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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

STATISTICS ENGINEERING

BFC 34303

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT

NAME AHMAD MAHYUDDIN BIN MOHAMED


MATRIC NO DF 160097
SECTION 3
LECTURER NAME DR. MUHAMMAD FIKRI BIN HASMORI

DATE 24 MAY 2018


QUESTION 1

I LOVE STATISTICS

Engineering statistics is a combination of two different things which is engineering and statistics
using scientific methods for analyzing data. This make me eager to learn more about statistic as I am an
engineering student. It also involves data concerning manufacturing processes such as component
dimensions, tolerances, type of material etc. In engineering analysis, there are many methods used to
give a visual of the data as opposed to being just numerical. Statistics are used in Civil Engineering in
many fields.

As a Civil Engineer, we should know how to adapt statistics in our fieldwork such as traffic
engineering. In this field, we know the distribution of hourly traffic volume on a proposed highway. We
need to find the hourly volume to be used for design to solve The design volume dictates the required
number of lanes, etc. Besides that, statistic can be used in field of surveying and mapping. This is series
of measurements from the field, each of which is made using an instrument that has a certain precision.
Many measurements in surveying are made using a series of instrument setups. There are many more
relation between fieldwork of civil engineering and statistics. That is the main reason why do I love
statistics.
Question 2

Founder of modern probability and statistics theory Cardano asserted that if one throws a die three
times the chance that a given number will show at least once is 50 percent. This is now recognized as
the wrong answer. What is a probability of at least one dice showing 6?

Solution:

Let A be the required event, and let Ai be defined by: Ai = ”exactly i dice show 6,” i = 0, 1, 2, 3. Then,

P(A) = P(A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3) = 1 − P(A0)

P(A0) = 5/6 × 5/6 × 5/6 = 53/63 = 125/216 =

so that P(A) = 1 − 125/216 = 91/216 = 0.4213.


Question 3

There are 15 numbers on a list, and the mean is 25. The smallest number on the list is changed from
12.9 to 1.29. a. Is it possible to determine by how much the mean changes? If so, by how much does it
change? b. Is it possible to determine the value of the mean after the change? If so, what is the value? c.
Is it possible to determine by how much the median changes? If so, by how much does it change? d. Is it
possible to determine by how much the standard deviation changes? If so, by how much does it change?

Solution:

a. Yes. If the mean is 25 than the sum of all the values is 15 x 25=375. To find the new sum
375 - 12.9 +1.29 = 363.69

b. Yes. To find the new mean 363.39/15 = 24.226. The change is 0.774.

c. The median does not change.

d. The standard deviation changes. Standard deviation is :


e. = Sqrt [(sigma X^2/N)-(sigma X/N)^2)]
f. = Sqrt [(363.39^2/15)-(363.39/15)^2)]
g. = Sqrt [(8216.587064)]
h. = 90.645
Question 4

For each of the following say whether it can be the graph of a CDF. If it can be, say whether the variable
is discrete or continuous.

Answers:

i. Discrete
ii. Discrete
iii. Discrete
iv. Discrete
v. Continuous
vi. Continuous
vii. Continuous
viii. Continuous
Question 5

The job placement centre at UTHM wants to determine whether student grade point averages (GPAs)

can explain the number of job offers they receive upon graduation. The data seen here are for 10

recent graduates. Draw a scatter plot for the variables. Please use graph paper.
Question 6

If X ~ Poisson (3), compute P(X = 2), P(X = 10), P(X = 0), P(X = -1) and P(X = 0.5).

Solution:

X ~ Poisson (3)

P(X = 2) = e-332 = 0.075 (from table = 0.8009)

P(X = 10) = e-3310 = 0.0008 (from table = 0.0011)

P(X = 0) = e-330 = 0.0498 (from table = 1.0009)

P(X = 1) = e-331 = 0.025 (from table = 0.9502)

P(X = 0.5) = e-330.5 = math error (from table = no value)


Question 7

The following are the scores that 12 students obtained on the mid-term and final examinations in a
course in statistics.

a. Find the equation of the least squares line that will enable us to predict a student’s final
examination score in this course on the basis of his or her score in the mid-term examination.
Interpret the result.
b. Predict the final examination score of a student who score 83 in the mid-term examination.
c. Test the hypothesis concerning H0 : 𝛽𝛽0 = 5 against the H1 : 𝛽𝛽1 ≠ 5 at the 0.05 level of
significance.

