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# Water Pressure on Raft

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fungineer Posted: Tue May 12, 2009 9:24 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
...
Dear all,
I have a raft foundation which has to resist water pressure of 10m head in
Joined: 15 Apr 2009 addition to the building weight and live load of 4kN/m2 since it is a commercial
Posts: 58 building. We are not providing the pressure relief valves due to difficulty in
maintainance. My doubt is "What will happen to the moment values in the raft slab
when we have dead and live loads from above and water pressure from below
acting simultaneously? whether it will increase or decrease?". I consulted my
senior engineers and got entirely opposite opinions!. However, i feel that though
the vertical loads acting on the columns may decrease, the bending moment in the
Regards,
PNP

Thankful People

## 1 user(s) is/are thankful for this post.

vikram.jeet Posted: Wed May 13, 2009 4:48 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Dear Er PNP

## Raft foundation subjected to uplift pressure :

First and foremost requirement shall be to ensure the stability of raft against
floation since
it is subjected to 10m water head. FOS against uplift shall be more than 1.20
Joined: 26 Jan 2003 considering
Posts: 2212 only 90% of DL. Kindly see IS 3370 for FOS requirements against
floatations

Once the stability against floatation is achieved, wether there is uplift head or not,
the BM's and shears will remain same for raft except moments transffered from
side retaining walls which will depend on the head.

Illustration:

## Total weight of structure = W

Area of raft = A
Uplift pressure due to water head =U
No Uplift case:
Base pressures below raft under No uplift case = W/A
For raft design,Forces acting on raft are (Column loads W acting downwards)
and
(base pressure W/A acting upwards on Area A)

## Full Uplift case:

Base pressures below raft under Full uplift case = (W- UA)/A i.e. =(W/A - U)
Forces acting on raft are (Column loads W acting downwards) and
(Base pressure (W/A -U) acting upwards on Area A
plus U also acting upwards on Area A ) .Thus total upward pressure acting
upwards is = (W/A -U) + U = W/A
hence same

best wishes

vikramjeet

## fungineer Posted: Wed May 13, 2009 7:52 am Post subject:

...
Dear Er Vikramjeet,
Thanks for your valuable response. I have one additional query. Since during the
Joined: 15 Apr 2009 water logged case the SBC will reduce. Hence the upward pressure will vary from
Posts: 58 no water case. Please comment.
Regards,
PNP

vikram.jeet Posted: Thu May 14, 2009 4:41 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Dear Er PNP
In case subsoil water level once touches the bottom of founding level, the sbc of
soil is to be reduced to 50%.
Condition of floatation is further to that but sbc reduction remains the same
i.e.50% .
The sbc given in your soil report must be reduced one (by 50%)

Joined: 26 Jan 2003 Thus even if there is no uplift force, you have to design your foundation based on
the upward pressure shall be same based on reduced sbc only

best wishes

vikramjeet

Dear Er Vikramjeet,
Thanks for your valuable response. I have one additional query. Since during the
water logged case the SBC will reduce. Hence the upward pressure will vary from
Regards,
PNP

## Posted via Email

ibarua Posted: Thu May 14, 2009 2:04 pm Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
14th May 2009

In the absence of pressure relief valves, you may provide an alternative path for
release of pressure by providing stone columns and a granular sub-base 500 mm
thick below the raft.

## In one of our projects, in 2002-03, we had provided these arrangements. At a

Joined: 26 Jan 2003 time when the granular sub-base had been completed, there were heavy rains at
Posts: 1039 the project site. The entire area was flooded, but the excavated pit was dry!

Indrajit Barua.

## On Tue, 12 May 2009 pnp wrote :

Quote:
Dear all,
I have a raft foundation which has to resist water
and live load of 4kN/m2 since it is a commercial
building. We are not providing the pressure relief
valves due to difficulty in maintainance. My doubt is
"What will happen to the moment values in the raft slab
pressure from below acting simultaneously? whether it
will increase or decrease?". I consulted my senior
engineers and got entirely opposite opinions!. However,
i feel that though the vertical loads acting on the
columns may decrease, the bending moment in the slab
Regards,
PNP

## Posted via Email

vikram.jeet Posted: Fri May 15, 2009 6:04 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Dear PNP

Further I would like to add that ,please treat uplift as an external pressure/force
which act on
the structure due to development of water head . Therefore column loads will
remain the same
and will not decrease (as felt by you) .
Joined: 26 Jan 2003
SBC of soil must be reduced by the soil consutant in the report based on the
Posts: 2212 possibility of
rise of subsoil water level and in your case , maximum reduction i.e. 50%.(The
reduction
of sbc varies from 0% to 50% depending on the Max sub-soil water level taken for
design
varying from( B below founding level) to ( upto founding level )--- variation is
linear. If water
head rises above founding level ,the reduction remains maximum 50%.

## During construction of raft , it is better to provide temporary holes at about 10m

c/c (to be grouted
later)to protect the raft against floatation till the time full DL countering the uplift
is attained by
the structure

vikramjeet

Dear all,
I have a raft foundation which has to resist water
and live load of 4kN/m2 since it is a commercial
building. We are not providing the pressure relief
valves due to difficulty in maintainance. My doubt is
"What will happen to the moment values in the raft slab
pressure from below acting simultaneously? whether it
will increase or decrease?". I consulted my senior
engineers and got entirely opposite opinions!. However,
i feel that though the vertical loads acting on the
columns may decrease, the bending moment in the slab
Regards,
PNP

## Posted via Email

Dr. N. Posted: Fri May 15, 2009 8:24 pm Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Subramanian
General Sponsor Dear Shri. Indrajit Barua,

I did not know providing stone columns and a granular sub-base 500 mm thick
below the raft will be so effective in draining the water.

However one has to consider the Max. water table while designing the walls and
basement bottom slab. I think that even if one provides such water drainage
systems, it is better to design the walls and slab for max. anticipated water table.
The following book provides guidelines for the same.
The Manual of Below-Grade Waterproofing Systems
by Justin Henshell, C. W. Griffin, Wiley, 1999, 304pp.

