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Netting - XII

Netting is a handicraft, so ancient that it would be difficult to trace it to its origin, or
determine the date of its invention. There is evidence to show that the making of nets for
fishing and game catching was as familiar to the earlier races of mankind as it is to us.

Practised in the first instance for the wants of life, it by degrees developed into an art, in
conjunction with embroidery, to which it was made to serve as a foundation. The netting of
every country, almost, has a distinctive character of its own: that of Persia is known by its
fine silken meshes and rich gold and silver embroidery; that of Italy, by the varied size and
shape of its meshes and a resemblance in the style of its embroidery to the Punto tagliato;
whilst the netting of France, known by the name of Cluny guipure, consists of a groundwork
of fine meshes with stiff close designs embroidered upon it, outlined in coarse glazed thread.

Netting, which divides itself under two headings, netting proper, or plain netting and net
embroidery, has never yet gone out of fashion and places are still to be found where the entire
population is engaged in this industry.

Plain netting and the implements used in netting (figs. 611, 612, 613).—Plain netting
consists of loops, secured and rendered independent of one another by knots. For forming and
tightening these loops and knots the following implements are necessary; in the first place, a
netting needle; these are generally made of steel, split and flattened at both ends, with a hole
bored through them below the fork at the one end, in which the thread, fig. 611, is secured,
before it is wound on lengthwise between the forks. They are numbered as to size like
knitting needles. There are netting needles likewise of bone, ivory, wood and tortoise-shell
for twine and thick materials; these are without hole, fig. 612.

Fig. 611.
Netting needle of steel.

Fig.
612. Netting needle of ivory.

The thread must be wound on very tightly, and not too much of it at a time, that the needle
may slip easily through the loops. The mesh, or spool, fig. 613, whether of ivory, bone, steel
or wood, should be smooth and round and of the same thickness throughout, so that the loops,
made upon it, may be all of one size and easily slipped off.

Fig. 613. Mesh or spool of ivory.

For long loops a flat mesh is best, and in all cases, the needle and mesh should be selected
with a view, both to the material employed, and the size of loop required.

In addition to these two implements, a cushion, weighted with lead will be required, to pin
the foundation loop to, on which the first row of netting is worked.

Materials suitable for netting.—These, of course depend on the purpose of the netting: silk,
twine, wool and cotton, can all be used and each possesses its advantages and disadvantages.
Silk has the finest gloss but when it is strongly twisted it is very apt to knot, and when loosely
twisted, does not make firm knots. It is difficult to get linen thread with a smooth uniform
twist and moreover it soon frays in the working; wool is too elastic a fibre and is unsuitable
for washing purposes, cotton remains therefore, in every respect the most desirable material,
being both smooth and uniformly twisted; as qualities,more especially adapted for netting we
may mention the following: Fil à pointer D.M.C, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C (crochet cotton), Fil
à dentelle D.M.C (lace thread), and even Coton à tricoter D.M.C[A] (knitting cotton).

Netting stitches.—The loops are always the same—four-cornered whether they be square or
oblong—and connected together, though secured and rendered independent of one another by
knots. By different ways of passing the thread over the mesh and connecting the loops
together, the following stitches are produced: 1º plain loop, 2º double loop, 3º oblong loop, 4º
honeycomb loop, 5º twisted loop.

Fig. 614. First position of the hands.

1º Plain loop. First position of the hands (fig. 614).—Every kind of netting requires a
foundation loop, from 10 to 20 c/m. long, made either of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to
10, or Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 10[A], which is pinned to thecushion. Fasten the working

thread to the foundation loop; then take the mesh in the left hand, holding it between the
thumb and forefinger, with the other fingers extended beneath. Take the needle filled with
thread in the right hand and pass the thread downwards over the mesh and over the second,
third and fourth fingers, inside, carry it up behind the third finger and lay it to the left under
the thumb by which it has to be held fast.

Fig. 615. Second position of the hands.

Second and third position of the hands (figs. 615 and616).—Carry the thread down behind
the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers, and put the needle through the loop on the fingers
and behind the mesh, through the foundation loop, thus forming a second loop, which you
hold back with the little finger of the left hand. Then gradually drawing up the thread that
runs from the mesh, let go the loop held down by the thumb; then by degrees let go also, the
loop which lies over the second, third and fourth fingers, still holding the last loop fast with
the little finger; finally you release this too and pull up the knot thus formed close to the mesh
with the right hand. This completes the stitch. The next stitches are madein the same way;
whether they are to serve for casting on or for a netted foundation. The mesh is drawn out at
the end of each row, the work turned and the mesh held beneath the last row, in readiness for
the next, in making which you pass your needle through each loop. These diamond-shaped
loops form a diagonal net.

Fig. 616. Third position of the hands.

2º Double loop.—To make a double loop put the thread two or three times round the mesh.

3º Oblong loop.—For oblong loops, the knots must be made a little distance from the mesh.

4º Honeycomb loop.—Make an oblong loop, pass the thread round the fingers, but not over
the mesh as in plain netting, put the needle, not into the loop of the previous row, but between
the loop, just made. The knot which is made in the same way as in plain netting, must be
drawn close up to the mesh; the two threads of the loop should lie side by side on the mesh.
The loops in honeycomb netting are six-sided.

5º Twisted loops.—Pass the thread, as in plain netting, over the mesh and fingers, but before
letting the thread whichis under the thumb go, pass the needle from right to left under the
loop you are making and the thread, and only then draw up the knot.

Although in netting the loops cannot be formed in as many different ways as in knitting or
crochet, they admit of a certain variety, as the following explanations will show.

Patterns produced in netting by using meshes of different widths.—Plain netting can be
varied by making one row of loops over a large mesh and one over a small one, or several
rows over the large and several over the small, alternately, changing the meshes at regular
intervals.

