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TU Darmstadt Microsoft Research Microsoft Research

Hochschulstrasse 10 21 Station Road 21 Station Road

64285 Darmstadt, Germany Cambridge, UK Cambridge, UK

of the learning rate.

This paper investigates algorithms to automatically adapt the

learning rate of neural networks (NNs). Starting with stochas- • Proposing a learning setup for a controller that automati-

tic gradient descent, a large variety of learning methods has cally adapts the step size of NN training algorithms.

been proposed for the NN setting. However, these methods • Showing that the resulting controller generalizes across

are usually sensitive to the initial learning rate which has to be

chosen by the experimenter. We investigate several features

different tasks and architectures.

and show how an adaptive controller can adjust the learning Together, these contributions enable robust and efﬁcient

rate without prior knowledge of the learning problem at hand. training of NNs without the need of manual step size tun-

ing.

Introduction

Method

Due to the recent successes of Neural Networks for tasks

The goal of this paper is to develop an adaptive controller

such as image classiﬁcation (Krizhevsky, Sutskever, and

for the learning rate used in training algorithms such as

Hinton 2012) and speech recognition (Hinton et al. 2012),

Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) or RMSprop (Tieleman

the underlying gradient descent methods used for training

and Hinton 2012). We start with a general statement of the

have gained a renewed interest by the research commu-

problem we are aiming to solve.

nity. Adding to the well known stochastic gradient descent

and RMSprop methods (Tieleman and Hinton 2012), sev- Problem Statement

eral new gradient based methods such as Adagrad (Duchi,

Hazan, and Singer 2011) or Adadelta (Zeiler 2012) have We are interested in ﬁnding the minimizer

been proposed. However, most of the proposed methods rely ω ∗ = arg min F (X; ω), (1)

heavily on a good choice of an initial learning rate. Com- ω

pounding this issue is the fact that the range of good learning where in our case ω represents the weight vector of the NN

rates for one problem is often small compared to the range and X = {x1 , . . . , xN } is the set of N training examples

of good learning rates across different problems, i.e., even (e.g., images and labels). The function F (·) sums over the

an experienced experimenter often has to manually search function values induced by the individual inputs such that

for good problem-speciﬁc learning rates.

N

A tempting alternative to manually searching for a good 1

learning rate would be to learn a control policy that automat- F (X; ω) = f (xi ; ω). (2)

N i=1

ically adjusts the learning rate without further intervention

using, for example, reinforcement learning techniques (Sut- In order to ﬁnd ω ∗ , we have access to an optimization oper-

ton and Barto 1998). Unfortunately, the success of learn- ator T (·) which yields a weight update vector

ing such a controller from data is likely to depend heavily

on the features made available to the learning algorithm. A Δω = T (∇F, ρ, ξ). (3)

wide array of reinforcement learning literature has shown

The optimization operator itself can be any arbitrary train-

the importance of good features in tasks ranging from Tetris

ing algorithm, such as SGD or RMSprop. The variable ξ

(Thiery and Scherrer 2009) to haptile object identiﬁcation

deﬁnes the open parameters of the training algorithm, such

(Kroemer, Lampert, and Peters 2011). Thus, the ﬁrst step to-

as the learning rate η. The vector ρ is often used to accumu-

wards applying RL methods to control learning rates is to

late statistics of the training process and serves as a memory.

ﬁnd good features. Subsequently, the main contributions of

While most training algorithms are guaranteed to ﬁnd a lo-

this paper are

cally optimal value for ω given a sufﬁciently small value for

Copyright c 2016, Association for the Advancement of Artiﬁcial η and lower bounds for selecting η exist, these bounds are

Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved. often not practical. The goal of this paper, thus, is to learn

1519

Method T (∇F, ρ, ξ) ρ1 ρ2 features. Furthermore, we can use the individual gradients to

SGD −η∇F — — approximate the change in the actual function values. To this

effect, we approximate the functions using ﬁrst order Taylor

Momentum −ηρ1 ξ1 ρ1 +∇F —

√ expansions

Adagrad1 −η∇F/ ρ1 (∇F )2 —

√

RMSprop2 −η∇F/ ρ1 Ê[(∇F )2 ] — f˜(xi ; ω + Δω) = f (xi ; ω) + ∇fiT Δω. (6)

3 √ 2

Adam −ηρ2 / ρ1 Ê[(∇F ) ] Ê[∇F ]