## Joined: 21 Feb 2008 Regards,

Posts: 5225 Subramanian
Location:
--- On Fri, 5/15/09, ibarua <forum@sefindia.org> wrote:
Gaithersburg, MD, [quote]
U.S.A. From: ibarua <forum@sefindia.org>
Subject: [SEFI] Re: Water Pressure on Raft
To: general@sefindia.org
Date: Friday, May 15, 2009, 10:22 AM

## 14th May 2009

In the absence of pressure relief valves, you may provide an alternative path for
release of pressure by providing stone columns and a granular sub-base 500 mm
thick below the raft.

## In one of our projects, in 2002-03, we had provided these arrangements. At a

time when the granular sub-base had been completed, there were heavy rains at
the project site. The entire area was flooded, but the excavated pit was dry!

Indrajit Barua.

--auto removed--

## Posted via Email

vikram.jeet Posted: Sat May 16, 2009 11:22 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Dear Sh Inderjit Barua sir,

## If possible,kindly enlighten more about the system of 500mmGranular base

and stone columns.

I think the above system needs some outfall of subsoil water through some
underground/subsurface drainage without which the water will remain in the
Joined: 26 Jan 2003 surroundings and very purpose of maintaining the low water table is not
Posts: 2212 achieved.
Also water table can be loewred only upto the invert of the outfall drainage
in the vicinity.

This system can be easily adopted during construction to reduce the extent of
pumping but as a permanent solution, the structure must be designed for the
max subsoil water level in the area.
Also in such system ,the chances of chokage of media with passage of time
cannot be ruled out ,if taken to be permanent solution.

vikramjeet

## fungineer Posted: Mon May 18, 2009 1:15 pm Post subject:

...
Dear Mr. Vikramjeet,
Assuming that the raft system will be in equilibrium during DL+EL condition,If i
Joined: 15 Apr 2009 treat uplift as external pressure, then what will happen to the moments in the raft
Posts: 58 slab? (during DL+LL the moments in the middle strip of raft will be hogging and
another additionof external pressure due to water will try to enhance this
moment) Please enlighten me. I am still not convinced. I am sorry about that.
Regards,
PNP

Further I would like to add that ,please treat uplift as an external pressure/force
which act on
the structure due to development of water head . Therefore column loads will
remain the same
and will not decrease (as felt by you) .

SBC of soil must be reduced by the soil consutant in the report based on the
possibility of
rise of subsoil water level and in your case , maximum reduction i.e. 50%.(The
reduction
of sbc varies from 0% to 50% depending on the Max sub-soil water level taken for
design
varying from( B below founding level) to ( upto founding level )--- variation is
linear. If water
head rises above founding level ,the reduction remains maximum 50%.

## During construction of raft , it is better to provide temporary holes at about 10m

c/c (to be grouted
later)to protect the raft against floatation till the time full DL countering the uplift
is attained by
the structure

vikramjeet

Dr. N. Posted: Mon May 18, 2009 2:38 pm Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Subramanian

## I appreciate and agree with the following points made by you.

1. water table can be lowered only up to the invert of the outfall drainage
in the vicinity.

2.The structure must be designed for the max subsoil water level in the area.

## 3. In the system of 500mm Granular base and stone columns,the chances of

choking of media with passage of time cannot be ruled out, and hence can not be
considered as a permanent solution. Hence in any case the basement wall and
slab has to be designed for max. water table and associated pressure.
Joined: 21 Feb 2008
Posts: 5225 Regards
Location:
Gaithersburg, MD,
Subramanian
U.S.A.
--- On Sun, 5/17/09, vikram.jeet <forum@sefindia.org> wrote:
Quote:
From: vikram.jeet <forum@sefindia.org>
Subject: [SEFI] Re: Water Pressure on Raft
To: general@sefindia.org
Date: Sunday, May 17, 2009, 1:15 AM

## If possible,kindly enlighten more about the system of 500mmGranular base

and stone columns.

I think the above system needs some outfall of subsoil water through some
underground/subsurface drainage without which the water will remain in the
surroundings and very purpose of maintaining the low water table is not
achieved.
Also water table can be loewred only upto the invert of the outfall drainage
in the vicinity.

This system can be easily adopted during construction to reduce the extent
of
pumping but as a permanent solution, the structure must be designed for
the
max subsoil water level in the area.
Also in such system ,the chances of chokage of media with passage of time
cannot be ruled out ,if taken to be permanent solution.

vikramjeet

Discussion

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Author Message

vikram.jeet Posted: Tue May 19, 2009 9:55 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Dear PNP

## For understanding let us Consider the Free body diagram of Raft

The raft foundation will be in equiblirium due to external applied forces and
reactive force
and shall be designed accordingly.
Joined: 26 Jan 2003 The External applied forces on raft are:
Posts: 2212 i)There would be Concetrated loads at column locations in downward direction
ii)There would be uniform upward pressure due to uplift as result of water head

## The Reactive force on raft are:

iii) Base pressure from soil which is net effect of (i) + (ii)
Kindly note that when When there is no uplift The soil base pressure is W/A
and moments in any strip(middle/column strip) are worked out considering(
upward pressure=W/A)

But when there is uplift,The Reactive pressure ie. the soil base pressure
beneath the
raft will reduce by extent= U(uplift pressure) but another external force uplift
(=U) would
act simultaneously on the raft and the net result would be same i.e.= W/A .Thus
when uplift pressure
which is external force on raft acts, the reactive pressure from soil reduce by
same extent

## No uplift case: Raft to be designed for soil base pressure W/A

Uplift case: Raft to be designed for (i) soil base pressure( W/A -U) plus (ii)
Uplift pressure U

vikramjeet

## Dear Mr. Vikramjeet,

Assuming that the raft system will be in equilibrium during DL+EL condition,If i
treat uplift as external pressure, then what will happen to the moments in the
raft slab? (during DL+LL the moments in the middle strip of raft will be hogging
and another additionof external pressure due to water will try to enhance this
moment) Please enlighten me. I am still not convinced. I am sorry about that.
Regards,
PNP

## Posted via Email

ibarua Posted: Tue May 19, 2009 10:40 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
19th May 2009

There was no basement in the building that I mentioned. Had there been one,
we would have designed for upward water pressure due to high GWT.

Indrajit Barua.

## Joined: 26 Jan 2003 On Sun, 17 May 2009 vikram.jeet wrote :

Posts: 1039
Quote:
Dear Sh Inderjit Barua sir,

## If possible,kindly enlighten more about the system of

500mmGranular base
and stone columns.
I think the above system needs some outfall of subsoil
water through some
underground/subsurface drainage without which the water
will remain in the
surroundings and very purpose of maintaining the low
water table is not achieved.
Also water table can be loewred only upto the invert of
the outfall drainage
in the vicinity.

