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CONSTRUCTION

SITE COORDINATION
AND MANAGEMENT
GUIDE
CONSTRUCTION
SITE COORDINATION
AND MANAGEMENT
GUIDE

A. SAMER EZELDIN AND


AHMED M. ALHADY

MOMENTUM PRESS, LLC, NEW YORK


Construction Site Coordination and Management Guide

Copyright © Momentum Press®, LLC, 2018.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored


in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—­
electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other—except for
brief quotations, not to exceed 400 words, without the prior permission
of the publisher.

First published by Momentum Press®, LLC


222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017
www.momentumpress.net

ISBN-13: 978-1-94708-328-8 (print)


ISBN-13: 978-1-94708-329-5 (e-book)

Momentum Press Transportation Engineering Collection

Cover and interior design by Exeter Premedia Services Private Ltd.,


Chennai, India

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of America


To my family, colleagues, and students.
A. Samer Ezeldin

I dedicate this textbook to my great wife who have shared me every ­single
moment and supported me from the commencement of w ­ orking in this
textbook. I also dedicate this effort to my sweet son and ­daughter hoping
to be as an inspiration for them throughout their future life. A special
dedication is due also to my lovely p­ arents, brother, and sister for their
ever-lasting valued support and encouragement.
Ahmed M. Alhady
Abstract

Site Coordination and Management Guide covers key project manage-


ment concepts described by the Project Management Institute (PMI) and
explains how they can be applied to construction site coordination and
management. It provides professionals involved in construction with the
knowledge they need to manage construction sites effectively.
The book provides construction practitioners with the knowledge they
need to successfully coordinate and manage construction projects. It high-
lights different construction processes required to enhance their practical
performance in particular and further the construction industry in g­ eneral.
The topics highlighted in this book through the introduced seven chapters
are for example, but not limited to, causes leading to poor site coordi-
nation, duties of a construction manager, important versus time-consum-
ing coordination activities, temporary facilities and controls, developing
the construction strategy, developing the performance management pro-
cess, forms of procurement and contracts, variations and change orders,
anti-dispute coordination, governing laws, how to review/coordinate
design documents, how to review the construction plans, cost and risk
management, quality and safety management, meeting management/coor-
dination, submittal administration (shop drawings, samples, etc.), report
preparation, data/document/transmittal circulation, preparation of close-
out documents, and project record documents.

KEYWORDS

construction communications management, construction site coordina-


tion, construction strategies, contract management, cost management,
project management, quality management, review construction plans, risk
management, safety management
Contents

List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiii
1  Site Coordination Overview 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Causes Leading to Unsuccessful Site Coordination 1
1.3 Important Versus Time-Consuming Coordination Activities 4
1.4  Duties and Responsibilities 9
1.5  Temporary Facilities and Controls 21
2  Developing Construction Strategies 31
2.1 Introduction 31
2.2  What Is Strategy? 31
2.3  The Importance of Strategy 31
2.4  Project and Technical Strategies 33
2.5 Producing and Selecting the Appropriate Strategy 34
2.6 Employing a Performance Management Process 40
3  Construction Design and Plan Review 47
3.1 Introduction 47
3.2  Construction Design 48
3.3  Construction Plan 54
4  Contracting and Procurement 61
4.1 Introduction 61
4.2  Contract Definition 61
4.3  Deciding on Contract Type 63
4.4  Project Delivery Methods 64
4.5  Types of Contracts 68
4.6  Contract Administration 72
4.7  Selection of a Contractor 78
4.8 Subcontracting 79
x  •   Contents

4.9   Governing Law Clauses 79


4.10 Construction Change Order and Variation 83
4.11  Anti-Dispute Arrangements 84
5  Cost and Risk Management 87
5.1 Introduction 87
5.2  Cost Management 88
5.3  Risk Management 111
6  Quality and Safety Management 119
6.1 Introduction 119
6.2 Quality Management for Construction Projects 119
6.3 Safety Management for Construction Projects 128
7  Communication Management 141
7.1 Introduction 141
7.2  Construction Meetings 142
7.3  Review of Contractor Submittals 142
7.4 Project Recordkeeping and Documentation 144
Bibliography 151
Index 155
List of Figures

Figure 1.1. Sample of a responsibilities matrix among


project parties. 21
Figure 4.1.  Steps of contracting process. 62
Figure 4.2.  Contractual relationships. 69
Figure 4.3.  Level of risk associated with various contracts. 71
Figure 5.1.  Cost estimate stages. 89
Figure 5.2.  Level of accurateness of cost estimates. 94
Figure 5.3.  Schematic diagram of the structure of tender price. 96
Figure 5.4.  Project cost and expense curves. 100
Figure 5.5.  A sample S curve. 100
Figure 5.6.  Example of the S curve of cash in for a project. 101
Figure 5.7.  Project revenue and income curves. 102
Figure 5.8.  Cash flow according to monthly payments. 103
Figure 5.9.  Effect of advance payment on improving cash flow. 103
Figure 5.10.  Effect of receiving two payments on cash flow. 104
Figure 5.11.  Planned versus actual progress over time on a project. 107
Figure 5.12.  Earned value measures and indicators. 109
Figure 5.13.  Risk analysis in construction projects. 112
Figure 5.14.  Risk factors’ short list. 116
Figure 5.15.  Severity matrix. 117
Figure 5.16.  Probability impact matrix. 117
Figure 5.17. The risk analysis simulation process using Crystal
Ball software. 118
List of Tables

Table 1.1.  Common site coordination issues 2


Table 1.2.  Causes of site coordination problems 3
Table 2.1.  Priority matrix of four strategies with row 1 filled in 35
Table 2.2.  Priority matrix with row 2 and column 1 filled in 36
Table 2.3.  Priority matrix with all entries filled in 36
Table 2.4.  Priority matrix with totals and ranks filled in 37
Table 2.5.  Matrix with votes tallied for Strategy 1 versus Strategy 2 37
Table 2.6.  Matrix completely filled in and totaled 37
Table 5.1.  Accurateness of different types of cost estimate 94
Table 5.2.  Steps for developing a detailed cost estimate 97
Table 5.3.  EV information 110
Table 6.1.  Safety plan versus Method statements on safety 129
Table 6.2.  Roles and responsibilities of project stakeholders 130
CHAPTER 1

Site Coordination Overview

1.1  INTRODUCTION

Coordination is an essential function in the building procedure. Recent


research has demonstrated that poor or inadequate coordination is the best
that is accomplished on construction sites. Nevertheless, not many writ-
ers of construction project management have examined this essential sub-
ject. Literature reviews carried out on this subject revealed that there is an
absence of formal comprehension on how everyday coordination is really
accomplished on a construction project.
Coordination can be viewed as a procedure of overseeing assets in
a balanced way so that a higher level of operational effectiveness can be
accomplished for a given project. Between the underlying goal and the
reality on the ground exist a huge number of conditions that can affect
the progress of your project and that is the reason a dynamic ramification
amid the development time frame is significant. Successful project coordi-
nation permits the global vision of the project and the customer’s interests
to remain intact. This chapter addresses the causes of poor construction
site coordination considering the various types of coordination activities,
the roles/duties of construction engineers and managers, and ends with an
overview of the site’s temporary facilities and controls.

1.2 CAUSES LEADING TO UNSUCCESSFUL SITE


COORDINATION

It is a typical practice for primary contractors executing projects to assign


the vast majority of the work to subcontractors. Yet, one of the greatest
gripes of subcontractors is that they can’t perform to their full potential
because of poor coordination and site management. Eighteen common site
coordination issues and 16 basic reasons for these issues were identified
from the literature and recommendations of industrial experts. The causes
2   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

were grouped into three classifications: staffing-related causes; technical-­


related causes; and management system related causes. The reasons for
the poor quality of primary contractors’ coordination through the con-
struction stage were addressed through a questionnaire survey conducted
in the literature. Vague employment obligations were observed to be the
most critical cause. The results of the survey revealed that the most critical
causes were essentially associated with management systems, particularly
communication, rather than staffing- or technical-related variables.
The typical site issues and the basic reasons for these issues were
shortlisted by studying the literature for the factors influencing the produc-
tivity at the worksite level and the observation of common practices and
recommendations of industrial experts.

