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Fluid Mixing Equipment

by P. E. GRAYBEAL, Hercules
Powder Co., Hattiesburg, Miss., THE manufacturers of fluid mixing where a definite stress must be ex-
and R. J. BECHTEL, Hercules equipment are making excellent ceeded to start the material flowing;
Powder Co., Parlin, N. J. progress toward keeping pace with a n d pseudoplasticity for non-New-
the expanding requirements of the tonian fluids, where the a p p a r e n t vis-
process industry. Selection of fluid cosity decreases with increasing rate
mixing devices for the wide variety of of shear. This is a typical character-
applications has been treated rather istic of m a n y liquid-solid suspensions
fully by a number of authors (7, 2, 4, a n d is generally found in those con-
6, 72). This article, therefore, covers taining fibrous solids. I t is also found
only briefly the factors which should in emulsions a n d colloidal suspensions.
be considered in selecting a fluid O t h e r physical properties to be
mixer, but covers in detail the types of considered a r e : particle size, shape,
equipment which are available today, a n d solubility; t e m p e r a t u r e effects;
A n y application of fluid the services provided by manufac- surface tension; stickiness; ability of
mixing may have one or turers, and the new developments in solids to be w e t t e d ; a n d changes of
more of the following fluid mixing. the mass d u r i n g mixing—i.e., varia-
immediate objectives. The ultimate objectives of fluid tion in fluidity or viscosity.
mixing may be to obtain uniform Specific gravity of the mixture a n d
physical characteristics, or to control a relative gravities of each c o m p o n e n t
chemical reaction where temperature, m a y govern t h e type of e q u i p m e n t to
^ 1. Blending of miscible ratio of reactants, and contact be- be used. Cycles a n d relative propor-
liquids. tween reactants are the important tions, as well as order of addition of
features. When two or more of these the separate phases, a r e t h e next
^ 2. Blending of solids in operations take place in one cycle, factors to be considered.
liquid suspension. one is usually controlling and the F r o m the physical factors, especially
mixer design is based on the most tank size a n d shape, a n d the mixing
^ 3. Suspension of solids difficult or critical operation. objective, t h e basic type of mixer can
in liquid. An applications engineer who be selected. T h i s will be governed by
undertakes the design of a fluid mixer need for high bulk flow, high shear, or
• 4. Dissolving of solids for a particular application must con- some intermediate condition combin-
in liquid. sider the physical characteristics of ing both shear a n d flow to a balanced
the individual fluids and the mixture, degree. I t is i m p o r t a n t t h a t the
^ 5. Gas-liquid contact- the degree of mixing required, the agitator a n d vessel be designed to
ing. dimensions of the vessel in which the c o m p l e m e n t each other in order to
mixing will occur, and the mixing achieve the best mixing application at
^ 6. Liquid-liquid con- rate, or time cycle. From these con- lowest over-all cost.
tacting for washing and siderations should come a design S h a p e governs the type of mixer a n d
extraction. which relates properly the mixing also whether baffles a r e included in
performance with initial investment, t h e design. Vessel size a n d b a t c h
• 7. Release of solids power requirement, and the freedom volume become of increasing impor-
from liquids such as flota- from mechanical difficulty. tance with higher viscosities a n d where
high shear is required. Generally,
tion, precipitation, and Physical characteristics of the com-
the best proportion for mixing is a
crystallization. ponents control power consumption
vertical vessel with ratio of side wall
and cycle time; hence they are the
height to d i a m e t e r in t h e r a n g e from
• 8. Leaching of solids by first items to be considered in a mix-
1:1 to 3 : 1 .
liquids. ing operation. Viscosity, or apparent
Vessel size a n d d i e agitator type,
viscosity, of the individual fluids and
size, a n d speed will govern power re-
^ 9. Dispersion of im- the mixture must be known for the
quirements. T h r e e basic types of
miscible liquids in other mixing conditions. Viscosity is a
fluid mixers a r e employed—namely,
measure of the resistance of the ma-
liquids to form emulsions. the propeller, paddle, a n d turbine.
terial to flow and can be character-
E a c h type has n u m e r o u s modifica-
^ 10. Promotion of heat izedjby: true viscosity, as in a pure
tions for specific uses, described u n d e r
transfer. liquid or dilute suspension ; plasticity,
the basic types.


