You are on page 1of 8

Gavin Kemp

Pd 2
Annotated Sources
Bendall, Sarah, et al. “Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Disorders: a Systematic, Critical
Review of the Evidence | Schizophrenia Bulletin | Oxford Academic.” ​OUP
Academic​, Oxford University Press, 13 Nov. 2007,
This article reviews many of the studies that connected childhood and Schizophrenia.
It picks out the ones that were flawed and gave falsified information. As well as the studies
that were perfected and gave correct information. Obviously majority of these studies were
going to be flawed as some did not have a control group or didn't look at certain types of
childhood trauma. They found 3 studies that were perfect, 2 studies even found potentially
real solutions, but were unable to reach statistical significance. The final solution had no
association between the two. Many of the highest quality studies had methodological errors
deeming their conclusions less substantial. It then stated that measuring childhood trauma is
very difficult. This article is a huge help, it comes from a reliable source so I don't have to
worry about it being falsified. The way that it reviews all the studies that revolves around my
topic, will help me decipher between reliable sources and ones that are falsified. This will be
a good way to strengthen the studies I have found as I can prove that they are reliable.

Fazel, Seena, and K. Seewald. “Severe Mental Illness in 33 588 Prisoners Worldwide:
Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis.” ​The British Journal of
Psychiatry​, The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1 May 2012,
This article talks about the increase of mental illnesses in prisons in whether or not its
rising due the conditions or the prisoners. They used studies from 1996 to 2010 from 10
different indexes that met the criteria for their research. They found that about 3.6% of male
and 3.9% female prisoners were diagnosed for having psychosis. They have concluded that
more work and information is needed to conclude whether or not the population of prisoners
with mental disease is rising. It may be impossible to ever find a clear answer as there are
many factors that could affect the numbers they find. They can only use prisons with clear
population and reported mental illness. In conclusion they found that 30,635 prisoners were
diagnosed with psychosis.
This study is the largest one I have found following over 500,000 prisoners. Although
there was no real conclusion this information is still very valuable. It shows how there may
be a connection of psychosis to isolation, depression, sexual assaults and any form of trauma.

Henquet, Cécile, et al. “Environment and Schizophrenia: The Role of Cannabis Use |
Schizophrenia Bulletin | ​Oxford Academic.” OUP Academic, Oxford University
Press, 1 Jan. 2005
This article takes on the concept of Marijuana having a large impact on the diagnosis
of schizophrenia. The introduction begins with the statement that this fact is generally
accepted in Europe. It also states that there are more cannabis users more research is being
put into this study, as it could be a public health concern. It then talks about the data that
supports this thesis. The data describes a connection between the use of cannabis products
and psychosis. It then asks if these studies can be confounded by use of other drugs such as
amphetamines. They also talk about the studies adjustment for age sex and other factors.
They then talk about the chance of reverse causality.
The information from this article will help conclude on the connection of marijuana
to psychosis. The data can help solidify the statements made as well. It explains other key
topics such as reverse causality and Indirect and direct measurements. It also shows how
important it is to get rid of confounder variables.

Leask, Stuart J. “Environmental Influences in Schizophrenia: the Known and the

Unknown.”​BJPsych Advances​, The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1 Sept. 2004,
This article talks about the relationship between schizophrenia and childhood trauma
and how there is a high percentage in the population, although it is very small population. It
then explains how in recent years more modern technology has given easier ways to prove
the relationship. It then gives data tables on percentages of certain childhood trauma in
schizophrenia patients. They then gave the conclusion on the fact that it is plausible for there
to be a relationship between the two but with the current technology it is impossible to
conclude whether or not there is a relation. Immigration,
Although this article is very close to one I have found before, it still is very helpful
due to it proving that there may be a relationship. There is good data and could help prove
my thesis.
Larkin W, Read J. Childhood trauma and psychosis: Evidence, pathways, and implications. J
Postgrad Med [serial online] 2008 [cited 2017 Dec 14];54:287-93. Available from:

This article again focuses on the relationship between childhood trauma and
schizophrenia, this is based more on the relationship later on in life. There is said to be a high
percentage of schizophrenia patients that have had a traumatic experience. They based their
data on large population surveys in rural and suburban areas. They have made adjustments
for variables. It then goes on to define schizophrenia and childhood trauma. They then go on
to explain the relationship that was found. They then go on to explain the evidence that they
used, they used 5 studies. They also reviewed over 1600 cases of CSA (child sexual abuse).
This article is chock full of information, from the amount of data that they compiled.
The article comes from a reliable sources such as British National Survey of Psychiatric
Morbidity. This article is a strong finale source to round out my data.

Larson, Felicity V., et al. “Psychosis in Autism: Comparison of the Features of Both
Conditions in a Dually Affected Cohort.” ​The British Journal of Psychiatry​, The
Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1 Apr. 2017,

This lab tested the comparisons between people with Autism and psychosis
to see if the two diseases had any links. They compared people with Autism, psychosis and
people with Autism and psychosis. They came to this conclusion, “​The relationship between
psychotic illnesses (particularly schizophrenia) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is
complex, with suggestions that there is substantial overlap between the two conditions.”
They expected the relationship to be very complex as both diseases are complex, People with
Autism spectrum Disorder or ASD usually have bipolarism and schizophrenia.
This is the first article I've found that connects schizophrenia to another mental
disease. This information can build on my topic in the form of how the different treatments
and medication and effects of another disease affect schizophrenia. The environment that
each disease brings will cause ad show new sides of the disease.