As stated by Equation (3), the update Δω only depends on

Adadelta4 −η∇F ρ2 /ρ1 Ê(∇F )2 ] Ê[(Δω)2 ] the average gradient and not the individual gradient. Thus,

Equation (6) yields the approximate function values fi (·)

Table 1: The most commonly used training methods. The after following the average gradient ∇F . For the simplest

operator Ê computes the weighted expectation based on dis- optimization operator – SGD without momentum – this up-

count factors encoded in ξ. The step size η is also encoded date evaluates to Δω = η∇F . However, most training algo-

in ξ. Our controller is compatible with any of the described rithms do not only rely on the current gradient, but also on

methods. 1 (Duchi, Hazan, and Singer 2011), 2 (Tieleman and accumulated statistics of previous gradient information. The

Hinton 2012), 3 (Kingma and Ba 2014), 4 (Zeiler 2012) predictive function values take include the resulting effects

and, thus, will be more informative than taking only the indi-

vidual gradients into account. Based on the predictive func-

a policy π(ξ|φ) which can adapt the open parameters of the tion values we are now ready to introduce the features which

optimization operator T (·) based on features φ. The optimal will allow us to learn an adaptive step size controller.

policy

π ∗ (ξ|φ) = arg max p(φ)π(ξ|φ)r(ξ, φ) dφ dξ, (4) Predictive change in function value. The ﬁrst feature

π we will consider is based on the predicted change in func-

maximizes the average reward r(ξ, φ), where p(φ) is the tion values Δf˜i = f˜i − fi , where we abbreviated f˜i =

distribution over features. f˜(xi ; ω + Δω) . We will be interested in the variance of

the improvement of function values, i.e.,

The Features

The ability to learn effective policies hinges on the quality φ1 = log Var(Δf˜i ) . (7)

of the features available. We are interested in ﬁnding fea-

tures that are informative about the current state of the net- This variance will not only tell us how much the gradients

work while generalizing across different tasks and architec- disagree but, more importantly, how much the individual

tures. At the same time, we are constrained by the limits function values are expected to change, based on all effects

on computational complexity commonly placed upon algo- of the chosen training algorithm.

rithms used for training NNs. Due to the high dimensionality

of the weight space, NNs are most often trained using ﬁrst

order methods such as SGD. Thus, the computational com- Disagreement of function values. The variance of pre-

plexity of generating informative features should not exceed dicted changes in function values Var(Δf˜i ) can be related

the complexity of the training algorithm. Furthermore, the to the variance of the current function values Var(fi ), i.e.,

high dimensionality of the weight space also constrains the

memory requirements of the training algorithms. The size φ2 = log Var (f (xi ; ω)) (8)

of large scale NNs used today is often constrained by the

amount of physical memory available. Hence, the proposed In general we expect that in the early stages of learning the

features will also need to be conservative in their memory variance of function values will be high and, thus, the change

requirements. in function values will be equally large. As the training of

Similarly to the function value itself, the overall gradi- the NN progresses, the individual function values will be

ent ∇F is composed of the individual gradient values, i.e.,

N funnelled to become more similar.

∇F = 1/N i=1 ∇fi , where

∂f (xi ; ω) Mini Batch Setting

∇fi = . (5)

∂ω The features described above work well in the case of batch

While we expect that following the negative average gradi- training. However, large scale systems are most often trained

ent −∇F will improve the overall function value F (·), it using mini batches. Mini batch training works by break-

will usually not improve all individual function values fi (·) ing up the training set X into subsets X̃ b ⊂ X, such that

by the same amount. Indeed, we can easily imagine cases ∪Bb=1 X̃ b = X. While mini batch training increases the ef-

where individual components will actually deteriorate by ﬁciency, it also introduces additional noise in the training

following the average gradient. Thus, evaluating the agree- process. To counter this additional noise, we propose two

ment of the individual gradients is likely to yield informative measures.

1520

Discounted Average. For every feature, we keep a run- At the same time training of NNs exhibits many long-term

ning average of the observed feature value, i.e., effects, such that changes in the step size may have large ef-

fects later on. Thus, we propose to learn the parameters θ

φ̂i ← γ φ̂i + (1 − γ)φi , (9) of a controller ξ = g(φ; θ), such that the described effects

with a discount factor γ < 1. Relying on averaged fea- are abstracted and the policy π(θ) will only have to decide

ture values is beneﬁcial in two ways. First, the averaging on a parametrization of the controller in the beginning of a

smoothes over outliers in the feature values, which might training run.

