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PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, LIMDA

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering
Practical No. Subject Code : 171001

 AIM: - Introduction to Microwave Bench.

 APPARATUS:

1. GUNN power supply 2. GUNN oscillator,
3. Pin Modulator 4. Isolator
5. Frequency meter 6. Variable Attenuator,
7. Detector Mount 8. CRO
9. VSWR meter. 10. Waveguide stand
11. Cooling fan 12. Cable

 THEORY:-

 GUNN power supply:-
It provides bias to GUNN oscillator and Pin modulator.

 GUNN Oscillator:-
This device act as a source for microwave in the bench. The GUNN oscillators consist of
resonant cavity, an arrangement for coupling diode. And a mechanism to couple the Rx
power from coiling to external circuit / load. A coaxial coating or rectangular waveguide
cavity is commonly used. It generates continues waves. The GUNN oscillator is powered
from GUNN power supply.

 Pin Modulator:-
Pin diode used in Pin Modulator operates as low reverse bias and in series with low
frequency modulation signal. AM signal is sent from the microwave bench and AM
modulation is achieved by use of PIN diode. The modulating signal changes the RF
resistance of diode, so that urging amount of mismatch results.

 Isolator:-
This is rectangular waveguide which is modified that microwaves can move in one
direction. An isolator is a two port device which provides very small amount of
attenuation for transmission from port-1 to port-2 but provides maximum attenuation for
transmission from port-2 to port-1. This requirement is very much desirable when we
want to match a source with a variable load.

 Frequency meter:-

This is connected along the wave guide. It is cylindrical tube consisting of permanent
load marked which is used to indicate frequency.

 Variable Attenuator:-
It is used for perfect matching so that there are minimum frequency and also
instantaneous frequency. It reduces waveguide across section and attenuation generally
moving wave type preferred. Depth of penetration is adjusted here.

 Slotted line section:-
This section of microwave bench is used as SWR indicator. It has small slit on broad
fore of waveguide and traveling probes for dominant mode traveling inside waveguide.
The slot does not radiate power which is awarding to standard wave pattern coupling
probe moving along the waveguide can be used to detect the standing wave present
inside the waveguide.

 Matched Termination:-
Waveguides are adjust to reflection if not matched using characterizes impedance.
Hence matched terminations are providing to present reflection of microwave energy.

 VSWR Meter:-
It is connected to slotted line. VSWR meter can be used as an alternative method as line
frequency. The meter is connected from slotted line incremented, which measure any
device being studied on bench must be connected between slotted line and termination.

 Waveguide Stand and Turn table:-
The whole bench needs to be dept at constant level for proper operation for this turn
table is used. Waveguides are supported by means of stand.

 Cooling Fan:-
Since GUNN oscillator operation at microwave frequencies it tends to heat µp. This
may vary nature of waveguide. So cooling is required.

Other Components:-

 Circulator:-
This is simulator to isolator. It is ferrite device in which each element is connected only
to next clockwise terminal device. There are generally 4 terminal devices but can be 3
terminals also, T terminal and Y type circulator. They are generally used for isolation of
i/p and o/p in tube terminal amplifying called parametric amplifiers.

 Fixed attenuator:-
Instead of variation provided by moving wave attenuated, here fixed revises slot is
provided. Generally attenuation ranges are 3dB, 6dB and 10dB.

 Tee junction: -

They are used to select E and H wave energies. Hybrid junction magic tee and
directional couplers.

 Directional coupler:-
These provide benching to waveguide as far splitting indent energy. They are available
in 3dB, 10dB and 20dB. Directional couplers are fault in waveguide assemblies which
can sample a small amount of microwave power for measurements. They can be
designed to measure incident or regulated power.

 Waveguide Joints:-
It is not possible to prepare a waveguide system in one piece and may require several
sections connected by joints. These are waveguide joints and must be constructed is
such a way that a good connection is made between any two sections.

 Microwave Junction:- .
At work-in positions in microwave bench it become necessary to split energy of
microwave in to circular direction. This is achieved in waveguides in general by
microwave functions. These are combined to from guide.

 Waveguide Bench:-
It useful for chaining the direction of power by desired angle bends can be H, E bends.

 CONCLUSION:-

PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,LIMDA
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering
Practical No. Subject Code : 171001

 AIM:-To study I-V characteristic of GUNN oscillator.

 APPARATUS:-

1. GUNN power supply 2. GUNN oscillator,
3. Pin Modulator 4. Isolator
5. Frequency meter 6. Variable Attenuator,
7. Detector Mount 8. CRO
9. VSWR meter. 10. Waveguide stand
11. Cooling fan 12. Cable

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

GUNN Power
Supply

GUNN PIN Variable Freq. Detector
Osc. Isolator
Modulator Attenu Meter Mount
-ator

 THEORY:-

The Gunn Oscillator is based on negative resistance effect in bulk semiconductor which
has two conduction band separated by an energy gap. A high field domain is formed when the applied
electric field gradient exceeds the threshold. The domain which is usually formed near the cathode
travels towards anode. When this domain reaches anode, it delivers a current pluses and disappears.
Another domain is formed nears the cathode which travels towards anode and so on. The time required
by to travel from cathode to anode gives the oscillator frequency of a GUNN oscillator. The GUNN
diode is placed in a resonant cavity. The oscillation frequency is determined by cavity dimensions. A
PIN modulator used to give square modulation of signal coming from GUNN diode.

