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Table of Contents

Cover Control Systems Engineer (CSE) ................................................................................................ i


Notice from the Publisher .................................................................................................................... iii
This Reference Manual Covers All Subject Content for the PE/CSE Examination ............................... iv
Plan Your Study Time ........................................................................................................................... iv

Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................... 1

Introduction to This Study Guide ........................................................................................................ 19


About the Author ................................................................................................................................ 19
People who have contributed to the previous editions of this manual ............................................. 20

Tips on How to Use This Study Guide ................................................................................................ 21


Using Thumbnails to Navigate ............................................................................................................ 22
Using Bookmarks to Navigate ............................................................................................................. 23
Important File Attachments - Open by clicking on the paper clip! ..................................................... 24
How to Print this Manual .................................................................................................................... 24

Welcome to Control Systems Engineering ........................................................................................ 25


Licensing as Professional Engineer / Control Systems Engineer (CSE)................................................ 25
Why Become a Professional Engineer?............................................................................................... 28
This is the third edition of this study manual...................................................................................... 30
The new and expanded sections include: ........................................................................................... 30

Recommended Flow Chart of Study for the CSE ............................................................................... 31


Overview of Recommended Flow Chart of Study for the CSE ............................................................ 32

Examination General Information........................................................................................................ 33


State Licensing Requirements ............................................................................................................. 33
Eligibility .............................................................................................................................................. 33
Exam schedule..................................................................................................................................... 33
Description of Examination ................................................................................................................. 34
Exam content ...................................................................................................................................... 34
I. Measurement ............................................................................................................................ 34
II. Signals, Transmission, and Networking..................................................................................... 35
III. Final Control Elements .............................................................................................................. 35
IV. Control Systems ........................................................................................................................ 36
V. Safety Systems .......................................................................................................................... 37
VI. Codes, Standards, Regulations ................................................................................................. 37
Exam Scoring ....................................................................................................................................... 37

Reference Materials for the Exam ....................................................................................................... 39


Recommended Books and Materials to Take to the Exam ................................................................. 39
Books and Materials for Testing ......................................................................................................... 40
Books for Additional Study ................................................................................................................. 40
Courses for Additional Study .............................................................................................................. 41
ISA Control Systems Engineer (CSE) PE Review .................................................................................. 41
Industrial Network Training ................................................................................................................ 41
Control Systems Engineer (CSE) Supplement Course ......................................................................... 42
Online Process Plant @ Learn Control Systems.com .......................................................................... 42
1
Process Measurement Standards and Terminology ......................................................................... 43
Overview of process measurement, control and calibration ............................................................. 43
Process Signal and Calibration Terminology ....................................................................................... 44
Definition of the Range of an Instrument ........................................................................................... 44
Definition of the Span of an Instrument ............................................................................................. 45
Definition of the use of Zero in Instrumentation ................................................................................ 45
Live-Zero ........................................................................................................................................ 45
Elevated-Zero ................................................................................................................................. 45
Suppressed-Zero ............................................................................................................................ 45
Illustrations of range and span terminology ....................................................................................... 46
Illustrations of measured variable, measured signal, range and span ............................................... 47

Applications of Fluid Mechanics in Process Control ........................................................................ 49


Relationship of pressure and flow ...................................................................................................... 49
Applications of the formulas ............................................................................................................... 52
Summary of fluid mechanics for process control ............................................................................... 56

Temperature Measurement and Calibration ....................................................................................... 57


Temperature measurement devices and calibration.......................................................................... 57
Thermocouple - worked examples (how to read the thermocouple tables) ...................................... 59
RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) ............................................................................................ 60
Installing RTDs and Thermocouples into a process stream ................................................................ 63
Typical RTD and thermocouple applications....................................................................................... 64

Pressure Measurement and Calibration ............................................................................................. 65


Pressure measurement and head pressure ........................................................................................ 65
Applying pressure measurement and signals - worked examples ...................................................... 66
Differential pressure and meter calibration ....................................................................................... 66
Pressure change in a pipe for a given flow rate .................................................................................. 67
Pressure change across the flow element for a given flow rate ......................................................... 67
Pressure calibration of transmitter ..................................................................................................... 68

Level Measurement and Calibration.................................................................................................... 69


Applying level measurement and calibration - Worked examples ..................................................... 69
Level displacer (Buoyancy) .................................................................................................................. 72
Bubbler level measurement ................................................................................................................ 74
Density measurement ......................................................................................................................... 75
Interface level measurement .............................................................................................................. 76
Radar and Ultrasonic level measurement ........................................................................................... 78
Time of flight technology ............................................................................................................... 78
Ultrasonic level measurement ....................................................................................................... 78
Radar (non-contact) ....................................................................................................................... 78
Guided Wave Radar (GWR)............................................................................................................ 79
Capacitance level measurement ........................................................................................................ 79
Radiometric (gamma) level measurement ......................................................................................... 80
Level gauging system in a tank farm .................................................................................................. 80
Calculating the volume in tanks .......................................................................................................... 81

Flow Measurement and Calibration..................................................................................................... 83


Applying flow measurement devices .................................................................................................. 83
Turndown ratio in a flow meter .......................................................................................................... 83
ISA standard flow meter symbols ....................................................................................................... 83
Flow meter applications chart ............................................................................................................ 84

2
Pressure tappings (Impulse Line Taps) ................................................................................................ 84
Orifice tap dimensions and impulse line connections ........................................................................ 85
Various Types of Flow Meters ............................................................................................................. 88
Applying the Bernoulli principle for flow control................................................................................ 89
Types of Head Pressure based meters ................................................................................................ 90
Venturi meter................................................................................................................................. 90
ISO 5167 Orifice Plate and Orifice plate ......................................................................................... 90
Dall tube ......................................................................................................................................... 90
Pitot-Static tube ............................................................................................................................. 90
Multi-hole pressure probe ............................................................................................................. 90
Cone meters ................................................................................................................................... 90
Annubar meters (also reference averaging pitot tubes) ............................................................... 91
Differential head meter calculations................................................................................................... 91
Classic fluid mechanics model............................................................................................................. 91
“K” value flow coefficients ............................................................................................................. 92
The beta ratio ...................................................................................................................................... 95
Pipe Size Is Important - Remember! .............................................................................................. 96
Standard Flow Measurement Equations............................................................................................. 97
Spink - Flow Measurement Equation .................................................................................................. 97
The basic Spink equation derived .................................................................................................. 98
The basic Spink equation for liquid ................................................................................................ 99
The basic Spink equation for gas and vapor .................................................................................. 99
The basic Spink equation for steam ............................................................................................... 99
Applications of the Beta and Spink factors ............................................................................... 100
Table 3 – The Spink Factor (S) ........................................................................................................... 101
ISO 5167 - Flow Measurement Equation .......................................................................................... 102
The expansibility factor ................................................................................................................ 102
The discharge coefficient ............................................................................................................. 103
The ISO 5167 equation explained ................................................................................................ 103
Solve for the Reynolds number ‘Re’ ............................................................................................ 104
Solve for the coefficient ‘C’ .......................................................................................................... 104
Solve for mass flow rate: ............................................................................................................. 105
Solve for volumetric flow rate ..................................................................................................... 105
Equation Comparison Summary .................................................................................................. 106
Sizing orifice type devices for flow measurement - worked examples............................................. 106
Mass flow measurement and control ............................................................................................... 109
Applying mass flow measurement with an orifice - worked example .............................................. 112
Turbine meter applications ............................................................................................................... 113
Turbine flow meter - worked example ........................................................................................ 116