1.2.1  TYPICAL SITE COORDINATION PROBLEMS

Eighteen basic site coordination issues were identified and they were
­classified into the following eight groups according to their nature as
shown in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1.  Common site coordination issues


No. Group Problems
1 Construction a. Data not detailed enough
­information b. Vague or contradictory data
2 Working plan a. Working plan not detailed enough
b. Working sequence not practical
c. Short notice for commencing site work
d. Late change of working plan
3 Preparation for a. Workplace environment not yet
workplace ­prepared, such as general site
­arrangements, ventilation, and lighting
b. Insufficient or inadequate site reference
points
c. Insufficient or inadequate temporary
work support such as scaffolding, and
water and power supply
4 Interfacing a. Work not yet accomplished
work to be b. Work not precisely completed
­completed by other
­subcontractors
Site Coordination Overview   •  3

5 Access to worksite a. Access road not yet ready


b. Access routing not appropriate
6 Equipment a. Delay in providing equipment support
­provision b. Type of equipment provided is
­inappropriate
7 Material provision a. Inadequate quantity
b. Type of material provided inappropriate
8 Response to site a. Delayed response to site issues
problem b. Solution suggested not applicable

1.2.2  CAUSES OF SITE COORDINATION PROBLEMS

Sixteen essential causes leading to the common site coordination issues


identified were summarized and grouped into three categories as shown
in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2.  Causes of site coordination problems


No. Category Causes
1. Technical a. Inadequate technical support from main office
b. Poor temporary work design
c. Inadequate site office space
d. Impractical site layout
e. Poor project plan or phasing of work
2. Management a. Vague job duties
system b. Vague communication procedures
c. Inadequate supervision of frontline staff
d. Vague accountability system
e. Excessive paper work
3. Staffing a. Staff inexperienced to manage the technical
administration work
b. Numerous changes of personnel
c. Staff inexperienced to manage the site work
d. Insufficient directly employed workers to
execute the temporary work
e. Insufficient staff to coordinate the site work
f. Insufficient staff to coordinate the technical
administration work
4  •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

• Technical-Related Causes
The term technology is defined as how an association moves its
contributions to products. As the role of primary contractors has
officially changed from that of constructors to supervisors of
subcontractors of construction projects, they should have the
­
required ability to provide vital help to subcontractors to perform
productively and adequately.
• Management System–Related Causes
The responsibilities and obligations of every individual of the
­project team should be properly defined to guarantee that the
­activities continue with no problems. Throughout the process of a
project development, a dynamic temporary multiorganization sys-
tem is created that has to constantly deal with incongruities between
two levels of targets, the short-term objectives of the construction
project and the long-term goals of the organization and operation
of the project. Primary contractors need to set up dynamic manage-
ment systems that enhance the coordination of activities and con-
trol the actions of their individuals.
• Staffing-Related Causes
There is no guarantee for the success of a project even if primary
contractors can set up an efficient management system to meet
the requirements of the project. Contractors need to allocate suffi-
cient staff with important specialized knowledge and experience to
­properly operate the management system.
 According to literature and expert opinion, it is recommended

that main contractors should focus their efforts in the manage-


ment systems, especially communication, in order to develop
more efficient and effective site coordination that should lead
to improved subcontractor performance in the construction
­projects.

1.3 IMPORTANT VERSUS TIME-CONSUMING


COORDINATION ACTIVITIES

In 1916, Henri Fayol, the first to list the standards of administration, recog-
nized coordination as an imperative managerial action. He opined that the
best contact officer would be the general manager consulting every single
departmental head in turn. Nevertheless, Chitkara (1998) stated that coor-
dination won’t be required. If the circumstance factors are quantifiable, the
Site Coordination Overview   •  5

strategies and the systems are very much characterized, and communica-
tion streams easily in all directions, then esprit de corps wins, everybody
is responsible for his or her job, and all work cooperatively to accomplish
a definitive project objective in a rapidly changing project condition. Such
a perfect domain, however, is rarely seen in construction projects. Coordi-
nation is fundamental both inside and among different departments to fill
the gaps created by changing circumstances in the frameworks/systems,
procedures, and strategies. In the construction industry, the pivotal issue
of coordination emerged from the way that the fundamental relationship
between the parties of a construction project has the character of a reliant
self-governance. There is a mismatch between the technical interdepen-
dence of the work and the organizational independence of those who con-
trol the work. For over three centuries, the construction industry has been
attempting to reconcile this technical interdependence and organizational
independence.
Coordination is a standout among the tangible functions of man-
agement. In the building process, we can recognize three fundamental
functions. Two are self-evident: design and construction. The third is
­coordination; it is not so clear due to the very low tangibility of both the
coordination processes and their products/results. It might be because of
this intangibility that many writers of construction project management
have not discussed this crucial theme adequately. Despite the fact that
authors address coordination, they miss to recognize identifying those
activities a construction project coordinator needs to perform to accom-
plish proper coordination.
Another conceivable explanation behind the failure to address coordi-
nation is that coordination in the construction industry is carried out quite
casually. The forms and/or types of control are drawn from watching the
building team at work and talking with them about what they are doing.
The vast majority of these activities are done deliberately and all individ-
uals from the building team realize this. These activities are, nevertheless,
casual in that they are not discussed on records, nor do they show up in
the handbooks or formal reports and literature of the industry except as
measures to be avoided. So in order to fulfill this need to clarify the con-
struction coordination procedures, some reviews were conducted to deter-
mine industry professionals’ views on what the most essential and most
time-consuming coordination activities are.
From the literature and expert opinion, it was possible for the authors
to comprehend that all the coordination activities can be recognized under
just five groups with their aggregate of 64 subactivities:
6  •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

• Provision of leadership

1. Identifying strategic activities and possible delays


2. Translating documents into task assignments
3. Identifying technical and workforce requirements
4. Resolution of conflicts and confusions among stakeholders
5. Delegation of work
6. Monitoring the delegated work
7. Motivation
8. Development of a team spirit
9. Communication with other departments and managers in the same
organization and outside the project team
10. Keeping proper and professional relationships with client, consul-
tants, and the contractor
11. Getting constructive input from all contributors in the project
12. Establishing and maintaining an effective organizational structure
and communication channels
13. Establishing a project quality plan (PQP)
14. Preparation of coordination drawings

• Facilitation

1. Provision of organized tools for gathering and compiling


­information
2. Compilation of information per requirements of all parties and
merging all for use in planning
3. Management of contractual matters
4. Interpretation of all contractual obligations and documents
5. Approving detailed methods of construction
6. Integration of the work on different subsystems
7. Analyzing the project performance on time, cost, and quality,
detecting variances from the schedule, and dealing with their effects
with regard to time, resources, and other constraints
8. Consideration of better alternatives that may efficiently meet the
project objectives
9. Estimation of required resources
10. Coordination of off-site manufactures and their delivery with
on-site activities
11. Coordination and rescheduling the sequence of activities on-site
12. Coordination of the acquisitions, delivery, and storage of different
resources
Site Coordination Overview   •  7

13. Providing own crews and subcontractors with tools, equipment,


and required resources
14. Optimization of resource allocation and utilization
15. Explaining and supporting the subcontractors in their tasks
16. Identification and resolution of deficiencies, ambiguities, and con-
flicts in drawings and specifications
17. Getting further drawings, specifications, and technical details on
time for implementation
18. Identification and compilation of information on building work
requirements (insulation, openings, etc.) of all relevant parties and
coordinating their implementation
19. Provision of general facilities and tools (storage space, testing
facilities, scaffolding, plant, power, water, illumination, etc.) to
demanding parties
20. Coordination of assignment of work areas (service areas, plant
rooms, service routes, etc.) to other parties
21. Caring for the work of others by making staff and workers aware
(e.g., providing covers, where possible, changing the sequence of
work)
22. Arranging for consistence with site guidelines/orders from the
engineer and revising programs or requesting material accordingly
23. Arranging for convenient completion of all tests or assessments and
endorsement by the engineer
24. In the event of injury or harm, proposing corrective work tech-
niques and measures for execution
25. Submitting material for endorsement by the engineer
26. Facilitating payments to own workers or employees and subcon-
tractors
27. Applying proper technical practices
28. Applying proper administrative procedures and methods

• Controlling

1. Ensuring the timeliness of all work performed


2. Managing the quality of all work being completed
3. Ensuring efficient usage of labor, equipment, and material
4. Managing the health, safety and security, and benefits of employees
5. Managing the maintenance and security of equipment and
­machinery
6. Ensuring appropriate and safe conveyance, stockpiling, and treat-
ment of material
8  •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

7. Monitoring the functioning of each section and department within


the overall project
8. Monitoring the financial plan on all activities and taking corrective
actions
9. Controlling project cash or finances
10. Ensuring self-control among all employees