Fig. Loose loops in clusters (figs. You may increase and decrease in the same rows.M.618 and 619).—These clusters of loose loops are made in the following manner: Fig. so that the number of loops remains the same. with Coton à tricoter D. Two sizes of thread should be used for this patterns. Patterns produced in netting by increasing and decreasing. one row. 25 with No.C No.[A] Begin by 3 rows of plain netting with the finer thread over the small mesh.Patterns produced in netting by increasing and decreasing (fig. or at an interval of so many rows. Loose loops in clusters. with the coarse thread over the large mesh.C No. These are followed by 3 rows of plain netting with the fine thread on the small mesh.M. with two loops in every one. 100. 618. 30 with Fil à dentelle D. To show the relation they should bear to one another. 50[A]. or vice versa.C Nos. or Coton à repriser D.M.M. in which you net every two loops togetherand one row.C No.—Patterns of this kind are made by netting the meshes together in regular sequence and taking up as many meshes as you have netted together. 617). . 617.C No.M. followed by one row with the coarser thread over the large mesh. or Coton à tricoter D. 50[A]. then. we instance: Fil à pointer D. 14 and 30[A].

Loose loops in clusters. Netting composed of plain. 620). Then unite all the loops with one knot. 618. carrying the needle from right to left. but as it is less commonly used we have given the preference to the straight.—Netting composed of large and small loops is the kind generally used as a groundwork for embroidery. diamond netting will serve the same purpose. Working detail of fig. 2nd row—make one loop over each loop of the first row. making the loops all of the same length. As may be gathered from the drawing. 1st row—one loop. repeat this three or four times. leaving out the loops that form the cluster. the knot of which must be a little distance from the mesh. round the loops. put the thread over the mesh and the needle through the loop where the knot is. Fig. instead of putting it through the loop of the previous row. double and oblong loops (fig. . The loops of it are straight. many different patterns can be worked upon the netting in this manner. 619.

620. 20. . which aremade by passing the thread only once over the mesh. then draw up the thread on which the loops are strung. and fasten off. in netting the plain loop. The whole first row consists of a double and a plain loop alternately. and so. 30. double and oblong loops. as tightly as possible.M. the second. Circular netting composed of long and short loops.M.C No. the plain loops should come between the small holes and the double ones between the large holes. Netting composed of plain. so that. In the 3rd row.—Make thirty or thirty one loops over a large mesh with a very stout material. Fig. Circular netting composed of long and short loops (fig. all the loops of the 2nd row are of the same length. 620. Fig. the knot is brought close to the needle. which is like the first. so as to form quite a small ring for the centre. such as Fil à pointer D. it hangs free. that in netting on the double loop. 621. as shown in fig.C No. entirely of oblong loops. or a double thread of Cordonnet 6 fils D. 621). where as.

in the subsequent rows. If you want to avoid fastening on the thread afresh for each row. Circular netting formed by increases. Square of netting. Make two knots in each of the following rows so that each row is increased by one loop. until the net attains the right circumference. but before tightening the knot. making a row with one knot in the first loop and two knots in the second. 622. . and put the needle through the loop. Making loops over the thumb. also made in coarse thread. 50 or 60.—Make 10 loops on the foundation loop.M. begin by making two loops or three knots. Circular netting formed by increases (fig. 623 and624). Square of netting (figs.—Put the thread. Fig.—To make squares of netting with straight loops. close the ring. fasten the thread on to a long loop and make one loop into each loop of the first row. draw the mesh out of the loop just made and make it exactly as long as the loop above. Use the same mesh for all the subsequent rows. 622).For the next row. such as Cordonnet 6 fils D. likewise as for a plain loop.C No. over a small mesh. make two knots in each of the previous increases. Begun. then go on. Continue to increase until you have one loop more than the square should number. Fig. as for a plain loop over the mesh and fingers. increase by one loop. 623. make a loop over the thumb. which should be worked in a finer thread. that is to say.

Square of netting begun from the middle. Fig. make a row without either increase or intake and begin the intakes in the next row. joining the two last loops of each row together by a knot. Completed. 625 and626). In coming back. Fig. 626. it may be begun from the middle. make an intake in each row. Finish the two last loops over the thumb. Cast on the required number of loops. by omitting to take up the last loop of a row. Fig. 624. Following this row with the extra stitch. in the manner just described. 625. Begun. Square of netting begun from the middle.—Instead of beginning a square from the corner. Square of netting. Square of netting begun from the middle (figs. Completed. your first knot will thus be made over the last loop but .

Then make an increase in every row to the left and leave the last loop empty in every row to the right. fasten the thread on again. you again leave the outside loop empty. Continuing the increases on the left. Stripe of straight netting. Fig.—These can be begun and finished in two ways. to decrease on one side by dropping a loop. 627 and 628). more especially when they are to be embroidered afterwards. is to cast on the necessary number of loops. 625. make rows with increases. . Great care must be taken not to change the order of the intakes and increases. without increasing or decreasing on the right. or by joining two loops together with a knot. to the end of the thread of the last row. The simplest way. and interfere with the subsequent embroidery. then make a similar to it. by making two knots over one loop.—The second way of making stripes of straight netting is to begin by a square. and to increase on the other side. 627. whilst in the next 4. After making two loops on the foundation loop.one of the previous row. fig. fig. as any mistake of the kind would break the lines of squares. Stripes of straight netting (figs. Fig. and repeat the same rows you made at the beginning (see fig. 627. 628. Stripe of straight netting edged with empty loops. Straight netting with a scalloped edge (fig. unless there happened to be more loops in the stripe than stitches in the pattern. you net 4 rows. 628. in which case the superfluous loops might be cut away when the embroidery is finished. until you have the required number of loops. fig. 626). To complete the square. 629).

