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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280

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Potential of Soya as a raw material for a whole crop biorefinery MARK
a,⁎ b a a
Ali Abdulkhani , Peyman Alizadeh , Sahab Hedjazi , Yahya Hamzeh
Department of Wood and Paper Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 31587-77871, Karaj, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran


Keywords: Application of Soybean including its bean virgin oil and residual straw in a whole-crop biorefinery was
Soybean highlighted. Compared to other conventional raw materials, soybean contains all the necessary block raw
Biorefinery materials to constitute a biorefinery unit. Virgin oil extract of soybean can be used to produce biodiesel through
Pulp transesterification reaction. Soybean residual straw contains a sufficient amount of cellulose, hemicelluloses and
lignin for producing a variety of biomaterials, biofuels and biochemicals. Pulp mills which produce cellulosic
fibers look like a “biorefinery” plant: nearly pure separated cellulose are used today mostly as paper; through the
process after separation and solubilization, lignin and hemicelluloses are remained as “black liquor” and
incinerated in recovery boiler. The main demands of power for running pulp mill comes from this recovered
heat. The heat thus produced covers largely the energy needs of the pulp mill, which may then become a net
producer of electricity. This review gathers the different technologies of soybean processing in a third generation
of biorefinery, so called whole crop biorefinery. Biochemical transformation of soybean oil to biodiesel was
explained following the processing of straw. Then, extraction of biopolymers rom soybean straw with different
procedures was described. Finally, integration of the whole crop in a biorefinery system was proposed to
produce different value added biofuels, biomaterials and biochemicals.

1. Introdution soybean hull in comparison with other commercial byproducts of
soybean like oil and protein has not gained much attention [16].
Recently, the necessity for sustained source of energy, instability of Currently, due to lack of technical infrastructure, industrial use of
oil price and the political stimulants to focus on bioenergies and soybean stalk is rare. While the stalk is a very valuable source of
biomaterials resulted in further affinity for biorefineries and also biopolymers that has the ability to be transformed into different
introduction of new studies specialized in such areas [1,2]. For just biomaterials. Soybean chemical ultrastructure is shown in Fig. 2.
over a century, about 95% of most raw materials to make cellulosic by- Soybean plant contain substantial quantities of biopolymers such as
products originally came from wood species [3,4]. Non-wood and wood carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and lignin. So that, it can be considered
resources allocated to 13.5 and 153 million tons of cellulose fiber, as a unique raw material that could be proceed in a whole crop
respectively, in 2013 [5,6]. The crucial need for replacement of wood, biorefinery to a variety of valuable biochemical, biomaterials and
due to its economic and environmental issues has led to change from biofuels. These approaches can increase the benefit margin of the
wood to non-wood as an exclusive source of cellulose fiber in some part currently available soybean processing plants.
of the world. Subsequently, researchers has tended to work on the A sizeable content of cellulosic rejects consist of straw, fibers, hulls,
potential of non-woods like bagasse, wheat straw, tagasaste, paulownia and molasses remains after the process of producing oil and protein
or abaca to create various bioproducts during the last few decades [7– from soybean. Due to fairly cheapness and major abundance of these
15]. cellulosic materials derived from soybean, their usefulness as a low-
In the past half century, soybeans have gained the attention as the cost feedstock to produce biofuel and bioproduct has become more
third agricultural product after wheat and corn. Fig. 1 shows the global apparent [16–25]. In 2012, the rough calculation of World soybean
production of soybean on a continental scale. Soy is a plant that production was around 253 million tons (Fig. 3). Global production of
produces the seed, foliage is also used. In addition to seeds, stalk and soybeans is predicted to be 324 million tons in 2016, a 17% rise from
foliage can also be used as raw material for production of different the 2013 world total. The United States, Brazil and Argentina are the
products. Thought to nearly 8–10% of the whole soybean weight, world's greatest soybean producers and signify more than 80% of

Corresponding author.
E-mail address: (A. Abdulkhani).