otherwise lead to a destabilization of the system due to an To this effect, we aim to ﬁnd a distribution π(θ), such that

overly large reaction of the controller. Furthermore, the av- the resulting controllers are optimal, i.e,

eraged feature serves as a form of memory, similar to the

momentum term in SGD with momentum. Thus, features π ∗ (θ) = arg max p(φ)π(θ)r(g(φ; θ), φ) dφ dθ. (11)

π

observed in the current mini batch will inﬂuence the learn-

ing process for multiple iterations. In particular, due to the continuous nature of the parame-

ter space, we choose a RL method from the robot learn-

ing literature. Relative Entropy Policy Search (REPS) (Pe-

Uncertainty Estimate. While averaging feature values

ters, Mülling, and Altun 2010) has been shown to work well

over optimization steps is beneﬁcial due to a reduction of

on high dimensional control tasks of real robots (Daniel et

noise, it is often desirable to have an explicit estimate of the

al. 2013) and works well in combination with parametrized

noise in the system. Intuitively, we would expect larger step

controllers. The main insight used in REPS is that consec-

sizes to lead to an ever more unstable, and thus noisy, sys-

utive policy updates should remain ‘close’ to each other.

tem. We estimate this noise level for every feature by cal-

Constraining these updates is realized through a bound on

culating the variance of the centred feature values. To this

the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of subsequent poli-

effect, we deduct our estimate of the mean feature value φ̂i cies, i.e.,

from the observed feature value φi , i.e., DKL (π(θ)||q(θ)) ≤ , (12)

φ̂K+i ← γ φ̂K+i + (1 − γ)(φi − φ̂i )2 , (10) where q(θ) is the previous policy and is the user-deﬁned

bound on the KL. The update rule for the policy π(θ) can be

where K is the number of ‘base’ features. obtained by ﬁrst forming the Lagrangian and then its dual

formulation of the optimization problem deﬁned by REPS.

The update is given as

Computational Complexity & Memory Requirements.

π(θ) ∝ q(θ) exp(r(θ)/η), (13)

As stated above, computational and memory requirements

are often hard constraints for large scale learning systems. where η is found through the optimization of the dual repre-

The proposed features are, thus, designed to have a mini- sentation. Given an initial distribution, REPS will iteratively

mal footprint and their memory requirements are constant restrict the search space and converge to a locally optimal

in the size of the network. In the naive implementation, the solution for π(θ).

memory requirements for computing the predictive function

values f˜i are linear in the number of inputs N . However, ef- Related Work

ﬁcient implementations of the back-prop algorithm usually The NN community has proposed multiple training meth-

compute all gradients ∇fi for one layer in the network ﬁrst, ods based on statistics similar in spirit to the features we

before computing the gradients for the next layer. Thus, we propose. In Table 1, we give an overview of the most com-

can simply compute the partial predictive change in func- monly used methods. One of the ﬁrst method to make

tion value on a per-layer basis and do not need to store all use of additional statistics was SGD with momentum (Ja-

individual gradients for all layers. Computing the feature re- cobs 1988), which keeps a discounted history of past gra-

quires only a matrix vector multiplication, which introduces dients. RMSprop (Tieleman and Hinton 2012) is inspired

minimal overhead. by RPROP (Riedmiller and Braun 1993), which adapts a

learning rate per weight based on the observed sign changes

Learning a Controller in the gradients. RMSprop uses a discounted history of the

Given access to a set of informative features, we now de- squared gradients as a form of preconditioner. It has been ar-

scribe the proposed setting to learn a policy which max- gued that this form of preconditioning approximates the di-

imizes the average reward as given in Equation (4). The agonal of the Hessian if the changes Δω are close to being

most general solution to the problem stated above is to solve Gaussian distributed (Dauphin et al. 2015). Adagrad (Duchi,

the delayed reward problem using inﬁnite horizon RL tech- Hazan, and Singer 2011) replaces the discounted history

niques. Unfortunately, this approach poses two problems in over squared gradients with the sum over squared gradi-

the proposed setting. First, the system we are aiming to con- ents. Using the sum instead of the gradient can be prob-

trol will be very noisy, mostly due to the mini batch setting. lematic since it may decrease the effective step sizes too

Second, the problem we are aiming to solve is not Marko- fast if the gradients remain large over multiple iterations.

vian in nature. This means that we cannot hope to have ac- Adam (Kingma and Ba 2014) follows RMSprop in dis-

cess to features which fully describe the state of the system. counting the preconditioner and additionally averages over

1521

MNIST RMSprop MNIST Controlled RMSprop Sensitivity to η 0

Full Training Error

100 100

Ours Ours η 0 = 5e-05

RMS η = 5e-05 Ours η 0 = 1e-04

RMS η = 1e-04 Ours η 0 = 5e-04

RMS η = 5e-04 Ours η 0 = 5e-03

10−2 RMS η = 1e-03 10−2 Ours η 0 = 1e-03

RMS η = 5e-03 RMS best η

(a) Sensitivity analysis of static step sizes on MNIST. (b) Sensitivity analysis of the proposed approach on MNIST.