Weight Measurement and Calibration ............................................................................................... 119


Weight measurement devices and calibration ................................................................................. 119
Load cells ........................................................................................................................................... 119
Load cells for (flow, level, force) applications in process ................................................................. 120

Process Analyzers .............................................................................................................................. 121


Electrical conductivity and pH correction ......................................................................................... 121
How are pH and electrical conductivity measured? ......................................................................... 121
Control of pH values in processes ..................................................................................................... 121
Typical pH correction control scheme ......................................................................................... 122
Control of conductivity...................................................................................................................... 123
Instrument specifications and operating parameters ................................................................. 123

3
Common Plant Analyzers .................................................................................................................. 123
Boiling Point Analyzers................................................................................................................. 123
Vacuum Distillation Analyzer ....................................................................................................... 123
Flash Point Analyzer ..................................................................................................................... 124
Cloud Point Analyzer .................................................................................................................... 124
Freeze Point Analyzer .................................................................................................................. 124
Pour Point Analyzer ..................................................................................................................... 124
Color Analyzer .............................................................................................................................. 124
Combustion and Analyzers................................................................................................................ 124
Combustion furnace and air-fuel ratio control ............................................................................ 125
Air-Fuel ratio control utilizing CO and O2 concentrations ........................................................... 125
BMS - Burner Management Safety .............................................................................................. 125
OSHA Requirements .................................................................................................................... 125
Carbon dioxide (CO2) reading ...................................................................................................... 126
Examples of Process Analyzers ......................................................................................................... 126
Select the appropriate analyzer and configuration .......................................................................... 127
Typical Analyzer Piping and Control Schematic ................................................................................ 128

Process Control Valves and Actuators ............................................................................................. 129


Process control valves ....................................................................................................................... 129
Considerations when sizing a control valve ...................................................................................... 130
Flow Coefficient Cv ...................................................................................................................... 130
Specific Gravity ............................................................................................................................ 130
Operating Conditions ................................................................................................................... 130
ISA standard valve symbols ............................................................................................................... 131
ISA standard pressure regulating valve symbols............................................................................... 131
Valve actuators.................................................................................................................................. 132
ISA standard actuator symbols .................................................................................................... 132
Limit switches on a valve - ISA standard symbol .............................................................................. 133
Calculating the size of the actuator ............................................................................................. 133
Example actuator sizing ............................................................................................................... 134
Split ranging control valves ............................................................................................................... 135
Valve positioner applications ............................................................................................................ 137
ISA standard valve positioner symbols ........................................................................................ 137
Summary of positioners ............................................................................................................... 138
When should a positioner be used? ............................................................................................ 138
Electrical positioners .................................................................................................................... 138
Control valve application comparison chart ..................................................................................... 139
Understanding flow with valve characteristics ................................................................................. 140
What is the ΔP for valve sizing? ................................................................................................... 140
System piping ΔP pressure drops................................................................................................. 140
Control valve ΔP pressure drop ................................................................................................... 141
Graph of the Inherent valve characteristics (off the shelf).......................................................... 142
Which valve characteristic trim to use?....................................................................................... 142
Characteristic distortion in valves................................................................................................ 143
Gain and Rangeability (turndown ratio in valves) ....................................................................... 145
Proper control valve sizing ............................................................................................................ 146
Oversized valves present problems ............................................................................................. 147
Experiment and understand Installed valve characteristics ........................................................ 149
Summary of control valve characteristics .................................................................................... 150
Control Valve Sizing ........................................................................................................................... 151
The Valve Sizing Equations.......................................................................................................... 151

4
The Basic equation for liquid flow ............................................................................................... 151
The basic equation for gas flow ................................................................................................... 151
The basic equation for steam flow .............................................................................................. 151
Sizing valves for liquid - worked example ......................................................................................... 153
Sizing valves for gas - worked example ............................................................................................. 155
Sizing valves for vapor and steam - worked example ....................................................................... 158
Sizing valves for two phase flow - worked example ......................................................................... 161
Two Phase Flow Worked Example ............................................................................................... 163
ΔP Valve Limitations - Very Important!............................................................................................ 165
Flowing Quantity (the turndown ratio of a valve) ....................................................................... 165
Flashing ........................................................................................................................................ 166
Joule-Thomson Effect (J-T) – auto refrigeration in valves ........................................................... 166
Choked Flow................................................................................................................................. 166
Maximum ΔP and Maximum Flow (qmax) in Valves Applications ...................................................... 167
Determining qmax (Maximum Flow Rate) ..................................................................................... 167
Determining ΔPmax (the Allowable Sizing Pressure Drop) ............................................................ 168
Cavitation in valves ...................................................................................................................... 169
Check for cavitation and choked flow in a control valves - worked examples ................................. 170
Fluid Velocities through Control Valves ............................................................................................ 174
Viscosity Correction for Sizing Valves ............................................................................................... 175

Pressure Relief Valves and Rupture Disks ....................................................................................... 177


Pressure Relief Valves (PRV) and Pressure Safety Valves (PSV) ........................................................ 177
Important Note: (Do Not Throttle Pressure Relief Valves) .......................................................... 177
EPA regulations ............................................................................................................................ 178
Regulation details ........................................................................................................................ 178
PRD bypass ................................................................................................................................... 179
Pilot operated safety valve .......................................................................................................... 180
Bellow or balanced bellow and diaphragm ................................................................................. 181
Weight loaded PRV operation ..................................................................................................... 181
Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks ................................................................... 183
API Standards for pressure relieving systems ................................................................................... 186
CFR Standards for pressure relief required by federal law ............................................................... 187
API Standard 2000 – Venting atmospheric and low-pressure storage tanks .............................. 187
API Standard 2003 – Protection against ignitions from static, lightning, and stray currents ...... 188
API Standard 2350 – Overfill protection for storage tanks in petroleum facilities...................... 188
API Standard 2510 – Design and construction of LPG installations ............................................. 189
NFPA 30 – Flammable and combustible liquids code .................................................................. 190
Important excerpts from NFPA 30 code: .................................................................................. 190
Chapter 4: Tanks Storage .......................................................................................................... 190
Chapter 5: Piping Systems ......................................................................................................... 191
Chapter 6: Container and Portable Storage Tanks .................................................................... 191
Chapter 7: Operations ............................................................................................................... 192
ASME VIII code for sizing relief valves and rupture disks ............................................................ 193
Introduction to ASME VIII.......................................................................................................... 195
Overview Section VIII - Pressure Vessels................................................................................... 195
ASME VIII – Pressure relief requirements ................................................................................. 195
ASME VIII - Pressure limits in sizing........................................................................................... 196
Table 5 - ASME standard nozzle orifice data..................................................................................... 196
ISA pressure relief valve and rupture disc symbols .......................................................................... 197
Sizing equations for relief valves and rupture disks ......................................................................... 198
ASME VIII code equations USCS units .......................................................................................... 198
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A Note about sonic or choked flow ............................................................................................. 199
Variables for PRV and PSV sizing equations................................................................................. 199
Sizing rupture disks - worked examples ............................................................................................ 201
Sizing pressure relief valves - worked examples ............................................................................... 203