 PROCEDURE:-

1. Set here components as shown in the block diagram.
2. Keep the controls of GUNN power supply as below

METER SWITCH OFF

4. Note the negative resistance region of GUNN diode. Measure the GUNN diode current corresponding to various GUNN bias voltage through the digital panel meter and the meter switch.  OBSERVATIONS:- GUNN diode bias voltage GUNN diode current (mA) (volts)  CONCLUSION:- . 7. measure the minimum current. Plot the graph of voltage v/s current readings.  PRECAUTION:- Do not keep GUNN bias knob position at threshold for more than 10 seconds. Switch the GUNN power supply ON. GUNN BIAS KNOB FULLY ANTICLOCKWISE PIN BIAS KNOB FULLY ANTI CLOCKWISE PIN FREQ POSITION ANY POSITION 3. Do not exceed the bias voltage above 10 voltages. Also. Set the micrometer of GUNN oscillator to required frequency of operation (refer the chat). 5. Do not Exceed 10 volts. 6. Measure the threshold voltage which corresponding to maximum current.

7. Cable  BLOCK DIAGRAM:- GUNN Power Supply GUNN PIN Freq. Variable Osc. Variable Attenuator. Cooling fan 12. Isolator 5. 3. Detector Mount 8. CRO 9. . Output power and frequency as a function of Bias Voltage. GUNN power supply 2.  APPARATUS:- 1. VSWR meter. Waveguide stand 11. Frequency meter 6. Isolator Modulator Meter Attenuator Slotted Line Detector Oscilloscope Mount VSWR Meter SW-115  THEORY:- The Gunn Oscillator is based on negative resistance effect in bulk semiconductor which has two conduction band separated by an energy gap. Another domain is formed nears the cathode which travels towards anode and so on. The time required by to . 10.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. A high field domain is formed when the applied electric field gradient exceeds the threshold. 2 Square wave Modulation through PIN diode. Pin Modulator 4. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. When this domain reaches anode. The domain which is usually formed near the cathode travels towards anode. GUNN oscillator. it delivers a current pluses and disappears. Subject Code : 171001  AIM: To study following characteristics of Gunn Diode 1.

6. Keep the meter switch of GUNN power supply to volt position and rotate GUNN bias voltage Slowly so that panel meter of GUNN supply reads 8. Keep the controls of GUNN power supply as below METER SWITCH OFF GUNN BIAS KNOB FULLY ANTICLOCKWISE PIN BIAS KNOB FULLY ANTI CLOCKWISE PIN FREQ POSISTION ANY POSITION 4. Initially set the Variable attenuator for minimum attenuation. Connect VSWR to detector mount and note down the dB reading in VSWR Meter for both the Micrometer reading of the variable attenuator. Turn the Output in the VSWR meter through frequency control knob of modulation. 4. Turn PIN modulator bias voltage and frequency knob for maximum output on the oscilloscope. Coincide the bottom of square wave on oscilloscope to some reference. 2. 2. attenuator coincide the top of square wave to same reference level and note down the micrometer reading 5. Reduce GUNN bias voltage in step of 1 volt and note down corresponding reading of output at VSWR meter. The GUNN diode is placed in a resonant cavity. Turn the meter switch of GUNN power supply to voltage position. Set the components as shown in the block diagram. 6. Rotate PIN bias knob to obtain maximum deflection in VSWR meter. Keep the control knobs of VSWR meter as follows METER SWITCH NORMAL INPUT SWITCH 200 OHMs CRYSTAL RANGE DB SWITCH 40 DB GAIN CONTROL KNOB FULLY CLOCKWISE. Any level can be set through variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. Now with help of the variable. 5. The oscillation frequency is determined by cavity dimensions.  Output Power As A Function of Bias Voltage 1. 4. Set the micrometer of GUNN Oscillator to required frequency of operation (refer the chart) 6.  PROCEDURE:- 1. 7. . Use the reading to draw graphs of power v/s voltage. 3.0 volt. Increase the GUNN bias to 8.  Square Wave Modulation 1.8 volts. Switch the GUNN power supply ‘ON’ 7.travel from cathode to anode gives the oscillator frequency of a GUNN oscillator. 2. A PIN modulator us used to give square modulation of signal coming from GUNN diode. 3. If required change the range the db switch of VSWR to higher position to get deflection. 3. The difference of both dB reading of VSWR meter gives the modulation dep Of PIN modulator. Switch ‘ON’ VSWR meter and cooling fan. 5.

Do not exceed 10 volts. PRECAUTION:- Do not keep GUNN bias knob position at threshold for more than 10 seconds.  OBSERVATIONS:- Volt (V) Power (dB) Frequency(GHz)  CONCLUSION:- .

LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. Matched Termination 17.To determine the Standing Wave Ratio and Reflection Coefficient. CRO 9. Slotted Section 14 . 7. SWR is measure of mismatch between load and line. Detector Mount 8. Waveguide stand 11.Tunable probe 15. VSWR meter.  APPARATUS:- 1. GUNN oscillator. GUNN power supply 2.S. Isolator Modulator Meter Attenuator S-S Matched Oscilloscope Slotted Line Tuner Termination VSWR Meter SW-115 Detector Movable Mount short  THEORY:- It is a ratio of maximum voltage to minimum voltage along a transmission line is called VSWR as ratio of maximum to minimum current. Isolator 5. Cable 13. Frequency meter 6. . 10. 3. S. Variable Osc. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY.Tuner  BLOCK DIAGRAM:- GUNN Power Supply GUNN PIN Freq. Pin Modulator 4. Variable Attenuator. Cooling fan 12. Subject Code : 171001  AIM: . Movable Short 16.