• Communicating

1. Conducting regular meetings and project reviews


2. Acting as liaison with consultants, assigned subcontractors, and
so on
3. Acting as liaison with the client and the consultants
4. Communicating project progress, financial/commercial status,
schedules, plans, changes, records, documents, and so on, to every
single concerned member
5. Communicating occurrences of poor quality and dangerous or
adverse incidents or situations to concerned or relevant personnel
6. Contacting outside authorities

• Recording

1. Keeping contract documents and amendments to contracts at the


construction office
2. Maintaining records of work done outside the agreement, varia-
tions, day works, and all actualities/relevant information to support
claims
3. Maintaining records of all drawings, data, orders, verbal guidelines,
and archives received from the consultants and client
4. Maintaining records of quantity of work done and details required
for as-built drawings; particularly of the work that is to get con-
cealed or buried.
5. Maintaining records of change in prices, where the agreement
makes additional payments
6. Maintaining records of work and plant deployment, working
­conditions (e.g., hostile weather), plant breakdowns, accidents, and
so on
7. Maintaining records of principal conveyances to the site and ­general
particulars of deficiencies
8. Publishing day-to-day construction reports in the structure or
­format required by the engineer
Site Coordination Overview   •  9

9. Managing designated subcontractors or utilities undertakers


10. Maintaining records of all tests and reviews

In light of the literature, it was endeavored to identify the 64 coordi-


nation activities such that they entirely define the function of construction
coordination. Some of the listed activities tended to have some areas of
intersection. However, the primary intention was to arrive at a comprehen-
sive list of activities required to attain proper construction project coordi-
nation, rather than the activities listed being mutually exclusive.
From the literature and expert opinion, it was identified that the
following are the six most important coordination activities:

1. Identifying strategic activities and possible delays


2. Ensuring the timeliness of all work performed
3. Maintaining records of all drawings, data, orders, verbal guidelines,
and archives received from the consultants and the client
4. Keeping proper and professional relationships with client, consul-
tants, and the contractor
5. Managing the quality of all work being completed
6. Acting as liaison with the client and the consultants

Also, the following six activities appear to consume most of the con-
struction project coordinators’ time:

1. Conducting regular meetings and project reviews


2. Analyzing the project performance on time, cost, and quality, detect-
ing variances from the schedule, and dealing with their effects with
regard to time, resources, and other constraints
3. Compilation of information per requirements of all parties and
merging all for use in planning
4. Interpretation of all contractual obligations and documents
5. Resolution of conflicts and confusion among stakeholders
6. Acting as liaison with the client and the consultants

1.4  DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

1.4.1  DUTIES OF A CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER

The construction engineer is in charge of the work of construction con-


tractors throughout the execution stage/phase of projects. Activities may
10   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

vary in size from minor repairs to building new structure elements. The
construction engineer’s duties and responsibilities are the following:

• Lead the process of “authorization to proceed” for contractors


• Participate in engineering package reviews during the selection,
definition, and execution phases of projects and provide construc-
tive input to the project team
• Retain compliance with the safety assurance plan so that work is
carried out in an environmentally sound manner using safe work
practices
• Conduct safety observations and discussions to assist in accom-
plishing a zero-incident culture
• Provide the off-site project leader and design groups with func-
tional systemization of projects for guidance on certification and
payments
• Support the off-site project leaders throughout project’s phases
• Ensure work is performed per plans and specifications via coordi-
nation with the quality assurance and functional checkout (FCO)
groups
• Anticipate and resolve problems encountered in project’s sites to
eliminate costly rework or retesting
• Coordinate between the construction contractor and the project
lead to resolve field discrepancies in design packages and material
delays
• Encourage construction and operations personnel to review design
packages early in the course of projects to eliminate rework and
optimize construction
• Coordinate with clients to ensure proposed construction and work
methods are clearly understood and accepted and ensure agreement
on environmental and safety work plans
• Provide input into the scheduling of projects to meet the client’s
required deadline and maintain construction resources at accept-
able levels
• Monitor progress to ensure scheduling milestones are understood
and are being met
• Ensure equipment and manpower resources are being used
­efficiently
• Review contractor work performance and project status updates
• Ensure that the process of safety management and management
of change requirements regarding field design modifications and
Site Coordination Overview   •   11

scope changes are met by forwarding appropriate documentation to


the project leader for processing
 Contribute in a post-project appraisal review and report (lessons

learned)
 Coordinate project turnover activities with the commissioning

engineer and quality assurance/quality control and FCO groups


• Contribute in the management of the process of controlling change
• Administer project’s management-of-no-change process for scope,
schedule, and budget impacts for client approval
• Arrange with various client departments to ensure all appropriate
permits and regulations are followed
 Review and approve procurement plans and contractor invoices

and timesheets
 Manage schedules for vendor representatives

• Deliverables: Work deliverables are items considered necessary to


manage and control project streaming. These deliverables include,
but are not limited to, the following:
 Coordinate solutions between the construction contractor and

the project lead to address discrepancies in design packages and


material delays
 Convey status reports as requested to the project leads

 Create and submit weekly site narratives to the construction

manager
 Complete the construction segment of the project on schedule,

within the budget, and meeting safety and quality requirements


 Document safety observations

 Develop plans for construction contractor’s tasks with ongoing

operations
 Develop construction plans to be provided to the project lead

for integration into the project execution plan

1.4.2  DUTIES OF A CONSTRUCTION MANAGER

The meaning of the terms “project manager” and “construction manager”


differs for different projects in different countries. In this context, either
term can be used and it refers to the manager who is accountable for a
project on behalf of the employer. The project will include one or more
construction contracts. FIDIC offers two cases on the question of the role
of a construction manager in a construction contract.
12   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

1.4.2.1  General Cases on the Use of FIDIC

These cases are based on literature and expertise. They are based on lim-
ited exposure to the subject and anyone who is involved in the ­construction
industry should be able to develop the theme and provide further examples.

• Separate control of design and progress


On some construction projects, the supervision of design/quality
has been isolated from the supervision of progress payment within
a solitary construction contract. The progress payment is specifi-
cally controlled by the construction/project manager. This might
be to suit the requirements of a project, or sometimes because the
organization that the employer/owner has appointed to control the
overall project is not capable of managing the design/quality. The
design supervisor then reports to the project manager but in many
countries, the project manager additionally has a legal responsibil-
ity for the design. Some people say that the framework functions
properly; however, this is more of an individual than a team effort.
There are clear potential issues of divided responsibilities, with
consequences for the efficient administration of the project, espe-
cially if there are claims to be considered. The FIDIC arrangement
of an engineer in charge, with appropriately qualified assistants, is
suitable when the project has a solitary construction contract.
• Multi-contractor projects
A framework that is often utilized for substantial building projects
is where the employer designates a construction manager/project
manager, either in-house or as a consultant, together with vari-
ous separate contractors, for various divisions or trades within the
Works. Different contractors work both simultaneously and con-
secutively on the same site. This framework was initiated in the
United States and has been followed by different countries such
as Kuwait for around 20 years. It is especially supported for vast
building projects where earthworks, concrete activities, external
cladding, interior finishes, and so on, could be assigned as inde-
pendent contracts to various contractors. The individual contracts
might be design-build or designed by a Consultant (i.e., managed
by, FIDIC Design-Build or Construction Contracts). A project
manager is generally assigned to coordinate and manage the prog-
ress on the different contracts. However, such a project manager
may not be appropriate for the design/quality supervision of the
­individual contracts. The engineer in FIDIC is then accountable for
design/quality supervision and manages payment certificates, and
Site Coordination Overview   •   13

so on, subject to the approval of the project manager representing


the employer. The coordination and management of work progress
resulting in claims, particularly when one contractor causes a delay
to another contractor, will involve multiple contracts.
  In these type of projects, which are usually divided into a number
of separate works packages, the employer enters into an agreement
with a designer for the inclusive work design, and simultaneously
enters into another agreement with a construction management
specialist who is to coordinate closely with the designer and be
accountable for managing the implementation and progress of
the work. The construction management specialist will arrange
for the invitation of tenders for the different work packages of the
­project to be agreed upon directly with the owner/employer for
further tendering procedures. Any potential contractual risks that
are not agreed upon by the separate contractors will be borne by
the employer, while the construction management specialist will
be remunerated a management fee. The objectives of these engage-
ments are to effectively increase the involvement of contractors
throughout the design stages of a project and to decrease the overall
duration from inception to completion. The main benefit of these
efforts and arrangements compared to the traditional methods is
that the designers can focus more on their design work, leaving the
activities of construction supervision to be handled by the manage-
ment teams.