Full Training Error

100 RMS η = 5e-05 100 Ours η 0 = 1e-04

RMS η = 1e-04 Ours η 0 = 5e-04

RMS η = 5e-04 Ours η 0 = 1e-03

RMS η = 1e-03 Ours η 0 = 5e-03

RMS η = 5e-03 RMS best η

10−1 0 10−1 0

10 101 102 103 10 101 102 103

Optimization Steps Optimization Steps

(c) Sensitivity analysis of static step sizes on CIFAR. (d) Sensitivity analysis of the proposed approach on CIFAR.

Figure 1: Evaluation of the proposed approach in combination with the RMSprop training algorithm. (a) The RMSprop al-

gorithm is sensitive to the choice of the step size. The proposed approach of controlling step size outperforms the best static

step size. (b) The proposed approach is not sensitive to the choice of initial step size. Asympotic performance of the proposed

approach is better than the best static step size in all cases. In early iterations a poor choice of η0 decreases performace while

the controller is adapting the step size. (c,d) The results on the CIFAR data set conﬁrm the results of the experiments on the

MNIST data set.

the discounted average of the gradients ∇F . The discount- eters. Schaul et al. (Schaul, Zhang, and LeCun 2013) showed

ing scheme in Adam is more complex than in the other how for the SGD method good learning rates can be cho-

methods as the discount factor itself is decayed over time. sen under the assumption that the optimal weights ω i for

Adadelta (Zeiler 2012) also follows RMSprop in the use of the instances xi are normal distributed and access to the

the preconditioner but introduces an additional statistic, i.e., second order derivative is available. Using these assump-

the expected squared change of weights Ê[Δω 2 ]. This statis- tions they show how learning rates can be set either globally

tic rescales the effective step size proportionally to the his- or on a per-weight basis. While our proposed approach is

tory of effective step sizes. based on global learning rates, we are not restricted to spe-

ciﬁc methods. TONGA (Le Roux, Bengio, and Fitzgibbon

Since setting a static learning rate for a whole train- 2012) models the uncertainty in the weight update by build-

ing run is often insufﬁcient, popular approaches usually ing a model of the gradients. This approach is closely re-

start by ﬁnding a good initial learning rate either manually, lated to the idea of the natural gradient (Amari 1998), which

or, for example, through Bayesian Optimization (Snoek, has also been applied to neural networks (Bastian, Gunther,

Larochelle, and Adams 2012). Subsequently, the learn- and Moon 2011). However, these methods are expensive in

ing rate is decreased following a predeﬁned scheme (Se- terms of computational requirements. Finally, the proposed

nior et al. 2013). Possible schemes include the ‘waterfall’ method is compatible with distributed approaches (Zhang,

scheme (Senior et al. 2013), which keeps η constant for mul- Duchi, and Wainwright 2012).

tiple steps and then reduces it by large amounts, as well as

the exponential scheme (Sutton 1992) and power schedul-

ing (Darken and Moody 1990). However, all of these meth-

ods require the practitioner to deﬁne additional open param-

1522

MNIST SGD MNIST Controlled SGD Sensitivity to η 0

100 100

Full Training Error

SGD η = 5e-05 Ours η 0 = 1e-04

10−1 SGD η = 1e-04 10−1 Ours η 0 = 5e-04

SGD η = 5e-04 Ours η 0 = 1e-03

SGD η = 1e-03 Ours η 0 = 5e-03

10−2 SGD η = 5e-03

10−2 Ours η 0 = 1e-02

SGD η = 1e-02 SGD best η

10−3 0 10−3 0

10 101 102 103 10 101 102 103

(a) Sensitivity analysis of static step sizes on MNIST. (b) Sensitivity analysis of the proposed approach on MNIST.

