . o;df tanf, 8'uL, ‰ofnL, ;fy lbPsf x'G5g\ . o;df s'g} afhf ahfOFbg} .
xf/df]lgod, v}Fh8L cflb afhf ahfOG5 . o;nfO{ yk8L ahfP/ tfn lbOG5 . o;sf] /; g}
/f;wf/L / hf]u]8f uLt p:t} eP klg g[To / uLtdf x'G5 eGg] dflgG5 . o;/L lrRofP/ uLt
no km/s x'G5 . /f;wf/L dGb nodf / e'md/f ufpg'nfO{ pgLx¿ z'¿df 3gfhª\unsf] aLrdf
b'|t nodf ufpg] / gfRg] ul/G5 eg] hf]u]8f /xFbf af3, efn'nufot hª\unL hgfj/af6

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pkfosf ¿kdf of] uLt ufpg yflnPsf] x'g g]kfn cg]sf}F hfthflt, efiffefifL, wd{,
;Sg] atfpF5g\ . sfd ubf{ lg/;tf x6fpg ;+:s[ltsf] ljljwtfnfO{ phfu/ ug]{ b]z xf] .
tyf PSnf]kgsf] ;fyLsf ¿kdf o; uLtnfO{ oL cg]sf}F hfthflt efiffefifLdWo] t/fO{sf] k"j{
ufOg] u/]sf] dflgG5 . o;sf s]xL gd"gf o; d]rLb]lv dxfsfnL;Dd k}mlnP/ k/Dk/fb]lv
k|sf/sf 5g\– a:b} cfPsf] hflt yf¿ xf] . logLx¿ gjnk'/
rg}gL emD^f pkTosfdf klg k/Dk/fb]lv g} a:b} cfPsf]
/fx/t/ zLtn h'8 5OFofF kfOG5 . ljj]Ro gjnk'/ If]qdf @)^* sf]
tfxLt/ l;Fxnf] s'l6of nufO{ hgu0fgfcg';f/ !%=(* k|ltzt yf¿hflt
px] /fx] rkjf calos hfOs sfOs] /x]sf] b]lvG5 . o;af6 gjnk'/ If]qdf yf¿sf]
o]l8of b]n] l;nsfo afSnf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] b]Vg ;lsG5 . logLx¿
oxfF /xFbf–a:bf cfˆg} efiff, ;Eotf, ;+:s[lt,
hf]luof emD^f /xg;xg lgdf{0f u/]sf 5g\ . of] pgLx¿nfO{
lul/ kj{tjfF ;] hf]luof Ps gfd x] lrgfpg] d'Vo cfwf/ xf] . pgLx¿ ljleGg kj{,
a}7L u]n hf]luof lgldu]n h'8L 5foF pT;j, d]nf, s[lif cflb sfo{ cflb ljleGg
cl/cl/ alxgL s'jfF klgx/gL ;Gbe{ cfpFbf gfrufg ug]{ /dfOnf] ug]{
;]sos] klgof lkofa ub{5g\ . h;n] cfˆgf] hLjg–ef]ufOnfO{ ;/;
gfxLjf 8f]l/of gflxjf snzf tyf cfsif{s agfPsf] x'G5 . o; ;dfhdf
slynO{ klgof lkofO{ k/Dk/fb]lv g} nf]suLt, gf]sg[To, nf]ssyf,
s'jfF a8O{ klgof snz a8} 8f]/L nf]sufyf, sxjL -pvfg_, kms8f—lkxfgL
;]x]nO{ alxgL klgof lknfO{ -ufpFvfg] syf_, cflb k|of]u u/]/ dgf]/~hg
Hff]Ftf]xL hf]luof klgof s] lkof;n] ug]{ ul/G5 . o; hfltnfO{ nf]s;+:s[lt /
cFh'/f 8;n] rln cfP nf]s;flxTosf] k|of]usf b[li6n] cToGt ;DkGg
klgof lkgnxLF alxgL lhXjf ;':tf]nxLF dflgG5 . pgLx¿n] k|bz{g ug]{ nf]sgfrx¿
slxb]xL /fhs] cjf; 7fpFcg';f/ km/s km/s 5g\ . oxfF k|bz{g x'g]
cluj/ dfu{ b]vn] sl/of af]emfPF d'Vo gfrdWo] d]0f/L, /f;wf/L, e'md/f tyf
lk5]j/ b]vn] e}F;L ayfg hf]u]8f gfr÷g[To cflb x'g\ . o:t} oxfF cg]sf}F
pxLj/ b]vn] /fhfs] b/af/ uLt tyf ufyfx¿ ufOG5g\ . oxfFsf uLtdf
px'Fj;] ;fO{F p7L rlnu]nxLF hf]uL emD6f cToGt rlr{t uLt xf] eg] ;f]/7L rlr{t
/fhs] b/af/ eOu]nxLF 7f8 ufyf xf] . oL g[To tyf uLtufyfn] yf¿hfltsf]
w'gL hufs] hf]luof leIff dfu] /xg;xg, logLx¿sf ;'v–b'Mv, xfF;f], k|d
] , 3[0ff
t/sxLF ;f]gjf pk/ sxLF b'lebgjf tyf hLjg ef]ufOnfO{ b;f{Psf 5g\ .
leIff n]x' hf]uL 58xLF b'jf/