Under the common arrangements for this type of contracts

• The employer
 Provides the required finances

 Will assign the construction management specialist to manage

the contract, follow up on the design and manufacturing activ-


ities and tasks, oversee the installation and construction on site
and construction work, and sanction payments
 Seeks to ensure an equitable sharing of construction risks in the

contractual arrangements
• The construction management specialist may manage variations,
and payment to the contractor will be according to accomplished
milestones usually on a lump sum basis or on a measure and value
basis, subject to the form of conditions of contract used.

Kuwait has used a vastly modified form of FIDIC. In the United


Arab Emirates, the project manager has no FIDIC role but represents the
14   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

employer. In Jordan, a consulting engineer is assigned by the employer to


develop feasibility studies and then function both as project manager and
as engineer for each work package. As already mentioned, some people
claim that the separation of management of work progress from quality
supervision can work successfully, but this depends on the ability of the
project manager. The answer may be for the project manager to be appro-
priately qualified and function also as the engineer.

• Employer/contractor joint venture


In Abu Dhabi, there are instances of very large projects where the
employer/developer initiates a joint venture company with a con-
tractor. The joint venture company then becomes employer for a
series of separate contracts as already discussed. The contractor in
the joint venture company may be represented in the functioning as
contractor for some contracts and may also purchase resources in
bulk and provide them to the subcontractors.
• Design development
Another practice is for a construction contract usually in the specific
conditions to require the contractor to submit shop or working draw-
ings for the approval of the engineer. The engineer’s drawings might
not provide all the required detailed information, so the contractor is
asked to provide additional information for the approval of the engi-
neer, which comprises some design work. The difference between
the engineer’s design drawings and the contractor’s detailed shop
drawings might be unclear. The contractor has to do further work,
often including design work, which may result in claims.

1.4.2.2  Responsibilities of a Construction Manager

The employer and consultant may not directly interact or communicate


with the contractor but may direct all such communication to the con-
struction manager. Likewise, the contractor may not interact or commu-
nicate directly with the employer and consultant, but rather direct all such
communication to the construction manager who shall have full author-
ity with regard to all aspects of the management of the contract. The
construction manager shall administer the contract as described in the
following text.

• The construction manager shall arrange the work forms to be uti-


lized in communications, procedures of payments, arrangements
Site Coordination Overview   •   15

for inspection of works, and so on, and the contractor shall utilize
such forms in his communications with the construction manager.
• The construction manager shall not rescind, change, expand, lessen,
or release the contractor of any obligations or tasks of the contract
documents or admit any portion of the works not completed in
accordance with the contract documents or issue instructions con-
flicting with contract documents.
• The construction manager or consultant shall have the authority
to reject work, which does not fit in with contract documents. At
whatever point the construction manager or consultant thinks of
it as necessary, he or she shall have the authority to require extra
assessment or testing for execution according to the provisions in
contract documents. However, neither the construction manager’s
nor the consultant’s power to act under the arrangements of this
contract, nor a decision made by either of them in good faith should
give rise to liabilities or duties for either of them toward the con-
tractor, subcontractors, suppliers, their representatives, or different
people carrying out any segments of the works.
• The construction manager will receive from the contractor all
shop drawings and details, samples, and product data, coordinate
as required per information received from other contractors, and
convey to the consultant for review and comments. The consultant
shall review and approve or take other suitable action on the con-
tractor’s deliverables such as shop drawings and details, samples,
and product data, but only for the purpose of inspection for compli-
ance with the provisions of contract documents and the design con-
cept included in the contract documents. This review process shall
be performed with an appropriate timeliness so as to avoid potential
delays in the work of the contractor or in the activities or tasks
of other relevant contractors while allowing sufficient time for the
construction manager and consultant to permit appropriate review.
• The construction manager shall verify and certify all requests for
payments to the contractor, including final payment, and the con-
sultant shall support the construction manager in such verifications
to check and certify the approval of works included therein.
• The consultant shall provide to the employer technical supervision
services throughout construction as expressed in the contract and
as outlined in the engineering consultancy agreement between the
employer and the consultant.
• The consultants are members of the project management team.
They shall perform the technical supervision tasks and activities
16   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

of contract administration throughout the project duration and the


defect notification periods. They also support the construction man-
ager in the achievement of the project within the duration set in the
project schedule and any other amendments thereto.
• The consultant shall assign the required technical personnel on-site
to support and provide continuous technical supervision of all
phases of work during construction. Such personnel shall observe
and monitor the quality of work being performed to guarantee its
conformance with the defined specifications and other contract
documents.
• The consultant shall, within reasonable time, review the contrac-
tor’s shop drawings, samples, and other submittals. However, this
review shall only be for compliance with contract provisions and
for compatibility with the design concept of the concerned proj-
ect to have it successfully functioning as designated in the contract
documents. The review shall not extend to the construction meth-
ods and procedures, safety precautions, or protection measures.
Any review of a detached item within a construction element shall
not assume approval of the element assembly in which this item
functions and the element needs to be approved as a whole again.
• If there are any errors, omissions, or conflicts in drawings, specifi-
cations, or any other contract documents discovered, the consultant
shall prepare appropriate clarification, adjustments, or additional
documents, and provide consultation as may be necessary for the
construction manager. This information shall be conveyed to the
contractor by the construction manager.
• The consultant and his representatives on-site shall provide the ser-
vices and tasks assigned to them according to the different provi-
sions of contract, including monitoring and control of the quality
of works identified. Moreover, they shall provide technical support
with solutions for investigations and problems that might arise at
the time of implementation, for the purpose of supplementary assis-
tance to the construction manager to control the project and guaran-
tee successful completion within the time and cost as agreed upon.
• The consultant and his representatives on-site shall examine phys-
ical submittals and systems that formulate part of the permanent
works at the reasonable times of testing, calibration, and initial
operation and taking over from the contractor. They shall perform
these activities in full coordination with the construction manager.
• A change request is an instrument prepared by the construction man-
ager and signed by the employer, construction manager, c­ onsultant,
and contractor, expressing their approval to p­resentation of an
Site Coordination Overview   •   17

adjustment in the work according to the provisions of contract and


the amount of alteration in the contract cost, if any. With regard to
the impact of the presented change on the contract time, the con-
struction manager shall study such impact in light of the manner
of the change, the timing of its issuance, and its influence on the
critical path of the work activities.
• A construction change instruction is a written order prepared by
the construction manager and signed by the employer, construction
manager, and consultant guiding a change in the works and declar-
ing a suggested basis for adjustment, if any, in the value of changed
work quantity or contract duration, or both. The employer might,
by a construction change instruction, without violating the contract,
directly request changes in the works within the extent of contract
provisions, consisting of additions, omissions, or other revisions.
• The construction manager, together with the consultant, shall,
within the defined duration in the contract on receiving the con-
tractor’s request, perform a review of the works or section and sub-
mit a report encompassing the result of the review to the owner
within the defined period (with a copy to the contractor). The report
may either include authorization that the works or sections have
been successfully completed and are ready for handing over to the
employer and identify the date of such completion or include writ-
ten instruction to the contractor stipulating the outstanding works
that are mandatory to be completed by the contractor prior to the
taking over, expressing the duration for completing such outstand-
ing works subject to approval of the construction manager and the
consultant. The contractor shall complete the outstanding works
identified in the report within the said set period. Omission of any
outstanding instances of work in the report shall not relieve the con-
tractor of the responsibility of completing the works or section fully
in compliance with the contract documents. When the contractor
has completed the required outstanding works, he shall submit a
request for a fresh inspection to the construction manager; then the
construction manager and the consultant shall conduct the same
procedures as the original review again.
• Upon completing the works, and nearing the end of the defect noti-
fication period, the contractor shall submit to the construction man-
ager a written notice that the works are completed and ready for
final inspection and approval. Meanwhile, the contractor shall also
submit to the construction manager a final contractor’s request for
payment. Upon receipt, the construction manager and consultant
shall promptly conduct due examinations. When the ­construction
18   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

manager and consultant verify that the works are acceptable


according to the contract provisions and the contract successfully
performed, the construction manager shall, within the duration
expressed in the contract after the expiration of the defect notifica-
tion period, issue a final payment certificate declaring the amounts
found to be due to the contractor and payable.