Impedance low Meter switch : Normal Gain(coarse fine) : Mid position apporx. p is Er Z. Z0 is characteristics impendence The above equation gives following equation S-1 Ρ = S+1  PROCEDURE:- 1 Set up the equipment as shown in the fig. 4 Keep the control knobs of klystron power supply as below: Meter switch : OFF Mod switch : AM . 3 Keep the Control knobs of VSWR meter as below. The ratio of electrical field strength and incident wave is called reflection between maximum and minimum field field strength along the line. The magnitude and phase of reflected wave depends upon amplitude and phase of the reflecting impedance. 2 Keep variable attenuator at maximum position. The superposition of two traveling waves gives the rise to standing wave along with the line. Range : 40db /50db Input Switch . The reflected wave is set up by reflection of incidents wave from a discontinuity on the line or from the load impedance.Z0 p= = EI Z+Z0 Where Z is the impedance at a point on line . The electromagnetic field at any point of line may be considered as the sum of two traveling waves the “Incident Wave” propagates from generator and the reflected wave propagates towards the generator. Hence VSWR denoted by S is S= E max E min EI + Er = EI . The distance between two successive minimum is half the guide wavelength on the lines. The maximum field strength is found where two waves are in phase and minimum where the line adds in opposite phase.Er Where EI= Incident Voltage Er= Reflected Voltage Reflection Coefficients.

SWR= λg / п( d1-d2) For different SWR calculate the reflection coefficient. Beam voltage knob : Fully anticlockwise Reflector voltage knob: fully clockwise AM Frequency &amplitude : Mid position Knob.S. 2 Adjust the VSWR meter again control knob or variable attenuator until the meter indicates 1. Let it d2 6 Replace the SS tuner and terminator by movable short.e ‘0’ dBOn 0-10 dB scale. Let it be d1 5 Repeat the step 3 and 4 and then move the probe the right along the slotted line until full Scale deflection is obtained in 0-10 dB normal dB scale. change the range dB switch to next higher position and read the VSWR on second VSWR scale of 3 to 10. 7 Rotate the reflector voltage knob to get deflection in VSWR meter 8 Turn the output by tuning the reflector voltage amplitude and frequency of AMMODULATION 9 TUNE FOR Maximum deflection by tuning the plunger of klystron mounts. 4 If the VSWR is between 3. 10 If necessary change the range db switches variable attenuator position and gain control knob to get deflection the scale of VSWRmeter 11 Move the probe along with slotted line the deflection will change. 7 Measure the distance between two successive minima position or probe Twise this distance is wave guide length λg 8 Calculate SWR by following equation. 6 Turn the meter switch of klystron power supply to beam.0 on Normal VSWR scale. Voltage position and set the beam Voltage at 300v. Note and record the probe position on slotted line. Then tune for Maximum deflection by the tuning the probe. . Read the VSWR on the scale. 5 Switch ON the klystron power supply VSWR meter and cooling fan. A Measurement of low and medium Measurement of Medium VSWR 1 Move the probe along the slotted line to get maximum deflection in VSWR meter. Measurement of Low VSWR Repeat the above step for change of S. Tuner probe depth and record the corresponding B Measurement of high VSWR (Double minimum method) 1 Set the depth of SS tuner slightly more for maximum VSWR 2 Move the probe along with Slotted line until minimum is indicated 3 Adjust the VSWR meter gain control knob and variable attenuator to obtain a reading of 3db Of normal dB scale (0 to 10) of VSWRmeter 4 Move the probe to the left on slotted line until full scale deflection is obtain i. 3 Keep all control as it is and move the probe to next minimum position.2 and 10.

 OBSERVATION  CONCLUSION: .

Pin Modulator 4. 10.n/ TM m. Detector Mount 8. Cooling fan 12. VSWR meter. CRO 9.  APPARATUS:- 1. Frequency meter 6.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. GUNN power supply 2.Number of half wave length variation in broader direction. .Number of half wave length variation in shorter direction. Movable Short 16. Slotted Section 14 . GUNN oscillator. Waveguide stand 11.Tunable probe 15.n Where TE.transverse electric. Variable Osc. Variable Attenuator. Isolator 5. Subject Code : 171001  AIM: .To determine frequency and wave-length in rectangular wave guide.transverse magnetic m. Isolator Modulator Meter Attenuator Slotted Line Oscilloscope Detector VSWR Mount Meter SW-115  THEORY:- Mode represents in wave guides as either TE m. 7. TM. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. Matched Termination  BLOCK DIAGRAM:- GUNN Power Supply GUNN PIN Freq. Cable 13. n. 3.

For dominant TE10 mode in rectangular wave guide λ0.= (d1 – d2) 2 Where d1 and d2 are the distance between two successive minima/maxima It is having highest cut off frequency hence dominant mode. The electromagnetic field at a point of transmission line may be considered as the sum of two traveling waves the ‘Incident Wave. Set the micrometer of Gunn oscillator to required frequency of operation (refer the chart) 6. Keep the controls of GUNN Power Supply as below METER SWITCH OFF GUNN BIAS KNOB FULLY ANTICLOCKWISE PIN BIAS KNOB FULLY ANTICLOCKWISE PIN FREQ POSITION ANY POSITION 4. Note and record the probe position as d1 2. 2. Switch ‘ON’ VSWR meter and cooling fan. λg --. Move the probe along the slotted line. 3. Move the probe to next minimum position and record the probe position again as d2 3.  Measurement of wave Length and frequency With Slotted Line section 1. The deflection in VSWRmeter will vary move the probe to Deflection position. The following relation can be proved C=f λ 8 Where C=3×10 is velocity of light and f is frequency. Initially set the variable attenuator for minimum attenuation. if necessary increase the VSWR meter range db Switch to higher position. Calculate the guide wave length ( ) as twice distance .  PROCEDURE:- 1. To get accurate reading. Keep the control knobs of VSWR meter as follow METER SWITCH NORMAL INPUT SWITCH 2000HMS CRYSTAL RANGE DB SWITCH 40 DB GAIN CONTROL KNOB FULLY CLOCKWISE 5. which propagates from the source to the load and the reflected wave which propagates towards the generator. Set the components as shows in the block diagram. Switch the GUNN power supply ‘ON’ 7. λc=2a/m Where m=1 in TE10mode and ‘a’ is broad dimension of waveguide. λg and λc are related as below F= c/λ0 = c (1/λg2 – 1/λc2)1/2 Where Λ0 is free space wave length λg is guide wave length λc is cutoff wave length For TE10 mode.