Essentially all of the manufacturers of
fluid mixing equipment maintain either
their own laboratories, or test equipment,
for obtaining design data on new mixing
applications. Most manufacturers use
standard questionnaires for the customer
to supply information on the particular
application. In general, a manufac­
turer prefers to recommend the fluid Research and customer service laboratory, Mixing Equipment Co.
mixer which he has confidence will fill
the customer's requirements. There are On the other hand, another manufac­ agitator to perform a particular job. Λ
exceptions to these generalities, however. turer states that he makes a special point fairly recent entry in the field of manu­
One manufacturer of a specialty mixer of furnishing technical information to his facturing fluid mixing equipment pro­
prefers not to use a standard question­ customers either for their general back­ poses to make it possible for the customer
naire, because in many cases there are ground, or to illustrate how this manu­ to select a complete machine.
blank spaces for information which do facturer has si7.ed, powered, and other­ Manufacturers recognize that agita­
not apply to the particular mixing job. tion technology has not yet been refined
wise selected the mixers recommended
The customer may be confused and omit to a science. The applied research in the
for the customer's applications.
some pertinent details which can be manufacturer's test laboratory and his
obtained best through conference be­ In many instances, the customers are past experience should be invaluable in
tween the mixing engineer and the cither engineering concerns or chemical his position as a consultant to the cus­
customer. This same manufacturer pre­ and petroleum companies which have tomer on fluid mixing. There should be
fers to restrict technical data about his engineering staffs. One large manufac­ an expanded manufacturer-customer re­
equipment because it may be misleading turer of mixers observes a trend for some lationship to include mutual accessibility
to persons not familiar with the technical companies with complete engineering to data, if the most rapid progress in the
aspects of mixing. staffs to request quotations on a specific general field of agitation is to occur.

Engineering Services by Equipment Manufacturers

) Χ) Use of Standard A v a i l a b i l i t y of
N a m e of Manufacturer Questionnaires Test Laboratory

A b b e Engineering Co. V
A l s o p Engineering Corp. V
Chemineer, Inc. V V
Cleveland M i x e r Co. V
Denver Equipment Co. V
Eclipse A i r Brush Co.
G a b b Special Products D i v . V
International Engineering, Inc. V V
M i x i n g Equipment Co. V V
M o r e h o u s e - C o w l e s , Inc. V
N e w England Tank & Tower Co. V V
Patterson Foundry & M a c h i n e Co. V V
Pfaudler Co. V V
Philadelphia Gear Works V
Premier M i l l Corp. V V
Η. Ε. Serner Co. V
Struthers Wells Corp. V V
Turbo-Mixer Division,
General A m e r i c a n Transportation Corp. V V

VOL. 49, NO. 3 · MARCH 1957 43 A



T h e p a d d l e mixer is usually thought of as the
simplest form. It is characterized by low power Portable propeller mixers as illustrated range
consumption a n d long mixing cycles, and is usually from fractional to lx/% h p . T h e y are generally
used in moderate volume tanks. By special ar­ m o u n t e d on the shell of open-type tanks. For low
rangements, it can be used in extreme viscosity viscosity liquids a n d smaller sizes, direct-driven
mixes, but then the power consumption is at least shaft speeds of 1750 a n d 1150 r.p.m. are common.
equivalent to t h a t of a n y other type for the same O n the larger units, a n d particularly when the
work being done. fluid viscosity is in the range of 500 to 3000 centi-
T h e paddle type is also called a slow-speed poises, speed is geared d o w n to about 420 r.p.m.
mixer, or stirrer. Usual speed is in the range from T h e portable propeller mixer is inexpensive, can be
15 to 60 r.p.m., because above its m a x i m u m speed moved from one vessel to another, a n d is com­
the time for mixing is not appreciably decreased, monly used for blending liquids and incorporating
while power increases rapidly. Baffles tend to de­ solids into liquids. T h e large n u m b e r of manufac­
crease time of mixing, but increase power sharply. turers of this type of equipment speaks for its versa­
Variations are numerous, including: tility.

1. N o r m a l or straight p a d d l e .
2. Anchor type.
3. G a t e type.
4. Horseshoe, simple a n d with vertical arms.
5. Combinations of a n y two or m o r e of the above.
Effective ranges are those in which the p a d d l e
covers all, or nearly all, of the tank diameter.