Review of Feedback Control Fundamentals .................................................................................... 209


Compare Open Loop Control to Closed Loop Control ...................................................................... 209
Open Loop Example – A Mathematical Analysis ............................................................................... 209
Closed Loop Example – A Mathematical Analysis ............................................................................. 211
The Transfer Function for the Automobile ....................................................................................... 213

Review of Frequency Response Fundamentals .............................................................................. 215


Electrical Application – A First Order System .................................................................................... 215
Bode Plot of First Order System ........................................................................................................ 216
Calculate the data for the Bode Plot ................................................................................................. 217
Creating a Bode Plot – First Order System using Frequency ............................................................ 220
Hydraulic Application – A First Order System ................................................................................... 221

Process Control Theory and Controller Tuning ............................................................................... 223


Degrees of Freedom in Process Control Systems ............................................................................. 223
Controllers and control strategies (models-modes) ......................................................................... 225
Process Loop Gain (Gp) ..................................................................................................................... 227
Process Signal Linearization .............................................................................................................. 228
Signal Filtering in Process Control ..................................................................................................... 230
Appling Signal Filters .................................................................................................................... 230
Filter Time Constant and Sample Time ........................................................................................ 231
Example of Filter Time Selection ................................................................................................. 232
DCS/PLC Sample and Scan Time Consideration ................................................................................ 233
Sampling time .............................................................................................................................. 233
Time per scan cycle ...................................................................................................................... 233
Tuning of Process Controllers ........................................................................................................... 234
Closed Loop Tuning of the Controller .......................................................................................... 234
Example: Tune Using Ultimate Gain (continuous cycling) ........................................................ 235
Open Loop Tuning of the Controller ............................................................................................ 236
Example: Tuning using Process Reaction Curve (Step Response) ............................................. 238
Advanced Tuning Methods for Controllers ....................................................................................... 239
The Integral Criteria Method ....................................................................................................... 239
Lambda Tuning Concepts ............................................................................................................. 239
Example Reactor Ratio Timing ..................................................................................................... 242
IMC Tuning Method ..................................................................................................................... 243
PID Controller Models.................................................................................................................. 244
Trial and Error Tuning Method .................................................................................................... 244
Dead Time and PID Control.......................................................................................................... 244
PID Tuning Video - Parameters in Action .......................................................................................... 244
Process Characteristics from the transfer function .......................................................................... 245
Poles, Zeros, and Dampening from the Transfer Function ............................................................... 245
Find the Poles from the Function ................................................................................................ 246
Find the Damping from the Function........................................................................................... 246
Find the Time Constant ................................................................................................................ 247
Find the Period ............................................................................................................................. 247
Find the Time Constant from the Period ..................................................................................... 247
Find Overshoot and Peak Value ................................................................................................... 247
Block Diagram Algebra ...................................................................................................................... 248
6
Example of Block Diagram Algebra Reduction .................................................................................. 249
Nyquist Stability Criterion ................................................................................................................. 250
Routh Stability Criterion .................................................................................................................... 251
Check for Stability using Routh (Example) ........................................................................................ 254

Communications and Industrial Control Networks ......................................................................... 257


Overview of Corporate and Plant Networks ..................................................................................... 257
Open System Interconnect (OSI) and TCP/IP network layer model.................................................. 259
7 Layers of networking in the OSI model ..................................................................................... 259
Physical (Layer 1) ....................................................................................................................... 259
Data Link (Layer 2) ..................................................................................................................... 259
Network (Layer 3) ...................................................................................................................... 259
Transport (Layer 4) .................................................................................................................... 259
Session (Layer 5) ........................................................................................................................ 260
Presentation (Layer 6) ............................................................................................................... 260
Application (Layer 7) ................................................................................................................. 260
Cisco Network Certification – IIOT (Industrial Internet of Things) for IT and OT ..............................260
The typical network model .......................................................................................................... 261
The Network Essentials ................................................................................................................ 263
Overview of Industrial Networks ...................................................................................................... 264
The most popular industrial networks and their applications are below.................................... 264
HART Networks ............................................................................................................................ 265
Traditional HART Network......................................................................................................... 265
A Wired HART Network ............................................................................................................. 266
A Wireless HART Network ......................................................................................................... 266
PROFIBUS and AS-i Networks ...................................................................................................... 267
Reasons for choosing PROFIBUS ............................................................................................... 267
PROFIBUS DP ............................................................................................................................. 267
PROFIBUS PA ............................................................................................................................. 268
PROFINET................................................................................................................................... 268
AS-i ............................................................................................................................................ 268
PROFIBUS Fieldbus Message Specification (FMS) ..................................................................... 269
PROFIBUS................................................................................................................................... 269
PROFIsafe .................................................................................................................................. 269
PROFIdrive................................................................................................................................. 269
Use of the OSI Networking Layers ............................................................................................. 269
PROFIBUS/AS-i/PROFINET Certifications: ................................................................................. 269
FOUNDATION Fieldbus . ...................................................................................................................... 270
Reasons for choosing FOUNDATION Fieldbus . ................................................................................ 270
H2 or HSE (High Speed Ethernet) .............................................................................................. 270
FOUNDATION H1 ......................................................................................................................... 270
Typical FOUNDATION Segments ................................................................................................. 271
Use of the OSI Networking Layers ............................................................................................. 271
Rockwell and ODVA (CIP) Networks ............................................................................................ 272
ControlNet ............................................................................................................................. 272
DeviceNet .............................................................................................................................. 273
EtherNet/IP............................................................................................................................ 274
CompoNet ............................................................................................................................. 274
DH485, DH+, RIO ................................................................................................................... 274
Modbus Networks........................................................................................................................ 275
Traditional Modbus Networks................................................................................................... 275
Communication and Devices ..................................................................................................... 275

7
Protocols.................................................................................................................................... 275
EtherCAT ...................................................................................................................................... 276
SERCOS ......................................................................................................................................... 276
Summary - Automation and Process Control Networks ............................................................. 277
Plant Facility Monitoring and Control System (FMCS) ................................................................ 277
BACnet ......................................................................................................................................... 278
LonWorks ..................................................................................................................................... 278
Typical Building Automation Network ......................................................................................... 278
Networked intelligent and smart devices .................................................................................... 279
PID control in intelligent networked devices ............................................................................... 279
PROFIBUS Control Blocks ............................................................................................................. 280
The Rosemount 333 Tri-Loop to split multiple variable signals................................................... 280

The Application of Digital Logic in Control Systems ...................................................................... 281