630. . and here you make your increases on the right side and your intakes on the left. up to the dotted line from e to e. After casting on the loops as for an ordinary square of netting. then leave 3 loops empty on the left and continue to work to the right and decrease to the left. 629. up to letter g. Thus. letter b. 630). Fig. Square frame of netting (fig. for example. until there are only two loops left. increase them to double the number required for the border. Square frame of netting. till you come to the corner. Fig. passing over the row that is marked e. you make 6 loops. you now fasten on the thread at c. After this you begin to decrease on the right and increase on the left. with an intake in each row. is worked like any other piece of straight netting. letter a. from whence you decrease on the right and increase on the left. Stop on the left side and then work from left toright. counterpane and chair-back borders can be netted in one piece. if the border is to consist of 3 squares. The fourth corner. Leaving the right side of the net. where the 3 empty loops are. Straight netting with a scalloped edge. up to the dotted line from c to c.—Handkerchief. leaving an empty square in the centre.

M. and lastly into the middle one of the three. or Coton à repriser D. 2nd row—here. and run it in through the loops last made. in order to make 3 rows again. on the bottom side. 3 loops are so made as to cross each other. 10 to 30. along the other edge in the following manner. 12 to 20. Fig. fasten the work to the cushion again and work 3 rows. Materials—For the netting: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M. for the middle. 3rd row—one plain loop in each of the loops of the previous row. Diagonal netting with crossed loops. run in on the otherside. that is. Original size. so that the right loop leans to the left and the left one to the right. 12 to 50. counting from left to right. 631.[A] 1st row—long loops. as above described.M. When it is long enough for your purpose. You now. then into the 1st. you begin by putting your netting-needle at first into the 3rd loop. take up all the loops on one side on a strong thread. to be made by the thread being passed thrice over the mesh.C Nos. 14 loops in width.C Nos. draw out the thread.M. .[A] For the darning stitches: Coton à tricoter D.Diagonal netting with crossed loops (figs. 631 and 632). To work this simple and effective pattern.C Nos. 25 to 40. begin by making a stripe of plain netting. or Fil à dentelle D.C Nos.

then. stop on the left and proceed with: 6 knots or 5 plain loops. When this is done. Fig. then carry the working thread to the middle of the long loops. 3 knots = turn the work = 2 loops with 3 overs. and connect them by 2 knots = pass the needle under the knot of the last long loop. leaving the outside loops empty. 3 knots = turn the work = 2 plain loops. To reach the next scallop. you begin the scallops. 632. 2 knots = turn the work and continue the rows of plain netting until you have only 2 loops left. 3 plain loops = turn the work = 3 plain loops. according to the number you crossed in the middle. fig. Working detail of fig. or 14 loops and 15 knots = net 5 rows. pass the netting-needle through each hole of the net and round each thread. composed of 12 knots or 11 loops. 3 knots = turn the work = 2 plain loops. 631. 632. on the right sidenet: 3 plain loops = turn the work = 3 plain loops. . 2 or 3 long loops with 3 overs. 2 knots = turn the work = cross 2 or 3 loops.

M. The footing is worked in crochet.[A] Into every fourth of these chain stitches.[A] For the fringes: Soutache D. white knitting or darning cotton.M. Fig. These netted edgings are generally made in unbleached cotton. the 8th knot is then encircled by a loop and the thread carried down over 8 squares and a loop againmade round the 8th knot. pretty as it is.M. After making 4 rows of stitches on the netting.C No. 3 or Lacets superfins D. Netted fringe (fig. so that the 2 loops of netting cross each other. 633). turn the work and make the knot in the middle of the 3 chain stitches.C No. cut 3 bars between the rows of white stitches.C Nos. 30. illustrated in fig. secured on both sides by chain stitches. The thread for this purpose should be used double. . will prove a welcome novelty. Netted fringe. Materials—For the netting: Cordonnet 6 fils D. net one loop. looks rather poor. made over 8 squares of the netting. missing the 3 between.C No.M. The double netting. show best upon it.Finish off the scallops with a row of plain netting. 633. unless ornamented with embroidery of some kind. because the patterns afterwards embroidered upon them in coarse. The row of openwork produced in this way has a very good effect and greatly improves the look of the lace. 633. and the pattern worked in darning stitches. At the end of the row. 10 to 30 or Fil à pointer D. with braid.—Plain netting. made with a coarser thread than the foundation. 4.

—The frame on which the net is stretched should be made of strong iron wire. Cluny Guipure. In shape. The ends of the ribbon should be secured by two or three stitches.In the second.C No. Instead of tying up the lengths of braid with a thread.—Embroidered netting. and more particularly at the corners. finish it off with tassels. where the neck of the tassel should come. 634. those called saddlers needles are the best. Embroidered netting. This wire frame must be covered. When the stripe is sufficiently wide. and blunt. make 2 looped knots round them with an end of the braid.M. . is a netted ground. with patterns of one kind or another. into those of the first row that is. also known as Filet Guipure. but the sides must be straight. 634). into those of the second row. which must be wound tightly round it. needles and thread. The needles should be long. first with wadding or tow.—Besides scissors. and Richelieu Guipure. twisted round them and fastened off with a stitch. made of Soutache D. as shown in fig. or rather the third row. according to whether squares or edgings are to be made upon it. Fig. Wire frame for embroidered netting. a light steel frame is the only thing required. Wire frame for embroidered netting (fig. worked upon it in a variety of stitches. in the fourth row. Implements required for embroidered netting. very closely. the knots are again made first into the front loops. so that the net can be evenly stretched. so that it may be quite firm and not twist about when the netting is sewn in. and then with silk ribbon. that will not bend in the using. 3. it may be square or oblong. and this renders embroidered netting very popular. 634.

set very closely at the corners.—When the netting. must be filled up with strong very evenly woven. sewn on all round the netting. Mounting the netting on the frame. the space between it and the frame. Mounting the netting on the frame with an auxiliary tape (fig.Mounting the netting on the frame (fig. linen tape. 635).—Whenthe netting is exactly the size of the inside of the frame. 636). is smaller. it need only be secured to it with overcasting stitches. . Fig. 635.