## This system can be easily adopted during construction

to reduce the extent of
pumping but as a permanent solution, the structure must
be designed for the
max subsoil water level in the area.
Also in such system ,the chances of chokage of media
with passage of time
cannot be ruled out ,if taken to be permanent solution.

vikramjeet

## Posted via Email

ibarua Posted: Tue May 19, 2009 10:49 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
19th May 2009

Stone columns are a way of improving the engineering properties of the soil, by
1.5 times the volume of muck removed from a bore hole. Several authors have
discussed stone columns, though the procedure for design has not been codified
as yet. The purpose of providing a granular sub-base above the stone columns is
Joined: 26 Jan 2003 to ensure even dispersion of loads, and also to have only primary settlements as
Posts: 1039 far as possible. The inter-granular fiction of the large size materials also helps to
rule out possibility of local settlements. The improvement in SBC of the
reconditioned soil may be determined by plate load tests. Soils that are prone to
liquefaction can also be treated with this method.

We have used the methods to preclude liquefation, as also to improve the SBC of
poor quality of soils. Results over the last 20 years have proved satisfactory.

Indrajit Barua.

## On Sun, 17 May 2009 vikram.jeet wrote :

Quote:
Dear Sh Inderjit Barua sir,

## If possible,kindly enlighten more about the system of

500mmGranular base
and stone columns.

## I think the above system needs some outfall of subsoil

water through some
underground/subsurface drainage without which the water
will remain in the
surroundings and very purpose of maintaining the low
water table is not achieved.
Also water table can be loewred only upto the invert of
the outfall drainage
in the vicinity.

## This system can be easily adopted during construction

to reduce the extent of
pumping but as a permanent solution, the structure must
be designed for the
max subsoil water level in the area.
Also in such system ,the chances of chokage of media
with passage of time
cannot be ruled out ,if taken to be permanent solution.

vikramjeet

## fungineer Posted: Tue May 19, 2009 12:17 pm Post subject:

...
Dear Er Vikramjeet,
Now i got a fair idea of the situation. Thanks a lot for your valuable time and
Joined: 15 Apr 2009 guidance.
Posts: 58 Regards,
PNP

Dr. N. Posted: Tue May 19, 2009 2:35 pm Post subject: Re: Water Pressure on Raft
Subramanian

With reference to the clarification by Er Vikarajeet, I would like to add that you
have to design for the cases of with and without uplift and provide
reinforcement for the worst condition.
Best wishes
Subramanian
vikram.jeet wrote:
Dear PNP

## For understanding let us Consider the Free body diagram of Raft

Joined: 21 Feb 2008
Posts: 5225 The raft foundation will be in equiblirium due to external applied forces and
Location: Gaithersburg, reactive force
MD, U.S.A. and shall be designed accordingly.
The External applied forces on raft are:
i)There would be Concetrated loads at column locations in downward
direction
ii)There would be uniform upward pressure due to uplift as result of water

## The Reactive force on raft are:

iii) Base pressure from soil which is net effect of (i) + (ii)

Kindly note that when When there is no uplift The soil base pressure is
W/A
and moments in any strip(middle/column strip) are worked out
considering( upward pressure=W/A)

But when there is uplift,The Reactive pressure ie. the soil base pressure
beneath the
raft will reduce by extent= U(uplift pressure) but another external force
uplift (=U) would
act simultaneously on the raft and the net result would be same i.e.= W/A
.Thus when uplift pressure
which is external force on raft acts, the reactive pressure from soil reduce
by same extent

## No uplift case: Raft to be designed for soil base pressure W/A

Uplift case: Raft to be designed for (i) soil base pressure( W/A -
U) plus (ii) Uplift pressure U

vikramjeet

## Dear Mr. Vikramjeet,

Assuming that the raft system will be in equilibrium during DL+EL
condition,If i treat uplift as external pressure, then what will happen to the
moments in the raft slab? (during DL+LL the moments in the middle strip
of raft will be hogging and another additionof external pressure due to
water will try to enhance this moment) Please enlighten me. I am still not
convinced. I am sorry about that.
Regards,
PNP

## Posted via Email

P.K.Mallick Posted: Tue May 19, 2009 3:45 pm Post subject: Re: Water Pressure on Raft
drnsmani wrote:
Dear Er. PNP,

## With reference to the clarification by Er Vikarajeet, I would like to add that

you have to design for the cases of with and without uplift and provide
reinforcement for the worst condition.

Best wishes
Subramanian
vikram.jeet wrote:
Joined: 14 Dec 2008
Posts: 1089 Dear PNP
Location: Cuttack,
Odisha. For understanding let us Consider the Free body diagram of Raft
pk_mallick1962@rediff
mail.com The raft foundation will be in equiblirium due to external applied
forces and reactive force
and shall be designed accordingly.
The External applied forces on raft are:
i)There would be Concetrated loads at column locations in
downward direction
ii)There would be uniform upward pressure due to uplift as result

## The Reactive force on raft are:

iii) Base pressure from soil which is net effect of (i) + (ii)

Kindly note that when When there is no uplift The soil base
pressure is W/A
and moments in any strip(middle/column strip) are worked out
considering( upward pressure=W/A)

But when there is uplift,The Reactive pressure ie. the soil base
pressure beneath the
raft will reduce by extent= U(uplift pressure) but another
external force uplift (=U) would
act simultaneously on the raft and the net result would be same
i.e.= W/A .Thus when uplift pressure
which is external force on raft acts, the reactive pressure from soil
reduce by same extent

## No uplift case: Raft to be designed for soil base pressure W/A

Uplift case: Raft to be designed for (i) soil base pressure( W/A -
U) plus (ii) Uplift pressure U

confusion

vikramjeet

## Dear Mr. Vikramjeet,

Assuming that the raft system will be in equilibrium during DL+EL
condition,If i treat uplift as external pressure, then what will
happen to the moments in the raft slab? (during DL+LL the
moments in the middle strip of raft will be hogging and another
additionof external pressure due to water will try to enhance this
moment) Please enlighten me. I am still not convinced. I am sorry
Regards,
PNP

## Posted via Email

Whether it is with lift or without lift the upward reaction shall remain
same i.e W/A.Hence reinforcement will remain same for both the cases.
_________________
P.K.Mallick
pk_mallick1962@rediffmail.com

P.K.Mallick Posted: Tue May 19, 2009 4:01 pm Post subject: Re: Water Pressure on Raft
ibarua wrote:
14th May 2009

## In the absence of pressure relief valves, you may provide an alternative

path for release of pressure by providing stone columns and a granular
sub-base 500 mm thick below the raft.