54 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
lgaGw

w] /} dflg;sf w]/} cg''ejnfO{ ;fdfGoLs/0f u/]/


elgPsf] xf]nf, …af]Ng]sf] kL7f] laS5, gaf]Ng]sf]
rfdn klg laSb}g .Ú of] egfO slt ;To 5
jf 5}g eGg] kIfdf d af]Ng rfxGgF . ltxf/sf]
a]nfdf rfdneGbf kL7} g} laSnfÙ gaf]Ng]sf]
klg . o;df ;do, ;Gbe{ / cfjZostfsf zt{

s[t!tfsf] lj!fkg jf l;4fGt nfu"" xf]nfg\ . dnfO{ otflt/ hfg'


5}g . of] egfOnfO{ d}n] k|bz{g jf lj1fkg;Fu
hf]8]/ x]/]sf] 5'' . d}n] eGg rfx]sf] s'/f klg
oxL xf] lsÙ dflg; r]tg jf cjr]tg ¿kdf
k|bz{g cyf{t\ lj1fkglglb{i6 k|f0fL xf] . xfn}sf
lbg pQ/ sf]l/ofn] wdfwd If]Kof:q k|If]k0f
u/]/ cfˆgf] zlQm k|bz{g u/]sf] 5 . ef/t
/ kfls:tfgn] :jtGqtf lbj;tfsf Jo~hgf
z}nLdf ;}Go zlQm k|bz{g ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ .
To;f] t g]kfnn] klg ;]gf lbj;df ;}Go zlQm
k|bz{g ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . o:tf k|bz{g afFRg] snf
x'g\ . lj1fkg x'g\ . afFRgsf nflu dflg;,
;dfh, b]znufotn] k|bz{g u/]sf x'G5g\ .
kz'n] klgÙ Pp6f s's'/n] 8/fpFbf 8/fpFb} klg
ªØf/{ u/]/ afFRgsf nflu cf}sftcg';f/sf]
zlQm k|bz{g u5{ . of] rl/qnfO{ 8fljg{n]
eGg'ePsf] :6«un km/ PlSh:6]G; -afFRgsf
nflu ;ª\3if{_ eg]/ klg a'‰g ;lsG5 . oBlk
o:tf k|bz{g ;To x'g'k5{ eGg] 5}g . kxf8lt/
s]xL bzscl3;DDf klg 7"nf 6f}jf x'gn ] fO{ 5f]/L
lbg nfnlot x'g] ;dfh lyof] . st} bfp/fsf]
lqe'jgrGb| jfUn]
vlnof] 7"nf] x'g'sf] cy{ 3/ dflnssf] k|lti7f