Off wavelength (λc). If required change the range the db switch of VSWR to higher position to get deflection any level Can be set through variable attenuator and gain. Find the free space wavelength by the relation. 5. Control knob of VSWR meter. Do not exceed 10 volts.86 mm for X band and Known as cut. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. Measure the waveguide inner broad dimension 'a' which will be around 22. Tune the output in the VSWR meter through frequency control knob of modulation. 2. Tune the&Frequency meter knob to get a 'dip' on the VSWR scale and note down the frequency directly from the frequency meter.4. f = c/λ0  Measurement of Frequency with Frequency Meter l. Replace termination with movable short and detune the frequency mete  PRECAUTION:- Do not keep GUNN bias knob position at threshold for more than 10 seconds. 1/ λ02 = 1/ λg2 + 1/ λc2 6.  OBSERVATION  CONCLUSION. 3.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT . Calculate the frequency by following equation. 4.

Cable 13. To measure the coupling factor and directivity. Isolator 5.  APPARATUS:- 1. Matched Termination  BLOCK DIAGRAM:- GUNN Power Supply GUNN PIN Freq. Cooling fan 12. VSWR meter. Variable Osc. Isolator Modulator Meter Attenuator Matched Termination Oscilloscope P3 Slotted Line Multi Hole Detector VSWR Directional Mount Meter P1 Coupler P2 SW-115  THEORY:- . Pin Modulator 4. Directional Coupler 16. GUNN power supply 2. Waveguide stand 11.Tunable probe 15. 10. 3. CRO 9. Slotted Section 14 . Frequency meter 6. Subject Code : 171001  AIM:. 7. Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. Variable Attenuator. 2. GUNN oscillator. Study the function of multi hole directional coupler by measuring the Following parameters 1 To measure main –line and auxiliary-line VSWR. Detector Mount 8.

Loss = 10 log 10 [P1/P2] when power is entering at port 1. 3. Repeat the same for other frequency. Repeat the same frequency. Isolation (db) = 10 log 10 [P2/P3] Where P1 is matched. 4. 2. Auxiliary line VSWR is SWR measured in the auxiliary line the looking into the output terminal. 2. Measurement of Coupling Factor. At all other ports. It is measure as the ratio of the two power output from the auxiliary line when a given amount of power is successfully applied to each Terminal of the main line with the port terminated by material loads. electromagnetically coupled to each other. It is defined as insertion. Energized the microwave source for particular frequency operation as described operation of 3. It consists of two transmission line. Klystron and Gunn oscillator. Directivity 0 (db) = Isolation. Main line VSWR is SWR measured looking into the main line the input terminal when the matched loads are placed. Coupling (db) = 10 log 10 [P1/P3] Where P 2 is terminated. when the matched loads are placed on other terminal. Hence. Main Line SWR Measurement 1. Measure SWR as described in the experiments of SWR measurement (low and medium SWR 5. the main arm and auxiliary arm. 1. Set up the equipment as shown in the figure. the directivity of the coupler is a measure of separation between incident and the reflected wave. power entering port 2 is divided between port 1 and port 4 . Follow the procedure as described for VSWR measurement experiment (low and medium VSWR measurement) 4.A directional coupler is a device with it is possible to measure the incident and reflected wave separately. Main line insertion loss is the attenuation introduced in transmission line by insertion of coupler. the power entering port-1 the main gets divided between port 2 and 3 and almost no power comes out in port 4. Set up the components and equipments as shown in figure. Insertion loss.  PROCEDURE:- 1. 3.Coupling = 10 log 10 [P2/P1]. Refer to the fig. With built termination and power is entering at port 1. 2. Auxiliary Line SWR Measurement. . Energized the microwave source for particular frequency operation as described.

gain control knob of VSWR meter. with detector to the auxiliary port 3and matched termination to port 2 without changing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. 12. without disturbing the position of the variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. 14. 4. Compute the insertion loss X.(Reference level let it be X ) 5.1.  OBSERVATION  CONCLUSION. 11. Set up the equipment as shown in figure. Connect the directional coupler in the reverse direction. and note down the reading. Suppose it is Z. Now carefully disconnect the detector from the auxiliary port 3 and match termination from Port 2 without disturbing the set up. 2. 13. 6. Measure and note down the reading on VSWR meter. 15. 9.e port 2 to frequency meter side matched Termination to port 1 and detector mount to port 3. i. Compute the directivity as Y-Yd. Set any reference level of power on VSWR meter with the help of variable attenuator. Repeat the step from 1 to 4. Klystron and Gunn Oscillator 3. Remove the directional coupler and connect the Detector Mount to the frequency meter. Repeat the same for other frequencies. Calculate the coupling factor. Insert the direction coupler as shown in second figure. 10. Note down the reading on VSWR meter on the scale with the help of range –db switch if required (Let it be Y) 7. . which will be X-Y in db.Z in dB. Tune the detector for the maximum output. 8. Connect the matched termination to the auxiliary port 3 and detector to port 2 and measure the reading on VSWR meter. let it be Yd.

Matched termination  BLOCK DIAGRAM:- GUNN Power Supply GUNN PIN Freq. Waveguide stand 11. Pin Modulator 4.  APPARATUS:- 1. Variable Osc. Isolator Modulator Meter Attenuator Oscilloscope Slotted Line T-Circulator / Detector Y-Circulator Mount P1 P2 VSWR P3 Meter Matched SW-115 Termination Oscilloscope T-Circulator / Detector Y-Circulator Mount P1 P3 VSWR P2 Meter Matched SW-115 Termination . Isolator 5. Detector Mount 8. Cable 13. CRO 9.To study about Circulator. 3. VSWR meter. Cooling fan 12. GUNN oscillator. T -Circulator and Y -circulator 15. 7. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING ANTECHNOLOGY. GUNN power supply 2.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. Frequency meter 6. Slotted line section 14. Variable Attenuator. Subject Code : 171001  AIM: . 10.