Morgan, Craig, and Helen Fisher. “Environment and Schizophrenia: Environmental Factors
in Schizophrenia: Childhood Trauma-A Critical Review | Schizophrenia Bulletin |
Oxford Academic.” ​OUP Academic​, Oxford University Press, 14 Nov. 2006,
The article beings to define what childhood trauma is and how much it occurs in the
UK and in the USA, it states that USA is known for having a high percentage of each abuse.
It is said that there is “​a wealth of evidence suggestive of a causal relationship between
childhood trauma and psychosis.” They then go on to give examples such as “child sexual
abuse (48% females, 28% males), incest (29% females, 7% males), and child physical abuse
(48% females, 50% males) from 51 studies of psychiatric inpatients and outpatients when
half or more were diagnosed with a psychotic illness.” They then give a data table with all of
the tests done, due to them all being averages they explained that problems can occur when it
is just averages. The conclusion was that there is a connection between childhood trauma and
schizophrenia but to be able to prove it they have to have more data and a better way to
calculate child abuse.

National Institute of Mental Health. “​Higher Death Rate Among Youth with First Episode
Psychosis.​” ​National Institute of Mental Health​, U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, 6 Apr. 2017,

This article focuses on a study on how there is a higher death margin in young adults
that have psychosis(ages between 16-30) than the general population. The study followed
5000 patients with commercial insurance for 12 months. They found that the mortality rate in
the group was 24 times higher than the general population. They also found that in the
insurance many of the patients received little health care. “​Overall, 61 percent of them did
not receive any antipsychotic medications, and 41 percent did not receive any psychotherapy.
Those who died within 12 months of diagnosis received even less outpatient treatment and
relied more heavily on hospital and emergency care.”​ This proves that if specific medication
and treatment is not prescribed the chance of mortality is increased.
This information can help me in understanding how medication being prescribed due
to the patient's environment can affect each patient differently. This information also explains
how high of a mortality rate there can be when patients don't react to the news of being
diagnosed in the correct way.

Os, Jim van, and Peter McGuffin. “Can the social environment cause schizophrenia?” ​The
British Journal of Psychiatry​, The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1 Apr. 2003
This website talks about the professionals that are in agreement that social
environment can cause schizophrenia. It also explains how some may think it has no effect,
that was debunked very quickly. It gives examples of societies with higher levels of
schizophrenia and that if those populations moved or changed certain factors of their lives the
percentage of schizophrenia would drop.
This information is a major point in my research. This helps me formulate a thesis to
begin and expand for my project. The counter arguments that are given, also help me
strengthen my research as i can disprove each one of them.

Resnick, S. G., Bond, G. R., & Mueser, K. T. (2003). Trauma and posttraumatic stress
disorder in people with schizophrenia. ​Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112​(3),
This article is another study on the relationship between schizophrenia and trauma.
This doesn't follow children it follows patients with PTSD. This is the reversed relationship
where people who have been diagnosed with PTSD may also show symptoms of
schizophrenia. “forty-seven clients with schizophrenia were assessed for schizophrenia
severity and for lifetime trauma history and PTSD symptoms in 2 independent symptom
interviews; 35 (74%) participants reported at least 1 event in which there was threat of harm
or life threat and subjective distress, and 6 (13%) had current PTSD.”
This is another strong article supporting my thesis, although I do not have the full
article (which I hope I can find) the abstract already shows that the article is valid to my
topic. It comes from a reliable source, APA.

Sar, Vedat, et al. “Childhood Trauma and Dissociation in Schizophrenia.” ​Psychopathology​,

Karger Publishers, 6 Nov. 2009, ​​.
This article again follows the relationship between schizophrenia and childhood
trauma,​Seventy p​ atients with a schizophrenic disorder were evaluated using the Structured
Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Dissociative Disorders
Interview Schedule, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scales, and Childhood Trauma
Questionnaire. They found correlations between some dissociation but there was no
connection with core schizophrenia symptoms.
This article again only had the abstract it is very similar to the source above the main
difference is, it never found a strong correlation between the two factors. It comes from
Karger Publishers, a publishing company that specializes in medical and scientific articles.
Again I do not have the full articles, hope that I can find the full article.

“The Biology of Trauma.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence,
The science behind the effects on the the brain from trauma is the main focus in this
article. They begin by explaining the new technology they use to detect the brain’s functions,
and everything that the brain is doing while under the stress of trauma. The hypothalamus
and Pituitary gland are always active during stress and are shown to be active during these
scans. It explained how the stress of a trauma can affect each patient emotionally, so you
have to look at the parts of the brain that controls emotion as well as the amygdala which
controls fear. They said that when talking about traumas that the kids have endured, their
brains have activity in their amygdala. The areas that can also be affected are the
hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, these both deal with memory.
This article talks about the effects of trauma on the brain, this is a way to connect
trauma to schizophrenia, through the brain. If the different parts of the brain are both affected
by both variables then this could lead to a huge connection between the two and event then to
prove that the environment has any effect on the disease may prove very important.