Coton à repriser D. Fig. and the way to fix the netting into the frame. The stitches used for embroidered netting. Ordinary darning stitch (fig. the fold that has to be made at the corners. or embroidered netting.M. in and out of the number of squares. The tape must be very tightly held in the sewing.—Thick threads with a strong twist are the best for darned.M. . or Fil à dentelle D. that is to say. and backwards and forwards as many times as is necessary to fill them up. so that it even forms little gathers all round. Mounting the netting on the frame with an auxiliary tape.—The simplest stitch of all for covering a netted ground is the ordinary darning stitch. Long stripes or large pieces of work. willsome we have never yet come across in any book on the subject that has come under our notice. can be mounted on waxcloth. such as Cordonnet 6 fils D. and is especially necessary when the netting is not quite evenly made.—These are so multifarious and admit of so many different combinations. Materials for embroidered netting. but we cannot recommend shortening the preparatory work in this manner. 637). drawing the thread. There are however certain old kinds of embroidered netting made in soft loose silk.C[A] (crochet cotton). 636 shows how the tape is sewn on. as the squares of netting are never so regular as when they are made in a frame. Fig. for imitating which it is best to use. 636.M. prescribed by the pattern. that not a few of them seeing that be quite new to our readers.C[A] that being quite the best substitute for the original material.C[A] (lace thread). this will help you to stretch the netting in mounting it without injuring it.

—This is the stitch most often met with in the old embroideries.C for example. 638.M. you will have to make more stitches than with one of the coarser numbers of Coton à repriser D. with Coton à broder D. Linen stitch (figs. as it is quickly done and shows up the pattern well. it being the one the solid parts of the leaves and flowers. First stitches. 637. to a certain extent.M. 638 and 639). Ordinary darning stitch. The number of stitches depends. .C. Fig. and the borders are generally worked in. counterpanes and so forth. on the material employed. Fig. This is the stitch generally used for reproducing a cross stitch pattern on a netted ground and is especially to be recommended for covering large surfaces. Linen stitch. curtains.

Fig. must be kept very slack. so that at the end of the row. Second stitches.—When linen stitch is used for the border of a pattern. every second thread passes under and over the thread of the netting. and to ensure the threads being all of the same length. Formation of the corners (fig. This first layer. you begin by carrying the threads over a given number of squares. 640). especially in the case of long stripes. as it is carried upwards again. alternately taking up and missing a thread as is done. from the passage of the cross threads in and out between them. over and under the threads of the netting. and end by being just long enough to prevent the last embroidered squares from being too tightly stretched. Linen stitch. and a corner has to be formed. After carrying the second layer across a few squares. Fig. Linen stitch. Linen stitch. This constitutes the first layer of threads. in darning. The threads of the first layer become gradually shorter. lay a fine mesh or a thick knitting needle at one end and stretch the threads over it. 639. . take away the mesh or needle. In this case you must draw an uneven number of threads through the squares. otherwise the crossing of the threads will be irregular in the last square. 640. The thread may also be carried both ways over the threads of the squares. Formation of the corners. only across the first. Fasten on the thread to a knot of the netting and carry ittwice to and fro. the second completes the linen stitch and is made in the same way.

641.—This is a light open stitch. Fasten the thread to the middle knot of the 16 squares. For the stitches that complete the figure. chiefly used for making a less transparent foundation than plain netting. then carry it diagonally over 4 squares. by carrying the thread. In this way. 642 shows how to join the rows and pass the needle through the stitches of the preceding row. Loop stitch (point d'esprit) (figs. Loop stitch. you cover thenetting with 3 horizontal and 3 vertical threads. over one vertical and one horizontal bar of the net and inserting the needle downwards from above under the bar and in front of the working thread. in front of the needle. then make a loose loop to the middle of the top bar of the same square. 645). also represented in fig. 641 and 642). 643. Loop stitch. you draw the needlethrough. 641. For the second row back. carrying your thread alternately over and under the threads that were stretched for the first corner. Star composed of loose threads (figs. Fig. from the third to the fourth. from left to right. 640. Fig. 644. 642. in doing this the working thread must lie to the left. carried over 4 . you cross the threads of the next row. three times from left to right under a knot of the foundation and three times from right to left. you start from the middle and following the direction of the little arrow in the illustration. 1st and 2nd course of the thread. the bottom rays of the star are formed. from the second corner square you pass to the third. fig. Fasten the thread to the middle of one bar of the netting. underneath the bar above the loop stitch and make the loop upwards from below. 641. Fig. The first threads of the second side form the foundation of the corner square. as shown in fig.—This star covers 16 squares of netting. Several rows completed.On reaching the corner.

645. Star formed of loose threads laying the underneath threads. Fig. Fig. Star formed of loose threads. . 645. under the diagonal and over the straight threads. This completes the star. Care must be taken to make the stitches lie quite flat side by side. slip the needle 4 or 5 times round in a circle. Fig. When you have laid the vertical threads. 644. Laying the upper threads. Finished. as it is represented in fig.squares. but always over the bars of the netting. and not one on the top of the other. Star formed of loose threads. 643.