Connect the port2 with matched termination. C. The above procedure can be repeated for other ports. 6. Let it be PI. Let it be P2. For measurement of isolation. Energize the microwave source for maximum output for a particular frequency of operation. Set any reference level of power in VSWR meter with the help of variable attenuator and gain Control knob of VS WR meter. The important circulator and isolator parameters are: A. 2. if necessary. B. Insertion loss: Insertion loss is the ratio of power detected at the output port to the power supplied by source to the input port. change range (dB) switch to high or lower Position. other ports. Input VSWR The input VSWR of an isolator or circulator is the ratios of voltage maximum to voltage minimum of the standing wave existing in the line with all parts except the test port are matched. 4. A matched termination should be placed at third port. 3. 2. Carefully remove the detector mount from slotted line without disturbing the position of the setup Insert the T –Circulator between slotted line and detector mount. The isolation of a circulator is measured with the third port terminated in a matched load. B. and read 10 db changes for each step change of switch position. This ratio is expressed in db. Remove the probe and T -circulator from slotted line and connect the detector mount to the slotted section.  THEORY:- CIRCULATOR: Circulator is defined as a device with ports arranged such that energy entering a port is coupled to an adjacent port but not coupled to the. 7. Keep input port to slotted line and Detector its output port. Circulator can have any number of ports. Record the reading in the VSWR meter. The output of the detector mount should be connected with VSWR meter. It is expressed in dB. measured with other ports terminated in the matched load. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation. probe and VSWR meter find out VSWR of the T-circulator as described earlier for low and medium S WR measurements. This is depicted in fig. Tune the detector mount for maximum output in the VSWR meter. 5.  PROCEDURE:- A Input VSWR Measurement 1. Compute Insertion loss given as P1-P2 in db. Record the reading of VSWR meter after and let it . Setup the components and equipments as shown in fig with input port of T -circulator connected to the slotted line and matched load on other ports. 4. With the help of slotted line. Measurement of insertion loss and isolation 1. disconnect the port2 and connect port3 to the detector mount. Isolation: Isolation is the ratio of power applied to the output to that measured at the input. 3.

 OBSERVATIONS:- o T-Circulator Insertion loss = ______________ Isolation = _______________ o Y-Circulator Insertion loss = ______________ Isolation = ________________  CONCLUSION:- . . Do not Exceed 10 volts. Compute Isolation as P1-P3 in db. be P3. .  PRECAUTION:- Do not keep GUNN bias knob position at threshold for more than 10 seconds. Repeat the above experiment for Y-Circulator.

Slotted line section 14.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. 1. 3. CRO 9.  APPARATUS:. Isolator Modulator Meter Attenuator Oscilloscope Slotted Line P1 Isolator P2 Detector Mount VSWR Meter SW-115 P2 P1 Oscilloscope Isolator Detector Mount VSWR Meter SW-115  THEORY: . Isolator 5. VSWR meter. 7. GUNN power supply 2. Cable 13. Cooling fan 12. Variable Attenuator.To study about Isolator. Waveguide stand 11. Matched termination  BLOCK DIAGRAM:- GUNN Power Supply GUNN PIN Freq. Frequency meter 6. Pin Modulator 4. GUNN oscillator. Variable Osc. Detector Mount 8. 10. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING ANTECHNOLOGY. Subject Code : 171001  AIM: .

This ratio is expressed in db. The output of the detector mount should be connected with VSWR meter. Measurement of insertion loss and isolation 1. Record the reading in the VSWR meter. probe and VSWR meter find out VSWR of the T-circulator as described earlier for low and medium S WR measurements. With the help of slotted line. B. It is expressed in dB. 4. Energize the microwave source for maximum output for a particular frequency of operation. 4. . C. Input VSWR Measurement 1. Input VSWR The input VSWR of an isolator or circulator is the ratios of voltage maximum to voltage minimum of the standing waye existing in the line with all parts except the test port are matched. The isolation of a circulator is measured with the third port terminated in a matched load. 5. measured with other ports terminated in the matched load. 3. The above procedure can be repeated for other ports. 2. 2. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation.  PROCEDURE:- A. 3. change range (dB) switch to high or lower position. Let it be P2. Keep input port to slotted line and detector its output port. Carefully remove the detector mount from slotted line without disturbing the position of the setup insert the T –Circulator between slotted line and detector mount. Tune the detector mount for maximum output in the VSWR meter. The isolator shown in fig can be derived from a three- port circulator by simply placing a matched load (reflection less termination)on one port. Remove the probe and T -circulator from slotted line and connect the detector mount to the slotted section. Isolation: Isolation is the ratio of power applied to the output to that measured at the input. Setup the components and equipments as shown in fig with input port of T -circulator connected to the slotted line and matched load on other ports. Let it be PI. if necessary. Compute Insertion loss given as P1-P2 in db. B. Insertion loss: Insertion loss is the ratio of power detected at the output port to the power supplied by source to the input port. 6. The important circulator and isolator parameters are: A. Set any reference level of power in VSWR meter with the help of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VS WR meter.An isolator is two ports device that transfers energy from input to output with the little attenuation and from output to input with very high attenuation. A matched termination should be placed at third port. and read 10 db changes for each step change of switch position.