100 100

Full Training Error

SGD η = 5e-05 Ours η 0 = 1e-04

10−1 SGD η = 1e-04 10−1 Ours η 0 = 5e-04

SGD η = 5e-04 Ours η 0 = 1e-03

SGD η = 1e-03 Ours η 0 = 5e-03

10−2 SGD η = 5e-03

10−2 Ours η 0 = 1e-02

SGD η = 1e-02 SGD best η

10−3 0 10−3 0

10 101 102 103 104 10 101 102 103 104

Optimization Steps Optimization Steps

(c) Sensitivity analysis of static step sizes on CIFAR. (d) Sensitivity analysis of the proposed approach on CIFAR.

Figure 2: Evaluation of the proposed approach in combination with the SGD training algorithm with momentum. (a,b) The

results show that while choosing a static step size has a large inﬂuence on the training performance, the learned controller has

very similar asymptotic performance for all choices of η0 . (c,d) The results on the CIFAR data set conﬁrm the results of the

MNIST experiment. The proposed approach in not sensitive to the choice of η0 and outperforms the static step size.

Experiments were training on between 0.1 and 0.5 of the full MNIST data

We evaluated the proposed features and the learning ap- set, where we always sampled from only one half of the full

proach on two settings, the MNIST hand written digit clas- data set, such that during training the algorithms never saw

siﬁcation task and the CIFAR-10 image classiﬁcation task. the second half. We trained the controller exclusively on this

Furthermore, we evaluated the proposed features across two smaller network and the MNIST-Small data set. Finally, we

learning algorithms, SGD and RMSprop. We aim to show randomly sampled the number of optimization steps the NN

that both the features and the controller generalize across was trained for between 300 steps and 1000 steps.

problems. Thus, instead of learning the best possible con- In this work we considered two widely used training al-

troller for a given setup, we learned the parameters of the gorithms: SGD with momentum and RMSprop and set the

controller on small convolutional networks using only a sub- remaining open parameters to the values recommended in

set of the MNIST data set. We called this smaller data set the respective literature. For SGD, the momentum was set

MNIST-Small, which contained half the MNIST data set. to 0.9. For RMSprop, the discount factor was set to 0.9 and

= 10−6 . The setup was robust to restarts with different ran-

dom seeds. For example, Fig. 1d shows that even with dif-

The Training Network. To learn a controller that gener- ferent initial values for η0 , the performance of the proposed

alizes, we randomly sampled networks and data sets during approach was close to identical. Thus, for the presented ex-

learning. Speciﬁcally, we ﬁxed the architecture to a convolu- periments, we only performed a single run per setting.

tional neural network of the structure c-p-c-p-c-r-c-s, where

{c, p, r, s} represented convolutional, pooling, rectiﬁed lin-

ear and softmax layers, respectively. Within this structure The Controller. To learn the controller, we initialized the

we randomly sampled the number of convolutional ﬁlters policy π(θ) to a Gaussian with isotropic covariance. In each

between [2 5 50] and [10 25 250] per layer. Similarly, we iteration of learning, we randomly sampled a parameter vec-

randomly sampled the ratio of the MNIST-Small data set we tor from π(θ) as well as a network and a training set. Each

1523

Validation Error vs. Wall Clock chosen static step sizes. The learned controller balanced

1 the variance in predicted change in function value with the

10

Ours variance of observed function values. The controller also

Validation Error

SGD η = 5e-05 learned to decrease the step size proportionally to the un-

SGD η = 1e-04

100 certainty estimate in Equation (10). The learned parameters

SGD η = 5e-04

are given as θ = [1.62, −0.35, 0.3, −0.33, −0.03]T ∗ 10−2 ,

SGD η = 1e-03

with φ = [1, φ1 , . . . , φ4 ]T . The results in Fig. 1a show that

SGD η = 5e-03

10−1 the best static step size seemed to be η = 10−4 and that the

static method was sensitive to this choice. Furthermore, the

results show that the proposed controller outperformed the

100 200 300 400 500 best static step size.

Wall Clock Time [s] After observing that RMSprop is sensitive to the choice of

η, we evaluated the sensitivity of the controlled RMSprop to

Figure 3: Evaluation of the validation error, adjusted for the the best choice of a static step size. The results in Fig. 1b

computational overhead. Results show the RMSprop train- show that the proposed method was less sensitive to the

ing method on the MNIST data set. choice of initial step size. The results also show that the pro-

posed method had better asymptotic performance than the

best static step size in all settings.

iteration of learning was based on 20 samples. The open pa- We repeated the same evaluation with the same controller

rameter in REPS was set to = 1. The parametrized con- on the CIFAR data set. The results show an advantage for the

troller was given as g(φ̂; θ) = exp(θ T φ̂). The reward func- proposed method similar to the results reported above. The

tion used for learning the controller was given as results in Fig. 1c show that the static method was sensitive

to the choice of a step size, while the results in Fig. 1d show

1

S

that the proposed method was robust to the choice of initial

r=− log(Es ) − log(Es−1 ) , (14) step size.

