You are on page 1of 20




Student’s Registration Number 2114050







Approved by:

Lubuklinggau, April 2018

Advisor I, Advisor II

Sastika Seli, S. Pd., M.A. Dewi Syafitri, M. Pd

Head of Language and Arts Head of English Education

Education Department Study Program

Dra. Tri Astuti, M. Pd. Hamdan, M. Pd.

what humans eat and with whom humans eat can inspire and strengthen the bonds between individuals. What humans consume. Language becomes more flexible means of communication as it shared by all people. touch. P. and sight (Szatrowski. Language is a communication system which is needed to help people do their activities in society such as in university. (Kittler. hearing. 2008). Beyond merely nourishing the body. in good health. and who eats first is a form of communication that is rich with meaning. 2014. market. smell. Therefore. how obtain it. who prepares it. Food is more than a nutrient. from where its origin. Food refers to an exploration of culture through food. food is a basic need that must be fulfilled. among the basic human needs is food. taste. and eats it. whoever they are. thoughts. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. office and even though eating. illness. and Nelms 2012) coined the term food habits (also known as food culture or food ways) to describe the manner in which humans use food. Sucher. We experience food through all five senses. Language is a system communication using sounds or symbols that enable us to express feelings. Background of the Study People always use language to interact with others. . including everything from how it is chosen. serves. Humans have basic needs. ideas and experience (Thompson. acquired. They need food to provides nutrients. who is at the table. and distributed to who prepares. 5). old and young.

On the other hand. who does make it. Food becomes the determinant of human live and cannot be separated because food is one of cultural works of society. rules and roles. knowledge.communities. It has not. lifestyles. and sciences (Almerico. origins and even countries. been much addressed in communication studies. and society from numerous disciplines in the humanities. culture. the cuisine of vegetables are not many in number. and what is the story behind it? Giving the answers to these questions. rituals. for example urap. habits. beliefs. Food studies is an emerging interdisciplinary field of study that examines the complex relationships among food. The term culture refers to the set of values. people who have the same cultural identity share the same food habit. the first thing that usually comes to mind is: where does it come from. Even if there is. 2014). attitudes. rules and customs that identify a particular group of people at a specific point in time. the uses of vegetables do not vary. When someone thinks of or mentions food. It helps people to discover attitudes. social sciences. how does it taste. lalapan and karedok. and food plays an important role in defining family traditions. language. while people of different culture share different assemblages of food variable. and rituals surrounding food. The subject of food has been widely studied within the fields of anthropology. folklore. sociology and also cultural studies. practices. According to Chang (2008). There is no closer relationship than the one with the family. Many of the culinary of Sumatera is made . it sheds light on people most basic beliefs about themselves and others. the typical of culinary of Sumatra. For instance. in many javanese dishes raw vegetables are still widely used. however. people usually refer to the cultural context.

javanese. Suburban society is simpler than urban society in living. different culture has different names for their food which involves the use of languages. the food which human eat and culture have a great significance in the human society. Nowadays. Urban society is a society that is typical of modern industrial civilization and heterogeneous in cultural tradition. . Arabic. Urban and suburban society have its own distinct and diverse attitude toward the entry of foreign culture and language. Society of urban like fast food or instant food because of their activity and there is no time to cook. There are many kinds of a place to eat from low to the high class in lubuklinggau. They are very luxuriously in living. clothing. Ussualy. Urban society have glamour and luxury lifestyle. cafe. clothing. Unlike suburban society who living in the suburb.from meat. the low class of a place to eat. Moreover. arabic. Lubuklinggau has many place to eat like. It means different cultures have different food variables and food choice. On the other hand. Language. but they make living in big city areas. bakso molotov and others. Generally. culture and food is a complex and intimate one. The society is divided into two groups of regions namely urban and suburban. things and also food. they use other languages like English. modern and traditional food. the emphasizes secular values and that is individualized rather than integrated-contrasted with folk society. restaurant which provides of padang. ceker jontor. things and food. the high class of place to eat. west. The relationship between language. they usually use a unique name for the food for example. Korea or combine Indonesian language and foreign languages.

in fact the regional language has been abandoned by the young native speaker. Moreover. Formulation of the Problem Based on the background above. language loyalty. How are the attitudes of suburban society towards food in Lubuklinggau? . 2003: 2) Based on the description above. Referring to the attitude of language in billingual or multilingual society in Lubuklinggau. the writer will conduct the research in society about the phenomenon of the language. “Language Attitude towards Food: a Sociolinguistic Study between Urban and Suburban Society in Lubuklinggau”. The study of language attitudes is important for sociolinguistics because it can predict a given linguistic behavior members of a given social group in terms of their use linguistic varieties in bilingual and dialectal situations: the choice of particular language in multilingual communities. The basis of attitudes measurement is that are underlying dimensions along which individual attitudes can be ranged. “Col” as native language of Lubuklinggau will also be abandoned by young native speaker because there is no official document about the “Col” language. especially language attitude towards food in lubuklinggau. B. the writer formulated the problem by making the research questions below: 1. How are the attitudes of urban society towards food in Lubuklinggau? 2. There are negative impact for the development of regional language. language prestige. Indonesian language and foreign language more often used in society. (Romaine at Melander.