—Little flowers and leaves are generally executed in this stitch. 646. Leaves worked in darning stitch. under the threads of the foundation and push the stitches close together. Carry the needle. Fig. 646. from the knot in one corner to the middle of the bar above and downwards to the opposite knot. as shown in the illustration. you mustrun it. you must draw your stitches at the top and bottom of the leaf rather tighter than in the middle. either one. 648). For a leaf with only one division or vein.—The simplest way to work these scallops is to carry a thread. If you wish to make them very slender at the bottom. 646. invariably from the middle. As the scallop must always be . you can finish them off with a few overcasting stitches. whereas for a leaf with two or three veins. with the point of your needle. Begun. 647. Fig. 646). In working leaves of this kind in darning stitch. over and under. merely run the needle through the middle of the threads. Leaves worked in darning stitch. to and fro over the square. Leaves can be made with one. or two threads (see the right leaf in fig. so as to give them the proper shape. as they are made. one with one vein and the other. first to the right and then to the left. 647 represents two leaves completed. This you will be able to do most easily by holding the work so as to make the stitches towards you. Fig. Completed.Darning stitch (point de reprise) (figs. the first course of the thread is shown in fig. two or three veins. 646 and 647). round which the thread is carried and passed upwards again to the middle. like the left leaf in fig. with two. Pointed scallops in darning stitch (fig.

and underneath the left bar from above. you begin by stretching single or double foundation threads across. As shown in the foregoing illustration.—Another quite as pretty and easy way of working pointed scallops on a netted foundation is by making two buttonhole stitches before crossing to the opposite side. like small cords. 2 buttonhole stitches over the foundation threads. Pointed scallops in buttonhole stitch. Veined pointed scallops (fig. The one thread must be drawn tightly round the other. from right to left. so that the working thread is only carried across to the opposite side after every second stitch. you must push the threads as closely together as possible with the needle. in order that the stitches may form close and evenly shaped veins. Fig. Pointed scallops in buttonhole stitch (fig. Fig. on the wrong side of the scallop. 649. you make. after which you slip the needle from left to right under the middle thread. 648. 650). .—A third way of making pointed scallops is by first stretching a thread to and fro across the middle of the square. There must be enough stitches to completely cover the foundation thread that crosses the middle of the square. over the foundation thread and under the right bar and so on. you will have. 649).begun from the top. Here likewise. Then you carry the needle. Pointed scallops in darning stitch. then beginning at the point. alternately right and left. two foundation threads on one side and three on the other.

Wheels embroidered on netting (figs. 650. you have first to fasten the thread to the middle knot of four squares. You begin. 660. 651. you carry the working thread back on the wrong side to the lower bar. under and over the corded threads and under the bars of the netting till the wheel covers half the bars. fig. and then under the buttonhole stitches to the next square of the netting. Scallops worked in this manner. Veined pointed scallops. right detail. by making from 8 to 10 buttonhole stitches over one bar of the netting. Fig. as they are also called. overcasting your first thread by the way. carry the working thread round and round. thence you carry it diagonally right and left. Pointed scallops in venetian stitch. Pointed scallops in Venetian stitch (fig. This is called cording a thread. and returnto the middle. can be overcast round the edges in the way described further on. Fig.—The prettiest scallops of all are those worked in Venetian stitch. 652. Having reached the centre. until you come to the one which forms the point of the scallop and is fastened to the bar above. 651). . in fig. then you work on with the same stitch backwards and forwards. 652 and 653). so as to form a closely twisted cord.—To make wheels or spiders. making one stitch less in each row. across the empty squares of netting and the knot.

Ribbed wheels. and on the left. on the right.—Make the foundation of the wheels as before. make a back stitch. as in a darn. In this case you must make circles of thread enough. Fig. it is left single in the first square until the wheel is finished. Fig. another way in which it can be made. then the needle is slipped back along the little spoke. Fig. and carry on the needle under one bar. opposite to the single thread. see fig. 653. 652. 654). Wheels worked in two ways. Fig. 653 shows. and indicates the course of the thread over and under the lines. and the single thread is corded like the others. Laying the threads for a wheel and beginning of the wheel. to cover the bars completely. over 8 threads. 654. To form the ribs at the back of the wheels. not half. so that the thread that lies outside always crosses 2 bars of the netting. when the foundation thread of the wheel starts from a corner. These details show also how. over a bar of the netting. as before. and through the wheel. on the right side. 654. a finished wheel. Ribbed wheels (fig. .

is ornamented with a small wheel. The arrow shows the way in which the loops are taken up. Fig. The left detail of fig.The same stitches. Ribbed squares or lozenges. The third detail represents a wheel. completed. 655. and the first ring of stitches round the wheel is finished. having been passed under the wheel and twisted once round the single thread.—The pattern represented in fig. 656. 657. Wheels set with buttonholing (fig. can be made on either side of the embroidery. either a square or a lozenge (see fig. whilst the white line shows the passage of the thread over the second ring. and the square that comes in the middle of the four thus filled. 656 shows how the thread. that forms the second ring. Wheels set with buttonholing. is the quickest to work that weknow of. Two triangles stand exactly opposite to each other in one square. . and so as to form. 656). 655). has to take through the loops and between the bars. produce elongated triangles which should always be begun from the knot. 657).—A very pretty lace-like effect is produced by encircling the wheels in large squares of netting with a double setting of stitches. as fig. is carried all round the square and forms 8 loops. Star with one-sided buttonhole stitches (fig. The second detail of the same figure explains the course the thread. Fig. 654 shows. Two buttonhole stitches made upon the outside bar of a square and a simple crossing of the thread at the bottom.

Fig. on the diagonal thread. Rounded corners of netting (fig. Star with one-sided buttonhole stitches. 658). The number of stitches depends on the material you use. 658. Fig.—There are some patterns it would hardly be possible to work on netting unless you could soften the outlines by darning stitches. 657. as shown in the foregoing figure. The accompanying detail shows the mode of working. . set with darning stitch (fig.—Darning stitches. Rounded corners on netting. 658. side by side. Linen stitch. 659). produce the figure illustrated in fig. there should be no more than can lie quite flat. made over a thread carried diagonally across one square and the adjacent corners of that and two other squares.