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 55
lgaGw

klg 7"n} x'g] lyof] . 7"nf 3/sf t s'/} ePgg\ . klZrdL ;dfhdf …wGojfbÚ eGg' Pp6f
oL ;a} k|bz{g jf lj1fkgsf pbfx/0f x'g\Ù hf] k|bz{gLo ;+:s[lt ag]sf] 5 . of] zAbsf] k|of]u
dflg;sf arfO;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\ . ;j{q eP klg Jofkf/ vf; u/L laqmLstf{n]
kl5Nnf jif{ g]kfnL k|of]ustf{n] ;fdflhs a9L k|of]u ug]{ u/]sf x'g ;S5g\ . ;fdflhs
;~hfn vf; u/L k]m;a'sdf hGdlbg, ljjfxsf] ;~hfnlj1 Joj;foL ;fOdg d]gjflg{ª\ -!(^&_
jif{ufF7, 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] ;kmntf, nfe, e|d0f, n] …wGojfbÚ ;dfGotM s[t1tf 1fkg ug{ k|of]u
vfgfsf kl/sf/ /fv]/ ljleGg egfO pNNf]v ul/g] zAb xf] eGb} o;n] u|fxs / ;fdfGo
ug]{ k|rng a9\b} uPsf] kfOG5 . >LdtLsf] gful/snfO{ ul/g] cfb/ JoQm ug]{ atfPsf
hGdlbgdf >Ldfg\ / >Ldfg\sf]df >LdtLn] …pgL 5g\ . pgn] eg]h:t} o:tf zAbn] klZrddf
g} d]/f] clGtd k|flKt lyof] hf], cfP/ d]/f] hLjg …s[t1Ú x'g] ;+:s[ltsf] :yfkgf jf k|;f/0f u5{,
;fy{s eof] ===Ú eGg]h:tf egfO k|bz{g ug'k{ g]{ t/ k"jL{o ;+:s[ltdf ;zAb pRRff/0f u/]/
afWotfdf gofF k':' tf k'u' s
] f 5g\ . o;f] u/]g eg] …s[t1Ú x'g ;Dej 5}g . xfd|f] cEof;df …s[t1Ú
pgLx¿sf] bfDkTo hLjg vt/fdf kg]{ eodf Åboaf6 JoQm x'G5, d'v/fljGbaf6 xf]Og .
afFrs] f b]lvG5g\ jt{dfg k':tf . To;df klg cª\u|]hLsf] …Yofª\So''Ú zAbdfk{mt JoQm x'g]
dlxnfn] cln a9L g} elQmefj k|bz{g u/]sf k|bzgLo :jefj xf] hf] s[lqd klg x'g ;S5 .
kfOG5 >Ldfg\pk/ . Tolt dfq xf]Og, d}n] u/]sf] t/ k"jL{o lrGtgdf wGojfb zAbdf k|bz{g x'g]
;fdfGo cWoogdf k/]sf () k|ltzt dlxnfn] xf]Og Jojxf/df b]lvg'kg]{ rl/q xf] .
>Ldfg\sf sfFwdf cfˆgf] 6fpsf] e'mSg] u/L 6fF;/] d kl/jf/sf dlxnf ;b:o;F u ahf/
kltelQm k|bz{g u/]sf b]lvG5g\, dfgf}F dlxnfsf ug{ hfFbfsf cg''ej afF8\g rfxG5' . pxfFx¿
6fpsf kltelQmdf e'mSg agfOPsf k|bz{gLo km:Nofª\k'm:nª' agfP/ s/La @% j6f ;f/L
kbfy{ x'g\ . lbgel/ dlxnf clwsf/ / ;dfgtfsf x]gx{' G' 5 / cGTodf Pp6f klg glsg]/ lxF8g\ x' G' 5 .
nflu efif0f 7f]Sg] dlxnfsf] lz/ p;sf] >Ldfg\sf] d To;a]nf tL ;f/L k6ØfP/ /fVg'kg]{ lhDdf
sfFw jf 5ftLdf e'ms]sf] b]vk] l5 dnfO{ cfk"m kfPsf hflu/] laq]mtf sfdbf/sf] cg'x' f/ k9\5' .
cfwf c;kmn ePsf] cg''e"lt x'G5, t/ oL pgLx¿sf] cg''xf/df Ps k|sf/sf] lbSbf/L /
k|bz{gLx¿ qmdzM ;+:s[lt aGb} 5g\ . ;+:s[lt ;Defljt q]mtfk|lt pkxf;sf ;ª\s]t b]V5''Ù–
dfgj cfjZostfdf ljsl;t x'g] l;4fGt kf]ln; …lbge/ slt ;f/L b]vfpg] / slt k6ØfP/
dfgjzf:qL a|fl] g:nfe dflngf]:sLn] atfPh:t} /fVg] <Ú t} klg tL laq]mtfn] s]xL xfF;]/ ;fdfg
o:tf k|bz{gLx¿ ca xfd|f cfjZostf x'Fb} glsg]sf ;Defljt u|fxsx¿nfO{ klg wGojfb
;+:s[lt aGGf] ofqfdf 5g\ . s]jn k|bz{gLsf kbfy{ eGg EofpF5g\ . To;a]nf pgLx¿sf] cg'xf/df
/ z}nL km/s k/]sf 5g\ . ca bfp/f / k/fn wGojfbsf] clego dfq b]V5' . 5fk b]lvFb}g .
xf]Og ;fdflhs ;~hfndf zAbsf] k|bz{g ug]{ To;}n] …wGojfbÚ s[lqd / k|blz{t Jojxf/ xf]
;do cfPsf] 5 . z/L/ k|bz{gsf] cWofoonfO{ h;df …s[t1tfÚ vf]Hg' ;lsFb}g . s[t1tf xfdL
oxfF pNNf]v gu/f}F . k"jL{ofx¿sf] ;+:sf/ xf], hf] k|bz{g ug{ ldNb}g,