S − 1 s=2

To evaluate the robustness of the learned controller to its

where S was the total number of optimization steps for a parameter values, we varied all parameters within 20% of

given run. For all experiments we set the discount factor in the parameters, i.e., we tried all parameters in a 3x3x3 cube

Equation (10) to γ = 0.9. Changing this value did not have a around the learned values. The results in Fig. 4 show that the

large effect in our experiments within a range of [0.5, 0.99]. controller is robust to these small changes in the parameters.

Finally, in Fig. 3 we evaluated the validation error, taking

into account the computational overhead of our method. The

Results. We evaluated the proposed methods, controlled results show that while the total runtime for our method is

SGD-Momentum and controlled RMSprop, on the MNIST longer, it yields the best validation error in most time steps.

and CIFAR data sets. The results show that the proposed

controller generalized over different data sets and network

architectures. As could be expected, the same controller pa- Controlled SGD-Momentum. The controllers learned for

rameters did, however, not generalize over different training RMSprop largely followed our intuition in that they bal-

methods. The respective architectures were given as c-p-c- anced the predictive change in function value in Equation (7)

p-c-r-c-s, with [20 50 500] ﬁlters per convolutional layer for with the variance of observed function values in Equa-

MNIST and c-p-r-c-r-p-c-r-p-c-r-c-s with [32, 32, 64, 64] for tion (8). Furthermore, the learned controllers decreased η

CIFAR. We based our implementation on the MatConvNet proportionally to the noise levels estimated by the uncer-

toolbox (Vedaldi and Lenc 2014). We evaluated the meth- tainty estimates in Equation (10). Thus, we could reduce

ods up to the point where the validation error increased. the search space for the SGD experiments by combining the

Evaluating the proposed method for even more steps would respective features. In particular, the feature vector became

have lead to bigger advantages for our methods, however, φ = [1, φ̂1 − φ̂2 , φ̂3 + φ̂4 ]T and the learned parameters were

at that point the networks were usually over-ﬁtting to the θ = [−4.55 − 2.87 − 2.52] ∗ 10−2 . The results in Figures 2a

training data. In our experiments, we observed a computa- to 2d are similar to the results reported for RMSprop. In all

tional overhead of 36%, mostly due to the computation of experiments the static step size approach seems to be sen-

f˜(xi ; ω + Δω) in Eq. (6). However, our implementation sitive to the choice of η, while the proposed approach out-

was not fully optimized and could be improved. This over- performs the best static step size and is less sensitive to the

head did not include the initial training time of the RL algo- initial choice of η0 .

rithm, which took about six hours. However, as the exper-

iments show, this initial training has to be performed only Discussion & Conclusion

once and the resulting controller can be re-used for different We presented a set of features suitable to learn a controller

problems. for the step size of NN training algorithms. The results show

that the learned controller generalized to larger networks

Controlled RMSprop. We started by evaluating the con- and the full MNIST data set, as well as to a different ar-

trolled RMSprop training method to a range of manually chitecture and the CIFAR data set. The learned controller

1524

Perturbations of Controller Parameters Krizhevsky, A.; Sutskever, I.; and Hinton, G. E. 2012. Im-

ageNet Classiﬁcation with Deep Convolutional Neural Net-

Full Training Error

(NIPS).

10−1 Kroemer, O.; Lampert, C.; and Peters, J. 2011. Learning

Dynamic Tactile Sensing with Robust Vision-based Train-

ing. IEEE Transactions on Robotics (T-Ro) (3):545–557.

10−2 Variations of parameter vector θ

Mean θ

Le Roux, N.; Bengio, Y.; and Fitzgibbon, A. 2012. Improv-

ing First and Second-Order Methods by Modeling Uncer-

10−3 0

10 101 102 103 tainty. Optimization for Machine Learning 403.

Optimization Steps Peters, J.; Mülling, K.; and Altun, Y. 2010. Relative Entropy

Policy Search. In Proceedings of the National Conference

Figure 4: Evaluation of the robustness of the controller pa- on Artiﬁcial Intelligence (AAAI).

rameters on the MNIST data set. Riedmiller, M., and Braun, H. 1993. A direct adaptive

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