## In one of our projects, in 2002-03, we had provided these arrangements.

At a time when the granular sub-base had been completed, there were
heavy rains at the project site. The entire area was flooded, but the
Joined: 14 Dec 2008 excavated pit was dry!
Posts: 1089
Location: Cuttack, Indrajit Barua.
Odisha.
pk_mallick1962@rediff On Tue, 12 May 2009 pnp wrote :
mail.com
Quote:
Dear all,
I have a raft foundation which has to resist water
and live load of 4kN/m2 since it is a commercial
building. We are not providing the pressure relief
valves due to difficulty in maintainance. My doubt is
"What will happen to the moment values in the raft slab
pressure from below acting simultaneously? whether it
will increase or decrease?". I consulted my senior
engineers and got entirely opposite opinions!. However,
i feel that though the vertical loads acting on the
columns may decrease, the bending moment in the slab
Regards,
PNP
Posted via Email

## In absence of pressure relief valve,under floor drainage should be

provided to reduce the water pressure. Stone columns and granular sub
base in combination with Geotextile act as an effective under floor
drainage system. Of course the collected water is required to be pumped
out.
_________________
P.K.Mallick
pk_mallick1962@rediffmail.com

## fungineer Posted: Wed May 20, 2009 3:52 am Post subject:

...
Dear All,
Joined: 15 Apr 2009 aspects indicated by you all.
Posts: 58 Regards,
PNP

nikhilkalekar Posted: Wed May 20, 2009 4:26 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
SEFI Regulars
Resp Sirs,

Joined: 12 Apr 2009 I do agree with Shri. Indrajit Barua regarding the use if stone columns. I have
Posts: 29 read an article on Design of Stone Columns and its Use.
Please let me know whether the following information is correct.

## The use of stone columns as stated in that book is as follows;

1) Improve slope stability of both embankments and natural slopes.
2) Increasing bearing capacity.
3) Reducing total and differential settlements
4) Reducing the liquefaction potential of sands
5) Increasing the time rate of settlement.
Stone columns are used to support structures overlying both very soft to firm
cohesive soils and also loose silty sands having greater than about 15 percent
fines.

Regards,
Nikhil V.Kalekar

## From: ibarua [mailto:forum@sefindia.org]

Sent: Tuesday, May 19, 2009 10:32 PM
To: general@sefindia.org
Subject: [SEFI] Re: Water Pressure on Raft

## 19th May 2009

Stone columns are a way of improving the engineering properties of the soil, by
1.5 times the volume of muck removed from a bore hole. Several authors have
discussed stone columns, though the procedure for design has not been codified
as yet. The purpose of providing a granular sub-base above the stone columns is
to ensure even dispersion of loads, and also to have only primary settlements as
far as possible. The inter-granular fiction of the large size materials also helps to
rule out possibility of local settlements. The improvement in SBC of the
reconditioned soil may be determined by plate load tests. Soils that are prone to
liquefaction can also be treated with this method.

We have used the methods to preclude liquefation, as also to improve the SBC of
poor quality of soils. Results over the last 20 years have proved satisfactory.

Indrajit Barua.

--auto removed--

## Posted via Email

vikram.jeet Posted: Wed May 20, 2009 5:38 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Dear Dr NS,

## No uplift and Full uplift cases

Sir, I definately agree with you that two cases are different.
But I feel from from the point of view of floatation, soil base pressures,
Earth and hydrostatic pressures on side walls
Joined: 26 Jan 2003
Posts: 2212 From the point of view of raft design:

As stated earlier posting, the moments transferred to raft from side retaining
walls
will only make difference in the two cases of No uplift and Full uplift.
Other than that I donot forsee any change in the moments and shears
in raft while considering the two cases.
The soil base pressures in two cases will be different but sum of upward
pressures for design of raft are exactly same in both the cases .

vikramjeet

## Dear Er. PNP,

With reference to the clarification by Er Vikarajeet, I would like to add that you
have to design for the cases of with and without uplift and provide reinforcement
for the worst condition.

Best wishes
Subramanian

Author Message

## thirumalaichetti Posted: Wed May 20, 2009 10:43 am Post subject:

ar
It is correct that all the statement you mentioned as from the book Design of stone
column is absolutly correct. The way that our senior engineer Indrajit followed is
also very good solution. This method of stone column is used by Tamilnadu Public
works Dept and is mentioned in their handbook FOUNDATION FAILURE AND
REMEDIAL METHODS.

T.Rangarajan

## Joined: 26 Jan 2003

Posts: 3459

Dr. N. Posted: Wed May 20, 2009 5:40 pm Post subject: Re: Water Pressure on Raft
Subramanian

you may get more info. on stone columns from the following FHWA Documents:

http://isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/FHWA/010528.pdf
http://isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/FHWA/009750.pdf

Prof. K.Rajagopal and Prof. Narasimha Rao of IITM have done work on Stone
columns. I am giving below some info from Prof. Rajagopal's paper:

One common approach for treatment of soft clay soils is the installation of stone
columns. The load capacity of the stone columns depends very much on the shear
Joined: 21 Feb 2008 strength of the surrounding soft clay soil. The stone columns help in both reduction
Posts: 5225 of settlements and accelerated pre-consolidation of clay soil deposit. However, in
Location:
case of extremely soft clay soils, the stone column formation may be difficult due
Gaithersburg, MD,
U.S.A. to lateral spread of stones. The contamination of stone aggregate by the ingression
of soft clay soil may inhibit the drainage function of stone columns. The
geosynthetic encasement of stone columns is an ideal solution for enhancing the
performance of stone columns in such conditions. The geosynthetic encasement
helps in easy formation of the stone column and improves the strength and
stiffness of the columns.
Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns for Load Support in Soft Clay Soils

## The geosynthetics have dramatically transformed the practice of geotechnical

engineering field around the world. These products have made it possible to
introduce novel concepts to ground improvement. Heretofore impossible design
and applications are made possible with the geosynthetics. The uniqueness of
construction with geosynthetic products are, (i) Technical Superiority with variety
of engineered products (ii) faster construction (iii) Forming flexible structural
system that performs exceptionally well during seismic hazards. (iv) Better control
on the quality of products. The major potential usage for the Geosynthetics is in
reinforcing soils and ground improvement. This paper explains one of such
developments in the Geosynthetics Engineering for ground improvement.