Solution:

(a) ∑x = 56 + 75 + 87 + 67 + 87 + 76 + 85 + 74 +71 + 81 + 79 + 5
= 891
∑y = 80 + 71 + 87 + 84 +86 + 79 + 69 + 73 + 85 + 76 + 84 + 76
= 950
∑xy = 73 050
∑x2 = 67 517
∑y2 = 75 626
y = 𝛽x + 𝛽0
1
𝛽1 = ∑xy / ∑xx = ∑xy – (∑x)( ∑y)
𝑛
1
∑x2 - (∑x)2
𝑛
1
= 73050 - (891)(950)
12
1
67317 - 12 (891)2

= 1.847

βo = ӯ – β1x
= (950/12) – 1.847(891/12)
= -57.97
Y = 1.847x – 57.97

(b) Y = 1.847x – 57.97


X = 83
Y = 1.847(83) – 57.97
= 95.33

(c) Step 1:
H0 : 𝛽𝛽0 = 5
H1 : 𝛽𝛽1 ≠ 5

Step 2:
α = 0.05
v = n-2 = 12- 2 = 10, ( this is two- tailed )
Ttable = ta/2 = t0.025,10 = 2.228

∴ Reject H0 when Ttest is more than 2.228 0r less than -2.228


Step 3: Compute MSE and Ttest

Sxy = 2004, ∑xx = 3445.67, β1 = 0.5816 and β0 = 31.609


Syy = 65850 – (8762/12) = 1902

SSE = ∑yy - β1∑xy = 1902 – 0.5816(2004) = 736.4736


MSE = SSE/(n-2) = (736.4736/10) = 73.64736

Ttest = (β1 - β1) / (MSE/Sxx)(1/2)

= (0.5816 – 5) / (73.64736/3445.67 )(1/2)

= -30.222
Step 4: Decision making
∴ Reject H0 since Ttest is less than -2.2282

Step 5: Make Conclusion


∴ We can conclude that the slope is not equal to five.
Question 8

From the data sets provided, use all the knowledge that you have learned in this course to analyse using
descriptive and inferential statistics. Prepare and submit your full report. Make sure you submit the
most comprehensive analysis.

Solution:

• Sample Mean

x̅ = ( Σ xi ) / n

67 + 73 + 43 + 63 + 76 + 83 + 76 + 87 + 84 + 78 + 88 + 69
+ 72 + 43 + 54 + 39 + 46 + 84 + 56 + 69 + 32 + 63 + 46 + 80
x̅ = + 83 + 36 + 98 + 86 + 63 + 24 + 33 + 61 + 36 + 83 + 43
35
2 141
x̅ = = 61.17
35

• Median

24, 32, 33, 36, 36, 39, 43, 43, 43, 46, 46, 54, 58, 61, 63, 63, 63,

67, 69, 69, 72, 73, 76, 76, 78, 80, 83, 83, 83, 84, 84, 86, 87, 88, 98

= 𝑋𝑛+1
2

=𝑋35+1
2

=𝑋18 = 67
• Mode

= 43, 63, 83

• Quartile and Percentile

Median = Q2

𝑘 2
R = 4 𝑛 = 4 (35) = 17.5 = 18

Median = Q2 = 18th = 63

• First Quartile

𝑘 1
R = 𝑛 = (35) = 8.75 = 9
4 4

Therefore, Q1 = 9th observation = 43

• Third quartile

𝑘 3
R = 𝑛 = (35) = 26.25 = 27
4 4

Therefore, Q3 = 27th observation = 83

𝑰𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒍𝒆 𝑹𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 = 𝑄3 − 𝑄1 = 83 − 43 = 40

70
70𝑡ℎ 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒 = 𝑃70 = (35) = 24.5 ≈ 25𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑠𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
100

∴ P70 = 78

∑x = 2219

∑x² = 154141

• 40th = percentile = P40

𝑘 40
R = 100 𝑛 = 100 (35) = 14

Therefore, P40 = 14th observation = 61


• Sample variance

S2 = Σ ( xi – x_bar )2 / ( n – 1 )

S2 = 127226.26

• Sample Standard Deviation

Σ ( xi – x_bar ) 2
𝑆=√
(n– 1)

(2141 − 61.17)2
𝑆=√
(35 − 1)

𝑆 = √127226.26

S = 356.69