Significances of the Study 1. How are difference attitude towards the food between urban and suburban area of Lubuklinggau society? C. To identify the attitude of suburban society towards food in Lubuklinggau. especially urban and suburban society in Lubuklinggau. D. To identify the attitude of urban society towards food in Lubuklinggau. E.3. 2. 2. 3. For the Students The study can help the students in sociolinguistics class especially in analyzing language attitude in society. the objective of the study follows: 1. Objectives of the Study Related of the problem. Scope of the Study The writer focus in analyzing the attitude towards food based on the background of the residence. For the Lecturer . To describe the difference attitude towards the food between urban and suburb area of Lubuklinggau society.

For the Other Researchers This study provides reference and contribution for other researchers who are interest in doing further research in this area. F. Language Attitude Language attitude is the behavior or action undertaken based on view as a reaction to the existence of the phenomenon against the use of language by speaker the language. 3. 4. 1. 2. . The study will give information and provide additional knowledge about language attitude which can be used by the lecturers in teaching language attitude in sociolinguistics class. Operational Definitions For more understand of this study. because of language people can interact with each other and language plays important role in social life. For the Writer The study is very significant and useful. Language Language is the key of human life in this world. It will give some valuable experiences and it can be used for the preparation of the writer as a candidate of teacher. People can understand the purposes of other people by language. it is provided several definition key term.

4. each region has its own language and diverse. individuals and community have their own characteristics in conveying their language. in good health. . religions. Food provides nutrients that human need. mobilization and communication. Lubuklinggau Lubuklinggau is a city located in South of Sumatera. Sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is linguistic interdisciplinary study that engages language as object of its study with the social fabric of society. Because the nature of the language is unique and varied. In social environment. from where its origin. illness. In Lubuklinggau consists of many language.3. tribes. customs and others. old and young. It requires a good and proper management to be beneficial to the human body. Therefore. 5. Urban Society Urban society is the society who living in urban area that metropolise characterized by modern civilization with information technology as central mechanism for business. food is a basic need that must be fullfiled. whoever they are. Suburban Society Suburban society is people who own home and live in the suburbs but they make a living in urban area. Food Food is basic human need that is needed at all times. cultures. 7. 6.

8. Thompson. (2012).N...P. and personal identity. Food and culture (6th ed. Sucher. C. Language teaching and learning. 1-7. References Almerico. M.). Journal of International Bussiness and Cultural studies. (2008). Food and identity: food studies. & Nel. Goerge suite press .M. CA: Wadsworth. Belmont. P. Kittler. cultural. G. (2014).G. K.

It also indicates both personal and social characteristics of the speaker. It is a powerful social force that does more than convey intended referential information. The second part presents the studies conducted in the multilingual context of Spain and Catalonia. a speaker’s accent. it acts as a bridge between opinion and behavior ( Milnder. Depending on the particular listener. social status and character. The first part attempts to identify the main research paradigms and then use them to organize various language attitudes studies. . Further. 2. thus. can serve as market for evaluating that speaker’s appearance. Language permeates all aspects of our lives and. focusing on the significantly influential variables examined in these studies. 2013: 2). among other things. LANGUAGE AND ATTITUDES Language is the primary means of human communication. a definition of language is always.1 Defining Language Attitudes People pondered on the role and meaning of language since the beginnings of civilizations (Huguet & Madariaga. CHAPTER II INTRODUCTION A. speech patterns. personality. Drawing from the previous chapter. a definition of language attitudes is offered in the next one. language attitudes literature is reviewed in two sections with different approaches. Obiols defines attitudes as a “mental disposition towards something”. intonation etc. vocabulary. 2005).