Manufacturers of Paddle Type Mixers

Chemineer, Inc.
Denver E q u i p m e n t Co.
International Engineering, Inc.
Mixing E q u i p m e n t Co.
N e w E n g l a n d T a n k a n d T o w e r Co.
Philadelphia Gear Works
Struthers Wells C o r p .
T h e majority of fluid mixing applications use
either propeller or turbine impellers. Axial flow
impellers of the marine propeller type are produced
by m a n y manufacturers. R a d i a l flow impellers of
the turbine type are available in a n u m b e r of vari­
ations, depending on the manufacturer and the Portable propeller mixer,
applications. Mixing Equipment Co.

Manufacturers of Portable Propeller Mixers

Alsop Engineering Corp. V20-7V2
Chemineer, Inc. V« - 3
Cleveland Mixer Co. Va-3
Eastern Industries 7*0-5
Eclipse Air Brush Co. V2-3
Commercial propeller designs International Engineering, Inc. Vi-5
Left to right, top. C a g e b e a t e r ; cut-out propeller; studded-cage Mixing E q u i p m e n t Co. Vs-5
b e a t e r ; standard three-blade propeller. Bottom. Saw-toothed N e w England T a n k & Tower Co. Ά-2
propeller; folding propeller; p e r f o r a t e d propeller; weedlers
Patterson F o u n d r y & Machine Co.
propeller; propeller with safety ring g u a r d . Mixing Equipment Co. Ά - 3Λ


Fixed side-entering propeller mixers range in Fixed top-entering propeller mixers are available
size from 1 to 50 hp. Installation of this type of in the range of 1 to 25 hp. for open and closed
mixer is made on the tank through a side nozzle vessels, pressure and vacuum service. With proper
which usually accommodates passage of the pro- baffling or positioning of the propeller this type of
peller. The side-entering mixer is used for solids agitator can perform satisfactorily in mixing appli-
suspension and blending of liquids in tanks of all cations where the viscosity of the liquid does not
shapes and sizes where a top-entering mixer is im- exceed 5000 centipoises. Because of the relatively
practical because of low head room, or the need for small diameter of the propeller, it is particularly
especially long, unsupported shafts. A typical ex- adaptable where there is a possibility of the impel-
ample of the side-entering agitator is the large gaso- ler becoming locked in solids while the operations
line blending tank where several agitators may be may be shut down. Since propeller mixers are
installed on one vessel (70). The side-entering available in many standard sizes, their purchase is
propeller has also been employed for a high shear often economical.
application by Chemineer, Inc., and Struthers
Wells in their rubber cement dissolvcrs. Manufac-
turers use a variety of drives including variable
speed, belts, and directly coupled reduction gears.
Most manufacturers have included techniques for
repacking the shaft stuffing box without removal of
the agitator from the vessel, or emptying the con-
tents of the vessel.

A f i x e d top-entering propeller
mixer b y The Mixing Equip-
ment Co.

Side-entering mixer, Mixing Equipment Co.

Manufacturers of Fixed Top-¬
Entering Propeller Mixers

Alsop Engineering Corp.

Manufacturers of Side-Entering
Propeller Agitators
Chemineer, Inc.
Cleveland Mixer Co.
Alsop Engineering Corp. Denver Equipment Co.
Chemineer, Inc. Eastern Industries, Inc.
Cleveland Mixer Co. Eclipse Air Brush Co.
Eastern Industries, Inc. International Engineering, Inc.
International Engineering, Inc. Mixing Equipment Co.
Mixing Equipment Co. New England Tank and Tower Co.
New England Tank & Tower Co. Patterson Foundry and Machine Co.
Patterson Foundry & Machine Co. Philadelphia Gear Works
Struthers Wells Corp. Struthers Wells Corp.

VOL. 49, NO. 3 · MARCH 1957 45 A


These are manufactured in sizes from 1 to 500
hp. and are used in essentially all applications of
fluid mixing. For most mixing jobs, the desired
results can be obtained with many of the several
different turbine styles shown below, and the
selection of the style will be that generally sold by
a particular manufacturer. The factors of shear,
turbulence, total liquid pumped, and starting
*:.rque should be considered in the selection of the
type of turbine (3). Baffles, draft tubes, or shrouds
are necessary to minimize swirl and to obtain
maximum pumping rate for any given impeller