56 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
lgaGw

t/ Åbosf] cGtM:s/0fdf k|HHjlnt x'g] dxfg\ s] k]m;a'sdf sltkoåf/f n]lvPh:t} s''g}


;+:s[lt xf] of] . dnfO{ o;} ;Gbe{df k|Zg ug'{ 5Ù >Ldfg\ jf >LdtL s;}sf nflu ljsNkxLg
s] bfDkTo / kfl/jfl/s ;DaGwnfO{ k]m;a's ' jf k|flKt x''g ;Sy] < k|]dljjfxd} klg To;cl3 !)
;fdflhs ;~hfndfk{mt k|bz{g ug{ ;lsG5 < 7fpFdf s]6f jf s]6L x]/]/ cGTodf s]xL g s]xL
dnfO{ nfU5, ;lsFb}g . dflysf] b[i6fGtsf] ;Demf}tfdf pgLx¿sf] ljjfx ePsf] xf]Og / <
w/ftndf o;sf] klg JofVof ul/g'k5{ eGg] olb o;f] xf] eg] ljjfx ;Demf}tf xf] / ;+of]u xf]
dnfO{ nfU5 . To;}n] d}n] cfh;DDf cfˆgf] eg]/ km/flsnf] aGg'k5{ eGg] dfq d]/f] ;'emfj
bfDkTo hLjgsf jif{ufF7 jf s;}sf nflu xf] . ljjfx b}jn] n]Vg] ljlw xf]Og . dflg;n]
hGdlbgdf z''esfdgfsf zAbx¿ ;fdflhs sf]g]{ s/f/sf] ljwfg dfq xf] . s'g lj1fgn]
;~hfnsf leQfdf pNNf]v u/]sf] 5}g . s]xL ljjfxnfO{ b}jsf] nLnf jf v6gk6g eG5 <
nfOs / sd]G6 dfq u/] x'Fnf, t/ hGdlbg s'g}n] klg eGb}g . To;}n] …ljjfx :ju{df to
jf jif{ufF7df dfq xf]Og x//f]h x/If0f ;a}sf] ePsf] x'G5 / wtL{df Joj:yfkg ul/G5Ú eGg]
;'vb\ hLjgsf] sfdgf d]/f] Åbodf cfO/x]sf egfO lj1fg;ª\ut 5}g . ;a} ljjfxsf kfq
x'G5g\ . ;ª\If]kdf eg"F, d o:tf uDeL/ / dflg; ePsfn] pgLx¿sf] egfO / u/fOn]
cf}krflk/stfeGGbf pRr:y ljifonfO{ zAbn] dflg; / ;dfhsf] rl/q;Fu tfbfDotf /fVg'k5{
xf]Og ;f/n] JoQm ug'{k5{ eG5' . o:tf] lsg eGg] d]/f] dfGotf xf] . o; ;Gbe{df d'Vo s'/f
ul/g'k5{ eg]/ d oxfF uxg pQ/ lbg ;Sg] s] klg xf] eg] dflg;sf] Jojxf/ k|bz{gLo xf]Og
kIfdf 5}g, t/ 5f]6f] / ;xh pQ/ lbg k|lzIf0fLo x'g'k5{ . To;}n] klt–kTgLk|ltsf]
rfxG5',– …d wGojfbsf] t/ª\udf axlsg ;dk{0f Åbodf cfNxflbt x'g'k5{ . ld:6/
rfxGgF, …s[t1tfÚsf] ulx/fOdf 8''Ag rfxG5'' .Ú h's/ju{n] agflbPsf] k]m;a'sdf k|b{zg ug]{
csf]{lt/, d kqsfl/tfsf] ljBfyL{ ePsfn] xf]Og .
k| b z{ g sf ;Gbe{ d f s] x L uDeL/ x' G 5' ' . w/}n] ;fdflhs ;~hfndf cfPsf o:tf
kqsfl/tfsf] lzIff / Jofjxfl/s 1fgn] k|blz{t ;Gbe{ / zAbnfO{ ;sf/fTds ;f]r;Fu
xfdLnfO{ eg]sf] 5– …b]vfOPsf s'/fx¿ lj1fkg hf]8]/ JofVof ug{ ;S5g\ . o; ;Gbe{df d]/f]
x'g\, n'sfOPsf s'/fx¿ ;dfrf/ x'g\Ú . of] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] lj/f]w …;sf/fTds ;f]rÚ JofVof
egfOnfO{ dfg;k6ndf /fVbf ;fdflhs ug]{ kl08tx¿;Fu /xG5 . ;sf/fTds ;f]r
;~hfndf cfpg] ofjt\ jwfO{, z''esfdgf / d]nDrLsf] kfgL xf]Og h;nfO{ s}of}F lsnf]ld6/
k|z+;fnfO{ d}n] lj1fkg eg]/ a''‰g'kg]{ x'G5 . /, ;''?ªdf sf]r]/ sf7df8f}F NofOof];\ . of] t
h] s'/f ;fdflhs ;~hfnsf leQfdf n]lvPsf kl/j]zn] pTkGg ug]{ pTkfbg xf] . ;fgf] l;/s
5}gg\ To;sf] ;dfrf/Lo ulx/fO vf]tNg'kg]{ cf]8/] ;'ts] f b'O' { dxfTdfn] hf8f] l5lKkFb} uPkl5
x'G5 . lsgeg] kqsf/ zª\sfn' xf]Og lh1f;' :jfefljs ¿kdf Tof] l;/s cfk"mkl§ tfG5g\Ù
x'gk5{ eg]/ xfdLn] k9]sf 5f}F . dnfO{ o:tf lbpF;f] 3fddf al;~h]n pgLx¿df To:tf]
zAb k|bz{df 7"nf] lh1f;f /xg] u5{ . gsf/fTds -<_ ;f]r cfpGGfYof] . dxfTdfdf