Received 11 October 2015; Received in revised form 16 October 2016; Accepted 31 October 2016
Available online 17 November 2016
1364-0321/ © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

ethanol) and/or value added chemicals.A. the proportion of fossil oil utilizing for chemical production is small and the rest is being used for energy and fuel. The biorefinery concept has been illustrated schematically in Fig. 1270 . Fig. biochemical. In the stalk platform the carbohydrate moieties would be converted to a building block HMF and bioethanol. In the grain platform. having a national mean farm yield of 6. lignin. different processes of soya integration in a biorefinery system. It offers an overview of non-fuel products. and mannose. Cellulose in native form requires a sizable application for development purposes—specially. 5. World largest producers of soybean. Stalk straw biorefinery platform Lignocellulosic feedstock biorefinery includes conversion of ligno- cellulosic stalk into different intermediate outputs such as cellulose. Food and chemistry parts in terms of economic value are roughly the same. digestibility yield by 20%. This article investigate the potential of soybean biodegradation phases. content of enzyme to process as well as lowering cellulose enzymatic and biobased products. The sugars are reformed into hectare. 2. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280 both products and fuels. comprised from seeds and stalk feedstocks (Fig. lignin. In 2014. biofuels. and hemicellulose to be refined into a spectral range of bioenergy and products. it is essential to identify key Fig. a Sugar Platform global soybean production (Fig. 4). the residual lignin could be proceed in syngas and DME. Economy and applications of soybean Bioeconomy has a potential far beyond bioenergy. Whole crop Soybean could be converted in two Platforms biorefinery concept that Fig. 2. Ranking on different continents for soybean production. Also. 1. lignocellulosic material (pretreatment) is essential and to choose an sider sustainable development choices for biorefineries using to create appropriate pretreatment method. Lignocellulosic biomass structure performs an extremely important lighting the most promising ways of integration under a whole-crop role in the efficiency and performance of both pretreatment and biorefinery system. in Thailand. Proposed lignocellulosic stalk biorefinery of soybean is schematically represented in Fig. chemicals. DMF. glucose. soybean crops was 2. HMF. As a result. extracted fatty acids can be converted to biodiesel fuel. biofuels. but could be The aims of this paper is to present a thorough review about the modified into added-value chemicals in the nearest future [28].6 t per hectare.9 t were the three largest yields per lysis into xylose. some structural amendment of comprising of biopolymers. Notwithstanding. the mean global yield for Biorefinery processes lignocellulosic stalk to separate cellulose. Chemical composition of soybean stalk. and pharmaceuticals. which will cover raising needs for bioenergy feed- stocks and for food and other agricultural produces [27]. Three different paths may be selected. the most productive soybean farms in the world were biofuels (butanol. Turkey and Italy with an and hemicellulose. 3). 3. Abdulkhani et al. Lignin is used in mixed heat and power combustion. In a dynamic and sustainable market it can be expected feedstocks based on plants can be advantageous for producing materials.2 t per hectare [26]. After the bio-chemical path. Thailand. hydrogen. 3. and pharmaceuticals and con. 3. chemicals. high. Cellulose then is transformed by enzymatic hydro- average national soybean yield of 4. In 2014.

eliminate the hindrances and bring cellulose accessibility for hydrolytic A proper pretreatment method includes (1) divide hydrogen bonds enzymes to break it down to glucose [29. 5. The result of different pretreatment to conquer recalcitrance has been pretreatment of biomass feedstock to methods on composition of biomass is outlined in Table 1.37]. Pretreatment ment [33]. (3) increasing the and surface area and cellulose enzyme and when it is more intense. while yields after pretreatment bioethanol is the recalcitrance of lignocellulose. are different pretreatment procedures consist of chemical pretreatment Pretreatment has been regarded as of the very most costly processing Fig. Hydrolysis in the absence of former One of the main challenges to the cost-effective production of pretreatment yields typically < 20%. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in an economical way is the main problem of cellulose to bioethanol technology research and develop- 3.A. (2) decompose cross-linked matrix of lignin and productive enough the resultant remains is difficult to hydrolyze by hemicelluloses. and lastly. If the pretreatment is not in crystalline cellulose. There production that cause inhibition of the microbial metabolism [31]. Abdulkhani et al. outcome is the toxic porosity of cellulose for following enzymatic hydrolysis [36.35]. 1271 . Proposed soybean whole crop biorefinery system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280 Fig.30]. Soybean stalk biorefinery platform. Pretreatment is vital to ensure good final yields of sugars from both polysaccharides. 4. The specialized method often overpass 90% [34. structural limiting factors.1. steps within the transformation of biomass to fermentable sugar [32].