As more has been learned of

the technology of fluid mixing,
special designs have been de­
veloped to provide better me­
chanical design, to utilize high
shear, and to make available
mixers and vessels for specific
services. The manufacturers with
Commercial turbine designs whom we have been in contact
a. Pitched, 1910 in this survey of fluid mixing
fa. Shrouded with stator, 1913
c. Open tilted, 1932
equipment have provided pic­
d. Cone lifter, 1932 tures of these newer techniques
e. Center disk, 1934 in fluid mixing. The comments
f. Gas disperser, 1935
g. Three-blade, 1935 are based for the most part on
h. Brumagin, 1937 the claims of the manufacturers
ι. Variangle, 1938
/. Vane-disk gas, 1939 rather than experience by the

Manufacturers of Turbine Agitators

Alsop Engineering Corp.
Chemineer, Inc.
Cleveland Mixer Co.
Eastern Industries, Inc.
International Engineering, Inc.
Mixing Equipment Co.
New England Tank and Tower Co.
Patterson Foundry and Machine Co.
The Pfaudler Co.
Philadelphia Gear Works
Struthers Wells Corp.
Turbo-Mixer Division



In many applications where the liquid level or the viscosity of
fluid change during the cycle, there is a need for variable agitation.
Some continuous flow systems must have a reduction in agitation
while the process fluid flow is interrupted. Manufacturers have
recognized the need for a variable agitation and are furnishing
standard designs using belts and variable pitch pulleys, fluid drives,
and variable speed motors. The initial costs, of course, are increased,
but often the variable speed pays good dividends in control of the
process and plant productivity.

Standard variable speed top-entering mixer, by The Cleveland Mixer Company


Long overhung shafts cannot be prevented completely from flex-
ing. This problem becomes acute if the mixer must operate while
the tank is being filled or emptied. Shaft flexure can set up severe
stresses in the mixer drive. If the shaft is rigidly connected to the
drive, vibration and wear on the gears and bearings of the drive may
be excessive. The Mixing Equipment Co. has sought to minimize
such wear by isolating the gearing from the shaft flexures with the
flex-protected drive. The mixer shaft is supported on its own set of
bearings and is connected to the quill with a flexible coupling.

Cutaway view of a side-entering mixer having flex-shaft construc-

tion. Mixer shaft runs on bearings independent of gear reduction unit
Mixer shaft runs on bearings independent of gear reduction unit

Although many speed reduction units used with agitators will
accommodate different gear ratios, we use the term "change gears"
when the gear ratio can be changed without having to disturb the
speed reducer-agitator shaft assembly. This is particularly advan-
tageous in a new application where the selection of the agitator may
involve some trial and error, or where it is known that the agitator
will be used for alternate applications with different mixing require-
ments. Both Philadelphia Gear Works and Mixing Equipment Co.
offer change gear design as standard equipment.

Cutaway view of vertical drive showing access to change gears, Mix-

ing Equipment Co.


Mechanical shaft seals in place of packed stuffing boxes are
offered as special equipment by Mixing Equipment Co. and Phila-
delphia Gear Works. Although the use of mechanical shaft seals on
pumps suggests similar use on agitator shafts, the problem of replac-
ing the seal required special design. Quick and easy replacement
has been provided by inserting flanged couplings in the shaft just
above and below the mechanical seal. By raising the shaft with a
special lifting device the mechanical seal can be disconnected and
replaced without removing the agitator, or the drive, from the

Cutaway view of vertical drive having a mechanical seal, flanged

for quick removal, Mixing Equipment Co.

VOL. 49, NO. 3 · MARCH 1957 47 A

Several of the high shear devices are included for illustration of the types of equipment
HIGH SHEAR MIXERS on the market. We do not mean to suggest that these are the only high shear devices, but
rather that greater attention be given to the use of high shear for obtaining short cycles and
large capacity from small vessels.

Dispersator Unit pic-
This is a high speed, high intensity mixer utilizing a slotted cone, or
tured is a 4-inch Duplex
cylinder, as an impeller. Radial baffles rotating with the mixer head dis-
type which rotates at
place head contents through peripheral slots at high speed, developing both
3 6 0 0 r.p.m., Premier
mechanical and hydraulic shear. Head sizes are available from approxi-
Mill Corp.
mately 1 to 8V2 inches in diameter, and depending on the drive speed and
characteristics of material to be mixed, power requirements range up to 25
hp. The model shown is of intermediate size, designed for closed system
application at the 3-hp. level. Drive units for closed systems are applicable
to top, side, or bottom mounting and arc fitted with mechanical seals to suit
process conditions. Parts in contact with process material are available in a
variety of materials, including stainless steel and Hastelloys.