1.4.3 RESPONSIBILITIES MATRIX AMONG PROJECT


PARTIES

In a construction management agreement, the following work items


are usually distributed among project partners (employer, construction
­manager, designer, and technical supervisor(s)):

Preconstruction phase

• Budget distribution and allocation


• Designs
• Review of designs and technical documentations
• Planning and work schedules
• Construction cost estimations
• Construction contracts:
 Work breakdown strategy

 Contractual bid documents

 Technical bid documents

 Qualification of contractors

• Licenses and approvals


• Delivery of materials
• Contract procedures
• Issuance of documents
• Receiving and evaluating bids
• Awarding contracts

Construction phase
• Site handing over
• Management of construction
• Coordination meetings and progress reports
• Coordination of consultants’ and contractors’ work
• Quality control
 General

 Quality control program

 Technical supervision

• Monitoring and updating schedules


Site Coordination Overview   •   19

• Follow-up cash flow and cost estimates


• Contract interpretation
• Record keeping
• Variations
• Initial approval at substantial completion
• Final approval at final completion
• Contractors’ payments:
 Auditing

 Issuance of payment certificates

 Effecting payments

• Contractors’ claims

The following (Figure 1.1) is a sample of a table representing the


responsibilities’ matrix among project parties.

Employer/
other rep- Con- Technical
Work phase and resenta- struction Design super­
packages tives manager ­consultant vision
Pre-construction
phase
Budget distribu- M
tion and allocation
Designs A M
Review of designs M M
and technical
­documentations
Planning and work A M S
­schedules
Construction cost A M S
estimations
Construction
contracts
Work break- A M S
down strategy
Technical Bid A M
documents
Contractual bid A M
documents
Qualification of A M S
contractors
20   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

Employer/
other rep- Con- Technical
Work phase and resenta- struction Design super­
packages tives manager ­consultant vision
Licenses and M S S
approvals
Delivery of M S S
­materials
Contract
­procedures
Issuance of A M S
documents
Receiving and A M S
evaluating bids
Awarding M S S
­contracts
Construction
phase
Site handing over M
Management of M S
construction
Coordination of M S
consultants’ and
contractors’ work
Coordination M S
meetings and
progress reports
Monitoring M
and updating
­schedules
Follow-up cash M S S
flow and cost
estimates
Quality control
program
QC program S S M
Technical M S
­supervision S M
Contract M S S
interpretation
­
Site Coordination Overview   •   21

Employer/
other rep- Con- Technical
Work phase and resenta- struction Design super­
packages tives manager ­consultant vision
Record keeping M
Variations A M S S
Final approval at S M
final completion
Contractors’
­payments
Auditing M S
Issuance of M S
­payment
­certificates
Effecting M
­payments
Contractors’ A M S S
claims
S: Secondary
M: Main
A: Approval
Figure 1.1.  Sample of a responsibilities matrix among project parties.
M: main; S: secondary; A: approval.

1.5 TEMPORARY FACILITIES AND CONTROLS

The procedures of installation and removal of and usage charges for


temporary facilities shall be mentioned in a contract in the general
­
­conditions cost unless otherwise specified. Permission for other entities
to use ­temporary services and facilities without cost includes, but is not
­limited to, owner’s construction teams, architect, occupants of project,
testing parties, and others having authority.

• The following are a few outlines extracted from some con-


tracts; they could be more or less detailed in other contracts,
and are listed as a guide to temporary facility installation and
controls.
22   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

1.5.1  INFORMATIONAL SUBMITTALS

(a) Site plan: Show temporary facilities, utility hookups, staging areas,
and parking areas for construction personnel.
(b) Fire safety program: Show compliance with requirements of
authorities having jurisdiction. It indicates contractor personnel
responsible for management of fire prevention program.
(c) Moisture protection plan: Describe procedures and controls for
protecting materials and construction from water absorption and
damage.
1. Describe delivery, handling, and storage provisions for materi-
als subject to water absorption or water damage.
2. Indicate procedures for discarding water-damaged materials,
protocols for mitigating water incursion into completed work,
and replacing water-damaged work.
3. Indicate sequencing of work that requires water, such as sprayed
fire-resistive materials, plastering, and terrazzo grinding, and
describe plans for dealing with water from these operations.
Show procedures for verifying that wet construction has dried
sufficiently to permit installation of finishing materials.
(d) Dust and HVAC control plan: Submit coordination drawing and
description that indicates the control measures for dust and heating,
ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) proposed for use, sug-
gested locations, and suggested time schedule for their operation.
Identify further alternatives if proposed measures are later deter-
mined to be insufficient. Include the following:
1. Locations of dust control partitions at each phase of work
2. HVAC system isolation schematic drawing
3. Location of proposed air filtration system discharge
4. Waste-handling procedures
5. Other dust control measures

1.5.2  QUALITY ASSURANCE

(a) Electric service: Comply with the predefined standards and regula-
tions for temporary electric service.
(b) Tests and inspections: Arrange for authorities having jurisdiction
to test and inspect each temporary utility before use, and obtain
required certifications and permits.
(c) Accessible temporary egress: Comply with the predefined
­standards and regulations for accessibility standards.
Site Coordination Overview   •   23

1.5.3 EXECUTION

1.5.3.1  Installation, General

(a) Locate facilities where they will serve the project adequately and
result in minimum intervention with execution of the work. Relo-
cate and modify facilities as required by progress of the work.
Locate facilities to limit site disturbance.
(b) Provide each facility ready for use when needed to avoid delay. Do
not remove until facilities are no longer needed or are replaced by
authorized use of completed permanent facilities.
(c) Temporary use of permanent facilities: Engage installer of each
permanent service to assume responsibility for operation, mainte-
nance, and protection of each permanent service during its use as a
construction facility before owner’s acceptance regardless of previ-
ously assigned responsibilities.

1.5.3.2  Temporary Utility Installation

(a) General: Install temporary service or connect to existing service.


• Arrange with utility company, employer, and existing users for
time when service can be broken up, if necessary, to make con-
nections for temporary services.
(b) Sewers and drainage: Provide temporary utilities to remove waste
legally.
• Connect temporary sewers to municipal system as directed by
authorities having jurisdiction.
(c) Water service: Connect to owner’s existing water service facilities.
Clean and maintain water service facilities in a condition accept-
able to the employer. At substantial completion, restore these facil-
ities to condition existing before initial use.
(d) Sanitary facilities: Provide temporary toilets, wash facilities, and
drinking water for use of construction personnel. Comply with
requirements of authorities having jurisdiction for type, number,
location, operation, and maintenance of fixtures and facilities.
(e) Heating and cooling: Provide temporary heating and cooling
required by construction activities for curing or drying of com-
pleted installations or for protecting installed construction from
adverse effects of low temperatures or high humidity. Select equip-
ment that will not have a harmful effect on completed installations
or elements being installed.
24   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

(f) Isolation of work areas in occupied facilities: Prevent dust,


fumes, and odors from entering occupied areas.
• Prior to commencing work, isolate the HVAC system in the
area where work is to be performed according to coordination
­drawings.
 Disconnect supply and return ductwork in work area from

HVAC systems servicing occupied areas.


 Maintain negative air pressure within work area using

equipped air filtration units, starting with commencement


of temporary partition construction and continuing until
removal of temporary partitions is complete.
• Maintain dust partitions during the work. Use vacuum collec-
tion attachments on dust-producing equipment. Isolate limited
work within occupied areas using portable dust containment
devices.
• Perform daily construction cleanup and final cleanup using
approved filter-equipped vacuum equipment.
(g) Ventilation and humidity control: Provide temporary ventilation
required by construction activities for curing or drying of com-
pleted installations or for protecting installed construction from
adverse effects of high humidity. Select equipment that will not
have a harmful effect on completed installations or elements being
installed. Coordinate ventilation requirements to produce ambient
condition required and minimize energy consumption.
• Provide dehumidification systems, when required, to reduce
substrate moisture levels to a level required to allow installation
or application of finishes.
(h) Electric power service: Connect to owner’s existing electric power
service. Maintain equipment in a condition acceptable to owner.
(i) Lighting: Provide temporary lighting with local switching that
­provides adequate illumination for construction operations, obser-
vations, inspections, and traffic conditions.
• Install and operate temporary lighting that fulfills security and
protection requirements without operating entire system.
• Install lighting for project identification sign.
(j) Telephone service: Provide temporary telephone service in com-
mon use facilities for use by all construction personnel. Install one
telephone line(s) for each field office.
• Provide additional telephone lines for the following:
 Provide a dedicated telephone line for each facsimile

machine in each field office.


Site Coordination Overview   •   25

• At each telephone, post a list of important telephone numbers.


 Police and fire departments

 Ambulance service

 Contractor’s home office

 Contractor’s emergency after-hours telephone number

 Architect’s office

 Engineers’ offices

 Owner’s office

 Principal subcontractors’ field and home offices

• Provide superintendent with cellular telephone or portable two-


way radio for use when away from field office.