Overview of Digital Logic................................................................................................................... 281
Digital Logic Gate Symbols ................................................................................................................ 281
Digital Logic Gate Truth Tables ......................................................................................................... 282
ISA Binary Logic ................................................................................................................................. 283
Relay Ladder Logic............................................................................................................................. 284
Standard RLL Symbols ....................................................................................................................... 285
Sealing Circuits .................................................................................................................................. 285
Control System Architectures ........................................................................................................... 286
DCS Plant Wide Control System Architecture - Networked......................................................... 286
PLC Control System Architecture ................................................................................................. 288
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) vs PAC (Process Automation Controller) ......................... 288
Controller Application Function Comparison Chart..................................................................... 289
SCADA Control System Architecture ............................................................................................ 289
PLC Programming Languages ....................................................................................................... 290
PLC Programming (LD) ladder diagram or (RLL) relay ladder logic ........................................... 291
PLC Programming (ST) structured text ...................................................................................... 291
PLC Programming (FBD) functional block diagram ................................................................... 292
PLC Programming (SFC) sequential function chart ................................................................... 292
Writing a Program and Developing a HMI for a Small Systems ................................................... 293
RSLogix 5000, ControlLogix PIDE (PID Enhanced) Function Block Diagram ................................. 294

Motor Control and Logic Functions .................................................................................................. 297


Plant Electrical System ...................................................................................................................... 297
Motor Control Center (MCC)............................................................................................................. 297
Typical MCC Design ........................................................................................................................... 298
Typical Motor Controller.............................................................................................................. 298
How to Control a Motor .................................................................................................................... 299
Starter Auxiliary Contacts ............................................................................................................ 299
Overload and Fault....................................................................................................................... 299
The basic NEMA stop-start station ................................................................................................... 300
Typical Motor Control Schematic ................................................................................................ 300
NEMA and IEC Terminal Designations .............................................................................................. 301
NEMA Standards Publication ICS 19-2002 (R2007) ................................................................... 301
Relays and Contacts .................................................................................................................. 301
Coil Lettering and Relay Socket Numbers (NEMA and IEC Numbers) ......................................... 301
Standard Symbols ....................................................................................................................... 303
Standard Symbols (Continued) .................................................................................................... 304
NEMA and IEC Comparisons ........................................................................................................ 305

8
Stop-Start Station Control Circuit Schematic ............................................................................... 306
Starter Control Circuit Schematic ................................................................................................ 306
Relay Ladder Logic (RLL) and Function Blocks................................................................................... 307
RLL and Their Boolean Functions ................................................................................................. 307
Putting Ladder Logic into the PLC ................................................................................................ 308
Example of a Safety System in a PLC............................................................................................ 309
Safety Logic in the PLC ................................................................................................................. 310
Alarming on Sensor Input Failure .............................................................................................. 310
The PLC Logic for Valve and Alarm Monitoring ........................................................................... 311
Schematic to Programming Languages ..................................................................................... 311

The Application of Analog Circuits in Control Systems ................................................................. 313


Overview of Analog Signals ............................................................................................................... 313
Typical Analog Loop Wiring Diagram ........................................................................................... 313
Simplified signal transmitters that maintain constant flow rate for measurement variable ...... 314
Constant Current Loops and Ohm’s Law ..................................................................................... 315
Current Loop Fundamentals ........................................................................................................ 315
The 4-20 mA Current Loop........................................................................................................... 315
Using Current to Transmit Transducer Data ................................................................................ 316
Current Loop Components ........................................................................................................ 316
Current Loop System ................................................................................................................. 316
Designing a Current Loop System ................................................................................................ 317
Choosing a Power Supply .......................................................................................................... 317
Adding More Transducers and Instruments ................................................................................ 318
Devices in Series ........................................................................................................................ 319
A typical Current Loop Repeater.................................................................................................. 320
Active and Passive Current Loops ................................................................................................ 321
Sinking and Sourcing Devices ....................................................................................................... 322
What is the difference between PNP and NPN? ....................................................................... 322
PNP Sensor verses NPN Sensor ................................................................................................. 323

Overview of Motion Controller Applications .................................................................................... 325


Motion Control Systems.................................................................................................................... 325
The basic architecture of a motion control system contains: ..................................................... 325
Stepper Motor ............................................................................................................................. 325
Closed-Loop Stepper Motor ...................................................................................................... 325
Stepper motor advantages .......................................................................................................... 326
Linear motion control................................................................................................................ 326
Series vs. parallel connection .................................................................................................... 326
Servo motor systems ................................................................................................................... 327
Advanced motion controls ........................................................................................................ 327
Position plus velocity system .................................................................................................... 327
Electro-hydraulic Servo System ................................................................................................... 328
Position and pressure/force control ......................................................................................... 328
Position transducers .................................................................................................................. 328
Fieldbus interfaces .................................................................................................................... 329
Applications of servo systems...................................................................................................... 329
Soft Starter Applications ................................................................................................................... 329
How does a soft starter work? ..................................................................................................... 329
Benefits of choosing a soft starter ............................................................................................... 330
Variable Frequency Drive .................................................................................................................. 330
How does a variable frequency drive work? ............................................................................... 330

9
Conversion from AC to DC to AC PWM ........................................................................................ 331
Volts to Hertz Relationship .......................................................................................................... 334
Important Note about Low Frequency in VFDs ........................................................................... 335
VFDs put Noise into the Electrical System ................................................................................... 335
PID Control with VFD or DC Drive ................................................................................................ 336
Closed loop control with drive electronics................................................................................ 336
Block diagram of PID control with feedback operation available on some VFDs ..................... 336
Drive with built-in PID tension control of web or winding reel operation................................ 336

Electrical Systems and Power Quality .............................................................................................. 337


Filtering Power and Harmonics ......................................................................................................... 337
Harmonic Neutralizing Transformers........................................................................................... 337
Filtering of a Harmonics in Power Systems.................................................................................. 338
Passive Filter ................................................................................................................................ 338
Active Filter .................................................................................................................................. 339
Proper Grounding Procedures .......................................................................................................... 341

Emergency Standby Systems ............................................................................................................ 343


Article 700 – Emergency Systems ..................................................................................................... 343
Article 701 – Legally Required Standby Systems .............................................................................. 343
Article 702 – Optional Standby Systems ........................................................................................... 343
UPS (uninterruptible power supply) ............................................................................................ 343
UPS and Battery Bank Sizing ........................................................................................................ 344
Load Profile Calculation............................................................................................................. 347
Battery Sizing Calculation .......................................................................................................... 348
Worked Example – Sizing the Battery Bank .............................................................................. 349
Backup Generator ........................................................................................................................ 351
BMCS Implementation (Building Monitoring and Controls System) ................................................ 352

Hydraulics and Pneumatics ............................................................................................................... 353