Jef mill, installed in plant of a paint company on West Coast,

Patterson Foundry & Machine Co.


The figure shows a modern approach to mixing where dispersion is the
requirement for processing low viscosity paints, coatings, and emulsions.
The disintegrating force generated in the jet mill comes from the high veloc-
ity flow of material through the jet valves as the rotor turns at high speed.
The machine is of integral construction with an inbuilt direct connected
motor drive to minimize maintenance. The dispersion vessel is of clad
stainless steel, jacketed for water cooling. The output shaft from the speed
increaser, extends into the vessel where it supports the rotor in its jet hous-
ing. The manufacturer recommends this for high rates of production, mini-
mum floor space requirement, freedom from metallic contamination, and
case of cleaning the vessel. There are three production size units ranging
in working capacity from 7 l /s to 150 gallons.


The mixer illustrated consists of a bottom-entering shaft, driving a rotor
directly under a stator ring which is a part of a baffle cylinder. Mixing
action is said to be intense but smooth, owing to the function of the inner
cylinder. Both the baffle cylinder, which is supported in three mounting
posts, and the rotor are quickly removable for complete cleaning. Top and
bottom shaft bearings are antifriction, heavy-duty units protected by a
flinger plate. The stuffing box is adjustable and is located just above the
flinger plate. The Dispersall mixer is available in the usual metals, in sizes
from IV2 t o 880 gallons, and can be adapted to vacuum or pressure service.

Dispersall mixer. Abbe Engineering Co.

Shear-flow consists of a vertically mounted, totally enclosed drive unit
having dual sealed impellers which counter rotate with respect to one
another. In contrast to single impeller mixers, it is said, Shear-Flow's
counterrotating impellers induce considerable shearing action, together with
high pumping pressures. This, plus the material's own disintegrating and
abrasive action of particle against particle, results in a more complete reduc-
tion of agglomerates within the mixture. ShearrFlow will handle both low
and high viscosity materials, dispersing, agitating or homogenizing without S h e a r-Flow,
any change of impellers or mixing speed. It is available in horsepower G a b b Special
ratings of s / 4 , 1, l'/s, 2, and 5 for volumes of 5 to 250 gallons. Products Div.


This mixer, according to its developer, incorporates the advantages of the
marine-type propeller agitator and the turbine agitator (7). It is mounted
on a vertical shaft and creates a flow of the liquids radially outward from
the shaft similar to a turbine. It normally runs at propeller speeds giving a
shearing and cutting action comparable to the propeller. The high speed
of the radial type propeller may provide first cost savings due to low gear
ratios in the agitator drive. The radial type agitator works successfully in
any combination of liquids with solids, or gases, in which the ordinary pro-
peller, or turbine, can be used. The vertical blade faces are set at an acute
angle from the tangent, propelling the liquid radially outward. Angle de-
gree is determined by the required agitation. If severe cutting action is a Radial propeller shown
factor, the degree of the angle is small. If movement of the content is re- with removable blades,
quired without extreme cutting action, the pitch of the blade is increased. Struthers Wells Corp.

The International Injection Mixer consists of a specially designed turbine-
type agitator rotor, overhung and underhung by hollow ring-shaped stators.
The turbine exerts a pumping action on the contents of the mixing vessel,
drawing in through top and bottom impeller inlets and delivering cen-
trifugally over the entire periphery of the turbine. The gas or other treating
agent is fed to the hollow stators through the indicated feed pipes and is
discharged through perforations on the rotor-faced surfaces of the stators.
As the liquid passes between the stators and the rotors it exerts a shearing
action on the gas discharged through the bubble holes. The gas-injected
liquid is then subjected to a direct mechanical shearing between the radial
ribs on the stators and the turbine blades. The combined shearing actions
are said to result in complete and instantaneous gas dispersion. The high
pumping capacity of the rotor ensures rapid recirculation of the tank contents
for continuous reprocessing of the liquid. This is one of the principal factors
in promoting gas-liquid reactions—namely, the development of a high area
of interphase contact between gas and liquid phases.