which the treatment of hemicelluloses with acid is carried out to stance are less than those in other lignocellulosic hydrolysates. pentoses settings. Pretreatment method Cellulose decrystallization Increase specific Lignin Inhibitor compounds Hemicellulose removal and Drawback and surface removal formation solubilization disadvantages Physical ++ ++a – – – High energy consumption Acid – ++ + ++ ++ Equipment corrosive. and declines following the order xylose > mannose > to 5. some subcritical water [48]. Amongst these.1.5 dehydrated more into furfural [50]. 160 for sunflower hulls.1. wet oxidation. 3. and acetic acid concentrations is often as high as 6. it worth temperature [54–56]. and about (25–35%). inhibitory chemical substances are produced throughout the process. Alkaline – ++ ++ +/– + Long pretreatment resident time Ionic liquid ++ ++ + – + High cost of ionic liquid Organosolv ND ++ ++ – ++ high cost of recovery Ozonolysis ND ++ ++ – – expensive process Steam explosion – ++ +/– ++ ++ low yield Biological + ++ ++ – +/– Low hydrolysis rate +: moderate effect. The rate of hydration is determined by the then used to dissolve the hemicelluloses. levulinic acids and furfural along with (3) cellulose from the biomass. and corn cobs 150–170 for hardwood. sugar.3. extrusion and microwave). The resulted carbohydrate is glucuronoxylan. food. Byproducts of pretreatment of chemical building blocks extracted from green resources [51. Yields of 17% were reached in laboratory cellulose. wheat straw (15%). Biofules from delignified stalk aqueous xylose solution consist of subcritical or near-critical water and xylose oligosaccharides to produce a mix at a first pressure and an Biofuels can be grouped predicated on their production technolo- initial temperature. play a major role. and CO2 at a pressure and There are several studies through which different pretreatment temperature above the critical points for carbon dioxide and ethanol procedures on a few lignocellulosic sources like corn stover [39]. for instance softwood for corncobs.1. 3. (2) weak acids be employed in processing biomass.A. wheat but below that of the critical point for water [49]. (organosolv. As a result. mix to a second pressure and second temperature. from which 5-hydroxymethyl-2- The first stage liquor which contain xylose is likely to be fermented to furaldehyde and 2-furaldehyde (furfural) can be produced by ethanol. it can be used to create special products. and (c) quickly cooling the treatment (grinding.D: not determined. injecting CO2 into the aqueous xylose solution before it is blended with Besides. HMF. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280 Table 1 Effect of various pretreatment methods on the structure and chemical composition of lignocellulosic biomass and their features [41]. are debased from hemicelluloses. 2. The first stage liquor from pure perspective biorefinery is production of the biofuel dimethyl furan (DMF) and other molecules. ammonia fiber explosion. typically necessary for industrial production of xylitol by fermentation levulinic acid.52]. Inhibitors are categorized into three main categories: (1) furan glucose from biomass needing one or more supercritical fluids may derivatives like HMF (5-hydroxy-2-methyll furfural). N. 160 for cornstalks. biomass are comprised of water. Furfural. In addition.) and biological pretreatment. ozonolysis alkali. HMF is extremely valuable not just as intermediate for the is xylitol. temperature and for a first time duration. A study by Kilambi offers a solvo-thermal hydrolysis method to produce furfural from xylose including: (a) blending an 3. The procedure can be performed with or without CO2 explosion and steam explosion.2. since it can be acquired either 3. at which point treatment (liquid hot water. switchgrass [41]. Supercritical fluids utilized to process phenolic compounds [38]. furfural is formed.2 g/l. The predicted yield of straw [40]. where transform the hemicellulose fraction into xylose which successively is furfural. physicochemical pre. There are numerous ranges 3. and dihydroxymethyl furan (Fig.1. Furfural and HMF are represented as the mentioning that these applications will encompass small markets recognized inhibitors of yeast and bacterial growth and fermentation which may be saturated by a sole large refinery. formic and. It is recorded to be 170 for bagasse 220 hull compared to other lignocellulosic biomass. respectively [44. Due to lower lignin content ( 1–4%) of soybean per metric ton of dry biomass. referred to as nano-solvo thermal hydrolysis technology plan which influence negatively on microbial activity in the hydrolysis biorefineries. physical pre. Abdulkhani et al. The commercial procedure to produce furfural (15%) a relatively milder pretreatment can be adequate to hydrolyze is depend on the utilization of either batch or continuous reactor in soybean hull and the concentrations of consequent inhibitory sub. Kilambi has devise a technique. +/–: low effect. acid. and finally the pH is lowered sugar type.1. Pentoses and some hexoses in various applications such as makeup. 5- [47]. likely to have around 50 g/L xylose and a concentration of 150 g/L is additionally for important molecules such as 2. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). and sugarcane bagasse furfural for standard feedstock is indicated in terms of kg of furfural [43] has been explored. and ionic liquid). One such probability [57–60]. animal fats. hydrolysis of hemicellulose is faster than than can be filtered and dried.1. HMF. rice straw [42].2. by which processes of producing furfural and/or phase.1. This is the result of different pentose fermentation or SSCF dehydration of these sugars. which is applied can result in production of furfural [53]. 5-hydroxy-4-keto-2-pentenoic acid. More degradation of hexoses liberated (concurrent saccharification and co-fermentation) function. xylose from the biomass and include acetic. irrespective of the pretreatment procedure applied. furandicarboxylic acid (FDA). 5-diformylfuran (DFF). a ++: high effect. glues and paints [46]. and 1.1. (b) keeping the mix at the first pressure and first gies into first generation (Feedstocks– starch. as well as Toulouse has suggested a method by which soda is diluted first and straight from cellulose.4 in the existence of ethanol to acquire the sedimentation of solute glucose.45]. 6) [61]. ethanol. 3. Xylose. While hexoses are dehydrated to produce HMF. On the from cellulose can form further HMF under acidic conditions and high other hand. 1272 .1. hardwood (18–25%). The Laboratoire de Chimie des Agroressources in from fructose or from glucose by isomerization to fructose.

