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Transient Analysis of Shunt Reactor Switching (December 2005)
Ariel Rivera-Colón, Student Member, IEEE Juan L. Vargas-Figueroa, Student Member, IEEE Lionel R. Orama-Exclusa, Member, IEEE

Abstract— This paper presented the study of the transient phenomena originating from the shunt reactor energizing and de-energizing on the IEEE 14 bus transmission systems. These shunt reactor were installed in the load busbar to present the differences between solidly grounded and ungrounded banks. The TRV of Shunt Reactor Bank de-energization is worst for ungrounded reactor bank. The shunt reactors must be to remove under full-load conditions to improve the line loadability. Simulations were made using the software program ATP/EMTP. Index Terms— Shunt reactor, Transient Recovery voltage (TRV), Switching operations, ATP/EMTP.

Overvoltage relays may be used to disconnect the reactors under extreme high-voltage conditions [9]. However in this case, the associated transmission line must be de-energized at the same time, otherwise disconnection of the reactors would only further aggravate the overvoltage condition on the system. The main objective of this paper is to report some transient phenomena caused by the energization and de-energization of shunt reactors connected on wye grounded and ungrounded in a substation busbar. II. POWER SYSTEM IEEE 14 BUS System under study will be the IEEE 14 bus transmission system presented in Fig. 1.

I. INTRODUCTION

I

nductors and capacitors are used on substation busbars, medium-length and long transmission lines to increase line loadability and to maintain voltages near rated values. A high voltage reactor is relatively frequently switched, during the periods of the system operations with low loads it is energized and with the rise of load it is de-energized again. The inductors absorb reactive power and reduce overvoltages during light load conditions, also reduce transient overvoltages due to switching and lighting surges [1, 4]. The shunt reactors can reduce line loadability if they are not removed under full-load conditions. During the energization, high unsymmetrical currents can occur. At de-energization, a transient recovery voltage occurs in the breaker contacts with considerable magnitude [10]. The switching overvoltage can be dangerous for the equipment if their peak value exceeds the rated switching impulse withstand voltage of the equipment [6]. It is very important to know the level of dielectric stress that occurs during operation in the system in order to avoid insulation failures. Each interruption involves a complex interaction between the circuit breaker and the source and the reactor (load side) circuits. This interaction results in overvoltages dependent on system parameters and characteristics of the load [7].
This work is the final project of INEL 6077: Surge Phenomena. Ariel Rivera-Colón is with the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, P.R. 00680 (e-mail: ariel.rivera@ece.uprm.edu) Juan L.Vargas-Figueroa is with the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, P.R. 00680 (e-mail: juan.vargas@ece.uprm.edu)

Fig. 1: IEEE 14 bus transmission system.

III. SHUNT REACTOR PARAMETERS For the simulations in our study, the wye connected shunt reactor was grounded as is shown on figure 2, the following parameters: R= 2 (M /phase), L= 0.9 (H/phase), r= 5 ( /phase) and C= 2.4 (nF/phase).

2
10.0 [kA] 7.5
r R L C

5.0 2.5 0.0 -2.5
r

L

C L r R R

Fig. 2: Shunt reactor model.

The shunt reactors were connected for the simulation in the 14 bus system at the load bus X0172 as shown in Fig. 3. The system line to line voltage is 115kV.

Fig. 3: Reactor Bank connected at load bus X0172.

IV. SHUNT REACTOR ENERGIZATION TRANSIENT During the closing, high unsymmetrical phase inrush currents with long time constant occurred [3]. Figure 4 present the inrush currents that pass through the contact breaker with wye shunt reactors. This is a very fast current transient that can be near of 10kA and the maximum transient overvoltages are obtained from closing at an instant corresponding to peak voltage across breaker poles and their magnitude depends on the values of the network parameters [5].

C

-5.0 -7.5 -10.0 16.66

16.67

16.67

16.67

16.67

16.67 [ms] 16.67
c:X0075B-X0288B

(file case14ATPasineliminarcargasPow er2.pl4; x-var t) c:X0075A-X0288A c:X0075C-X0288C

Fig. 4: Breaker inrush current at the closing.

V. SHUNT REACTOR DE-ENERGIZATION TRANSIENT When a circuit breaker interrupts shunt reactor current several transient phenomena is be observed [7]. However not all of them occur necessarily during each interruption with small inductive currents, the medium used for arc extinguishing will develop fast residual column resistance, and abrupt current interruption before its natural zero crossing may occurs [2,3]. Release of energy stored in the reactor inductance will cause the electromagnetic transients that lead to switching overvoltages. These transients and their oscillation modes are dependent by the load and the system configuration where the reactor is installed. Fig. 5 shows an increase in the bus voltage, from 87.927kV to 91.802kV, when the shunt reactor is de-energized with no load or light load.

Fig. 5: Shunt Reactor voltage effect.

Figure 6 shows the Transient Recovery Voltage that occurs across the contacts of the breaker when it is opening with the shunt reactor grounded. This TRV is the difference between the voltage on the system busbar and the voltage in the

3 reactor. It depends on the current flowing thought of the breaker, before the interruption took place. Fig. 8 represents the current in the breaker when the grounded reactor bank was opened.
300 [A] 200

VL = L
300 [A] 200

di dt

100

0

100

-100

0

-200

-100

-300 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 [ms] 16
(file case14ATPasineliminarcargasPow er2.pl4; x-var t) c:X0176A-X0081A c:X0176C-X0081C c:X0176B-X0081B

-200

-300 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 [ms] 16
(file case14ATPasineliminarcargasPow er.pl4; x-var t) c:X0077A-X0284A c:X0077C-X0284C c:X0077B-X0284B

Fig. 8 represents the current of the breaker when it was opened.