zf/bf r}t–@)&$ 57
lgaGw

l;/s cfk"mlt/ tfGg] gsf/fTds ;f]r / x''g ;Sb}gg\ . lxhf]sf gsf/fTds ;f]r cfh
Jojxf/ lsg / s;/L cfof] < tkfO{+sf] kl/j]z ;sf/fTds ePsf 5g\ . lxhf] kf]yL af;]sf]
s] 5 < Tof] kl/j]znfO{ s;/L krfpg'ePsf] 5 eGy] dlxnf af]Nbf . cfh lsg dlxnfsf
< To;af6 tkfO{Fx¿sf ;f]r lgM;[t x'g] u5{g\ . efif0f /f]rstfsf ;fy ;'lgG5 < s] dlxnf /
;f]r lgdf{0f ug]{ w/ftn kl/j]z xf] . c3fPsf pgLx¿sf] af]nLk|lt cfPsf kl/jlt{t ;f]rdf
dflg;df cfpg] kl/j]zhGo ;sf/fTds ;f]r tTsfnLg kl/l:yltsf] e"ldsf 5}g < 3/df
ef]sf dflg;df klg cfpg'k5{ eGg' 1fg / b'O' b{ fd 5}g, ;/;fk6L st} rNb}g . kl/>d u¿F,
lj1fg b'j} lj?4 x'g]5 . d ljZjsf h'g;'s}, tfst 5}g . o:tf afa'df, bf]ifsf] ladf/Laf6
h:tf;'s} jQmf;Fu klg ax; ug{ tof/ 5'' p7]sf] ;';'kfn 5f]/fn] afaf lrrL vfG5' eg]/
ls ;sf/fTds ;f]r agfP/ aGb}g . ;f]rnfO{ /f]Pkl5 cfpg] lzsf/L–;f]r, rf]/L ug]{ efjgf
;sf/fTds jf gsf/fTds egL kl/eflift s] gsf/fTds ;f]r x'g\ < df;'' lsg]/ 5f]/fnfO{
ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] klg dnfO{ nfUb}g . cfhsf] v'jfpg ;Sg], kfFrtf/] xf]6nsf] vfgf v'jfpg
dxF u Ldf klg dfl;s & b] l v !) xhf/ ;Sg] afa'x¿sf nflu of] ;f]r gsf/fTds xf]nf,
?lkofFdf laxfg ( ah]b]lv a]n'sf & ah];DDf t/ d]/f nflu o; kl/j]zdf lzsf/ ug'{ g t
gofF;8ssf k;ndf ;f/L a]Rg a;]sf tL gsf/fTds sbd xf] g t gsf/fTds ;f]rsf]
;]N;un{ jf AjfOdf Tof] k;nsf dflnsdf kl/0ffd xf] . d]/f nflu gsf/fTds eGg' t s]jn
h:t} ;Gt'li6, ;f]r / xflb{stf vf]Hg' cy{xLg kl/l:ylthlgg kl/j]z dfq xf]Ù h;n] lzsf/
k|of; x'g]5 . o:tf] x'G5 eGg' yk cy{xLg gu/L 5f]/fnfO{ df;' v'jfpg ;Sb}g . cFuf/
;f]r xf] . v'jfP/ d}bfh:tf] ;]tf lji6f lgsfn eGg''nfO{
;fdflhs lj1fgn] dflg;df cfPsf ;f]r jf s;/L j}1flgs ;f]r eGg] < …ef]sfsf] k]6n] wd{
ljrf/nfO{ ;sf/fTds jf gsf/fTds eg]/ ju{ wfGb}gÚ To;} elgPsf] xf]Og . clx+;fsf k'hf/L