and a little lignin in resources [65]. Biochemical transformation proceeds at lower proved successful fermentation of SBH to ethanol. biomass. mixed alcohols and wood diesel] and third generation [70]. syngas. bio-alcohol. E. dimethylfuron (2. Chemical building blocks derived from saccharification of cellulose from stalk [58]. and uronic acid [77]. terpenoids as secondary metabolites categories: acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. FT before fermentation will be changed into simple sugars by hydrolysis diesel. [71]. bio-alcohols. soybean hulls via dilute acid and improved steam-explosion pretreat- ment releasing up to 72% of accessible hexose sugars in soybean hulls and suggested the producing hydrolysate can be ideal for ethanol 3. A biochemical genetic modification of Z. Soybean hulls include a specific combination of sustainable. Cassales by sustainability of alternative energy systems over the future. energy from biomass. Soybean hull Electricity generation from biofuels is a favorable approach in the acid hydrolysate had undergone fermentation and after detoxifications nearest future [67. xylose. Feedstocks with Higher moisture contents are it can use pectin. wood. 7 displays the block chart of the enzymatic hydrolysis process Nevertheless. biodiesel.2. In a similar way. a significant amount of enzymatic hydrolysis of gasification that provides high-energy conversion productivity [69]. Ethanol. Nonfood crops. examined the potential use of soybean hull as a substrate for a on bearable emissions should look well into the long term [66]. Products– biodiesel.1. The most applicable methods can be grouped in two Products– algal oil. The carbohydrate polymers in lignocellulosic materials just hydrogen. Biochemical processes fermentation [16].5-dimethylfuran). There have been two genetically engineered bacteria which have 3.1.68]. non-polluting and reliable fuel extracted from green carbohydrates. Global ethanol production is projected to increase at a CAGR as enzymatic hydrolysis when such enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of 6% in the duration of 2009–2018 to attain 33. temperature ranges and lower reaction rates and can provide high coli KO11 resulted the maximum concentration of ethanol partly since selectivity for products. 6. bioDME. bio of cellulose. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280 Fig. mainly in the ‘pilot’ or ‘demo’ phases [63]. ferment ethanol [73]. Both human and ecosystem health must be supported comparison to other biomass materials or typical plant [74]. vegetable oil).A. Scientists have centered on a method of dilute second generation [Feedstocks–wheat straw. total production capacity of 57. acid hydrolysis of hemicelluloses accompanied by enzymatic hydrolysis energy crop. the technology is currently in the emergent level with a [72]. Biofuels are accessible. Products– biodiesel. corn. Abdulkhani et al.2. The process is named market. targets et al. Among soybean by-products. The continuing future of biomass electricity was resulted in a 6 g/L ethanol or xylitol with C.895 million gallons. available locally. Two sets of processes are carried out to hydrolyze the cellulosic [Feedstocks– algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii).1. vegetable oil. number of bioprocesses following its acid hydrolysis [75]. mobilis 8b were assessed under controlled conversion method is employed for ethanol production to produce 1273 . Acid hydrolysis has a can transform to gasoline] bio-fuels [62]. considerable levels of protein. serious drawback where the sugars are degraded to chemical The global biofuels market was approximated at USD 46 billion in substances such as acetic acid and furfural. biohydrogen diesel.37 million liters. In point of fact. The to stop this degradation is applying enzymes which promote 100% bioethanol section constitute practically 85% of the total biofuels selective transformation of cellulose to glucose. Fig. the hull hydrolysate has the highest Oxygen content is the main difference between biofuels and carbohydrate content which is also the substrate examined most to petroleum feedstocks [64]. guilliermondii yeast generation is based on gas turbine technology/ biomass integrated [76]. The advantages of typically good candidates for biochemical processes. The most common way 2007 which is predicted to attain USD 247 billion by 2020.

3. 7. Butanol (C4H9OH). (vi) the industrialization of its mass-production. 3.5–2 million tons of ethanol. and there was no need for pretreatment of the hulls to fulfill production of butanol from soybean carbohydrate hydrolysate. DMF energy density is 40% higher than million gallons of ethanol and supply as much as 1. The impact research by Yu et al. Based on the limited sucrose of sugarcane. Solvenogenic clostridia like 3. the US and these South American nations information existent it can be inferred that DMF is no more toxic hold the soybean hull resources. The Zymomonas mobilis is recognized to offer production of DMF from glucose and fructose utilizing catalytic some benefits over yeast for ethanol fermentation.1. butanol is much less evaporative compared with 3. it remains uncertain facilities to exploit ethanol for transportation fuel. and switchgrass resulted 3–4 times lower ethanol yields reach the total sugar of 70 g/l [96]. acid-catalyzed dehydration of [84]) and higher glucose uptake rate [84–88]. fructose result in 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). this simplified method could provide up to 300 which hold carbon [98].1. Dimethyl ether (DME) Clostridium acetobutylicum [94] and Clostridium beijerinckii are well Thermo-chemical refining operated in the Syngas Platform Biorefinery comprised of high temperature-pressure gasification of 1274 .2. Secondly. which is safer to use and generate fewer volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions [93]. which is equal to a 25% upsurge in harvestable networks [100]. butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation [95]. Butanol has also been regarded as comprising: (i) its functioning in combustion engines. and and other hydrocarbons. making it comparable to gasoline. whereas under these circumstances wheat straw. it is much easier to be mixed with gasoline storage features. and they produce around 5 ×109 gallons ethanol from of DMF have not been completely tested. A new high yields of ethanol with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. Recently. favoring alternative fuel to current fossil fuels. environments. [17]. propose a recombinant Clostridium tyrobutyricum of pectinase. additionally.A. Soybean molasses consist of soluble carbohydrates which can convert biologically to bioethanol [80–82]. some improvements in the yield remarkably [83]. the toxicological features US crop [90]. it is insoluble higher protein animal feed in the US [89]. and than current fuel components [99]. (ii) its toxicity. Lignin recovery and application gasoline or ethanol. β-glucosidase. The tolerance. For use in the fermentation medium. Additionally. by which pentose sugars ferment to ethanol were not recognized as the main producers of biobased butanol through acetone- noticeable since it led to the minimal concentration of ethanol [78]. and cellulase dosages were specified at a to process xylose and glucose in an acid hydrolyzed soybean hull 15% biomass loading.1. and roughly 5–8 million tons of soybean hulls the hydrogenolysis of C–O bonds utilizing a copper ruthenium catalyst yielded per year. concerning whether DMF might become a favored transportation fuel over time. (v) its stability and and carbon [91]. butanol consist of more energy (vii) its transportation to the point of use utilizing existent pipeline density than ethanol. and ethanol concentrations of 25–30 g/L were hydrolysate to produce butanol. the concentration of the hydrolysate was increaseed by three times to corn stover. An 85% gasoline /butanol blends can be utilized in unmodified petrol engines. regularly acquired. Butanol is much less corrosive than ethanol and can be transported and delivered by present pipelines to filling stations.2. Abdulkhani et al. energy (Btu's) [92]. theoretical ethanol yield (through Enter-Doudoroff pathway process includes several steps: firstly. Thus.2. Enzymatic hydrolysis process of stalk [49]. It has more hydrogen (iii) its cost (iv) its comparative energy content. Dimethyl furan (DMF). Soybean where in fact the existence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the hulls were assessed as a resource for ethanol production by the SSF hydrolysate is a problem [60].3. HMF is With around 95 million tons of soybean produced in the united extracted from the organic phase and finally transformed to DMF by states in 2006 [89]. chemically stable. The total amount of soybean in water. Nonetheless. The same problem is associated with technique. In addition.3. ethanol production technology. including ethanol biomass-to-liquid (BTL) processing have been noted [97]. DMF has drawn such growing cerevisiae using α-galactosidase pretreated molasses improved ethanol attention as a potential biofuel. Fermentation with S. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280 Fig. So that. However. and has a greater boiling point (92 °C) crop produce in Argentina and Brazil together is more than that of the comparing with ethanol (78 °C). since this selection would rely upon several different factors 3. Butanol production via ABE Ethanol can even be extracted from partly hydrolyzed hulls through fermentation has been examined using various lignocellulosic biomass simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) [79].

around 1/30 of that of diesel fuel and its lubricating quality is [108]. the so-called Two Platform Concept Biorefinery (or Thermo. etc. while lignin is carbons from H2 and CO gas blend. The product distribution Just recently. containing just nearly gasification of biomass (Fig. Commercial conversion processes is generally based on fermen- tion of DME is nearly the same as that of methanol. natural gas. For this goal. A difficulty Fig. The produc. and 18% from wastewater Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) from syngas is acquired by treatment plants. chemical Biorefinery/ Integrated Bio). The outcomes of FTS are mostly treated via thermochemical process. 3. While burned in engines. hence a specific treatment on the surface of matching elements of of catalyst shortages in largescale productions on the condition that fuel injection system is important otherwise blend a certain amount of catalyst regeneration is not improved.) applying catalytic synthesis procedures [71]. The critical role of FTS is synthesis of long-chain hydro- sugars are treated and further processed biochemically. employed as a renewable alternative for commercial natural gas and is projected to have a conversion efficiency of 70% [111]. the gasifying agent. or be employed to produce chemicals. DME ethane (C2H5). Biogas DME has a great flexibility that can be derived from a range of Biogas is commonly recovered from wastewater treatment plants or sources such as crude oil. after biogas is burned. alcohols are made in minor amounts [108]. methane (CH4). which treat manure and other agricultural wastes syngas in a single-stage. In addition.4. The producing syngas can produce biofuels [dimethyl ether (DME). Upgrading of bio-oil to biofuels and chemicals ([62]. While this technique is broadly recognized. and the predictable reducing of global warming potential in a 500- year time horizon [106]. DME has received fast growing attention as an extracted from FTS contains the light hydrocarbons ethane (C2H4) and alternative fuel due to its purity and easy transportation [102]. 50–70% of methane. It also can be produced in anaerobic digesters and biomass particularly soybean. aliphatic straight-chain hydrocarbons (CxHy). modified). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280 lignocellulosic biomass into syngas. i.e. industrial methanol production are Copper–zinc and chrome–zinc. there is a probability poor. residual oil. 24% from digesters. 1275 . Remained Sugar refining (fermen. butane and propane). alcohol] and/or a variety of chemical substances (ethylene. Approximately 58% origi- nated from landfills. The benefits the synthetic fuels from conventional fossil fuels and commercial of DME over typical diesel include diminished emissions of CO. Biogas has a low heating value. liquid phase (LPDME) process. form silica monoxide known as syngas. and primary power production units to meet (part of) the energy need [101]. Gasification is defined as a thermo. This technology is often found in lubricant with DME to prevent their abnormal wear [105]. the CxHy tation and distillation) and syngas are used in integrated heat and also unsaturated hydrocarbons. Fischer–Tropsch diesel. branched hydrocarbons. which. LPG (C3–C4. pressure [103]. related to biogas production is the fugitive emissions of methane. and the equivalence ratio (ratio between the air used for gasification which is a far stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. and light and waxes (C23–C33). biomass. DME can also be tation by anaerobes or anaerobic digestion. a very small 3. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) of syngas from soybean stalk percentage of the total energy production. DME with high-cetane number can easily causes The distribution of the products is determined by the catalyst and the ignition by compression [104]. temperature. Catalysts which are used in approach. It can be acquired efficiently from installed in farms. combines sugar and syngas Bio-syngas is a gas rich in H2 and CO resulted from gasification of refineries to create biobased products and/or bioenergy. temperature. liquid fuels. A diverse hydrogen can lead to methanol production. The important operating conditions for the deposits that quickly damage the engines. In 2006. gasoline (C5–C12). This biological process is produced by gasifying biomass [102]. 8. [110]. can be stored in liquid form at normal temperature and at 5–10 bars diesel fuel (C13–C22). coal. butadiene. Catalytic reaction of carbon monoxide and some carbon dioxide with propylene. Another pressing issue is the presence of combination of gases with substantial amounts of hydrogen and carbon siloxanes in the biogas. biogas produced from all these sources was 0. The viscosity of DME is extremely process parameters like pressure. generation of electricity [109]. and residence time low. nitrogen oxides (NOx) and low-combustion noises. waste products garbage landfills. An environmental problem gasification procedure are pressure.1.22 EJ in Europe. 8).A. Abdulkhani et al. heat or power [107]. hydrocarbons. biogas releases more chemical conversion with limited oxygen source that generates a pollutants than natural gas. After cleaning the gas is used to and the air needed for perfect combustion).4.

The conven- natural gas (which consist of 90% methane) but it originates from tional process uses methanol for the production of bio-diesel when an renewable sources [115]. There are several methods 1276 . higher molecular weight alcohols can also be utilized as vehicle fuel. oxygen. Biogas after purification and improvement alkali catalyst is present. instable petroleum markets. hydrogen sulfide. These researches were targeted at enhancing production rate and yield by continuous or batch fermentation methods at various pH and temperature. CO further reacts with steam and produces H2 and CO2 out of this mixture CO2 is removed to get hydrogen. such as gasification. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280 reacts with steam to yield CO and H2. 4.A.4.1 g/L-day for 20 days. Simultaneously in a separate process. stalk can be trans- digesters occupy large areas.inoculum was critical for batch fermentation [118]. raw material provision. concentrated. Fig. 9.3. like manure containing very high water which greatly soybean is presented in Fig. is composed mainly of methane (55–70%) and carbon dioxide derivatives thereof like biodiesel have recognized as renewable alter- (30–45%) and may also contains small amounts of hydrogen sulfide natives to petroleum fuels [131–133]. and different trace ified bio-diesel has combustion features comparable to those of petro- hydrocarbons [112–114]. Proposed seed core biorefinery of waste materials. purified. Owing to its lower methane content (and diesel and can be mixed up to 20% with petro-diesel in the present-day so lower heating value) compared to natural gas. ethanol will be distilled.e. In the steam-reforming reaction. commonly by ‘wet’ or ‘dry’ milling and following fermentation and then distilling of grains (maize. Hydrogen total oil remaining crude vegetable oil and livestock meal. In contrast to SVO. Several studies have focused on hydrogen production from soybean processing waste products (Okara) [120–123]. This hydrolysis step can be eliminated by the concurrent use of yeast and enzymes. the oilseed is primarily the feeding rate of 1. Digesters are typically used for very wet formed into energy or products [22]. VOBB implies SVO and biodiesel collectively as biofuels extracted Muroyama et al. Using soybean okara for ethane implies chemically unchanged vegetable oil derived from a soybean production was applied through either batch or fed batch fermentation. oil. burning or pyrolysis [110]. From a performing viewpoint. Abdulkhani et al. the ratio of prepared by removing any remains that may cause mechanical substrate-to. In the next phase. Nonetheless.4. 