Do not exceed 10 volts. disconnect the port2 and connect port3 to the detector mount.  PRECAUTION:- Do not keep GUNN bias knob position at threshold for more than 10 seconds. 8. For measurement of isolation. Compute Isolation as P1-P3 in db. Repeat the above experiment for V-Circulator.  OBSERVATIONS  CONCLUSION:- . Connect the port2 with matched termination. Record the reading of VSWR meter after and let it be P3. 7. .

Cooling fan 12. Frequency meter 6. Pin Modulator 4. 3. Variable Attenuator. 7. VSWR meter. Isolator Modulator Meter Attenuator Oscilloscope E/H Plane Detector Slotted Line P3 P2/P1 Mount Tee VSWR P1/P2 Meter Matched SW-115 Termination . GUNN power supply 2. Cable 13.H-Plane Tee  BLOCK DIAGRAM:- GUNN Power Supply GUNN PIN Freq. E-Plane Tee 16. Waveguide stand 11. Detector Mount 8. GUNN oscillator. Isolator 5. Matched termination 15.  APPARATUS:- 1. CRO 9. Subject Code : 171001  AIM: Study of E-Plane Tee and H-Plane Tee. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. Slotted line section 14.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. 10. Variable Osc.

7. 6. as shown in Fig. Since the electric field lines change their direction when they come out of port Ci) and @. E-Plane Tee When TEIO mode is made to propagate into port@. Hence any signals that is to be split or any two signal that are to be combined will be fed from the E arm. it is called a E- plane Tee. . E-plane Tee is a voltage or series junction symmetrical about the central arm. THEORY:- . the two outputs at port Ci) and @ will have a phase shift of 180.

Since it is a three port junction the scattering matrix can be derived as follows. the power out of port @ (side or E arm) is proportional to the difference between instantaneous powers entering from ports Ci) and @. maximum energy comes out of port (j) or E-arm. the effective value of the power leaving the E arm is proportional to the phasor difference between the powers entering ports Ci) and @. When powers entering the main arms (ports Ci) and @ are in phase opposition. . Also. 3 H-Plane Tee In general.

4. Let it be P3 (input power for the E/H plane tee).  PRECAUTION: Do not keep GUNN bias knob position at thresholds for more than 10 seconds. Determine the coupling coefficient from equation given in the theory part. 5. 2. Energized the microwave source for the particular frequency of operation.  OBSERVATION: Frequency = _________________ GHz  CONCLUSION:- . Measurement of Isolation and coupling factor 1. Connect another arm to slotted line and terminate the other port with matched termination. With the help of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. Note down the reading of VSW meter let it be arm 2 or 1. 3. Measure the VSWR as above similarly VSWR of any port can be measured. 2. Set up the component and equipments as shown in figure keeping E/H arm to wards slotted line and matched termination to other ports. Energized the microwave source for particular frequency of operation and tune the detector mount for maximum output. Do not exceed 10 volts. Measure the VSWR of E arm as described in measurements of SWR for low and medium value. Repeat the above experiments for other frequencies. Termination to arm 1or 2.  PROCEDURE:- VSWR measurement of the ports 1. remove the tunable probe and E/H plane tee from the slotted line and connect the detector mount to slotted line. set any power level in The VSWR meter note down. The same experiment may be repeated for other ports also. 6. 3. 7. 4.

Study of Magic Tee. 7. 10. Cooling fan 12. CRO 9. Variable Attenuator.  APPARATUS:- 1. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. 3. Magic Tee  BLOCK DIAGRAM:- GUNN Power Supply GUNN PIN Freq. Isolator 5. GUNN oscillator. Variable Osc. Detector Mount 8. Subject Code : 171001  AIM:. GUNN power supply 2. Waveguide stand 11. VSWR meter. Frequency meter 6. Pin Modulator 4. Matched termination 15. Slotted line section 14. Isolator Modulator Meter Attenuator Matched Termination 1 4/3 3/4 Oscilloscope Slotted Line Magic Tee Detector Mount VSWR 2 Meter Matched SW-115 Termination . Cable 13.

If power is fed in to arm 3 (H arm) the electric field divides equal Lily between arm 1 and 2 with the same phase and no electric field exists in arm 4. If the power is fed in arm 4 (E arm) it divides equally in arm 1 and 2 but out of phase With no power in arm 3.  PROCEDURE:- .arm) and it is subtracted in arm 4 (E-arm) the basic parameters A. Further if power is fed in arm 1 and 2 simultaneously it is added in arm 3 (H. The isolation between E and H arm is defined as the ratio of power supplied by the Generator connected to the E arm ( port 4) to the power ducted at H arm ( port 3) when side arm 1 and 2 are terminated in matched load. isolation between other ports may be defined. It is defined as Cij= 10 –a/20 Where a is attenuation /isolation in db when I is input arm and j is output arm. B. Input VSWR Value of SWR corresponding to each ports as a load to the line while other ports are Terminated in matched loads. Isolation ( db) = 10 log 10 [ P4/P3] Similarly. Isolation. Arm 3is the H arm and Arm 4 is the E arm. Thus a=10 log10 [P4/P3] Where P3 is the power delivered to arm I and P4 detected at j arm. Coupling factor. C.  THEORY:- The device Magic tee is a combination of E and H plane tee.