Fig. 6 represents the current of the breaker when it was opened.

Fig. 9 presents the TRV in the contacts of the breaker with the shunt reactors grounded. This TRV has a damping ratio like ungrounded.
200 [kV] 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0 10 20 30 40 v:X0077B-X0284B [ms] 50 (file case14ATPasineliminarcargas.pl4; x-var t) v:X0077A-X0284A v:X0077C-X0284C Breaker TRV

When the current change abruptly Fig. 6, this differential of current is higher and consequently the voltage too. Fig. 7 presents the TRV in the contacts of the breaker with the shunt reactors ungrounded. This TRV has a damping ratio caused by the internal resistances in the shunt reactors. The rate of rise of recovery voltage (R.R.R.V.) is important because it gives a measure of circuit severity from a switchgear point of view. Following the American National Standard for the outdoor circuit breaker, the rating of the rate of rise of recovery voltage should not exceed 2.0 kV/µs. This peak voltage is around of 260KV that is 2.768988 pu and the rise time is 0.1468 ms, then the R.R.R.V. of the study case is equal to 1.77 kV/µs which is in the range established by ANSI [8].
200 [kV] 100

Fig. 9: TRV of wye shunt reactor solidly grounded.

0

-100

-200

The peak voltage of this transient is 173.14 kV that is 1.843933 pu. This value of peak voltage is close to the 2.0 pu that is expected. As mentioned before the amplitude of the voltage is 173.14 kV and the rise time is 0.1385 ms, then the R.R.R.V. of the study case is equal to 1.25 kV/µs which is in the range established by ANSI [8]. In this case, the TRV can be observed that the voltage between the contacts of the breaker at the opening operation is smaller that with the shunt reactor ungrounded.
0 10 20 30 40
v:X0077B-X0284B

-300 [ms] 50
(file case14ATPasineliminarcargas.pl4; x-var t) v:X0077A-X0284A v:X0077C-X0284C

Fig. 7: TRV of wye shunt reactor ungrounded.

4
20 [kV] -20
Braker TRV (Zoom)

VII. REFERENCES [1] Ching-Yin Lee, Chang-Jhih Chen, Chao-Rong Chen, Yen-Feng Hsu "Comparison of Transient Phenomena when Switching Shunt Reactors on the Line’s Two Terminals and Station Busbar," presented at POWERCON 2004, Singapore, 21-24 November 2004. [2] G. W. Chang, H. M. Huang, J.H. Lai, "Modeling SF6 Circuit Breaker for Shunt Reactor Switching Transient Analysis," presented at POWERCON 2004, Singapore, 21-24 November 2004. [3] I. Uglesic, S. Hutter, M. Krepela, B. Filipovic, F. Jakl "Transients Due to Switching of 400 kV Shunt Reactor" presented at International Conference on Power Systems Transients, Río de Janeiro, Brazil, June 24-28, 2001. [4] J. D. Glover, M. S. Sarma, Power System Analysis and Design, Third Ed., 2002. [5] C. D. Tsirekis, N. D. Hatziargyriou "Control of Shunt Capacitors and Shunt Reactors Energization Transients," presented at International Conference on Power Systems Transients, New Orleans, USA, 2003. [6] B. Khodabakhchian, J. Mahseredjian, M.-R. Sehati, M. Mir-Hosseini, "Potential Risk of Failures in Switching EHV Shunt Reactors in Some One-and-a-half Breaker Scheme Substations," presented at International Conference on Power Systems Transients, New Orleans, USA, 2003. [7] D. F. Peelo, E. M. Ruoss, "A New IEEE Application Guide for Shunt Reactor Switching," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 2, April 1996. [8] American National Standard, AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis-Preferred Ratings and Related Required Capabilities. ANSI/IEEE C37.06-2000 [9] American National Standard, IEEE Guide for the Protection of Shunt Reactors. ANSI/IEEE C37.109-1988 [10] A. Greenwood, Electrical Transients in Power Systems, Second Ed., 1991.

-60

-100

-140

-180 8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

8.9

9.0
v:X0077B-X0284B

9.1

[ms]

9.2

(file case14ATPasineliminarcargas.pl4; x-var t) v:X0077A-X0284A v:X0077C-X0284C

Fig. 10: Zoom of Fig. 9

Fig. 11 shows the system with light load at 91,866V in the bus voltage and decrease to 87,528V when the reactor bank is connected, then the load is restored and it decrease to 84,134V and is needed removed the reactor bank to increase the bus voltage.

Fig. 11: Load and Shunt Reactor Switching Response

VI. CONCLUSION This paper study the transient phenomena that occur when a shunt reactor grounded and ungrounded are switching in the load busbar. The TRV of Shunt Reactor Bank de-energization is worst for ungrounded reactor bank. These switching operations of shunt reactor are relatively frequent on each day and primarily depend on power network loading. Then of several simulations with ATP/EMTP it is demonstrated that the major difference using the shunt reactor grounded is that the transient recovery voltage and the R.R.R.V. are less than ungrounded. The shunt reactors must be to remove under full-load conditions to improve the line loadability.
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