He concluded that an attitude is an evaluative orientation to a social object of some sort. language attitudes are distinguished from other attitudes through their object (Fasold. (Garrett. 1984). whether it is a language. a definition of human beings in the world (Williams at Lanos. language attitudes have repercussions at societal. who stated that an attitude is a disposition to react favorably or unfavorably to a class of objects. or a new government policy. Due to the strong association between language and community membership. 2010). influencing perception and decision-making (Giles & Billings.implicitly or explicitly. consequently. group. In other words. and. interpersonal and individual levels. it also carries social meanings and it contains social markers of identity. Baker (1992) underlined that the term language attitude has been used as an umbrella concept‖ that has stood for: . the conceptualization of language attitudes is often extended to include attitudes toward speakers (Lasagabaster. Language represents primarily a method of communicating ideas. Therefore. language transmits more than just the intended information. language attitudes reflect tendencies to evaluate languages favorably or unfavorably. institutional. and social class membership (Garrett. language can be considered an object being seen as favorable or unfavorable‖ (Baker. etc. However. 2014: 127). Language is a powerful social force (Cargile at Lanos 2014: 27). 2010: 20). 2004). 2003). Subsequently. Garrett (2010) defined language attitudes based on the general attitude definition provided by Sarnoff (1970). emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols. 1992: 11).

 Attitude toward the learning situation. as well as in . might overlap to a certain extent or might not even be associated.  Attitude toward language variety or dialect. However.  Attitude toward language related behaviors. Presuming that the attitudes toward different language objects represent facets of the same construct could lead to loss of data. on the contrary. planning behaviors. but consider that learning that language is important. These attitudes might be identical. Attitude toward language.  Attitude toward speakers of a specific language or variety. the image of attitudinal patterns in a certain context results poorer in details and diminished in quality. different language related objects were explored as representatives of language attitudes. one may hold a negative attitude toward a language.  Attitude toward language learning. such as language use. language maintenance. Therefore. By equating attitudes toward different objects. strongly correlated. One can positively value a language. but hold a negative attitude toward learning it. etc. Instead of obtaining a high-resolution picture of the possible intricate interrelations among attitudes toward various language related objects. There could be cases when a favorable attitude toward a language coexists with an unfavorable attitude toward its speakers or vice- versa. there could be various possible relations among the attitudes toward these diverse objects. or.

will probably have a different predictive power and will relate in a different manner than more general attitudes toward a target. speakers.g. attitudes toward the teacher of French).. 2010). attitudes toward English. When examining attitudes‘ role in the language learning process. use.relation with other variables. which include languages.. relatively specific attitudes toward behavior. Language attitudes can vary along this dimension of specificity from more general attitudes (e. 2010) and that the differences . such as attitudes toward a specific language in general (e. the result ends up being only a black and white schema of language attitudes.. which comprise language learning.g. and maintenance. and learning situations. To argument this position and to support the relevance of the differences between language attitude objects we would like to remind the reader about the distinction between attitude toward a target and attitude toward behavior. significant especially with regard to the attitude- behavior relationship (Crano et al. language related objects can be grouped in targets. for example. attitudes toward learning English). attitudes toward Catalan) to specific attitudes (e. attitudes toward foreign languages. as attitudes toward learning a particular language (e.. Taking into account that language attitudes are another type of attitudes distinguished by their objects (Garrett.g. Accordingly. language varieties.. attitudes toward English).g. attitudes toward the class of Catalan. and behaviors. attitudes toward learning English.

identities. 2014: 131). ideologies. language attitudes can change as a result of individual needs and motives and social situations. and behaviors. such as violence.between these objects are important to understand more complex processes. government . Significant events. Being intrinsically connected with language decay. which is reflected by the fact that one of the most active areas of research is the one dedicated to attitude change. which allows their identification. 2. maintenance. They have a certain degree of stability. mass protests. as in both cases the attitudes toward the minority languages as languages of instrumental value and teaching mediums have successfully improved. language attitude change has often been implied implicitly or explicitly by language policies. but can also change. The interest for attitude change is likely explained by the role it can play in altering behavior. we consider language attitudes to be a supra-ordinate category that encompasses all language related attitudes. language attitudes are hypothetical constructs of evaluative nature that are learnt through experience. Drawing from social psychological attitude theory. as language acquisition or social integration. Examples of language attitude change at societal level can be found in Wales and in Catalonia (Lanos. or restoration.2 Language Attitudes Change One of the main assumptions about attitudes regards their ability to change. guerrilla activity. values. Furthermore. At individual level. language attitude change can be influenced by motivation.