The rapid growth of infrastructural developments has lead to such a stage that,
many a times constructions have to be taken up on weak grounds which were
rejected in the past due to poor soil bearing capacities. Engineers constantly strive
for improving such soils by innovative methods. Especially for the construction of
road or railway embankments and other flexible structures on soft soils,
conventional solutions like replacing the unsuitable soils or bypassing them with
deep foundations like piles may prove to be expensive and time consuming. In
such cases it is customary to use stone columns (otherwise called as granular
piles) which are nothing but vertical columnar elements formed below the ground
level (usually up to a competent stratum) with compacted and uncemented stone
fragments or gravels. The stone aggregates (generally of size between 20 mm and
75 mm) are compacted within the vertical hole formed in the ground by a vibrating
probe or by ramming. Such columns may have diameters usually in the ranges of
600 mm to 1 m and length up to a maximum of 15 to 20 m. They are commonly
arranged in square or triangular grid pattern in plan with centre to centre spacing
of 1.5 to 3.5 m. The presence of the column creates a composite material of lower
compressibility and higher shear strength than the original soil. The stone columns
also promote the drainage of pore water there by accelerating the consolidation of
the clay soil.

## When the stone column is subjected to vertical loading, it undergoes significant

vertical compression caused by the lateral bulging of the aggregates predominantly
in the top portion of the column (generally within a depth of about four times the
diameter of the stone column). As the column bulges the granular material presses
into the surrounding soft soil and transfers stress to the soil. This bulge, in turn,
increases the lateral stress within the clay (inducing a passive pressure condition in
clay) which provides additional confinement for the stones. The passive pressure
from the surrounding clay makes the column to resist the vertical load on the stone
column. Hence the load carrying capacity of the stone column largely depends on
the strength of the surrounding clay. In soft clay soils, the bulging of stone
columns will be more leading to larger surface settlements rendering the efficacy of
the stone columns to very low. This is a major limitation of stone column technique
especially in very soft soils.

The other limitations and the problems encountered in installing stone columns in
soft clays and extreme soft soils like marine clay are (i) Loss of Stones: The stones
charged in to the column may squeeze out of the column due to low confinement
from the surrounding soft clay due to which the formation of stone column itself
may be doubtful (ii) Contamination of Stone Aggregate: The surrounding soft clay
may intrude into the stone aggregate contaminating the stone aggregate which
eventually reduces the frictional properties of the aggregate and impedes the
drainage function of the column. (iii) Limited Bearing Capacity: As the stone
columns are dependent on the surrounding clay soil, the load carrying capacity of
the stone column can not be improved more than 25 times the strength of the soft
clay. Hence, it may not be possible to design economical spacing for stone columns
in case of very heavy loads. In such situations the performance of stone column
itself may need to be improved by suitable means.

## Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns: One of the methods to improve the

performance of the stone columns installed in weak soils is wrapping the individual
stone column by a suitable geosynthetic (geogrid or geotextile) in a tubular form
(Figure 1). This encasement helps the column in several ways to improve the
overall performance of the stone column because of the composite action of the
materials. The behaviour of these encased stone columns will be somewhere
between that of ordinary stone columns and rigid concrete piles. Some of the
benefits of geosynthetic encasement can be listed as follows.

*
The encasement imparts additional lateral confinement which helps in
increasing the load capacity of the stone column by many folds.
*
The lateral squeezing of stones in to surrounding soft clays is prevented and
hence loss of stones while installation is minimised. More over the stone
aggregates can be compacted to a higher degree of compaction.
*
When the stone columns are encased in geotextiles, it promotes the vertical
drainage function of the stone column by acting as a good filter to prevent fines
from mixing with the stone aggregate.
*
As the encasement prevents contamination of aggregates by surrounding clay
the frictional properties of the aggregates and the drainage functions of the column
are preserved.
*
The confinement offered by the encasement also enhances the shear
resistance of the stone column when it is subjected to lateral soil movements.

## Installation of Geosynthetic Encased Stone Column: The geosynthetic encased

stone columns can generally be installed by displacement method. Replacement
method of installation may not be possible in soft to very soft soils as the soil may
collapse while boring. Moreover the displacement method has the benefit of
compressing the surrounding soil while the casing pipe is driven. Two ways of
installation of geosynthetic encased stone columns are possible as explained in the
following sections.

(i) Wrapping the Casing Pipe with the Geosynthetic: In this method the casing pipe
is first wrapped around with the geosynthetic and the bottom of the geosynthetic
encasement is fitted with an anchor plate. The plate will hold the encasement
intact while the casing pipe is pulled out. The stone fill is charged through the
casing pipe and when the casing pipe is pulled out the geosynthetic encases the
stone fill. The stone fill inside the column is compacted by tamping. The
construction sequence is shown schematically in Figure 2(a). This method is
suitable for both geogrid and geotextile encasements.

(ii) Geosynthetic Encasement inside the Casing Pipe: In this method the casing
pipe with a flap open at the bottom is lowered in to the ground till it reaches the
firm stratum. Then a sack of the geosynthetic is lowered into the casing pipe. The
required quantity of aggregate is filled in the sack and the full column is formed
inside the casing pipe. After this the casing pipe is retrieved slowly with vibration.
This vibration causes the compaction of the aggregate inside the geosynthetic. This
method of installation is most suitable for soft geosynthetics (such as geotextiles
and polyester geogrids, etc.) Figure 2(b) shows the sequence of installation of this
method.
Performance of the Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns: As geosynthetic
encasement of stone column is a recent technique, as such, they are yet to be
tried in the real field to get their advantages. The authors have performed
extensive laboratory model studies and numerical analysis to investigate the
benefits of encasing the stone columns with different types of geosynthetics. Figure
3(a) shows a typical group of Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns (referred as
ESC) installed in a clay bed prepared in a laboratory testing tank. Fig. 3(b) shows
one of the load tests being carried out on the stone columns. The investigations
mainly brought out the improved performance of the ESCs in contrast to the
ordinary stone column without encasement (referred as OSC). Figure 4 shows one
of the results from the laboratory studies. From the graph it can be stated that the
ESCs can bear a pressure of about 3 to 5 times as that of the OSCs for the given
settlement on the column. The stiffness of the ESCs was found to be more and the
ESCs were found to act like semi-rigid piles. For same pressure loading and
settlement criteria, with the ESCs either the diameter of the stone columns can be
made lesser or the spacing can be increased, resulting in cost saving on the stones
and time consumption.

