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Fundamentals of Image


Subject code: 181102

Dr. C.H. Vithalani,
Government Engineering College,

Syllabus Overview
1. Digital Image Fundamentals
2. Image enhancement in spatial domain
3. Filtering in frequency domain
4. Image restoration and reconstruction
5. Color Image Processing
6. Image Compression
7. Image Segmentation
8. Morphological Image Processing
Laboratory work:
MATLAB or SCILAB (Image and video processing toolbox
and some stand alone programs in C )

1. Digital Image Processing, Rafael C. Gonzalez and
Richard E. Woods, Third Edition, Pearson Education

2. Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB, Rafael C.
Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, and Steven L. Eddins,
Second Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publication

3. Digital Image Processing, S Jayaraman, S
Esakkirajan, T Veerakumar, Tata McGraw Hill

4. Digital Image Processing, S Sridhar, Oxford
University Press.

3 Image as 2D data 1.2 Human Visual System 1. Topic 1 Digital Image Fundamentals Discussion points 1.4 Image representation: Grey scale and Color 1.1 Introduction of Image Processing 1.5 Image Sampling and Quantization .

Introduction to Image Processing • Image may be defined as a two dimensional function f(x. black pixel has intensity 0 i. f=0 and white pixel has intensity maximum i.e.y) where x. y spatial coordinates • Amplitude f at any point (x.e.y) is called intensity or gray level at that point • For 256 level (8 bit) image. f=255 • Intermediate gray level pixel has value between 1 to 254 • 24 bit color image pixel has three color (RGB) each 8 bit .


Sampling and Quantization Digitizing co-ordinate value is called sampling Digitizing amplitude value is called quantization .

Sampling and Quantization Quality of image depends on …… How many samples we are taking & How many amplitude levels we are using .

Image as 2-D data • Sampling and quantization process gives matrix of numbers Number of bits required to store image = M  N  k k= Number of bits/pixel If number of amplitude levels are L L=2k k=log2(L) .

General Image Processing System Printer/ Plotter Image Digitizer Computer Display Sensor Memory .

Image Processing Scheme Image Image Digitization Sensing Compression Memory (Storage) Image Image Enhancement Restoration Image Feature Segmentation Extraction .

. Introduction to Image Processing Purpose of digital image processing: • Improvement of pictorial information for human interpretations • Processing of image data for analysis purpose • Compression of image data for storage and transmission • Representation of image for autonomous machine perception.

corps assessment etc . Machine Vision Applications For machine vision information is extracted from image: • Product assembly and inspection • Automated target detection and tracking • Finger print recognition • Iris recognition • Processing of aerial and satellite images for whether prediction. .

Steps of Image Processing for machine vision applications … • Image acquisition: Imaging sensor and digitization • Image Preprocessing Enhance quality and noise removal • Image Segmentation Partition image into different objects • Feature selection (extraction) Area of interest for analysis • Recognition and interpretation Assignment of labels to objects .

Human Visual System • What we do while we view a scene ? .Initial fixations are predicted by certain image properties • Video camera does the same thing.Rapid movement of eye between points of fixation .Sampling scene with high resolution fovea .Stitch together high resolution representation of scene . It does horizontal and vertical scanning and it takes samples and quantize the points (pixels) .

Human Visual Perception Purpose of understanding human visual system: • Help to design compression algorithms • Help to develop image enhancement algorithms (The Transmission Path) (Input Sensor) .

Light intensity = I        L  Reflectivity /Transmissivity Incident Energy Distribution of Object . Human Visual Perception  Lies in the Visible Region (350 to 780 nm) of the EM Spectrum.

Protein Blind Spot Video .. Human Visual Perception Beautiful sensor given by God to human being …. Opaque membrane Blood Vessels Tough Transparent Tissue Varies in diameter from 2 to 8 mm Fibrous cells 60-70% Water 6% Fat.

light from outside object imaged on retina • The Retina is Covered with 2 types of Photoreceptors (light sensitive organs): • Rods (75 to 150 millions): Provides brightness sensation • Cones (6 to 7 millions): Provides color sensation (Broadly three groups: RED. When lens is properly focused. Human Visual Perception Retina is innermost membrance of eye. GREEN and BLUE) (Each group of cones are tuned to small band of wavelengths) .

Human Visual Perception Human eye is most sensitive to green color .

Human Visual Perception Cones Absence of rods and (In Fovea) cones in certain area Rods of retina results into blind spot Absence of cones means color blindness Video about human visual perception .

• Our eye do not provide high resolution and high color information across the entire field of view • Center two degrees of visual angle (fovea) provide high resolution. rods are distributed having low resolution and Grey scale information . • That is good otherwise unnecessary data will be accumulate in our brain. full color information using cones located around fovea • Around fovea.Human Visual System Limitations • We do not notice or process majority of Visual stimuli….



Simultaneous Contrast .

Hermann Grid (Visual effect due to lateral inhibition) .

Mach Bands Effect .

Spatial Frequency …. ..

Exercise • What will be storage requirement of monochrome image for image size 512x512 pixel ? • What will be storage requirement for 256 gray-level image for size 1024x768 ? • What will be storage requirement for the true color image of size 1440x900 pixel ? .

Thank you .