B. hobbies and interests. Further. can also lead to attitude change (Baker. In situations of language contact. religion. encouraging individuals outside the speech community to use. cultural. Second. instead of guarding it as special attribute of the group may be useful in promoting attitude change. especially for those who plan to settle in the respective community. a marketing of the language. moderate attitude change and its magnitude. community integration may promote attitude change. change is more likely to occur when felt to be voluntary. accomplished through common goals. economic environment that provides the necessary conditions for contact and intimacy between groups to occur may also help change language attitudes. also enhances the chances of language attitude change. This change is more likely the closer the relationships between groups are. First. imposed policies. LANGUAGE AND FOOD COMMUNITIES . sports. encouraging individuals outside the speech community to use the language. the relationships between social groups play a vital role in language attitude change. a supportive political. Finally yet importantly. achieved through informing and consulting. Baker (1992) described several conditions that may foster language attitude change. such as strength and accessibility. cultural activities. 1992). Additionally. Further. attitude properties. contact between communities. where different speech communities coexist.

bakers. journalists. etc. Each community uses land differently and creates neighborhoods for the people living there. butchers. People usually live in . They are urban and suburban (Scott. C. herders. fishers. Other urban neighborhoods have many businesses. following artisanal methods and criteria inspired by the good. 2010: 5). such as Chinatown or Little Italy. Communities can be made up of farmers. animal breeders. There are three types of communities. The community might be producing food on a small scale. or it might be working to construct more sustainable models for food production. clean and fair principles. Some communities have different neighborhoods crowded into small areas. experts. Some urban neighborhoods have their own identity. Urban neighborhoods are crowded and have many buildings. educators. local retailers. A city is a very large community with many different neighborhoods close together. students. or places where people live and work together. cooks. Food communities are the nodes of the international Terra Madre network. teachers. Communities are made up of neighborhoods. distribution and consumption. They represent a valid alternative to these flawed systems. Food communities share the problems generated by an intensive agriculture that harms natural resources and a food industry and a distribution model that aim at standardizing tastes and threaten the existence of small-scale production. The term “food community” refers to a group of people who carry out an active role in their local food system. co- producers. Urban communities have a city. URBAN AND SUBURBAN Communities are alike and different in many ways.

Many people use public transportation. People usually walk or drive a short distance to the town center. people move quickly from place to place. They can walk to their neighbor’s house for a visit. People go to town to shop. small shops. They have houses for families to live in. There may be a market. There is land to grow all kinds of things.apartment buildings in urban neighborhoods According to Faus (2013: 7) urban communities bring many different types of cultures together. People take buses or subways to travel to places in the city. There may be many neighborhoods around the town center. In urban communities (Thomas. 2010: 7). A suburb usually has a town center with places to shop. In urban neighborhoods many people walk and may not drive a car. A suburb is sometimes called a town. Some families plant flowers or vegetable gardens. There are many stores and restaurants in urban neighborhoods. Suburbs are communities near cities. Their houses usually have trees and yards around them. Urban communities also have many cultural centers and parks. Many people who work in the city live in the suburbs. 2008: 14). and a few restaurants. In suburban communities (Scott. People can visit museums and libraries. According to Thomas (2013: 17) in suburban communities the town center may be a meeting place for people. In urban communities. Their neighborhoods are too crowded for parking spaces. people live in neighborhoods with many houses near each other. People shop near their apartments and can sometimes walk to the market to buy food. . Driving in the city can be slow because there is a lot of traffic. neighborhoods are very crowded and busy.

LUBUK LINGGAU Lubuk Linggau is a city located in the western most part of the province or South Sumatera. Many people in suburbs live far from where they work. Communities use land differently for neighborhoods. There are also shopping malls near the suburbs. Lubuk Linggau is located between 102◦ 40’ 00” . Some have neighborhoods with people and families.103◦ 0’00” East Longitude (B) and 3◦ 4’10” . People use these buses to get to work and school. Many towns have train stations. but there are usually fewer buses than in urban communities. The shopping malls have many types of stores. Streets in suburban communities have less traffic than city streets.3◦ 22’ 30” Latitude South (LS). Communities are different in many ways. People take the trains to the city. There are also buses in suburban communities. Communities are the same in many ways. People go to shopping malls to buy things they cannot find in town. so it is easier to drive from place to place. Other people ride bicycles or walk. Lubuk Linggau in an expansion city of Musirawas regency which was inaugurated on 17 August 2001 through rule no 7 of 2001. People are often connected to one another in their communities. Families and friends meet to spend time together. work. People live. In suburban communities many people use cars for transportation. Some communities have neighborhoods with people living near each other and working in other communities. D. Many people work in a city near their town. . Some communities have neighborhoods with many people. and travel in communities. Suburbs have many buses in the morning and late afternoon.