All other aspects of the investigation have certainly proved the system to be most
efficient and advantageous in several ways (For more details the readers may refer
to the publications mentioned in the references). One of the major hurdles which
holds back this technique is the practical installation difficulties. But these
difficulties can be overcome by devising suitable installation system as explained

## Conclusions: One innovative use of geosynthetics is in enhancing the performance

of the conventional stone columns used as ground improvement for flexible
structures. The geosynthetics wrapping the individual stone columns enhances the
performance of the stone columns in many ways especially when they are installed
in extreme soft soils like marine clays. This paper investigated and highlighted the
benefits of such systems and suggested some installation techniques that can be

References:

*
Murugesan, S. and Rajagopal, K. (2006) Geosynthetic encased stone columns:
Numerical evaluation. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 24(6), 349-358.
*
Murugesan, S. and Rajagopal, K. (2007) Model tests on vertical load capacity
of geosynthetic encased stone columns. Geosynthetics International. 16(6), 346
354.
*
Murugesan, S. and Rajagopal, K. (2009) Shear Load Tests on Stone Columns
With and Without Geosynthetic Encasement. Geotechnical
Testing Journal, ASTM. 32(1) Paper ID GTJ101219).

## S. Murugesan Assistant General Manager, Geosynthetics Division,Garware-Wall

Ropes Ltd., Pune-411019.

Chennai - 600036.

Best wishes
Subramanian

[quote="nikhilkalekar"]Resp Sirs,
I do agree with Shri. Indrajit Barua regarding the use if stone columns. I have read
an article on Design of Stone Columns and its Use.
Please let me know whether the following information is correct.

## The use of stone columns as stated in that book is as follows;

1) Improve slope stability of both embankments and natural slopes.
2) Increasing bearing capacity.
3) Reducing total and differential settlements
4) Reducing the liquefaction potential of sands
5) Increasing the time rate of settlement.
Stone columns are used to support structures overlying both very soft to firm
cohesive soils and also loose silty sands having greater than about 15 percent
fines.

Regards,
Nikhil V.Kalekar

Dr. N. Posted: Thu May 21, 2009 1:36 pm Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
Subramanian

Thank you very much for the explanations. I agree with you that there may not be
any changes in the raft reinforcement by considering the two cases of with and
without uplift pressure; although the water pressure may affect the side walls of
the basement. This point was also stressed by Er. Mallick. Even though the
reinforcement for this pressure from below has to be provided in the top of raft, we
normally provide equal reinforcement in the bottom of slab also. Is it not? That is
the reason the raft becomes very expensive compared to ordinary individual
footing or even with pile and pile caps.

Regards,
Subramanian
Joined: 21 Feb 2008 Quote:
Posts: 5225
Location:
Gaithersburg, MD, From: vikram.jeet <forum@sefindia.org>
U.S.A. Subject: [SEFI] Re: Water Pressure on Raft
To: general@sefindia.org
Date: Thursday, May 21, 2009, 11:50 AM

Dear Dr NS,

## No uplift and Full uplift cases

Sir, I definately agree with you that two cases are different.
But I feel from from the point of view of floatation, soil base pressures,
Earth and hydrostatic pressures on side walls

## From the point of view of raft design:

As stated earlier posting, the moments transferred to raft from side retaining
walls
will only make difference in the two cases of No uplift and Full uplift.
Other than that I donot forsee any change in the moments and shears
in raft while considering the two cases.
The soil base pressures in two cases will be different but sum of upward
pressures for design of raft are exactly same in both the cases .

vikramjeet

## With reference to the clarification by Er Vikarajeet, I would like to add that

you have to design for the cases of with and without uplift and provide
reinforcement for the worst condition.

Best wishes
Subramanian

## Posted via Email

nikhilkalekar Posted: Mon May 25, 2009 6:00 am Post subject: Water Pressure on Raft
SEFI Regulars
Resp Shri. T.Rangarajan & Dr. Subramanian,

Joined: 12 Apr 2009 Thank you for your response and updating me on this topic. So also thanks for the
Posts: 29 references that you have provided, i am sure that will be helpful for me.

Regards,
Nikhil V.Kalekar

## From: thirumalaichettiar [mailto:forum@sefindia.org]

Sent: Wednesday, May 20, 2009 4:14 PM
To: general@sefindia.org
Subject: [SEFI] Re: Water Pressure on Raft

## Dear Nikhil V.Kalekar,

It is correct that all the statement you mentioned as from the book Design of stone
column is absolutly correct. The way that our senior engineer Indrajit followed is
also very good solution. This method of stone column is used by Tamilnadu Public
works Dept and is mentioned in their handbook FOUNDATION FAILURE AND
REMEDIAL METHODS.
T.Rangarajan

This e-mail and any attachment are confidential and may be privileged or
otherwise protected from disclosure. It is solely intended for the person(s) named
above. If you are not the intended recipient, any reading, use, disclosure, copying
or distribution of all or parts of this e-mail or associated attachments is strictly
prohibited. If you are not an intended recipient, please notify the sender
immediately by replying to this message or by telephone and delete this e-mail
and any attachments permanently from your system.

## Posted via Email

abhishekregalla Posted: Tue Mar 19, 2013 5:48 am Post subject: Raft Slab is cracked due to uplift
SEFI Member pressure

Sir,
I have a typical problem, We have a sump with (35m Dia, SWD of 4.5m as the
Joined: 19 Mar 2013 ground water table seemed high we have designed the sump taking 3.5m Uplift
Posts: 13
Pressure, but it seems that the uplift pressure (floating) was more than we
anticipated and hence the slab cracked up more at the center (300mm) and almost
zero at the ends. In the ends it may be due to the presence of Side wall which
acts as a vertical restraint. these cracks are almost 13-14mm in size and have
come up before filling water. now we would like to rectify the problem
One solution we are thinking is to repour the concrete and make it 1.2m (which is
required for an uplift pressure of 5m) thick from already existing 0.65m thick slab.
but am not sure if this will work, because the cracked up slab no longer acts as a

Kindly guide if there are any other practical, economical yet feasible solution to the
above problem
Hope to receive replies in this regards
Thanks in anticipation.