Flower in dot stitch on a foundation of linen stitch. 25[A] we recommend Fil à pointer D. as for the foundation. Linen stitch set with cord stitch (fig. which is described in the chapter on white embroidery and represented in fig.—Many figures are also either corded or edged with twisted thread. there should be fewer than in fig. or if you wish the setting to be very pronounced. In the latter case you can use the same thread as for the linen stitch. 659.both ways are represented in the illustration. (see the right detail of the figure). the same thread must be used for it.C No. For instance. Linen stitch set with darning stitch. 660). 179. Fig. carry them all round a square. like Coton à repriser.M.—With the help of this stitch. where the figures worked in linen stitch are edged with a thread like a cord. When employed as a setting to linen stitch. 660. This difference of material is especially noticeable in the old Cluny Guipure. Flower in dot stitch on a foundation of linen stitch (fig. Linen stitch set with cord stitch. Fig. if the netting be made of Cordonnet 6 fils D. 661). a thicker one. A soft material. you may also. a great variety of little supplementary ornaments can be made. Fig. But if the linen stitch be bound with cord stitch. instead of interrupting them at every corner. on every description of netted ground. 661.C No. 658.M. 15 or 20[A] for the setting. . makes the best padding for the overcasting stitches.

in the second you do the same thing.698 and 699 in the next chapter. 662). Bordering in buttonhole stitch. 663. . 663). 662. two of them the threads of the loop of the first row and the third a bar of the net. only that above. Straight loop stitch (fig. over which the buttonholing is done. your needle will pass under 3 threads. see figs. Fig. following the bars of the netting.—In the first row you carry the thread over one bar and slip it through behind a knot. Cut work in embroidered netting. Cut work in embroidered netting (fig.Bordering in buttonhole stitch (fig. 664). Fig. 2 or 3 padding threads should be run in first. You slightly separate the stitches of the first row of buttonholing so as to be able to introduce the thread of the second row between them. the bars of the netting must not be cut away until the edge be finished.—Scalloped edges in netting should be buttonholed. The inner bars are frequently ornamented with a double buttonhole edging and knotted picots.—Cut work here means half covering the bars of the netting with button-hole stitches and half cutting them away with scissors. In every square 4 threads cross each other.

than that in which the netting is made. 664.C No. Waved stitch (fig. When the pattern admits of it. it is hardly necessary to say. 665).667.[A] the embroidery upon it may very well be done in Cordonnet 6 fils. is produced by passing the thread in each row of the netting over a square and behind a knot. the other under the first and second threads of the loop stitches and over the first crossed threads and the knots. Fig. which forms a close waved ground. 668. 665. 10[A]. Straight loop stitch. or Fil à pointer D. be systematically and regularly done.C No. Waved stitch. The laying and stretching of these threads must. 666). 669 and 670. one set of threads running over the stitches and under the knots of the netting.—Begin by covering the whole surface to be embroidered with plain loop stitches.M.—This stitch.M. D. as it mostly does. When the netted ground is of Fil à dentelle D. Intersected loop stitch (fig. a considerably thicker thread is used for this stitch and for the stitches represented in figs.C No. then stretch threads diagonally across the squares of the netting and the loop stitches. 50.M. 30. .[A] Fig.

Ground worked in stitches placed one above the other (fig. then pass downwards to the first square of the 3 bottom rows and under the bars from right to left. so that the stitches are not only set contrary ways but reciprocally cover each other. 668). as is shown in our engraving. and under 3 squares of the netting. 667).—Cover a whole row of squares with cross stitches and leave 3 rows of squares empty. by passing the thread alternately over and under 3 knots. and from right to left. 666. so as again to leave 3 squares between the fresh stitches. Ground worked in horizontal lines (fig. take a long needle and pass it upwards from below. 667. cross the threads over those of the first row. Intersected loop stitch. When you have a sufficient number of rows of cross stitches. under the two bars of the third upper square. . Fig.—Make half cross stitches over 4 squares of netting. Ground worked in horizontal lines. The next row of stitches is made in the same manner. In the second row. Fig.

that correspond to 5 squares of netting. carry your thread from right to left. . 669). Latticed ground (fig. then take it over the long crosses. to and fro. Ground worked in Russian stitch (fig. 669. Latticed ground. The stitches of the next rows are made in the samemanner. and pass it in the same line under the bars of the netting. the long stitches cross each other over the stitches of the first rows. you have only to see that the loops formed by the stitches all come on the same line of knots. carry it downwards over 4 squares and pass it again. Fig. 670). under a bar of the netting. Ground worked in stitches placed one above the other. In coming back.—Pass the thread from left to right. under the bar. from left to right. Fig. When the ground is entirely covered.—Begin by running the thread. under the bars over which the first rows of threads are crossed. then upwards. under two vertical bars and over three horizontal ones. 668. again over 4 squares of netting and so on.

—You begin with the coarse thread and finish all the wheels first.641 and 642. Ground worked in russian stitch. 25 and écru Fil à dentelle D. 671. 672). 671). 670. The copies were worked with Cordonnet 6 fils D. Ground worked in two sizes of thread (fig. in rows. Ground with wheels and loop stitch (fig.—Herewith begins the series of stitches. 70[A].M. all the stitches in the coarse thread should be put in first and those in the fine. you make loop stitches between them. Fig. the former being used for the darning and the almond-shaped stitches between. . Wherever two sizes of thread are used for one pattern. as shown in figs. then with the fine thread. copied in part from one of the oldest and most curious pieces of embroidered netting we have ever met with. last. Fig.C No.M. the latter for the buttonhole stitches. referred to at the beginning of the chapter. Ground worked in two sizes of thread.C No. making them each over 4 threads of the netting.