1.5.4  SUPPORT FACILITIES INSTALLATION

(a) General: Comply with the following:


• Provide construction for temporary offices, shops, and sheds
located within construction area according to specifications and
rules.
• Maintain support facilities until architect schedules substantial
completion inspection. Remove before substantial completion.
Personnel remaining after substantial completion will be per-
mitted to use permanent facilities, under conditions acceptable
to the employer.
(b) Temporary roads and paved areas: Construct and maintain tem-
porary roads and paved areas adequate for construction operations.
Locate temporary roads and paved areas within construction limits
indicated on drawings.
• Provide dust control treatment that is nonpolluting and
non-tracking. Reapply treatment as required to minimize
dust.
(c) Temporary use of permanent roads and paved areas: Locate
temporary roads and paved areas in same location as permanent
roads and paved areas. Construct and maintain temporary roads and
paved areas adequate for construction operations. Extend tempo-
rary roads and paved areas, within construction limits indicated as
necessary for construction operations.
• Coordinate elevations of temporary roads and paved areas with
permanent roads and paved areas.
• Prepare subgrade and install subbase and base for temporary
roads and paved areas according to specifications.
26   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

• Recondition base after temporary use, including removing con-


taminated material, regrading, proof rolling, compacting, and
testing.
(d) Traffic controls: Comply with requirements of authorities having
jurisdiction.
• Protect existing site improvements to remain including curbs,
pavement sidewalks, and utilities.
• Maintain access for fire-fighting equipment and access to fire
hydrants.
(e) Parking: Use designated areas of owner’s existing parking areas
for construction personnel.
(f) Dewatering facilities and drains: Comply with requirements of
authorities having jurisdiction. Maintain project site, excavations,
and construction free of water.
• Dispose of rainwater in a lawful manner that will not result in
flooding project or adjoining properties or endanger permanent
work or temporary facilities.
• Remove snow and ice as required to minimize accumulations.
(g) Project signs: Provide project signs as indicated. Unauthorized
signs are not permitted.
• Identification signs: Provide project identification signs as indi-
cated on drawings.
• Temporary signs: Provide other signs as indicated and as
required to inform public and individuals seeking entrance to
project.
 Provide temporary, directional signs for construction per-

sonnel and visitors.


• Maintain and touch up signs so they are legible at all times.
(h) Waste disposal facilities: Comply with required specifications.
(i) Lifts and hoists: Provide facilities necessary for hoisting materials
and personnel.
• Truck cranes and similar devices used for hoisting materials are
considered “tools and equipment” and not temporary facilities.
(j) Temporary elevator use: Comply with required specifications.
(k) Existing elevator use: Use of owner’s existing elevators is permit-
ted, provided elevators are cleaned and maintained in a condition
acceptable to owner. At substantial completion, restore elevators
to condition existing before initial use, including replacing worn
cables, guide shoes, and similar items of limited life.
• Do not load elevators beyond their rated weight capacity.
Site Coordination Overview   •   27

• Provide protective coverings, barriers, devices, signs, or other


procedures to protect elevator car and entrance doors and frame.
If, despite such protection, elevators become damaged, engage
elevator installer to restore damaged work so no evidence
remains of correction work. In case there are items that cannot
be refinished in field, it should be returned to the shop to make
required repairs and refinish entire unit, or provide new units as
required.
(l) Temporary stairs: Until permanent stairs are available, provide
temporary stairs where ladders are not adequate.
(m) Existing stair usage: Use of owner’s existing stairs will be per-
mitted, provided stairs are cleaned and maintained in a condition
acceptable to owner. At substantial completion, restore stairs to
condition existing before initial use.
• Provide protective coverings, barriers, devices, signs, or other
procedures to protect stairs and to maintain means of egress. If
stairs become damaged, restore damaged areas so no evidence
remains of correction work.
(n) Temporary use of permanent stairs: Use of new stairs for con-
struction traffic will be permitted, provided stairs are protected and
restored to new condition at time of substantial completion.

1.5.5 SECURITY AND PROTECTION FACILITIES


INSTALLATION

(a) Protection of existing facilities: Protect existing vegetation, equip-


ment, structures, utilities, and other improvements at project site
and on adjacent properties, except those indicated to be removed or
altered. Repair damage to existing facilities.
(b) Environmental protection: Provide protection, operate tempo-
rary facilities, and conduct construction as required to comply with
environmental regulations and that minimize possible air, water-
way, and subsoil contamination or pollution or other undesirable
effects.
• Comply with work restrictions specified.
(c) Temporary erosion and sedimentation control: Provide mea-
sures to prevent soil erosion and discharge of soil-bearing water
runoff and airborne dust to undisturbed areas and to adjacent
properties and walkways, according to erosion and sedimentation
28   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

control drawings, requirements of construction general permit, or


authorities having jurisdiction, whichever is more stringent.
• Verify that flows of water redirected from construction areas or
generated by construction activity do not enter or cross tree or
plant protection zones.
• Inspect, repair, and maintain erosion and sedimentation control
measures during construction until permanent vegetation has
been established.
• Clean, repair, and restore adjoining properties and roads
affected by erosion and sedimentation from project site during
the course of the project.
• Remove erosion and sedimentation controls and restore and
­stabilize areas disturbed during removal.
(d) Storm water control: Comply with requirements of authorities
having jurisdiction. Provide barriers in and around excavations and
subgrade construction to prevent flooding by runoff of storm water
from heavy rains.
(e) Tree and plant protection: Install temporary fencing to protect
vegetation from damage from construction operations. Protect tree
root systems from damage, flooding, and erosion.
(f) Pest control: Engage pest control service to recommend prac-
tices to minimize attraction and harboring of rodents, roaches, and
other pests and to perform extermination and control procedures at
regular intervals so that the project will be free of pests and their
residues at substantial completion. Perform control operations law-
fully, using environmentally safe materials.
(g) Site enclosure fence: Before construction operations begin, furnish
and install site enclosure fence in a manner that will prevent people
and animals from easily entering site except by entrance gates.
• Extent of fence: As required to enclose entire project site or
­portion determined sufficient to accommodate construction
operations.
• Maintain security by limiting number of keys and restricting
distribution to authorized personnel. Furnish one set of keys to
the owner.
(h) Security enclosure and lockup: Install temporary enclosure
around partially completed areas of construction. Provide lock-
able entrances to prevent unauthorized entrance, vandalism, theft,
and similar violations of security. Lock entrances at end of each
­workday.
Site Coordination Overview   •   29

(i) Barricades, warning signs, and lights: Comply with requirements


of authorities having jurisdiction for erecting structurally adequate
barricades, including warning signs and lighting.
(j) Temporary egress: Maintain temporary egress from existing occu-
pied facilities as required by authorities having jurisdiction.
(k) Covered walkway: Erect protective, covered walkway for passage
of individuals through or adjacent to the project site. Coordinate
with entrance gates, other facilities, and obstructions. Comply with
regulations of authorities having jurisdiction and requirements.
• Construct covered walkways using scaffold or shoring framing.
• Provide overhead decking, protective enclosure walls, hand-
rails, barricades, warning signs, exit signs, lights, safe and well-
drained walkways, and similar provisions for protection and
safe passage.
• Paint and maintain appearance of walkway for the duration of
the work.
(l) Temporary enclosures: Provide temporary enclosures for protec-
tion of construction, in progress and completed, from exposure,
foul weather, other construction operations, and similar activities.
Provide temporary weathertight enclosure for building exterior.
• Where heating or cooling is needed and permanent enclosure is
incomplete, insulate temporary enclosures.
(m) Temporary partitions: Provide floor-to-ceiling dustproof parti-
tions to limit dust and dirt migration and to separate areas occupied
by the owner from fumes and noise.
(n) Temporary fire protection: Install and maintain temporary fire
protection facilities of types needed to protect against reasonably
predictable and controllable fire losses.
(o) Moisture and mold control: Avoid trapping water in finished
work. Document visible signs of mold that may appear during
­construction.