R Abhishek

Dear Abhishek,

## You mean 13 to 14mm wide cracks in bottom slab,really huge cracks.

1) circumscribe the tank with higher dia ring and provide it deep enough,and water
between the tank wall and ring shall be removed periodically.
2) We can adopt pressure release valve if the GWT is of fresh water
3) If tank is in open field we can adopt trenches all around to reduce the water
table height.

Joined: 17 Jul 2012 Regarding the crack,as you have said a new slab must be cast.
Posts: 422

Rgds
Manohar

## abhishekregalla Posted: Tue Mar 19, 2013 10:36 am Post subject:

SEFI Member
dear Sir,
Thank you for your kind explanation, kindly clarify my further doubts
Joined: 19 Mar 2013
Posts: 13 1. In case the new slab has to be cast, do i need to remove the exisitng cracked
slab or is it okay if i consider it under dead weight?
2. in case the new slab has to be cast should it be cast for a thickness of 1.2m (As
required for 5m Water depth)?

though it may not be practically possible for you to answer without seeing the
original situation but i just wanted to know if there is any other alternative instead
of laying a complete new slab (as my hydraulics in the treatment plant are entirely
disturbed because of change in the slab level and thickness)

## Thanks and Regards

R Abhishek

VPandya Posted: Tue Mar 19, 2013 12:27 pm Post subject: What can work with Uplift of 10m
General Sponsor water table is the question

## Dear Er. Fungineer ,

Let us say we look at this issue of 10m uplift water pressure on raft from
PUBLIC - SAFETY point of view.

Say this is a 10 storey office building and some 500 people working at a
time in this building. All our solutions of 10m uplift Water Pressure are
fine but I as a structural Engineer need to see at least 5 such projects
existing for last five years. Need there drawings and visit these structures
see if they are functioning properly. When it comes to Public-
Safety I need to do what they call in our industry " BELT AND
SUSPENDER DESIGN " .
Joined: 09 Nov 2009
Posts: 688
Location: Engineer should not be afraid to tell Client/Builder that Sir this site is not
Ahmedabad suitable for such building structure from Public - Safety point of view. I
know Land/Real State is very very expensive in big cities in India. We
need to address this from What if our solutions do not work for next 50
years or Life span of Structure.

## I go with no UPLIFT solution due to 10m water pressure. That means

may be heavy TENSION PILE FOUNDATION. Pile Foundation will address
the issue of no SBC in presence of High Water Table. Increase Dead Load
of RAFT and STRUCTURE to get no net uplift. Will be a very cost
prohibitive solution, but Public -Safety will be there. Best is move this
structure to some other site where conditions are reasonably good.
Please also see my SEFI post dated 13th January 2013 titled " Avoid
Tension
in Columns ". I have suggested similar solution based on public-safety
issue. This was a design criteria for High Rise Buildings from a very
eminent Structural Engineer in USA.

Regards.

## Vasudeo Pandya P.E. ; S.E.

Structural Engineer

## suresh_sharma Posted: Wed Mar 20, 2013 8:36 am Post subject:

...
Abhsekregalla

Joined: 23 Mar 2011 What do you mean by the crack of 300mm at the centre and almost zero at the
Posts: 783 end. You have further that crack width is 13-14 mm. Both speak two different
theory.. You have already designed the water tank for submerged condition of 3.0
m or 3.5m. Now it is stated to be 5.0 m. The excess of 1.5 will not cause failure to
a slab of 0.65 m thick to crack. There is some design failure. The watertank may
not have been designed With M30 grade of concrete and as per latest provision in
the code. The cause of failure can be known only after looking into the design file
and the related drawing.

## abhishekregalla Posted: Mon Mar 25, 2013 6:41 am Post subject:

SEFI Member
Dear Suresh Sir,

Joined: 19 Mar 2013 Sorry for the confusion, what i meant was there was a level rise of 300mm at the
Posts: 13 center ( like the slab must have become some thing like an inverted Saucer with
300mm uplift at the center) and zero at the ends. along with this level difference
there was also cracks of about 13 to 14mm in the slab at the center.
am attaching a pdf copy of the design document. kindly go through the design and
help me out in identifying the mistake.

It costs a lot of money (>75Lakhs) in re casting the whole slab and removing the
columns. hence kindly reply me of any alternatives

tools before opening them. They may contain viruses.
CWR-3700KL-R5.pdf
Description:
Filesize: 300.2 KB

Author Message

## sakumar79 Posted: Mon Mar 25, 2013 9:58 am Post subject:

...
Dear Sir,
On going through only base slab design following points are noted:
Joined: 18 Apr 2008 1. For 650 mm thick slab, minimum steel as per IS456 will be around 12Y@150,
Posts: 649 but you have given 12Y@200 based on Moment design

2. For cracked section requirement, I think even heavier steel will be required.
3. For 650 mm thick slab, hope you have gone through section of IS3370 part 1 on
Thick sections (for sections with more than 450 mm thickness, special care is
needed as there is likelihood of cracking due to temperature rise during hydration
of the cement and subsequent cooling.

Considering the existing condition, I think it is better to go for new concrete after
demolishing (at least partially) the base slab since it is lifted by 300mm which may
be too difficult to correct.

Yours sincerely
S. Arunkumar

## spsvasan Posted: Mon Mar 25, 2013 2:25 pm Post subject:

...
Dear Er.Abhishek

Joined: 18 Dec 2008 I think there is a design flaw. The total deadload of the structure + the soil over
is along the peripheral wall. In the central portion, the available deadload is much
smaller than the uplift pressure. In fact, if the uplift pressure exceeds just 22
kN/sqm, the slabs in the inner portion will start to lift up.

counteract the uplift in the panel. If you are thinking in terms of 50 kN/sqm uplift,
not suffice.

In the calculations for raft slab, the weight of pcc had been deducted along with
the selfweight of the raft slab. This should not be done since the pcc is below the
raft slab and will not add to the uplift resistance. The base slab has been designed
as slab with concealed beam system. It is better to check as a flat slab.