This has to be done twice. so that the squares of the netting are edged on both sides with a double layer of threads. to and fro. over 4 squares of the netting. in a horizontal direction. . Fig. 673). under the first knot of the netting. Fig. over the same number of squares. 672. Ground worked in two sizes of thread (fig. Ground worked in darning and loop stitch (fig. with loop stitches. made between them. Ground with wheels and loop stitch. 673.—The darning stitches are made in the coarse thread.—Carry the coarse thread. in the fine thread. Ground worked in darning and loop stitch. from right to left. and then under the next. from left toright. 674).

in the coarse. Ground worked with cross stitches in one size of thread. Fig. very like the foregoing one. Ground worked in two sizes of thread.—This pattern. in the fine thread. Fig. consists of 3 diagonal rows of stitches. with cross stitches made over them. You may also begin with the cross stitches. Ground worked with cross stitches in one size of thread (fig. 674. and work the triple stitches over them. worked to and fro. passing the needle for that purpose over the double stitch. When the whole foundation has been thus covered. 675). take the fine thread and make loop stitches in the squares between the other rows of stitches. . Lastly. 675. intersect the loop stitches with straight threads and pass the needle each time through the knot of the netting.

cover 4 squares of the netting. which are both worked with the same material. Ground worked with squares and wheels (figs.Ground worked with darning and cord stitches (fig. consists of diagonal lines of squares. 678. . each with a small wheel in the middle. and the wheels. 677. present a closer and heavier appearance than those we have been describing. 676.676). every other square of the netting is filled. as closely as possible. alternating with diagonal lines of squares. the empty squares between are intersected diagonally with corded threads. 678. 677. Ground worked with darning and cord stitches. Fig.679). in a comparatively coarse thread. In fig. Here. the darning stitches. Fig. closely filled with darning stitches.—A ground very often met with in old embroidered netting. Ground worked with squares and wheels. executed chiefly in darning stitches.—Patterns. with stitches.

as before. To make a really satisfactory grounding of this kind. and then proceed to the cross stitches. that cross the first ones. Fig. To give them the right shape. 680). 679. you introduce the thread between the stitches that were first crossed. by making the close darning stitches. finish all the rows of stitches one way first. Ground worked in cross and darning stitch (fig.—You begin. 679. Ground worked with squares and wheels. fig. . Fig. Larger expanses of netting may also be entirely filled with wheels. 678. Ground with large wheels. you should be careful always to carry your thread over the bars of the netting and under the threads that are stretched diagonally across. in the subsequent rows.

Fig. Ground worked in cross and darning stitch. 681. after which. in order that. Fasten the thread to a knot of the netting. 680. quite different from all the others. Owing to your having always to bring the thread back to the knot whence the next square is to begin. over the whole surface. always diagonally. carry it once round the bar of the netting. consists of simple geometrical lines. and back again to the knot which it already encircles. and from thence begin a new square. under 3 other knots and repeat this 3 times. then carry it. . In the second and subsequent rows. Ground of geometrical figures (fig. Ground of geometrical figures. to fasten it. with lace and insertion of all kinds.—The taste for ornamenting not only curtains but bed and table linen also. all the corners may be equally covered and connected. you will have 4 threads on two of the sides and 6 on the two others. 682). to break the monotony of the large white surfaces. Netted insertion worked in plain darning stitch (fig. the needle has to pass twice under the angles that were first formed. is becoming more and more general and the insertion here described will be welcome to such of our readers as have neither time nor patience for work of a more elaborate nature.—This pattern. Fig. 681).

the narrow border in vertical ones. 683). which is an exact imitation of the finest hand-made netting. 12 to 50.C No. 625. 25. or Coton à repriser D. 637. 629 and 630. 25. . we can strongly recommend various fabrics. is worked in rows of horizontal darning stitches. Netted insertion worked in plain darning stitch. in the foregoing explanations.627. Ground of netting embroidered (fig.M. 682. 682. white or écru.—We have already had occasion.M. to point out the advantage of embroidering with two sizes of thread. but it is only in a piece of work of a certain size that it is possible really to judge of the excellent effect produced by the use of two threads of different sizes. Materials—For the netting: Cordonnet 6 fils D. more especially Filet Canevas. The centre part of the pattern in fig. intended to take its place.[A] The way to make straight netting has already been fully described in figs. 626.M. and darning stitch in fig. To those who wish to be saved the trouble of making the netting themselves.C No.C Nos. 628.Fig.—For the darning stitch: Coton à broder D.

C. 685. 686).C. Fil à pointer D.C green and gold or blue and gold. Materials—For the netting: Fil à dentelle D. 25 to 50. for instance écru. Rouge- Cardinal 346.C Nos.Fig.C No.C No. for the darning stitches.M.M.C according to the size of the netting thread. For the darning stitch: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.—For the loop stitch: Fil à dentelle D. which are in darning stitch. whilst the loop stitches are in Cordonnet 6 fils D. 30.C or Cordonnet 6 fils D. 684. or Fil à pointer D. Our model was worked in écru thread but there is nothing to prevent several colours being introduced.M. 15. black or Gris-Ficelle 462 for the netted foundation. . 683.M.—Large pieces of embroidered netting are generally made up of squaresand stripes. Embroidered ground of netting. are worked in a very coarse thread with a strong twist.M. for the loop stitches and the threads that are carried across inside. The principal lines of the pattern.M.M. Embroidered square of netting with two kinds of lace suitable for the border (figs. and Chiné d'or D.

15 to 40. white or écru. It is easier and less cumbrous to make the netting in separate pieces. or Fil à dentelle D.M. .M. which shows how even in such a simple pattern as this.C Nos. several colours may be successfully introduced. 684. 684. Fig.[A] Fig. 685 represents a lace edging intended for the square fig. 15 to 30.joined together with ribbon and fine linen insertions. Embroidered square of netting. in this case of course the squares have to be arranged with some system. Materials: Cordonnet 6 fils D. Squares of different patterns can also be combined with crochet and pillow lace.C Nos.