Measurement of Isolation and coupling factor 1. note down the reading of VSW meter let it be P4 5. 8. remove the tunable probe and magic tee from the slotted line and connect the detector mount to Slotted line. Determine the isolation between port 3 and 4 as P# -P4 in db. Energized the microwave source for particular frequency of operation and tune the detector mount For maximum output. Determine the coupling coefficient from equation given in the theory part. With the help of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. carefully place the Magic tee after slotted line keeping H-arm connected to slotted line.  PRECAUTION: Do not keep GUNN bias knob position at thresholds for more than 10 seconds. 4.. set any power level in The VSWR meter nd note down.VSWR measurement of the ports 1. Let it be P3.  OBSERVATION: Frequency = _________________ GHz Isolation = __________________ (db) Coupling factor= (db)  CONCLUSION:- . 2. 2. Measure the VSWR of E arm as described in measurements of SWR for low and medium value.arm and Matched Termination to arm 1and 2. 7. 3. 4. Energized the microwave source for the particular frequency of operation. Repeat the above experiments for other frequencies. Measure the VSWR as above similarly VSWR of any port can be measured. detector to E. Set up the component and equipments as shown in figure keeping E arm to wards slotted line and Matched termination to other ports. 3. The same experiment may be repeated for other ports also. Connect another arm to slotted line and terminate the other port with matched termination. Do not exceed 10 volts. Without disturbing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob. 6.

 APPARATUS : Satellite uplink transmitter. Microwaves still exhibit a wave-like nature but inherit a tendency to serve attenuation by water vapour or any obstruction in the line of sight of the antenna. which amplifies and down converts the signal to a more manageable frequency for onward transmission. etc. The transmitted power is extremely weak by the time it reaches earth and designed equipment is used. 2) Medium power (having transponders power around 45W and commonly termed as semi DSB direct broadcast service). The powers involved are several hundred watts. by cable. to the receiver locked inside the dwelling. satellite downlink receiver. A television receive only (TVRO) site consists of an antennas designed to collect and concentrate the signal to its focus where a feedhorn is precisely locked. reflecting sheet. 1) Low power (having transponder power around the 20W mark and primarily general telecommunication satellite). . in order not to interfere with the adjacent satellites in the geo-arc. satellite link emulator. These channels microwaves to an electronic component called a low noise block (LNB).  THEORY : The UPLINK In uplink station the signals have to be sent at a differing frequency. Another function is performed by the uplink station is to control tightly the internal functions of the satellite itself (Such as station keeping accuracy). The DOWNLINK The medium used to transmit signals from satellite to earth is microwave electromagnetic radiation which is much higher in frequency than normal broadcast TV signals in the VHF/UHF bands. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. connecting cables. to avoid the interference with downlink signals. usually in the higher 14GHz band. Each satellite has a number of transponders with access to a pair of receive / transmit antennas and associated electronics for each channel. pair of yagi antennas and RHCP & LHCP axial mode helix antennas. and certain installation precautions are taken. Subject Code : 171001  AIM : To setup an active & passive satellite communication link and study their difference.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. Satellites are conveniently categorized into following three power ranges. Uplinks are controlled so that the transmitted microwave power beam is extremely narrow. 3) High power (transponder power powers exceeding 100W). the background noise can ruin the signal.

The frequency display will read 2. Set R. Now bring the transmitter to 2. The transmitting frequency can be selected by the means of a select switch provided on the front panel. The frequency display will light up. bring the frequency of uplink satellite link emulator to 2. Press the frequency select switch of satellite emulator downlink channel several times so as to set the frequency display from 2. 19. 4. 2.427. Switch on the transmitter and frequency display will come on. Set R. 5.481 and then back to 2. connect LHCP helix antenna with BNC lead to receiver. and 2. Set the distance between antennas to approximately 5 meters. The uplink frequency display will read 2.400 GHz. 17.400GHz using frequency control.400.481GHz and back to 2. from pinpointing distance satellites. The transmitted signal is reflected back to receiver without the power being increased and frequency remaining same.400GHz.454.427GHz.400GHz. Point the Tx and Rx antennas towards the reflector sheet in the same triangular fashion as explained above. Now.F output level of Tx to maximum by tuning the path loss pot fully clockwise. Here the reflecting surface is functioning like a passive satellite. at higher frequency. All frequencies are PLL locked.454GHz. Point the LHCP helix antenna or Rx towards LHCP antenna of downlink satellite link emulator. 9.254GHz. That is a sat link using active satellite link emulator.481 GHz.F out of Tx.F input level Rx to minimum by tuning path loss pot fully clockwise. Connect the satellite uplink transmitter to AC mains with lead provided. switch on the satellite link emulator and frequency display will come on. 14. 2. 10. no frequency translation and power amplification takes place.e.400GHz. 8.481GHz and 2. PLL means that when both receiver and transmitter are set at same frequency. 2. If switching ON the tone transmitter will make the receiver sound to 1KHz test tone. 7. There are two uplink frequency channels 2. Now. 12.  PROCEDURE:- 1. 15. 16. This indicates that each channel is spaced 27 MHz apart. in Tx. The only difference being that instead of satellite there is a reflection from wall.F input level of uplink to maximum by tuning the path loss pot fully clockwise for maximum sensitivity. they are accurate to less than 100 KHz of each other and no further tuning and repeated adjustments are required. Make sure that LHCP helix antenna of Tx should point towards LHCP helix antenna of downlink satellite link emulator. Set Tx and Rx at same frequency and switch of the satellite. In case of passive satellites. Also set R. Rx and satellite emulator. Rx and satellite link emulator at 3 verticals of triangle. and 2. Setup the link in a triangular fashion with Tx. Unlinking to a satellite is normally carried out at a higher frequency because of narrow beamwidth. .400GHz in cycle manner. The RHCP helix antenna of Tx should be rotated with antenna pointing in the same direction to that of RHCP helix antenna of UPLINK channel of satellite link emulator. 6. Set the frequency of Rx to 2. 18. the downlink display will read 2. 3. 13. Pressing the select the switch will increase the frequency from 2. This is done to ensure the emulator downlink PLL is locked and displayed is generated correctly. (making path loss low).400. Similarly. 11. Now. i. 2.481GHz and connect the RHCP helix antenna with BNC lead to R. 21. 20. 2. The receiver can be switched on now after plugging into AC mains outlet. a successful sat link is said to be said to be established.