The National Institute of Mental Health.(2016, February.) Schizophrenia. Retrieved from
The National Institute of Mental Health, states that, “​Schizophrenia is a chronic and
severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves.” This article
focuses on Schizophrenia and its sign and symptoms, risk factors and therapy. The article
classifies the symptoms into three categories; “Positive, Negative and Cognitive.” Positive
symptoms are psychotic behaviors not generally seen in healthy people, this include
hallucinations, delusions and thought disorders. Negative Symptoms are associated with
behavior, this includes “Flat Affect”and Reduced speaking. The last set of symptoms;
cognitive, are based on thinking and memory and can be more severe in certain patients.
Some of the symptoms are trouble focusing and memory loss . The website then lists
multiple therapy and treatment to help patients with schizophrenia.
This article will give a dense amount of information on the symptoms and treatments
for schizophrenia. I can use this information to connect some of these symptoms to the
culture and social environments the patient's experience everyday. I also can use the new
vocabulary such as the categorizing of symptoms to deepen my knowledge on the disease.

“The Relationship between Brain Structure and Neurocognition in Schizophrenia: a Selective

Review.” ​Schizophrenia Research​, Elsevier, 19 Feb. 2004, pii/S0920996404000027.
The beginning of the article starts with the claim they are trying to prove, which is
that brain structure can cause schizophrenia. The reason why they have not determined the
theory earlier on was due to the fact that they use Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI
which is a newer technology. They say they have reviewed studies on this topic from 1991 to
2003. They have found that the overall volume of the brain correlates to the intelligence and
the special cognitive functions, This relationship was disputed by men, due to this, they
ignored the fact, they believed that the relationship may be due to other variables. They then
talk about how enlargements in different ventricles are common in women and not men with
schizophrenia. It then explains that when other parts of the brain are larger this can be
connected to schizophrenia.
This article explains the brain and the change that it has from schizophrenia. This
change can be connected to the parts of the brain that are changed by forms of trauma. This is
my main thesis to find a connection between trauma and schizophrenia.

Tomassi, S., et al. “Influence of Childhood Trauma on Diagnosis and Substance Use in
First-Episode Psychosis.” ​The British Journal of Psychiatry​, The Royal College of
Psychiatrists, 1 Sept. 2017,
This study focuses on patients who had a childhood trauma and then developed
psychosis. They first studied the sample “that comprised 345 participants with first-episode
psychosis (58% male, mean age 29.8 years, s.d. = 9.7).” If the patient experienced any form
of sexual abuse it had a huge chance of being associated with psychosis. The other forms of
abuse usually lead to substance abuse. They concluded that “patients with first-episode
psychosis exposed to childhood trauma appear to constitute a distinctive subgroup in terms of
diagnosis and lifetime substance use.”
The studies done by professionals are very important to my research, as it helps me
solidify key facts in my research as I can give examples to support my statements made. This
information also links childhood trauma an environmental effect to psychosis.

Turetsky, Bruce. “Schizophrenia Has Different Sub-Types Linked to Problems in Different

Parts of the Brain.” ​American Psychological Association​, American Psychological
Association, 3 Oct. 2002,​.
This article talks of how there has been a discovery of schizophrenia being not a
single disease but an array of sub mental disorders. They state this: “this is a ‘first step in our
efforts to uncover the specific biological mechanisms of the disorder,’” this was a major
breakthrough in the field of psychology. They then move to talk about the multiple
subdivisions. The first is the Cortical subtype this occurs in about 18 percent of patients, they
are usually younger males. It is when the patient has trouble maintaining their attention and
organizing heri thoughts. They talk about other sub divisions and how they affect their
This article helps explain the different types of schizophrenia. I could use this
information to show how different environments may trigger different types of the disease.
This may also help show how some environments may help deal with the disease. The new
vocabulary will also boost my research, as I can find easier ways to explain the different
types of schizophrenia.
Üçok, A., and S. Bıkmaz. “The Effects of Childhood Trauma in Patients with First-Episode
Schizophrenia.” ​Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica​, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 6 Sept.

This ​study's​ objective was to evaluate a number of schizophrenia patients who were
impacted by childhood trauma. They used a series of scales, ​Brief Psychiatric Research Scale
(BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the
Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) at first admission. They then assessed childhood
trauma by the Childhood Abuse Questionnaire and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)
after discharge. The patients results that reported​ CSA had higher SAPS scores at admission,
and had more suicide attempts before admission. The patients with history of CEA had more
hallucinations and delusions of mind reading at admission. CPA, CEA and mean scores of
CTQ correlated with the number of siblings.
This article was a huge help it gave new information on scales that measure both
trauma and schizophrenia, they found other information on the amount of patients with
different traumas and how each patient's schizophrenia is affected. They also came to the
definitive answers that patients who experienced hallucinations and were affected by
emotional trauma had much worse effects.