1.5.6  OPERATION, TERMINATION, AND REMOVAL

(a) Supervision: Enforce strict discipline in use of temporary facili-


ties. To minimize waste and abuse, limit availability of temporary
facilities to essential and intended uses.
(b) Maintenance: Maintain facilities in good operating condition until
removal.
30   •   CONSTRUCTION SITE COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT

• Maintain operation of temporary enclosures, heating, cooling,


humidity control, ventilation, and similar facilities on a 24-hour
basis where required to achieve indicated results and to avoid
possibility of damage.
(c) Temporary facility changeover: Do not change over from using
temporary security and protection facilities to permanent facilities
until substantial completion.
(d) Termination and removal: Remove each temporary facility when
need for its service has ended, when it has been replaced by autho-
rized use of a permanent facility, or no later than substantial com-
pletion. Complete or, if necessary, restore permanent construction
that may have been delayed because of interference with temporary
facility. Repair damaged work, clean exposed surfaces, and replace
construction that cannot be satisfactorily repaired.
• Materials and facilities that constitute temporary facilities are
the property of the contractor. The owner reserves the right to
take possession of project identification signs.
• Remove temporary roads and paved areas not intended for or
acceptable for integration into permanent construction. Where
area is intended for landscape development, remove soil and
aggregate fill that do not comply with requirements for fill or
subsoil. Remove materials contaminated with road oil, asphalt,
and other petrochemical compounds, and other substances
that might impair growth of plant materials or lawns. Repair
or replace street paving, curbs, and sidewalks at temporary
entrances, as required by authorities having jurisdiction.
• At substantial completion, repair, renovate, and clean perma-
nent facilities used during construction period. Comply with
final cleaning requirements.
Index

A as-built drawings, 127–128, 148


acceptance and closeout, 149–150 attention, contract, 62
accessible temporary egress, 22
access to worksite (site B
coordination issues), 3 barricades, warning signs, and
accomplished systems, testing of, lights installation, 29
127 best practices, 58–59
actual cost of work performed Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd. v.
(ACWP), 109 Shamil Bank of Bahrain EC
admeasurement contract, 70 (governing law clause), 81
administration, contract bill of quantities contract, 70
claims, 77–78 budget at completion (BAC), 109
conditions, 74–75 budgeted cost of work performed
documents, 72–74 (BCWP), 108–109
special conditions, 76–77 budgeted cost of work scheduled
standard forms, 75–76 (BCWS), 108
advanced payment, 102 building information modeling
agreement, contract, 62 (BIM) style, 53
analysis, construction design, 48 build-operate-transfer (BOT)
analytical hierarchy process, approach, 67
37–38
annual repair/maintenance C
estimate, 93 cash flow, 98–99
anti-dispute arrangements computations, 104–105
(contract), 84–85 contract, 102–105
appropriate form, contract, 62 negative, 105
appropriate subject matter, causes and thorough precautions,
contract, 62 safety management, 133
approximate estimate, 93 change order and variation
arbitration, 81 (contract), 83–85
architect’s instruction (AI), 84 coding, 59
artificial intelligence, quantitative communicating activities, 8
risk analysis, 116 communication skills, 45
156   •   Index

company cash flow, 98 multi-contractor projects, 12–13


competent parties, contract, 62 project manager and, 11–18
conceptual cost estimate, 93, responsibilities of, 14–18
94–95 separate control of design and
conditions of contract, 74–75 progress, 12
consent of the parties, contract, 62 construction manager’s instruction
constraints, contract, 64 (CMI), 84
construction claims, contract, construction phase, responsibilities
77–78 matrix, 18–21
construction communication construction planning/schedule
management review, 54–55
contractor document, 142–144 best practices, 58–59
inconsistency, 141 consideration, 56–57
meetings, 142 factors, 57–58
recordkeeping and standard coding, 59
documentation construction project, 87–88
acceptance and closeout, construction-scheduling engineer,
149–150 55–56
as-built drawing, 148 considerations, 56
correspondence, 147 elements, 57–58
diary and DWR, 146–147 standard activities, 56–57
field records, 145–146 construction-scheduling process.
general, 144–145 See construction planning/
progress meeting, 147–148 schedule review
substantial completion and construction site coordination, 1
handing over, 148–149 activities, 4–5
construction design communicating, 8
design review, 49–50 controlling, 7–8
consultants, 52–54 facilitation, 6–7
good design, 50 provision of leadership, 6
impact, 51 recording, 8–9
participates, 50 construction engineer, 9–11
purpose of, 49 construction manager, 11–18
report, 52 execution, 23–25
timing of, 50–51 informational submittals, 22
working, 50 issues, 2–3
development, 48–49 management system-related
planning arrangements, 47–48 causes, 3, 4
construction engineer, 9–11 operation, termination, and
construction information (site removal, 29–30
coordination issues), 2 quality assurance, 22
construction manager responsibilities matrix, 18–21
design development, 14 security and protection facilities
employer/contractor joint installation, 27–29
venture, 14 staffing-related causes, 3, 4
Index   •   157

support facilities installation, contractor, roles and responsibility


25–27 of, 131–132
technical-related causes, 3, 4 contractor, selection of, 78
construction strategies, 31–33 contractual relationships, 68, 69
combination, 39–40 controlling activities, 7–8
creation, 34–35 coordination activities, 9
decision, 35 coordination function, 1
project and technical, 33–34 core design team, risk
sorting/classification, 35–39 identification, 113, 114
consultants, information for, 52–54 correspondence, project, 147
contract. See also Federation cost estimation, 87–90
Internationale Des Ingenieure- estimator, 90
Conseils (FIDIC); project objective of, 90–91
delivery methods production rates, 98
administration project cost, 91–92
conditions, 74–75 quantity takeoff, 97–98
construction claims, 77–78 types, 93–94
documents, 72–74 conceptual estimate, 94–95
special conditions, 76–77 detailed estimate, 95–97
standard forms, 75–76 semidetailed estimate, 95
change order and variation, cost management. See also specific
83–85 cost
components, 62 estimation (see cost estimation)
constraints, 64 project control, 105–106
contractor, selection of, 78 EV technique, 108–111
definition, 61–62 issues, 106
governing law clause, 79–83 scheduled project, 106–108
objectives, 63–64 project finance, 98–99
steps, 62 cash flow, 102–105
strategy, 61 project income, 101–102
subcontracting, 79 S curve, 99–100
types cost performance index (CPI),
admeasurement, 70 111
cost-reimbursable, 70–71 cost projection, 88
lump-sum, 68–69 cost-reimbursable contract ­­
target cost, 71 (cost-plus contract), 70–71
T&M, 72 cost variance (CV), 111
contract cash flow, 102–105 covered walkway installation, 29
contractor document, 142–144 Crystal Ball software, 117–118
Contractor Document Submittal
Report (CDSR), 143 D
contractor punch-out, 127 decision, construction design, 48
contractor quality control (CQC), decision trees (DT), quantitative
120, 123–125 risk analysis, 115
158   •   Index

deficiency tracking system/rework employer, roles and responsibility


item list, 125 of, 130–131
dehumidification system engineer, roles and responsibility
installation, 24 of, 131
deliverables, construction engineer’s instruction (EI), 84
engineer, 11 environmental protection
design-build approach, 66 installation, 27
design development, 14 equipment provision (site
design review, 49–50. See also coordination issues), 3
review construction plans estimate at completion (EAC), 111
design review report, 52 estimate to complete (ETC), 111
detailed cost estimate, 93–94, estimation, 114
95–97 estimator, 90. See also cost
detailed estimate, 93 estimation
development plans, performance execution
management process, 44–45 installation, general, 23
dewatering facilities and drains temporary utility installation,
installation, 26 23–25
diary and DWR, 146–147 existing elevator use installation,
direct cost, 92 26–27
direct labor approach, 65–66 existing stair usage installation, 27
dissemination of information, 139 expected monetary value,
documentation, quality quantitative risk analysis, 115
management expenditure (cash out), 99
CQC report, 123–125 expenses, 99
deficiency tracking system/ Expert Choice program, 38
rework item list, 125 extension estimate, 93
QA report, 125
record-keeping and information F
exchange system, 123 facilitation activities, 6–7
documents, contract, 72–74 Federation Internationale Des
drafting (governing law clause), Ingenieure-Conseils (FIDIC),
82–83 75–76. See also contract
dust and HVAC control plan, 22 design development, 14
DWR, diary and, 146–147 employer/contractor joint
venture, 14
E multi-contractor projects, 12–13
earned value (EV) technique, separate control of design and
108–111 progress, 12
electric power service installation, feedback, performance
24 management process, 42–43
electric service, 22 field records, 145–146
e-mail, 147 finance. See project finance
employer/contractor joint venture, fire safety program, 22
14 fixed cost, 91
Index   •   159