Fluid Power Systems ......................................................................................................................... 353
Hydraulic Systems ........................................................................................................................ 353
Pneumatic Systems ...................................................................................................................... 355
Typical Pneumatic System (this type may be found in a manufacturing or chemical plant) ...... 355
Mechanical Flow Diagram of a Large Compressor .................................................................... 355
Instrumentation Air Header (Fluid Distribution Header or Manifold) ...................................... 355
Pneumatic Schematic of Valve Controller ................................................................................. 356
I/P Current to Pneumatic Positioner ......................................................................................... 356
Instrument Air Cost - Engineering Economics ............................................................................. 357
Assumption .................................................................................................................................. 357
Peak air demand .......................................................................................................................... 357
Vendor data ................................................................................................................................. 357
Include Total Demand .................................................................................................................. 358
Instrument Air Piping and Cost .................................................................................................... 358
Pipe sizing is just like sizing electrical lines ....................................................................................... 359
Caution Using Charts and Graphs ................................................................................................ 359
Interconnects and headers .......................................................................................................... 359
The Target Objectives .................................................................................................................. 359
Eliminate the pressure drop ........................................................................................................ 360
Air Velocity ................................................................................................................................... 360
Crunching the Numbers ............................................................................................................... 361
Recover Wasted Heat to Save Money ......................................................................................... 362

10
Fluid Power Schematic Symbols ....................................................................................................... 363

Overview of Conveying Technologies .............................................................................................. 371


Some common types of conveying systems are as follows: ............................................................. 371
Heavy Duty Roller Conveyors....................................................................................................... 371
Flexible Conveyors ....................................................................................................................... 371
Vertical Conveyors and Spiral Conveyors .................................................................................... 372
Spiral Conveyors .......................................................................................................................... 372
Vertical conveyor with forks ........................................................................................................ 372
Vibrating Conveyors ..................................................................................................................... 372
Pneumatic and Vacuum Conveyors .................................................................................................. 373
Pneumatic Tube Conveyor Systems............................................................................................. 373
Large Complex Pneumatic Conveying Systems............................................................................ 374
Typical Plant Pneumatic Conveying System .............................................................................. 374
HMI for Pneumatic Conveying System ...................................................................................... 374
Dilute Phase Systems ................................................................................................................ 375
Dense Phase Systems ................................................................................................................ 375
Conveying Phase Diagram ......................................................................................................... 376
Pressure Distance Relationships ............................................................................................... 377
Vacuum Conveying ...................................................................................................................... 377
A typical vacuum product transportation system ..................................................................... 378
Vacuum conveying systems and HMI display ........................................................................... 378
Vacuum conveying system HMI display .................................................................................... 378
Blower operating cost of pneumatic systems.............................................................................. 379
Screw conveying systems............................................................................................................. 379
Screw conveyor instruments ..................................................................................................... 380
Mass or bulk flow measurement ................................................................................................. 380
Radiometric measurement for mass flow rate ......................................................................... 380
Load cell measurement for mass flow rate ............................................................................... 380
Mass flow control of conveying system ....................................................................................... 381
Radiometric measurement for mass flow rate ......................................................................... 381
Load Cell (Strain Gauge) measurement for mass flow rate ...................................................... 381
Typical scale systems used on manufacturing lines and in plants ............................................ 382

Chemical Process Technology and Equipment ............................................................................... 383


Process Technologies ........................................................................................................................ 383
Separation Processes ........................................................................................................................ 384
A Typical Horizontal 3-Phase Separator....................................................................................... 384
Industrial Distillation ......................................................................................................................... 384
A Typical Industrial Distillation Process ....................................................................................... 385
A Typical Distillation Unit ............................................................................................................. 385
Industrial Furnaces (Fired Heaters) ................................................................................................... 386
Industrial Furnaces....................................................................................................................... 386
Fired Heater Control Scheme....................................................................................................... 387
Expansion Tanks and Heat Transfer Fluid ......................................................................................... 387
Vapor Pressure, Boiling and Cavitation in Equipment ...................................................................... 389
Vaporization in Equipment .......................................................................................................... 389
Control Valve Applications ........................................................................................................... 389
Pumping Applications .................................................................................................................. 389
Video of Vaporization and Cavitation Phenomenon ................................................................... 390
Heat Exchangers ................................................................................................................................ 391
Flow Arrangement ....................................................................................................................... 391
Shell and Tube Heat exchanger ................................................................................................... 392
11
Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger................................................................................. 392
Phase-change heat exchangers ................................................................................................. 392
Reboiler as seen on a distillation column.................................................................................. 392
Heat Exchanger BTU Calculation and Control.............................................................................. 393
Example of how to control the heat exchanger: ......................................................................... 393
Condenser (heat transfer) ................................................................................................................. 394
Evaporation Processes ...................................................................................................................... 395
What is evaporation? ................................................................................................................... 395
What is latent heat?..................................................................................................................... 395
What is the boiling point? ............................................................................................................ 395
Various Types of Evaporators and Their Working Principles............................................................ 395
Vertical Falling Film Evaporator ................................................................................................... 395
Horizontal Film Evaporator.......................................................................................................... 396
Low Temperature Vacuum Evaporator........................................................................................ 397
Using the Psychrometric Chart ......................................................................................................... 399
Cooling Towers .................................................................................................................................. 401
Cooling Tower Calculations .......................................................................................................... 401
Cooling tower water loss and make-up ....................................................................................... 402
Cooling tower control scheme and operating cost .......................................................................... 404
Typical pH correction system ....................................................................................................... 405
Chemical Reactors and Control ......................................................................................................... 406
What is a Reactor? .................................................................................................................... 406
Types of Reactors ...................................................................................................................... 406
Basic Control Scheme for a Reactor ............................................................................................ 407
CSTR (Constant Stirred Tank Reactor) ....................................................................................... 407
Hydrocracking Reactor Controls .................................................................................................. 407
Chemical Scrubbers ........................................................................................................................... 408
Wet exhaust gas cleaning ............................................................................................................ 408
Wet gas scrubber ......................................................................................................................... 409
Dry scrubbing ............................................................................................................................... 410
Scrubber waste products ............................................................................................................. 410
Bacteria spread ............................................................................................................................ 410
Dehydration Processes...................................................................................................................... 411
Absorption ................................................................................................................................... 411
Joule-Thompson effect...................................................................................................................... 413
Crystallization Technology ................................................................................................................ 414
Static Crystallization ..................................................................................................................... 414
Falling Film Crystallization ........................................................................................................... 416
Suspension Crystallization ........................................................................................................... 416
Process flow diagram suspension crystallization ......................................................................... 417
Freeze Concentration................................................................................................................... 417
Overview of a small crystallization plant to control .................................................................... 418
Flare and Vent Disposal Systems ...................................................................................................... 418
Types of flares .............................................................................................................................. 418
Flare Control Systems .................................................................................................................. 419
Quality Control Standards for Production of Products ..................................................................... 419

ISA Standards for Documentation..................................................................................................... 421


ISA Instrument or Function Symbol .................................................................................................. 421
ISA Line Type Symbols ....................................................................................................................... 422
Standard Line Types .......................................................................................................................... 422
ISA Identification Letters ................................................................................................................... 423

