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The Role Audio-Visual Aids in

Communication and Community

Health Improvement

Dr. Oryzati Hilman Agrimon, MSc.CMFM, PhD

MD (University of Gadjah Mada)
MSc.CMFM (University of the Philippines Manila),
PhD (the University of Adelaide, Australia)
● Lecturer
Department of Family Medicine and Public Health
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
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penyuluhan kesehatan...?

The thing which I hear, I may forget.
The thing which I see, I may remember.
The thing which I do, I can not forget.
~ Confucius
The Psychology of Using Teaching Aids

We learn: We Remember:
1.0% through TASTE 20% of what we HEAR
1.5% through TOUCH 30% of what we SEE
3.5% through SMELL 50% of what we SEE & HEAR
11.0% through HEARING 80% of what we SAY
83.0% through SIGHT 90% of what we SAY & DO
Objectives of Using Teaching Aids
• To make teaching effective
• To make learning interesting and beneficial
• To quicken the pace of learning
• To foster the development of knowledge
• To economize educator's efforts
• To overcome possible hurdles during the act of
• To add variety & newness to the lesson
• To simplify the complex phenomena
• To make teaching interactive
• To develop inquisitiveness among the learner to learn
Characteristics of Teaching Aids
• Visible and according to local needs
• Up-to-date
• Portable and easy
• Improvised
• Motivating
• Simple, cheap and easily available
• Meaningful and puposeful
• Accurate, truthful and real
Audio-Visual Aids:
• Audio refers to sound waves that can normally be
heard by the human ear
• Visual implies relating to the sense of seeing.
• Aids implies those instructional devices or teaching
aids which make teaching more effective.
• Audio visual aids are those instructional devices that
may be used by a teacher or a communicator in order
to facilitate better understanding on the part of
learners by involving their many senses, particularly
those relating to seeing and hearing
Definitions of Audio-Visual Aids
 Audio-Visual Aids are those sensory objects or images
which initiate or stimulate & reinforce learning (Burton).
Visual aids are any instructional device that can be seen, but not heard.
Audio aids are any instructional device that can be heard but not seen.

 According to Dale(1965):
All materials used in the class room or other teaching
situation to facilitate the understanding of the written or
spoken words are Audio visual aids
 According to Kinder (1959):
Audio visual aids may be any device which can be used
to make learning experience more concrete, more
realistic and more dynamic.
Classification of Audio-Visual Aids (1)
According to Evolution
• First generation media: hand made charts, graphs, exhibits,
models, hand writing materials.
• Second generation media: printed/ illustrated texts, printed graphs,
workbooks etc.
• Third generation media: photographs, slides, films-strips, films,
recordings, radio , tele-lectures etc.
• Fourth generation media: TV, programmed instruction, language
laboratories, electronic digital computers.

According to Kumar (1995)

• Projected materials: OHP, Slides, Films
• Non-projected materials: books, posters, charts, leaflets
• Electronic materials: computers, interactive video, video programs
Classification of Audio-Visual Aids (2)
According to K.R.Ganapathy
• Audial: Human voice (talk, lecture, speech, discussion, interviews,
drama etc.), music and other sound transmission.
• Visual : written/printed (books, pamphlets, posters, notices),
elements for media (scripts, drafts, lecture notes, caption), media
for writing (chalk board, black board), projected and non projected
• Audio visual media: cinema, motion picture, TV, recorded
Classification Audio-Visual Aids
Projected Non-Projected Activity Aids
Films Cartoons (Graphic) CCTV
Film Strip Charts CAI
Colored Slides Diagrams Dramatic
Loop (Colored Film Flash Cards Demonstration
Cassette )
Slide Projector Graphs Experiments
Epidiascope Black Board (Display) Projects
Opaque Projector Bulletin Board Excursion & Field Trip

OHP Flannel Board Programmed

LCD Magnetic Board
Relative Effectiveness of
Audio-Visual Aids
Non-Projected Aids

Effectiveness Projected Aids Effectiveness

Increases Decreases

Direct-Experience Aids
Purposes of Audio-Visual Aids
• Antidote to the disease of verbal instructions
• Best motivation
• Clear images
• Vicarious experience
• Variety of stimulation
• Opportunities to handle and manipulate
• Retention
• Capture attention
• Realism
• Meeting individual differences
• Reinforcement to learner
• Positive transfer of learning
Preparation of Audio-Visual Aids
 The following factors should be taken into consideration
before preparation of audio-visual aids:
● Nature of audience and their level of understanding
● Facilities available
● Teaching objectives
● Cost of aid
● Teachers competency
● Complexity of subject matter
● Size of the audience
● Convincing
● Familiarity of audience with the subject taught
 The following “ABC” principles are to be considered in
● A – Attractiveness
● B – Brevity
● C – Clarity
Developing Audio-Visual Aids
Tips for Developing Audio-Visual Aids
● More visualization
● Legible aids
● Letter should be written large enough
● Each visual should count
● Provide variety
● Familiar with the use of aids
● Testing should be done in advance.
Preparation of visual aids:
● Caption
● Lettering
● Illustration
● Color
● Balance
● Contrast
Principles in the Use of Audio Visual Aids
1. Principle of Preparation
2. Principle of Selection
3. Principle of Handling
4. Principle of Presentation
5. Principle of Response
Principle of Preparation

• They should suit the age level, grade level, and

other characteristics of the learners
• They should be interesting and motivating.
• They should be the true representatives of the
real things
• They should have in the realization of desired
learning objectives.
Principle of Selection
• As for as possible locally available material
should be used
• The educators should receive some training in
the preparation of aids
• The educators themselves should prepare
some of the aids
• Students/ viewers may be involved in the
preparation of aids.
Principle of Handling

• Arrangement of keeping aids safely and also

to facilitate their lending to the teachers for
Principle of Presentation

• Educators should carefully visualize the use of

teaching aids before their actual presentation
• They should fully familiar themselves with the
use and manipulation of the aids
• Adequate care should be taken to handle an
aid in such a way as no damage is done
• The aid should be displayed properly so that
all the students/ viewers are able to see it,
observe it & derive maximum benefit out of it
Principle of Response

• Educators guide the students/ viewers to

respond activity to the AV stimuli
• Principle of Evaluation
• Continuous evaluation is necessary
Disadvantages of Audio Visual Aids

• Ineffectiveness of the aids

• Financial hurdles
• Lack of facilities for training
• Absence of electricity
• Improper selection of aids
Enjoy the Short Movie :
The Husband Funeral

• What have you learned...?

• What are the key messages to be
• Have they been achieved...?
• What are the strengths and
weaknesses of the audio visual aids...?
• What can be improved....?
Thank you for your attention!