9. destruction in the oil removing process. when necessary (Fig. generally called synthesis gas. Decreasing crude oil resources. water vapor. Seed bio refinery Whole crop biorefinery processes result in a variety of products. Maximum methane yield (53. of monoalkyl esters yielding from a chemical reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the existence of a catalyst. Biodiesel is a combination commonly limited to boilers and engine-generator sets [115]. Soybean seed biorefinery platform. biomethane is very similar to nized as a cost-effective way for the biodiesel production. the reduces the energy efficiency of thermal processes where water would search for energy security. with biomass digesters is that it requires several weeks to convert waste grains may be refined into starch. wheat. More than one million vehicles are like butanol and iso-propanol have also been utilized to improve the now using biogas and fleet operators have recorded savings of 40–50% cold flow characteristics of the subsequent ester [135–137]. 9). The 3. Biomethane production of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable like soybean in- Biomethane is sweetened biogas following the major removal of the cludes three stages i. The oilseed is then pounded utilizing a mechanical oilseed press extracting about 70–80% of the 3. and finally dehydrated. oil extraction and water. Meal is Hydrogen can be produced through gasification of biomass after usually given to livestock as a protein supplement whereas the crude reforming of the syngas. Temperature was a key factor and hydrogen production rate and yield usually preferred thermophilic conditions [124] over the mesophilic conditions [125]. crop. gen media [117]. biogas usage is vehicles without any main alterations [134]. rye). Wet milling begins with water- soaking to make grain kernels softer and after that grinding are carried out. Additionally. transester- (typically 50–2000 ppm). petroleum fuel use on global climate change have urged forces to find The conventional biogas coming from biogas plants use anaerobic alternative green energy resources [127–130]. investigated the main effects of okara feeding rate by from oilseed crops with regards to SVO and biodiesel made particularly the fed batch fermentation to produce methane through two methano. However. This long residence time implies that the polymers. then further to bioplastics or streams like manure. SVO in vehicle repairing costs [116].2. Thermophilic flora proved not only higher degradability of organic acids to hydrogen but also compared to mesophilic flora could resist much more ammonia inhibition [126]. Transesterification of vegetable oil has been recog- biogas. carbon dioxide and other impurities from raw processing of oil. then adding enzymes and cooking the mash to separate the starch. Usage of vegetable oil- digestion of organic wastes such as manures by combined microbial based biofuels (VOBB) comprising straight vegetable oil (SVO) and cultures.7%) was reached with After feedstock production or purchase. natural gas vegetable oil is refined into biodiesel or SVO. starch. Steam is reacted with CH4 gas in a reactor using a Ni-based catalyst applying 3–25 bar pressure and at high temperatures (975–1375 K) to produce H2 CO2 and CO2. Following the fermentation. Dry milling crushes grains before blending water and the flour together. The remains (stillage) is sectioned off into liquid and solid phases. It employs well-known technologies to break down cellulose. which are mixed and dried to yield distillers dried grains with soluble substances (DDGS) that can be used as an animal feed. and proteins. Steam reforming of natural gas is now the most economical way of producing H2 [119]. and the effect of be vaporized.

for two-thirds that of gasoline (by volume). linoleic. oil and food comparably higher than diesel [133]. the oil is the most remarkable product advanced technologies. soybean crop has a great potential to be used compared to diesel. the different methods of soybean valorization when discussing the Considering that second generation biofuels are just at the pre. biomaterials and was an improvement in combustion properties for soybean ethyl ester biochemicals. Therefore. lowered costs from plant building and set-up of the soybean. if the commercialization be successful in the 2012– and liquefaction. Eide I. soybean meal hold a low C:N ratio to [141]. animal feed as well as removing more oil from it for better yield need to [3] Vazquez A. The competitive price would be more References reasonable considering exploit of unused land and lack of any subsidy to Indian farmers. Abdulkhani et al. The selling of by-products such as seed cake as [1] Ragauskas AJ. chemicals. distribution. researches conducted to evaluate the various methods of thermome- The production costs of second generation biofuels at a commercial chanical and biochemical conversion of biomass to value-added scale have been projected by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in bioproducts. fermentation. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for soybean oil and its ester were 11– Application of soybean as a raw material in an integrated whole 13% which were more than that for diesel. crop yield. Soy oil is low-priced in the United States. 1277 . feedstock for diverse thermochemical and biochemical processes gether. Moran JI. presuming a basic feedstock price of USD 3. triglycerides and almost eight major fatty acids. Biodiesel produce biogas (e. Cairney J. 25 billion pounds of corn oil.22:4240–4. agricultural subsidies. However it not only Presently lignocellulosic ethanol costs approximately $ 1. experience etc. 2015 period and immediate deployment takes place worldwide beyond Hull and molasses are the preferred substrates for biofuel produc- 2020. Current technology for detoxification of seed cake as biofuel obtained from lignin. commercial level. crude vegetable oil can be refined and utilized as a ences in the chemical and physical properties of the oil. The biodiesel produc. selling at and a basic catalyst (commonly potassium. Several microorganisms have been employed to develop the comparison with bioethanol production. Ethanol energy content accounts fuel are high which makes it unsuitable under cold weather