Fig.C pour la broderie No. two shades of Brun-Caroubier 303 and 357. 686 is a handsomer and more elaborate pattern for the same kind of purpose.[A] Pattern for ground (fig. with loop stitches in a pale grey. and Or fin D. 685. Materials: The same as for 684. with the first shade. . worked over.— For the bars in darning stitch: Gris-Tilleul 391 and 393.—For the darning stitch: Brun- Caroubier 303 and Rouge-Grenat 335. 684.C No. 686. 25. two shades of Rouge-Cardinal 346 and 348. which are afterwards connected by darning stitches in Coton à repriser Gris-Tilleul 392. with the second. The loop stitches and the linen stitches should be worked in a very light shade. Colours—For the netting: écru. in the first instance. fig. Fig.M.[A] Fig. instead of the colour indicated at the foot of the engraving. Lace edging. 684. The netted ground is made of dark brown Cordonnet 6 fils D. Lace edging for the square. two shades of Jaune-vieil Or 678 and 680 and with the third. Materials: The same as for fig. 687).—The peculiar charm of this most unpretending pattern ischiefly due to the variety of material and colour introduced into it. 30. Rouge-Géranium 353.—For the ground in loop and linen stitch: Bleu pâle 668. Colours—For the netting and the loop stitch: White or écru.M. for the netting and the loop stitches you may combine. Violet-Mauve 377 or Jaune- Rouille 365 may be used.

Jaune-vieil-Or 680. is used for the little centre squares and the pink crosses. Gris-Noisette 423. the following combination of colours. Pattern for ground. for the same pattern.M. namely. Chiné d'or. and isolated darned squares are framed with loose cord stitches in Coton à repriser colour Jaune-vieil-Or 680. . For the embroidery: Coton à repriser D.Fig. Ganse turque D. Colours: Brun-Havane 455. 687. between the loop stitches. gold with dark blue for the loop stitches.C colour card. Materials—For the netting: Cordonnet 6 fils D. Bleu pâle 668 for the netting. Gris-Tilleul 391 and Rouge-Géranium 352. in Jaune-d'Or 667 for the setting of all the different parts of the pattern. 12 (Turkish gold cord) for the darning stitches.C No.M. all to be found on the D.M.C Nos. for the detached darned squares and Coton à repriser. 15 to 30.[A] The same material in Rouge-Géranium. 25.M.C No. Coton à broder or Cordonnet 6 fils in Rouge- Cornouille 450. We can also recommend.

in the border. 688.[A] In order to make the isolated loop stitches. It must then be taken three times backwards and forwards over the foundation thread and the two bars of the netting. 689 and 690). linen stitch. . On a netted ground of rather fine thread.M. with plain. For the embroidery: Coton à broder D.Embroidery on netting with different-sized loops (fig. Fig. worked in rather a coarser thread than the ground.M. here forms the ground for the embroidery. and long ribbed bars worked in darning stitch. into and over 3 squares of the netting.—The netting. 688). Embroidery on netting with different-sized loops. oblong and double loops. the loops that form the stitches must be finished and the thread carried back to the knot whence it started. the thread which forms the cross in the middle must be carried to themiddle of the bar. described and represented in fig.plain wheels very close together. Materials—For the netting: Fil à dentelle D.—Few patterns admit of such a successful application of all the stitches hitherto described. The last row in the engraving shows the pattern in the successive stages of its development. when the stitches. we have in the first place. 620. Square and edging in cut netting (figs. as the square and edging presented to our readers in the two subjoined figures. white or écru. buttonholed bars with picots in the centre.C No. 40. 16. then raised wheels.C No. should be made.

whilst the middle one of the three upper ribbed wheels and the star are worked in dark Violet-Mauve 315. the same colour is also used for the wheels in the outside edge. is worked in the original in pale shades. each of which fills a square. in contrast to the square which is executed entirely in écru thread. The edging. . to match the square. Square in cut netting. the three lower ribbed wheels andthe long ribbed bars in darning stitch. The squares in the netted footing of the lace are loosely overcast with pale Violet-Mauve 316.Fig. and for the loop stitches round them. The crosses in linen stitch. are in Gris-Tilleul 392. 689.

40 white or écru.C No. the pattern itself is embroidered on the netting with Ganse turque D.M. several centuries old. Fig. — For the embroidery: Ganse turque D. 6 and 12. écru and gold mixed.C No.C Nos. even the most delicate handling almost impossible. to all appearance. Netting insertion—For the netting: Cordonnet 6 fils D. in three shades of one colour.—This is a copy of a beautiful piece of embroidered netting. but the drawing should be copied with great accuracy and the wide braid very carefully sewn on with close . gives the work a glittering and peculiarly elegant appearance.C Nos. already alluded to. Lace edging in cut netting. 12. and referred to again later on. the actual netting. unobtainable in any other. Netted insertion (fig. that is. for a thing of this kind. and the Turkish cord in which the original is made.M. has now been manufactured for netting purposes. this material. The execution is extremely easy.M.Fig. and in a state that rendered. Materials: Fil à dentelle D. it being worked entirely in darning stitch. 691). The first foundation. 691. 690.M. 25 to 50. the best result has been arrived at. as well as for other kinds of decorative work. should be made in white or écru thread. with very small meshes. After several experiments.

velvet or plush.stitches round the squares. . brocade. To give a single example. 12. was mounted on slate-blue plush and has been universally admired. Any netting pattern can be copied in this braid. and the simplest piece of work of the kind is worth mounting on a rich foundation of silk. the insertion here described and illustrated. which are filled in with darning stitches made in Ganse turque No.