12
ISA P&ID Identification (Controllers and Readouts) .......................................................................... 424
ISA P&ID Identification (Transmitters, Switches and Alarms) .......................................................... 425
ISA P&ID Identification (Compute, Relay and Elements) ................................................................. 426
Piping and Equipment Symbols......................................................................................................... 427
Standard P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Diagram) ..................................................................... 428
P&ID Sample 1 (Functions) .......................................................................................................... 428
P&ID Sample 2 (Alarms) ............................................................................................................... 429
P&ID Sample 3 (Separator) .......................................................................................................... 429
EM (Equipment Modules) as in the ISA-88 Standard ................................................................... 430
Cross Limiting Control of Furnace ................................................................................................ 430
Simplified P&ID Sample 1 ............................................................................................................ 431
Simplified P&ID Sample 2 ............................................................................................................ 431
ISA Standard PFD (Piping Flow Diagram) or MFD (Mechanical Flow Diagram) ................................ 432
PFD (Piping Flow Diagram) Sample 1 ........................................................................................... 432
BFD (Block Flow Diagram) ................................................................................................................. 434
BFD Sample 1 ............................................................................................................................... 434
BFD Sample 2 ............................................................................................................................... 434
ISA Standard Loop Diagram .............................................................................................................. 435
Instrument Location and Elevation Plan Drawing ............................................................................ 437
Instrument Index Sheet..................................................................................................................... 438
DCS or PLC I/O List (A List of Inputs and Outputs with Tags and Calibration Data) .......................... 439
ISA Standard (HMI) Graphical Display Symbols and Designations ................................................... 440
HMI Sample 1 ............................................................................................................................... 440
HMI Sample 2 ............................................................................................................................... 441
NFPA 79 Colors for Graphical Displays (Industrial Machinery) ......................................................... 441
Battery Limits of the Plant ................................................................................................................ 442

Overview of Safety Instrumented Systems ...................................................................................... 443


Overview of process safety and shutdown ....................................................................................... 443
SIS (Safety Instrumented Systems) .............................................................................................. 443
Complying with IEC 61511 / ISA-84 .............................................................................................. 443
Other codes related to SIS systems ............................................................................................. 444
ISA and OSHA letter defining the requirements of the implementation of SIS systems .................. 444
Initiating Events of Safety Instrumented Systems ....................................................................... 445
Initiating Event ............................................................................................................................. 445
Examples ...................................................................................................................................... 445
External Events ............................................................................................................................ 445
Equipment Failures ...................................................................................................................... 445
Human Failures ............................................................................................................................ 445
The difference between BPCS and SIS systems ................................................................................ 446
IEC 61508 mandatory and guidelines .......................................................................................... 447
SIF and SIL.......................................................................................................................................... 448
Risk analysis and protection layers .............................................................................................. 448
Designing a SIS System ...................................................................................................................... 449
SIL (Safety Integrity Level) – Unit for Functional Safety .............................................................. 449
SFF – Safe Failure Fraction ........................................................................................................... 450
Probability of Failures on Demand (PFD) ..................................................................................... 451
Probability of Failures per Hour (PFH) ......................................................................................... 451
SIL Capability and Safety System ................................................................................................. 452
SIF (Safety Instrumented Function) ............................................................................................. 453
A typical P&ID of the (SIF) Instrumentation................................................................................. 453
Voting or (Polling of the System) ................................................................................................. 454

13
A typical voting system and its instrumentation for the above P&ID ....................................... 454
Types of Voting (X out of X) ....................................................................................................... 454
Voting Probabilities ...................................................................................................................... 455
The SIS calculations ........................................................................................................................... 455
Quantification of Reliability in almost absolute terms ................................................................ 455
Failure Models – The Bathtub Curve ........................................................................................... 456
Reliability Laws............................................................................................................................. 457
Improving the reliability of a measurement system ................................................................. 457
Safety Integrity Level (SIL) and Availability .................................................................................. 458
Sample of SIL Evaluation ........................................................................................................... 458
Acronyms................................................................................................................................... 458
Metrics used in the reliability engineering field involving SIS .......................................................... 459
2. MTTR = Mean Time to Repair ............................................................................................ 459
3. MTBF – Mean Time Between Failures ............................................................................... 459
4. Availability A(t) and Unavailability U(t) ............................................................................. 460
5. Probability of Failure on Demand (PFDavg) and Periodic Test and Inspection ................. 460
SIS Calculations - worked example .............................................................................................. 462
Calculating PFD (Probability of Failure on Demand) ............................................................. 463
Calculating MTTF (Mean Time to Failure) Based on Failure Rates…......................................463
Calculating MTBF based on failures ...................................................................................... 463
SIS and SIL – worked examples .......................................................................................................... 464
Example 1: Pump Failure Rate (FR) ....................................................................................... 464
Example 2: MTBF over 10 years ............................................................................................ 464
Example 3: PFD and Test Interval .......................................................................................... 465
Recommended SIS Study Material .................................................................................................... 466
Excerpts from Process Safebook 1 – Rockwell Automation ............................................................. 466

Overview of NEC / NFPA and Other Codes ...................................................................................... 469


CFR (Federal Government) Public Safety Standards of the United States........................................ 469
List of NFPA codes (be familiar with these codes) ............................................................................ 472
NFPA 70 – NEC (National Electrical Code)......................................................................................... 472
Voltage Drop Calculations............................................................................................................ 473
Substitute specific resistance (k) for resistance (R) of wire ...................................................... 473
Wire and cable sizing formulas for voltage drop ...................................................................... 473
Voltage drop calculations – worked examples ............................................................................ 474
NEC Article 500 Explosion Proof Installations .............................................................................. 476
Class I Hazardous Location NEC Article 501 ................................................................................. 476
Class I Location Definition ..................................................................................................... 476
Class I Division Definitions ..................................................................................................... 477
Class I Group Definitions ....................................................................................................... 477
Class I Temperature Definition .............................................................................................. 478
Class II Hazardous Location NEC Article 502 ................................................................................ 478
Class II Location Definition .................................................................................................... 478
Class II Division Definitions .................................................................................................... 478
Class II Group Definitions ...................................................................................................... 479
Class II Temperature Class ..................................................................................................... 479
Class III Hazardous Location NEC Article 503 ............................................................................... 479
Class III Location Definition ................................................................................................... 479
Class III Division Definitions ................................................................................................... 479
Class III Group Definitions ..................................................................................................... 480
Use of Zone Classifications........................................................................................................... 480
Classification Comparison (Zone/Division) for a Class I Location.............................................. 480