lgwf{/0f ug{] kl08TofOF 5f6\bg} . To:tf ;f]r jf dxfTdf ufGwLn] …dg'{ g afFRg'sf] cj:yfdf
ljrf/ cfpg'k5fl8sf sf/0faf/] dfq ;fdflhs l3l6l36L ePsf] afR5fnfO{ dfl/lbg' lx+;f x'bF g} Ú
lj1fgn] tYodf cfwfl/t jf cg'ejhGo eGg'ePsf] ;Gbe{ / 5f]/fsf] rfxgfsf nflu h]
wf/0ff JoQm u5{ . a9f] ;lhn};Fu ctL{ lbOG5 klg ug{ tof/ x'g] afa'sf] cj:yfnfO{ ;dfg
…;sf/fTds ;f]r agfpm .Ú d]/f] hLjgdf d}n] cjwf/0ffdf JofVof ug'{k5{ . oL b'j} :jfefljs
cg'ej u/]sf] ;a}eGbf xfjfbf/L, w/ftfnljxLg / ;sf/fTds ;f]rsf kl/0ffd x'g\ eGg] dnfO{
/ c;Dej ctL{ xf] of] . dxfslj b]jsf]6fn] nfUb5 . o:tf ;Gbe{df cf}krfl/stf k|bz{gsf]
eujfg\k|lt agfPsf ;f]r kfl/l:yltdf lge{/ cf}lrTo b]lVbgF .
lyPÙ …cflv/ >Ls[i0f /x]5 Ps .Ú To;cl3 pgdf To;}n] lg/k]If ¿kdf ;sf/fTds ;f]rsf]
/x]sf] elgPsf] gfl:ts ;f]r klg kfl/l:yltåf/f ;'uf–/6fOsf] gf/f nufpg' cls~rgx¿sf]
l;lh{t lyof] . JolQmsf ;f]r, d""No / dfGotf uLtsf] kmnfsf] dfq x'g5 ] . ;fdflhs ;~hfndf
pm ljr/0f ug]{ ;dfh / kl/l:ylt lg/k]If ;sf/fTds b]lvPsf ;a} kfq jf ltgsf Å[bo

58 zf/bf r}t–@)&$
lgaGw

;fFr} g} ;sf/fTds x'G5g\ t < x'Fb}gg\ . oxfF d Joj:yfkg dfq xf] . o;f] eg]/ d}n] ljjfx
k]ml/ Joj;foL ;fOdg d]gjflg{ªnfO{ wGojfb aGwgnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpg rfx]sf] xf]Og, s]jn
eG5' . h;n] eg]sf 5g\, ;fdflhs ;~hfn ljjfxnfO{ e"m6 gagfcf}F dfq eg]sf] x'F . ljjfx
b'?kof]u ug{ agfOPsf] xf]Og, of] t k|ljlwsf] Pp6f ;Defjgf xf] eg] To:t} ;Defjgfsf] cGTo
k| o f] u fy{ agfOPsf] xf] . d yKg rfxG5' , klg t xf] lg ljjfx . To;}n] bfDkTo hLjgsf]
k|ljlwsf] pkof]u ug]{ qmddf dflg;n] ;fdflhs dxŒj ;fdflhs ;~hfndf nofTds ¿kdf
;~hfndf e"m6sf] v]tL ug{' x'bF g} . b'?kof]u ug'{ ufP/ sfod ug]{ xf]Og . ljjfxk|lt ;fFrf] cy{df
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