The Velofin impeller consists of two or more parallel disks, closely spaced. H. E. Semer
By varying the number, size, and spacing of the disks, the manufacturer has Co.
been able to adapt the Velofin to a variety of operating conditions. It is
said the impeller is effective over the entire range of fluid mixing, including
semisolids. The Velofin imparts motion to the surrounding fluid through
the function of its disk surfaces. In case of nonviscous fluids, the film of fluid
in contact with the disk surface travels faster than the next adjoining layer
of the fluid, the center layer between two disks having the slowest speed.
The action is reversed in case of viscous fluids because the tendency of the
liquid to stick to the surfaces causes the adjoining layers to be discharged at
progressively higher velocities. In each case the result is said to be similar;
since these thin fluid layers travel at different velocities, complete shuffling
and mixing of the components is accomplished. The mixer is available in
sizes up to 25 hp.

A Cowles dissolver utilizes a single blade rotating at high speed for effec-
tive results in the dispersion, dissolving, and deagglomeration of materials.
The effectiveness of the unit is due to the rapid movement of the suspension
through itself. The materials discharged from the vanes of the impeller at
high speed impinges on the surrounding slower moving portion. This creates
intense hydraulic shear which does the work. By proper selection and loca-
tion of the impeller, the dissolver will impart the desired amount of work
without splash or dead spots. The units are designed to handle viscosities
in excess of 50,000 centipoises.
Illustrated is a 20-hp. Cowles dissolver mounted with a hydraulic lift for
raising and lowering into position for mixing in portable tanks.

VOL. 49, NO. 3 · MARCH 1957 49 A

Controlled flow devices have been developed for use w h e r e the
liquid m o v e m e n t should be directed, or restricted. As a result, some
of the devices we describe will h a v e only limited use, b u t others
a p p e a r to h a v e fairly wide r a n g e of application.

The Nettco Flomix is a unique mixer designed for continuous agitation of
liquids as they pass through a pipeline. The unit has multiple impellers
and baffling in order to impart an extremely intense degree of agitation to
the material in the mixing chamber. It utilizes the mixing effect of fac-
tional flow by repeated separation, reversing, and combining of the entering
flow coupled with a violent mechanical agitation.
It is usually desirable to have the several components to be mixed added
at a given rate to one another on a continuous basis. This allows the several
streams to enter the mixing chamber concurrently and eliminates the neces-
sity for volumetric control in the mixing area. Where this is not possible,
the use of a premix tank is desirable, and its size is determined by the rate of
stream phasing. As the rotation of the agitator impellers is in the direction
of flow, there is little or no frictional loss despite the heavy baffling effect
within the Flomix body.
In general, the Nettco Flomix will combine liquids, gases and liquids,
liquids and solids, that in combination will readily flow through piping.
Flomix, New England Tank and Tower Co.

Turbo tube, Chemineer, TURBO TUBE AGITATOR

Inc. The Turbo tube agitator is a top-entering propeller unit with a special
unitized draft bend. With this agitator a horizontal flow pattern is ob-
tained from a top-entering installation. It is said to be particularly useful
with extremely long tanks, and by developing a flow pattern complementary
to the vessel geometry, provides maximum circulation with minimum power
requirement. The Turbo tube method of mixing is used in tanks of many
different geometries, the variation in design being in the selection of the
draft bend style, and the positioning of the unit. The type pictured is
designated as T / U and is primarily used in rectangular tanks. When in-
stalled, the special draft bend is completely submerged in the mix. A
double bend design is widely used for agitation of horizontal cylindrical
tanks and tank cars.

Speed-O-Flow, Alsop Engineering Corp.


Speed-O-Plate (not pictured) is a controlled flow mixer developed
originally by Alsop Engineering Corp. for accelerating the plating of an
extra-heavy silver deposit on the internal surface of aircraft engine bearings.
The 6-inch propellers enclosed in the down-flow tube displace upwards of
400 gallons per minute of liquid and send it in upward spiral flow through
the interior of a stacked column of bearings. The success of the Speed-O-
Plate led to the development of Speed-O-Flow, shown at left, which
has extended the benefits of controlled, uniform, recirculating action to
numerous other applications where the control of the liquid flow is neces-
sary, or more efficient. Examples of its use are heat treating, washing, clean-
ing, and quenching operations. Volume of flow is controlled by adjusting
screws at top of down-flow tube.



W e have p r e p a r e d from the d a t a of the mixing e q u i p -

m e n t manufacturers a listing of s t a n d a r d mixing systems
which are available today. I n addition to the a d v a n t a g e
of reduced costs in using a s t a n d a r d system, there is the
distinct a d v a n t a g e of the unit having proved successful
in previous applications. Illustrations of three s t a n d a r d
systems are shown. M a n y of the s t a n d a r d vessels h a v e
been listed in the table.