14
Group Comparison (Zone/ Division) for a Class I Location ........................................................ 481
Protection Methods Comparison Class ..................................................................................... 481
Designation of NEC/CEC Classification......................................................................................... 482
Hazardous Location Classification ............................................................................................. 482
Summary the various hazardous (classified) locations. ............................................................... 483
Hazardous Location Wiring Methods .......................................................................................... 484
Purged and pressurized systems ................................................................................................. 485
Intrinsically safe systems ............................................................................................................. 485
Zener diode barrier (configurations) ......................................................................................... 485
Conventional passive IS Zener barriers ................................................................................. 485
Active (powered) IS isolation barriers ................................................................................... 485
NEC Article 409 and UL 508A ............................................................................................................ 486
What is NEC 409 and UL 508A? ................................................................................................... 486
SCCR (Short-circuit current rating) of industrial control panels .................................................. 486
Components in the power circuit ................................................................................................ 486
SCCR calculations – worked examples ......................................................................................... 487
NEC Articles for Remote Control and Signaling ................................................................................ 488
Article Categories ......................................................................................................................... 488
Cabling Installations and Applications (Types and Ratings) ......................................................... 489
Cables Selection for Installation per NEC Code ........................................................................... 489
Article 725 - Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, Remote-control Circuits .................................................... 491
Power sources .............................................................................................................................. 492
Class 1 methods and materials .................................................................................................... 492
Class 2 and Class 3 methods and materials ................................................................................. 492
Article 800 - Communications Circuits......................................................................................... 493
Examples of Article 725, 727 and 800 in instrumentation and controls ..................................... 494
NEMA Electrical Enclosures Types and Uses ..................................................................................... 496
Non-hazardous location NEMA enclosure types ......................................................................... 496
Table 10 – Indoor Nonhazardous Locations ................................................................................ 497
Table 11 - Outdoor Nonhazardous Locations .............................................................................. 498
Table 12 - Hazardous Locations ................................................................................................... 499
Temperature Rise Calculation ................................................................................................... 499
NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety ........................................................................................... 500
What is NFPA 70E? ....................................................................................................................... 500
What is Arc Flash.......................................................................................................................... 500
Approach / Protection Boundaries .............................................................................................. 501
Arc Flash Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 501
Required Arc Flash Warning Label ............................................................................................... 501
NFPA 77 Static Electricity .................................................................................................................. 502
1.2 Purpose .................................................................................................................................. 502
8.1 General overview ................................................................................................................... 502
8.3.1 Charge generation .............................................................................................................. 503
G.1 Grounding diagrams .............................................................................................................. 504
NFPA 780 Lightning Protection (formerly NFPA 78) ......................................................................... 505
NFPA 780 and NFPA 70 (NEC) ...................................................................................................... 505
Strike-termination devices ........................................................................................................ 505
Connecting conductors to electrodes ....................................................................................... 505
Routing down conductors ......................................................................................................... 506
Conductor and electrode connection ....................................................................................... 506
Earth-grounding electrodes ...................................................................................................... 506
Summary of lightning protection components ............................................................................ 506
Air terminal height .................................................................................................................... 506
15
Conductor bends ....................................................................................................................... 506
Conductor size and material ........................................................................................................ 507
Transient Protection from Lightning Strikes ................................................................................ 507
NFPA 79 Industrial Machinery........................................................................................................... 509
Conductor sizing........................................................................................................................... 509
Conductor colors .......................................................................................................................... 509
Pushbutton functions for color .................................................................................................... 509
Colors for Machine Indicator Lights and Icons Table 10.3.2 ........................................................ 509
NFPA 496 Purged and Pressurized Systems ...................................................................................... 510
Overview of the NFPA 496 articles .............................................................................................. 510
Factors to consider (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-3) ..................................................................................... 510
Location of the control room (NFPA 496, Secs. 5-3.1(c) and 5-3.2) ............................................ 510
Positive pressure air systems (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-4.1) .................................................................. 511
Type X equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-4.4) ................................................................................... 511
Type Y equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-4.5) ................................................................................... 511
Type Z equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-4.5) ................................................................................... 511
Examples of Purged and Pressurized Systems ............................................................................. 512
Basic design of purged enclosures ............................................................................................... 512
Basic design of purged buildings .................................................................................................. 513
40 CFR and EPA - LDAR ...................................................................................................................... 514
The Clean Air Act (CAA)................................................................................................................ 514
What the Law Requires ................................................................................................................ 514

Putting It All Together ......................................................................................................................... 515


Define the Scope of the Plant ........................................................................................................... 515
Define the Control Systems Architecture ......................................................................................... 516
Some Typical Large DCS Architectures .............................................................................................. 517
More on DCS Cabinets and I/O Distribution ..................................................................................... 518
Distributing the Power and Control .................................................................................................. 519
Routing the Cable Trays .................................................................................................................... 520
Choose the Wiring Method ............................................................................................................... 521
Field Distribution Systems................................................................................................................. 522
Class I, Division 2 Installations ..................................................................................................... 523
Class I, Division 1 Installations ..................................................................................................... 523
Modular Wiring Distribution Systems.......................................................................................... 524
Instrument Air Supply and Pneumatic Tubing .................................................................................. 525
Instrument Air Consumption ....................................................................................................... 525
Compressor Types........................................................................................................................ 526
Piping System and Manifold ........................................................................................................ 526
Air Pipe Header ......................................................................................................................... 526
Pneumatic Tubing...................................................................................................................... 526
Air Distribution Manifold (Header) ........................................................................................... 527
Routing of Pneumatic Tubing .................................................................................................... 527
Heat Tracing Systems ........................................................................................................................ 528
Electric Heat Tracing .................................................................................................................... 528
Steam Heat Tracing ...................................................................................................................... 529
Free Heat Tracing Software ......................................................................................................... 530
Determine Scope of Design ............................................................................................................... 530
Electrical Scope ............................................................................................................................ 531
Instrumentation and Mechanical Scope ...................................................................................... 531
Design of Electrical Plans ............................................................................................................. 532
Sample of a possible design for the control network and communications in plant .................. 533

16
Sample of a possible plan for routing of cable tray and conduit in plant .................................... 534
Sample of a possible layout for a MCC building with medium voltage switchgear installed ...... 535
Sample of a possible one-line electrical diagram for the low voltage in the MCC building ....... 536
Sample of a possible ladder diagram for the control of an Allen Bradley frequency drive ......... 537
Sample of a possible electrical field wiring diagram for the frequency drive ............................. 538
Sample of a possible electrical field wiring diagram routing the analog instruments to DCS ..... 539
Locations of Instruments and Piping Design ..................................................................................... 541
Finding the location of an instrument in a plant ......................................................................... 547

Useful Equations for Pumping, Piping and Sizing Valves .............................................................. 549
Find pipe diameter with velocity of flow known .............................................................................. 549
Find flow velocity with pipe diameter known................................................................................... 549
Find pipe diameter with temperature and pressure correction ....................................................... 549
Find flow velocity with temperature and pressure correction ......................................................... 549
Find the Reynolds Number for the flow............................................................................................ 549
Calculate the Piping Head Losses to Size a Control Valve ................................................................. 550
Find the pump motor size (break horsepower) ................................................................................ 551
Calculating the Hydraulic Horsepower of pumps ........................................................................ 551
Calculating the Brake Horsepower of pumps .............................................................................. 552
Correct Pump Head and Flow Rate for Fluid Viscosity ................................................................ 553
Piping Absolute Roughness Values ................................................................................................... 556

Applications of Pumping Systems .................................................................................................... 557


Pump Basics ...................................................................................................................................... 557
Static Head ........................................................................................................................................ 557
Applying Variable Frequency Drives to Pumps to Realize Savings ................................................... 558
Pumps with Variable Frequency Drives (VFD).................................................................................. 558
When Can You Save with a VFD? ...................................................................................................... 559
Sizing a Pump Head with Specific Gravity of the Pumped Fluid ....................................................... 560
How a Piping System Works .............................................................................................................. 561

Calculating Volume in Tanks ............................................................................................................. 564


Cylindrical Tanks Upright .................................................................................................................. 565
Cylindrical Tanks on Side ................................................................................................................... 565
Spherical Tanks.................................................................................................................................. 566
Bullet Tanks ....................................................................................................................................... 566