If you want to make use of the cracked raft slab for uplift resistance, you can
insert chemical anchors into the cracked slab at suitable spacing. If these anchors
are extended sufficiently into the new concrete, when ground water tries to lift up
the new raft, the weight of the cracked raft will come into play. The diameter and
spacing of the chemical anchors will have to be designed carefully and a few field
tests for pullout capacity should also be carried out. I have never tried this solution
in practice. Other Sefians may please comment.

If there are no cracks at the junction of the columns and the base raft, the top slab
should also have lifted up by 300mm. Is it so?

Due to uplift, the base has risen up. Later, if the water level goes down, the base
slab and the cover slab will come down. There can be additional cracking on this
account. All such cracks also have to be repaired. It is better to bring down the
base slab to original position before attempting remedial measures.

Regards
S.P.Srinivasan

## abhishekregalla Posted: Mon Mar 25, 2013 5:11 pm Post subject:

SEFI Member
Sir,
I understand what you are saying, but to (mis)fortune, actually the sump was still
Joined: 19 Mar 2013 under construction. Only raft slab, side wall and internal columns work was going
Posts: 13 on when the cracks were observed. may be if the whole sump was completed, and
may be because of weight of water the sump would have sustained.

now that its cracked up, kindly suggest the cost effective, and safety remedies.

## Increasing slab thickness to 1150 will not serve the purpose?

kindly guide me..

## spsvasan Posted: Tue Mar 26, 2013 3:34 am Post subject:

...
Dear Er.Abhishek

Joined: 18 Dec 2008 The weight of the cylindrical wall and the soil filling over the base slab extension
Posts: 295 will contribute only to the overall stability. They will not counter the uplift forces in
the inner regions. In the inner regions the load from the column and the weight of
base slab only will counter the uplift forces. If this weight is not sufficient, the base
slab and columns cannot be pinned down and the top slab, the base slab and the
columns will together bend upwards due to net uplift. This upward bending has a
huge circular span of 35m. Sefians, please correct me if I am wrong.

## In my opinion the best course of reducing the cost over-run is as follows.

The cracked base slab may be connected to a new base slab so as to utilise the
deadweight of the cracked base slab. The new base slab has to be designed for net

Since the present freeboard is 1.1m, some additional filling can be provided over
the new base slab to reduce net uplift to a minimum.

If this filling load is not adequate (ie, uplift in one panel is greater than the dead
load in one panel) filling may be carried out over the cover slab. The cover slab
and beams will have to be designed for this extra load.

Other Sefians may please comment on the above. I hope somebody will come up
with a simpler, more effective and less costly solution.

Regards
S.P.Srinivasan

## abhishekregalla Posted: Tue Mar 26, 2013 4:31 am Post subject:

SEFI Member
Sir,
Thank you so much for your analysis.
Joined: 19 Mar 2013
Posts: 13 As u rightly pointed out, laying a new raft slab over the cracked slab, may work
out. For now this is the solution which even we are thinking. but the real life prob
is such that the cost for laying a new concrete slab of 1150mm thick for a dia of
33.5m will cost me around 90+ lakhs. which is more than what we can afford at
this point.
so can i get any other cost effective, safe alternatives.

Also if this is the only solution available, i would like to ask the following question
regarding the same.
1. since there was an uplift of 300mm at the center, can i first pour lean mix (poor
mix) of concrete so that it seeps into the existing cracked slab. by this, though the
cracked slab may not act as a structural member, but it may atleast cover up the
gaps, then the same mix i will use it to level the entire slab upto uplift level
(300mm). then i will try to pour in fresh M30 concrete for the new raft slab.
2. in case i have to go for a fresh raft slab. what shall be the thickness of the slab.
anticipating an uplift of 5m i have roughly calculated it as 1150mm. Kindly correct
me if am wrong.
3. Kindly note that i have only an year of experience, and hence I would not like to
have cracked up slabs again, i would like to doubly ensure the safety aspects of
the sump., I request any of the sefian to kindly provide me a soft copy (excel) or
any other editable user friendly design of GLSR (circular and rectangular).

R Abhishek

## spsvasan Posted: Thu Mar 28, 2013 2:39 am Post subject:

...
Dear Er.Abishek

Joined: 18 Dec 2008 An alternative solution was suggested by Er.V.Pandya. Provision of tension piles or
Posts: 295 soil anchors or rock anchors will counteract uplift very satisfactorily. However, this
system has to be designed and executed by specialists in this field. The cost of this
solution will depend upon the subsoil characteristics.

Pressure relief valves suggested by Er.Manohar also will work and can be adopted
provided that mixing of ground water and stored water will not pose any problem.

If you are thinking in terms of gravity load to counteract uplift, you may provide a
new RCC base (this can be a beam and slab system or flat slab system) properly
connected to the existing columns. Add as much fillling as possible over this rcc
slab. The rcc slab has to be designed for uplift - self weight - filling weight. Check
whether the weight of base, filling, column, and cover slab will counteract the full
uplift with necessary safety factor. If the load is insufficient, add filling over the
cover slab and re-design the cover slab and beams for this extra load.

Regards
S.P.Srinivasan

## abhishekregalla Posted: Fri Mar 29, 2013 4:17 am Post subject:

SEFI Member
Dear Sir,
Thank you!
Joined: 19 Mar 2013
Posts: 13 But dear all sefians, i just want to know can any one calculate and let me know if
the thickness of 1150mm proposed will suffice for the uplift pressure of 5m. It
seems to be as per my calculations as attached in the pdf.
Kindly let me know..
Also I request you all to correct the pdf/ suggest the necessary changes that i may
have to do in the design in future to not to incur such huge loss and not to make
such mistakes in the future.

R Abhishek

## abhishekregalla Posted: Sat Mar 30, 2013 11:58 am Post subject:

SEFI Member
Dear Sir,
Thank you!
Joined: 19 Mar 2013
Posts: 13 But dear all sefians, i just want to know can any one calculate and let me know if
the thickness of 1150mm proposed will suffice for the uplift pressure of 5m. It
seems to be as per my calculations as attached in the pdf.
Kindly let me know..
Also I request you all to correct the pdf/ suggest the necessary changes that i may
have to do in the design in future to not to incur such huge loss and not to make
such mistakes in the future.

R Abhishek