This system was first designed and patented by the Turbo-Mixer Corp.
The patent has since expired, but the design continues to be a very impor-
tant tool in continuous mixing operations. The three-stage treater shown is
illustrative of the construction generally used, although there are now many-
variations of the horizontal baffle construction. These would include larger
How areas through the baffles for high viscosity material, as well as replace-
ment of the center partition of the horizontal baffle with a disk mounted on
the shaft, so that the entire assembly may be removed as a unit. It is said
the stator rings around each impeller make for the most perfect circulation
pattern and most complete dispersion of the phases present. In less rigorous Multicompartment concurrent flow
applications, the stator rings are sometimes replaced with vertical wall mixer, Turbo-Mixer Division
baffles. Typical continuous flow applications for the three-stage treater
are doctor treating, solutizer treating of gasoline, asphalt cutback blending,
lube oil blending, continuous chemical reactions requiring a determined
holding time, continuous leaching, etc.

The Hydrogenator illustrates the use of turbines for the induction and
distribution of gas in a liquid. There are many applications of gas reaction,
of which the illustrated unit is a typical example. In this instance, the
vegetable oil being hydrogenated would be fed a pure hydrogen gas through
the bottom impeller to receive its first scrubbing and absorption. Gas
escaping to the vapor space is then reinduced and distributed scrubbed into
the oil by the top impeller. The vessel operates as a closed system on pure
gas and achieves very rapid hydrogénation time. The impeller, specially
designed to give maximum circulation of a gas-liquid mixture, forces the
mixture under the hood ring where it is distorted by the stationary deflecting
blades and deflected downward into the liquid mass in the vessel. The self-
inducing design can be built in sizes with a capacity up to 160 cubic feet
per minute of gas induced. The pressure fed type is built in a range of sizes
for gas feed capacities up to and exceeding 5000 cubic feet per minute. Turbo-Hydrogenator,
Hydrogenators are manufactured by Turbo-Mixer Division, Patterson Turbo-Mixer Division
Foundry and Machine Co., and the Cleveland Mixer Co.

Super Agitator and Conditioner, Denver Equipment Co.

The Super Agitator and Conditioner manufactured by the Denver
Equipment Co. is used where solids must be suspended in liquid for a
variety of treatments such as aeration, leaching, and absorption. The mix-
ing vessel has a central standpipe and wearing plate directly over the pro-
peller. Pulp entering the standpipe over the adjustable weir collar, or
through the recirculation ports, is given a circular motion, as it nears the
bottom of the standpipe. It is said that mixing of pulp particles and re-
agent is enhanced greatly by the action of the standpipe. All pulp must
pass through the propeller zone for the positive circulation and intimate
mixing. The adjustable standpipe controls the flow and helps confine the
horsepower consumption to that required for effective treatment of the
materials in process. This equipment is available in tank sizes from 200 to
47,000 gallons, requiring drives ranging from l y 2 to 25 hp.

V O L . 49, NO. 3 · MARCH 1957 51 A

(.A» identified in manufacturer's catalog)
Made in 3 types to Abbe Engineering Co. Abbe Dispersall mixer
suit any requirements. Alsop Engineering Corp. Standard mix tanks
Rigid stem, wall or Chemineer, Inc. Rubber cement processor, paste mixer, grease proc­
flush m o u n t e d , 11 essor, and standard mix tanks
inches of scale read­ Denver Equipment Co. Super-Agitator and Conditioner
ing. Interchangeable Glascote Co. Glass-lined reactors
with standard indus­ International Engineering, Inc. Type Ο standard mixing tanks
trial separable sock­
Morehouse-Cowles, Inc. Standard dissolver tanks
e t s . Stem c a n be Patterson Foundry and Machine Co. Jet mill, standardized liquid mixers, dissolvers
placed at any angle The Pfaudler Co. Glass-lined reactors
and case can be ro­ Struthers Wells Corp. Rubber cement mixer—mixing tanks and auto­
tated to any readable claves
position. Turbo-Mixer Division, General Dissolvers, gas absorbers, and three-stage turbo-
American Transportation Corp. treater.