At last connect the video camera output video in of Tx and connect the power supply of camera.  OBSERVATION  CONCLUSION:- . 24. Connect the video monitor out of Rx and connect the power supply of monitor. Set the input select switch to video. Select the 1 KHz at audio1 channel and feed a 2KHz sine wave externally at audio2 channel.22. 23.

put the audio and video signals in the baseband of TX so that you will start receiving the modulator carrier. Subject Code : 171001  AIM : To measure the S/N ratio. Now .signal to noise ratio (S/N) is that relevant after demodulation.video and digital in. The S/n ratio is thus dependent on both C/N ratio and the modulation characterstics. present. 3.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No.Satellite link emulator 4. 4.it should be as high as possibleif this ratio falls to unity or below.the signal is rendered virtually useless.f. The CRO can measure the noise floor of each baseband outputs in mv. Mic 7.Spectrum analyzer  THEORY: Signal to noise ratio (S/N) This is the ratio of the desired signal e. The baseband outputs of RX will demodulate the received signal and extract the modulating signal.400. PLL of complete link are OK and a successful sat link is said to be established. to any noise e. Both audio as well as video signal can be measured with CRO.  APPARATUS : 1.Antenna stand with connecting cables 6.CRO 11. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. It is defined as a power ratio and since at a given point in a circuit power it is proportional to the square of the voltage.This is done to ensure the emulator downlink PLL locked and displayed frequency is generated correctly. 2. CCD camera 9.If switching ON the 1khz tone on transmitter will make the receiver sound to 1 khz test tone via satellite. Satellite uplink transmitter.m. Remove BNC cables from audio.f.switch enable of telecommand meaning remove all modulating signals being fed to TX or satellite.Pair of yagi antennas 5. Setup the link as before.  PROCEDURE: 1.press the frequency selector switch of satellite emulator down link channel several times so as to frequency display from 2. . 3 . Satellite downlink receiver.m.Function generator 10.Video monitor 8. Measure the noise floor of the baseband outputs of demodulator of RX by removing all the modulating inputs at TX and satellite link emulator with help of CRO. 2.

although we are using FM demodulator but because the received signal is barely above the noise floor you can hardly received any intelligent information. If you are able to receive audio and video sent. 6. 7.5. That is 20 log db = 26 db. This means the received signal noise is just above the noise floor of the RX. As both noise and modulating signal are measured in mV actual signals can be calculated by taking the difference of the two readings.  OBSERVATION  CONCLUSION:- . Monitor the audio and video transmissions and correlate them to various levels of C/N. Say noise floor is 50mV and video signal or sine wave at RX is as read on CRO say 1050 mV.clearly you are well above threshold level of signal. Now S/N is 20(in numerals) and S/N in db = log S/N in numerals. This can be achieved by increasing the path loss. 9. Now S is equal to 1000mV. Now the effect of noise can be seen if you decreased the received signal strength to a considerable level. Measure S/N varying path loss at RX. Does higher level of C/N result in better picture and sound quality or higher S/N. 8. Thus signal can not below noise floor of RX.

spectrum analyzer  THEORY:- Carrier to noise ratio (C/N) Any signal received is combained with an element of noise. Satellite uplink transmitter.2.cro 11 .2. 3. Antenna stand with connecting cables 6..press the frequency selector switch of satellite emulator down link channel several times so as to frequency display from 2. Satellite link emulator 4. Setup the link as before. Subject Code : 171001  AIM : To measure the C/N ratio.454. ccd camera 9. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY.  PROCEDURE:- 1. Man-Made noise 3).  APPARATUS: 1. PLL of complete link are OK and a successful sat link is said to be . Satellite downlink receiver. Noise can come from many sources and be produced by the thermal agitation atoms and molecules above absolute zero. The carrier to noise ratio(C/N) is relevant before demodulation in the RX. mice 7.427.481 and then back to 2.pair of yagi antennas 5.2. Extraterrestrial noise source 2).If switching ON the 1khz tone on transmitter will make the receiver sound to 1 khz test tone via satellite. 2.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No. Ground noise And the characteristics appereance of noise on FM video pictures can be either black or bright white tear drop or comet shaped blobs (sparklies) that appear at random on the screen. Function generator 10. There are three main sources of noise in environment 1).This is done to ensure the emulator downlink PLL locked and displayed frequency is generated correctly.400.400.taking into account the cost and available technology. Signal = wanted signal + noise Obviously the noise component must be kept as small as possible.which degreades the overall performance. Video monitor 8.

Thus C/N = carrier level/noise level. 5. This can be done by increasing path loss at Rx and satellite and or taking Rx farther away from satellite. By the use of chart we can convert DC voltage to corresponding RF signal level in dbm or dbuv. 4. C/N= -59-(96) = 37 db Make sure that Rx is not saturated with carrier otherwise incorrect C/N will be read. Measure the C/N readings for different levels of path loss.in absence of any carrier Rx. 3. established. RX will read only it is noise floor at RSSI output which has a DC voltage output in proportional to the output received signal strength. C/N can be calculated by taking the difference of two readings or C/N = carrier level (in db)- noise level (in db). Hence. Reads 0.  OBSERVATION:-  CONCLUSION:- .93v which is equal to -59dbm of carrier level is being received. 2. Now switch off the carrier by switching of both TX and satellite. 6. Monitor the audio and video transmissions and correlate them to various levels of C/N. switch on Tx and satellite say the Rx reads 1.92v which is equal to -96dbm Thus -96dbm is noise floor of Rx that means the carrier received by Rx is less than -96dbm it will be unable to measure it. 7. Now. Say. As both noise and carrier signal detected are measured in db.

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. Subject Code : 171001  AIM : To study satellite communication kit. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY.LIMDA ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Class : 7th Sem Subject : Microwave Engineering Practical No.