condition. Eckert CA. Soybean consists of glycerin backbone in the presence of an alcohol (commonly methanol) about 20% oil. xylanase. Soybean total crop ture (EGT) with soybean oil was 2–5% more than diesel. can be physically treated and chemically reformed to meet specific Biodiesel produced from soybean oil is highly unsaturated and industrial applications [73]. chain length. soybean oil ethyl ester (SOEE) and crude de. Ethanol would then be reasonable at ~70/bbl nantly.311:484. then costs could reduce to USD 0. There biorefinery to produce a large variety of biofuel. there would be limited scope for more cost reduc. For the whole load range.00/lge at can be used as a productive nitrogen source for fermentation. it is possible to adjust VOBB composition. Such plant oil final fuel in specific diesel engines.00/L of gasoline equivalent (lge) for ethanol lyzed in terms of a whole crop biorefinery. tion method is much simpler than that needed to produce ethanol linolenic. pyrolysis tions.53 in India can be from the soybean processing byproducts.00/L of diesel equivalent for synthetic diesel of the plant. therefore. such as oleic. but also the pilot scale. credits for byproducts. Plant oils are acid hydrocarbons of triglyceride molecules are separated from the triglycerides and contain different fatty acids.20/lb. Williams CK. The presence of oxygen in ester boosted the in a zero waste third generation whole crop biorefinery. Energy Fuels 2008. The The United States hold the potential to produce roughly 30 billion well-known method is base catalyzed transesterification. pectinase and polygalacturonase years with method development. specific gravity and surface tension of the soybean oil methyl ester are land and labor costs. biodiesel [71].55 lge for both synthetic diesel tion since they consist of carbohydrate and minimal protein predomi- and ethanol by 2030. compared to the present prices in Germany (one liter of canola based biodiesel priced at EUR 0. The cost is predicted to halve within the next ten enzymes such as cellulase. Perform Appl: Vol C: Polym Nanocomposites Cellul Nanopart 2015:81–118. and palmitic acids [142]. and it was used for the production of biodiesel. Britovsek G.80–1. The costs of biofuels can be highly reliant on process. Nonetheless. et al. manure and glycerin for industrial utilization can provide other profits The path forward for biofuels. and many billion Transesterification is the procedure by which the long chained fatty pounds of oils that can be extracted from other oilseeds. stearic. nevertheless. Power output of the engine using soybean oil and its ester were nearly 5. Viscosity. soybean has not been systematically ana- the range of USD 0. With high protein content. alcohol. surfactants and organic acids can be resulted One liter of jatropha biodiesel priced at $ 0. co-production of other by-products. there is a need for a systematic study to integrate (when the crude oil price is between USD 100–130/barrel (/bbl)). gasification.. Davison BH. comprising anaerobic digestion. Barth T. thus costs are indicated by Crude soybean oil. which lead to differ- On the other hand. A number of production equipments to a small-scale setting in a cost effective way. These fatty acids differ in through which in specific circumstances. refined soy oil is composed of more than 99% leading to biodiesel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 1269–1280 to convert crude vegetable oil into biodiesel on a small-sized scale. Science 2006. crop third generation biorefinery was discussed. extensive utilization would likely to result in the According to the literature. The Fischer–Tropsch BTL antioxidant features of okara polysaccharides and. respecting the different parts and as a minimum USD 1. [2] Gellerstedt G. Many stoichiometric fuel air ratio of the ester fuels [140].g. and some are unsaturated.60/GJ for has the capability to promote production of lignocellulose-degrading supplying biomass. Cyras VP. liter of gasoline equivalent (lge) [143]. Li J. and glycerin [134]. gummed soybean oil were exploited as a fuel in a diesel engine [139]. and location. There are numerous specialty biofuels production basis [71]. The exhaust gas tempera. So all these efforts can lead to price reduction for nanofibers. Handbook of polymer nanocomposites processing. different parts of the biomass.55). Therefore.A. Okara can be utilized to low-cost waste feedstock and even scaling up of plants. using submerged or solid-state fermentation. be utilized as the main carbon-source substrate. Extraction and production of cellulose be improved. Foresti ML.or sodium-hydroxide) around $0. Conclusion similar to the engine using diesel. them are saturated. pounds of soy oil. Chemical structures present in for the producers. consider- process and other promising methods have the potential to advance ably improve its nutritional value. The potential for cost drops is expected to be greater for Consistent supply of the biomass for the whole crop biorefinery can ethanol produced by the biochemical process than for liquid fuels also be a major difficulty for a successful integration of the biomass- produced via the thermochemical process since most of the technology derived products. nevertheless including oil extracts and its straw residue can be used in a whole crop the EGT with soybean ester was 2–3% less than that of diesel. for instance. inclined to oxide particularly at higher temperatures [138]. Hence. feedstock. Cloud point and pour point of this (sugar) market. The lignocellulosic residue of soybean remaining for BtL plants (based on Fischer– Tropsch process) is developed and after the biodiesel production and the stalk of the plant are a potential the process chiefly includes linking several proven components to. Kleinert M. hydrogen and methane) through anaerobic diges- production strongly relies upon land and feedstock accessibility in tion.

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