Materials of Construction common metals and alloys. Many

PALMER Selection of the material of con­

struction of an agitator must take
into consideration the factors of
of the fabricated turbines have re­
movable blades which can be re­
placed inexpensively after deteriora­
tion from chemicals and abrasives.
strength, resistance to chemical cor­
rosion, resistance to wear, and, of For the most severe conditions of

course, price. All of these factors chemical corrosion the glass-lined
combined will indicate the cost of the steel equipment made by the Pfaud­
agitator during its operating life. ler Co. and the Glascote Co. is avail­
RECORDING The manufacturers of agitators have able. Because of problems of coating
listed as materials of construction steel with glass, this equipment does
Twelve inch die-cast essentially all metals and alloys not have the variety of impeller
a l u m i n u m case w i t h which can be cast and fabricated. shapes which are available in metal.
black or white wrinkle
or satin finish. Single These include: Heat treatment of agitator shafts
or multiple pen con­ and impellers should be considered
struction. Electric or Aluminum Stainless steels for the best chemical resistance and
spring wound clock, Bronze Titanium
24 hour or 7 Day Rev­ Cast iron Steel clad with various the maximum freedom from fatigue
olution. Flexible Ar­
metals failure.
mor and bulb of stain­
less steel. Ranges —40 Hastelloys Lead-covered steel
+ 950°F or Equivalent Monel Rubber-covered steel Acknowledgment
in °C. Nickel Glass-lined steel The authors express their appreci­
Steel Plastic and plastic cov­ ation to the manufacturers of fluid
ered steel mixing equipment, who supplied
The agitator shaft must not only data and pictures of their equipment
INDUSTRIAL for use in this article.
THERMOMETERS have adequate chemical resistance,
but it must have strength and References
Red-Reading Mercury
—Extruded brass case rigidity to run without undue distor­
(1) Brumagin, I. S., Chetn. Met. Eng. 53,
— chrome f i n i s h . tion under all conditions of load. 110-14 (1956).
Ranges —40 + 950°F Whenever it is uneconomical or im­ (2) Lyons, E. J., Chetn. Eng. Progr. 44, No.
or Equivalent in °C. 5, 341-6 (1948).
practical to use a solid shaft, a clad (3) Lyons, E. J., Parker, N . H., Chcm.
shaft is often the best selection. Eng. Progr. (December 1954).
Lead, rubber, and more recently (4) Perry, J. H., "Chemical Engineers'
H a n d b o o k , " 3rd éd., M c G r a w -
some of the plastics are used for Hill, New York, 1900.
MERCURY chemical protection over a steel or (5) Quillen, G. S., Chetn. Eng. 6 1 , 178-224
LABORATORY stainless steel shaft. Where the shaft (1954).
(6) Riegel, E. R., "Chemical Process
THERMOMETERS is subj'ect to wear at the stuffing box, Machinery," 2nd éd., Reinhold,
Thoroughly annealed
particularly when the shaft is soft New York, 1953.
like nickel, a sleeve of Hastelloy or (7) Rushton, J. H . , Can. Chem. Process
for permanent accu­
Inds. 30, 55-61 (1946).
racy. Complete l i n e other hardened metal is placed over (8) Rushton, J. H., Chem. Eng. Progr. 47,
A.S.T.M. and fractional
division types.
the shaft at the point of wear. No. 9, 485-8 (1951).
(9) R u s h t o n , J. H., I N D . E N G . C H E M . 44,
The agitator impeller often is sub­ 2931 (1952).
jected to more abrasive wear than (10) Rushton, J. H., Petroleum Refiner
chemical attack, and, therefore, wear 33, No. 8, 101-7 (1954).
(11) Rushton, J. H., Costich, E. W.,
life of the impeller is an important Everett, H . J., Chem. Eng. Progr. 46,

consideration. Propellers are stocked 395-404, 467-76 (1950).
by most manufacturers in stainless (12) Rushton, J. H., Oldshue, J. Y.,
Chem. Eng. Progr. Symposium Ser.
steels, but are available in all metals 49, Nos. 4 and 5 (1953).
and alloys which can be cast. Tur­ (13) Sacks, J. P., Rushton, J. H . , Chem. Eng.
THERMOMETERS, INC. Progr. 50, No. 12, 597-603 (1954).
C . n c i n n o h 12 Oh.ο · M E I . o i . 1500 bine-type impellers are both cast and (14) Weber, A. P., Chem. Eng. 60, No. 10,
fabricated and are available in all 183-7 (1953).
Circle No. 52 A on Readers' Service Card, page 135 A


For further information, circle numbers 53 A-1, 53 A-2, 53 A-3 on Readers' Service Card, page 135 A ·