follow-up phase, three-phase initial phase, three-phase control


control system, 123 system, 122–123
formulation, construction design, initial response, risk identification,
48 114
inspections, 127
G installation
general communication, 142 security and protection facilities,
general installation, 23, 25 27–29
general overhead, 92 support facilities, 25–27
good design, 50 temporary utility, 23–25
governing law clauses (contract) installation, general, 23
defined, 79 Institute of Civil Engineering
drafting, 82–83 (ICE), 75
factors, 80–82 instruction and training procedure,
importance, 79–80 128
guidelines (change order and interfacing work to be completed
variation), 84–85 by other subcontractors (site
coordination issues), 2
H isolation of work areas in occupied
Halpern v. Halpern (governing facilities installation, 24
law clause), 82
heating and cooling installation, 23 K
heating, ventilation, and air knowledge acquisition, risk
conditioning (HVAC) control identification, 113
plan, 22
L
I learnning and training, safety,
identification, 114. See also risk 137–138
identification lifts and hoists installation, 26
illustrations, risk analysis, 116–118 lighting installation, 24
important vs. time-consuming lump-sum contract, 68–69
coordination activities, 4–5
communicating, 8 M
controlling, 7–8 maintenance facilities, 29–30
facilitation, 6–7 management system-related
provision of leadership, 6 causes, 3, 4
recording, 8–9 managers, performance
income (cash in), 99 management process and,
inconsistency in document, 141 45–46
indicators, EV, 110–111 material provision (site
indirect costs/overheads, 92 coordination issues), 3
informational submittals, 22 materials turnover, 128
information and participation, meeting, construction, 142
safety management, 133 method statements on safety,
information exchange system, 123 139–140
160   •   Index

modeling and simulation, pest control installation, 28


quantitative risk analysis, 115 plan-do-check-act (PDCA),
modification, construction design, 133–135, 136
48 planned value (PV), 108
moisture and mold control plan, specification, and estimate
installation, 29 (PS&E) submissions, 56
moisture protection plan, 22 policies for safety management,
Monte Carlo simulation process, 135
117–118 preconstruction conference, 142
multi-contractor projects, 12–13 preconstruction phase,
responsibilities matrix, 18,
N 19–20
negative cash flow, 105. See also pre-final and final inspection, 127
cash flow preliminary cost, 93
Network Analysis System (NAS), preliminary phase, three-phase
124 control system, 122
non-conformance requests preparation for workplace (site
(NCRs), 144 coordination issues), 2
Notice to Proceed (NTP), 141 prework meeting, 142
price, objectives, 63
O priority matrix, 35–38
objectives, contract, 63–64 production rate, 98
objectives, performance professional construction
management process, 41–42 management (PCM) approach,
obligation, performance 67–68
management process, 40–41 progress meeting, 147–148
operations and maintenance project and technical strategies,
(O&M) manual, 128 33–34
operation, termination, and project cash flow, 98
removal, 29–30 project control, 105–106
organizational structure, safety EV technique, 108–111
management, 136 issues, 106
OSHA standards, 140 scheduled project, 106–108
project cost, 91–92
P project definition plan material, 53
parking installation, 26 project delivery methods, 64–65.
participates, 50 See also contract
performance management process, BOT approach, 67
40 contractual relationships, 68, 69
development plans, 44–45 design-build approach, 66
feedback, 42–43 direct labor approach, 65–66
and managers, 45–46 PCM approach, 67–68
objectives, 41–42 traditional approach, 65
obligation, 40–41 turnkey approach, 66
systematic progress, 43–44 project direct cost, 92
Index   •   161

project finance, 98–99 R


cash flow, 102–105 recording activities, 8–9
project income, 101–102 recordkeeping, 123
S curve, 99–100 and documentation
project income (cash in), 101–102 acceptance and closeout,
project manager and construction 149–150
manager, 11 as-built drawing, 148
project manager’s instruction correspondence, 147
(PMI), 84 diary and DWR, 146–147
project organizational structure, 64 field records, 145–146
project overhead, 92 general, 144–145
project records, 145 progress meeting, 147–148
project-related correspondence, substantial completion and
147 handing over, 148–149
project scope, objectives, 63 remedial action requests (RARs),
project signs installation, 26 144
protection of existing facilities request for information (RFI), 83
installation, 27 request for proposal (RFP), 53
provision of leadership activities, Resident Management System
6 (RMS)/Quality Control System
public accidents, safety (QCS), 124
management, 133 response to site problem (site
coordination issues), 3
Q responsibilities matrix
QA personnel, 120, 125 construction phase, 18–21
QA report, 125 preconstruction phase, 18, 19–20
QA testing, 126 retention, 101–102
QC personnel, 121, 126 review construction plans, 49–50
QC report, 123–125 consultants, 52–54
QC testing, 125, 126 good design, 50
qualitative risk analysis, 112, impact, 51
114–115 participates, 50
quality assurance (QA), 22, 120 purpose of, 49
quality management, 119–120 report, 52
completion of work, 127–128 timing of, 50–51
definitions, 120–121 working, 50
documentation, 123–125 revised estimate, 93
testing, 125–127 risk identification, 112, 113
three-phase control system, core design team, 113
121–123 estimation, 114
quantitative risk analysis, 112, identification, 114
115–116 initial response, 114
quantity-based cost, 91 knowledge acquisition, 113
quantity estimate, 93 process to core team, 114
quantity takeoff, 97–98 risk management, 111–112
162   •   Index

identification, 113–114 semidetailed cost estimate, 93, 95


illustrations, 116–118 sensitivity analysis, quantitative
qualitative risk analysis, 114–115 risk analysis, 115
quantitative risk analysis, separate control of design and
115–116 progress, 12
risk management planning, 112 severity, limits of, 117–118
risk monitoring and control, 112 sewers and drainage installation,
risk response planning, 112 23
rough cost, 93 short list of risk factors, 116–117
site enclosure fence installation, 28
S site plan, 22
safety, 132 SMART objectives, 42
safety management special conditions, contract, 76–77
laws and regulations, 133 specification, construction design,
method statements, 129–130, 48
139–140 staffing-related causes, 3, 4
PDCA for, 133–135 standard coding, 59
plan (See safety plan) standard forms, contract, 75–76
principles of, 132–133 stengths, weaknesses,
roles and responsibility, 130–132 opportunities, and threats
safety plan, 129–130 (SWOT), 38–39
dissemination of information, storm water control installation, 28
139 strategy, 31. See also construction
emergencies and unforeseen strategies
conditions, 137 subcontracting, 79
learnning and training, 137–138 subcontractor, roles and
observations and monitoring, responsibility of, 132
136–137 substantial completion and
organizational structure, 136 handing over, 148–149
PDCA cycle, 136 supervision facilities, 29
policies, 135 supplementary estimate, 93
unpaid, principles for, 138–139 SWOT. See stengths, weaknesses,
sanitary facilities installation, 23 opportunities, and threats
scheduled project, 106–108 (SWOT)
schedule of rates contract, 70 systematic progress, performance
schedule performance index (SPI), management process, 43–44
110
schedule variance (SV), 110 T
S curve, 99–100 target cost contract, 71
search, construction design, 48 Technical Guidelines, safety, 140
secondary objectives, 63–64 technical-related causes, 3, 4
security enclosure and lockup telephone service installation,
installation, 28 24–25
Index   •   163

temporary egress installation, 29 time-consuming coordination


temporary elevator use installation, activities. See important vs.
26 time-consuming coordination
temporary enclosures installation, activities
29 time estimate at completion,
temporary erosion and 110–111
sedimentation control time, objectives, 63
installation, 27–28 timing of payment, 99
temporary facility changeover, 30 to-complete performance index
temporary fire protection (TCPI), 111
installation, 29 tracking system, 127
temporary partitions installation, traditional approach, 65
29 traffic controls installation, 26
temporary roads and paved areas tree and plant protection
installation, 25 installation, 28
temporary stairs installation, 27 turnkey approach, 66
temporary use of permanent roads
and paved areas installation, 25 U
temporary use of permanent stairs UNIDROIT standards, 82
installation, 27 unpaid safety management, 138–139
temporary utility installation,
23–25 V
tender price, breakdown of, variance at completion (VAC), 111
95–96 variation, change order and
termination and removal, 30 (contract), 83–85
testing, quality management, ventilation and humidity control
125–127 installation, 24
tests and inspections, 22
thorough compliance, safety W
management, 133 warranty, 128
three-phase control system contract, 74
follow-up phase, 123 waste disposal facilities
initial phase, 122–123 installation, 26
preliminary phase, 122 water service installation, 23
purpose of, 121 weekly meeting, 142
responsibility, 121 workers, roles and responsibility
time and material (T&M) contract, of, 132
72 working plan (site coordination
time-based cost, 91 issues), 2