Examination Sample Questions ........................................................................................................ 567


Sample Questions ............................................................................................................................. 567
Answers to Examination Sample Questions ..................................................................................... 574
Explanations and Proofs of Examination Sample Questions ............................................................ 575

Preparing this Guide for the Exam .................................................................................................... 587


An Avery tab template is included with this guide ........................................................................... 587
Suggested tabbing the guide............................................................................................................. 587

Guide to Using the Fisher Control Valve Handbook ....................................................................... 589


Important Sections to Review ........................................................................................................... 589
Important Pages to Tab ..................................................................................................................... 589
Valve and materials Selection ...................................................................................................... 589
Actuator Sizing Methods.............................................................................................................. 590
Valve Sizing Methods ................................................................................................................... 590
Electrical Apparatus ..................................................................................................................... 590

17
Engineering Data .......................................................................................................................... 590
Piping System Applications .......................................................................................................... 590
Conversions and Equivalents ....................................................................................................... 591

Appendix and Data Tables ................................................................................................................. 593


Table A1 - Thermocouple Table (Type J) ........................................................................................... 594
Table A2 - Thermocouple Table (Type K) .......................................................................................... 596
Table A3 - Thermocouple Table (Type E) .......................................................................................... 599
Table A4 - Thermocouple Table (Type T) .......................................................................................... 601
Table A5 - Platinum 100 Ohm RTD Table in ohms ............................................................................. 602
Table A6 - Properties of Water Specific Gravity and LBs/HR to GPM ............................................... 603
Table A7 - Properties of Water Specific Volume and Density ........................................................... 604
Table A8 - Properties of Water Kinematic Viscosity centistokes ...................................................... 605
Table A9 - Properties of Saturated Steam......................................................................................... 606
Table A10 - Valve Selection – Materials and Applications ................................................................ 611
Valve Terms.................................................................................................................................. 611
Selecting your Valve ..................................................................................................................... 611
Valve Types and Descriptions ...................................................................................................... 612
Valve Selection Overview - Service Application Chart ................................................................. 614
Valve Selection Detailed - Service Application Chart................................................................... 615
Valve Types - Advantages and Disadvantages ............................................................................. 616
Standard Control Valve Body Materials ....................................................................................... 617
Valve Seat Leakage Bubbles per Minute...................................................................................... 619
Valve Trim Material Temperature Limits...................................................................................... 620
Valve Service Temperature Limits for Non-Metallic Materials.................................................... 621
Valve Stem Packing Friction Values (Typical)............................................................................... 622
Valve Stem Packing Temperature – Pressure .............................................................................. 622
Valve Seating Shutoff Pressure .................................................................................................... 623
Abbreviations and Terminology.................................................................................................... 624
Table A11 - Properties and Sizing Cv Coefficients for Fisher ED Globe Valves ................................. 625
Table A12 - Properties and Sizing Cv Coefficients for Fisher Rotary Valves...................................... 628
Table A13 - Numerical Constants for Control Valve Sizing Formulas ............................................... 629
Table A14 - Critical Pressure and Temperature of Elements ............................................................ 630
Table A15 - Pipe Standard Dimensions and Data.............................................................................. 631
Table A16 - NEC Wire Ampacity Table 310.16 .................................................................................. 633
Table A17 - NEC Conductor Properties and Impedance ................................................................... 634
Table A18 - NEC Full Load Motor Currents ....................................................................................... 637
Table A19 - NEC Grounding and Bonding Conductors ...................................................................... 638
Table A20 - Specific Gravity and Gas Constants for Some Common Gases ...................................... 639
Table A21 - Specific Gravity Common Fluids..................................................................................... 641
Table A22 - The kinematic viscosity common fluids ......................................................................... 644
Table A23 - The absolute viscosity common liquids ......................................................................... 651
Table A24 - The absolute viscosity common gases ........................................................................... 653
Table A25 - Density of Elements in English and Metric Units ........................................................... 654
Table A26 - Metric Conversion Tables .............................................................................................. 655
Table A27 - Standard Conditions and Gas Laws ................................................................................ 657
Table A28 - Head Loss in Piping Systems .......................................................................................... 658
Table A29 - Maximal flow velocity in pipes....................................................................................... 659
Table A30 - Pressure Vapor Chart of Common Liquids ..................................................................... 660

References ........................................................................................................................................... 661

18
Temperature Measurement and Calibration

Temperature measurement devices and calibration

In the process industry, temperature measurements are typically made with thermocouples, RTDs
(Resistance Temperature Detector) and industrial thermometers. Industrial thermometers are typically of
the liquid (class I), vapor (class II), and gas (class III) type.

Standard Thermocouple Configurations


Single Grounded Dual Grounded Unisolated In plants there are five major types
of thermocouple (TC) configurations
used. They are shown to the left.

The first two thermocouples are


welded or grounded, as shown, to
the outside metal protective
Dual Ungrounded sheathing.
Single Ungrounded
Unisolated
The bottom three thermocouples
are ungrounded and should never
touch the metal protective
sheathing; otherwise they are
shorted to ground
Dual Ungrounded Isolated

Most Popular Types Used in Process Plant Temperature Measurements

J-Type K-Type The four major thermocouples used


in the process industry for
temperature measurement are: J-
Type, E-Type, K-Type, and T-Type.

The red wire is always the negative


wire with thermocouples.
E-Type T-Type
Thermocouple terminal junction blocks
should be made of the same material
as the thermocouple wire that is being
connected to terminal. This will prevent
additional thermocouple (TC) junction
points from being introduced in the
temperature signal. Some companies
use standard terminal strips, this can
cause an error in the signal.

Thermocouple Extension Wiring

Thermocouples should be extended with thermocouple extension wire and thermocouple termination
blocks, but can be extended with standard copper wire and standard terminal blocks. This is due to
the fact that the voltages generated at the extension junctions almost cancel each other out with very
little error. One side is positive (the color: yellow, white, purple, etc.) and the other side is negative
(always red, except in some extension wires).
57
Thermocouple millivolt tables for the examination can be found in the Table A1 – Thermocouple Table
(Type J) through Table A4 – Thermocouple Table (Type T) in the Appendix section of this guide.

Thermocouple Linearity Chart

Thermocouple Makeup Material and Color Code

TC THEMOCOUPLE RANGE USEFUL TC COLORS


Type MATERIAL FOR CALIB. RANGE
DEG F DEF F

Purple Wire Jacket


Chromel (+)
E -300 to 1830 200 to 1650 Purple (+)
Constantan (-)
Red (-)

Black Wire Jacket


Iron (+) 200 to 1400
J -320 to 1400 Black (+)
Constantan (-) (300 to 800)
Red (-)

Yellow Wire Jacket


Chromel (+)
K -310 to 250 200 to 2300 Yellow (+)
Alumel (-)
Red (-)

Green Wire Jacket


Platinum 13% Rhodium (+)
R 0 to 3100 1600 to 2640 Black (+)
Platinum (-)
Red (-)

Green Wire Jacket


Platinum 10% Rhodium (+)
S 0 to 3200 1800 to 2640 Black(+)
Platinum (-)
Red (-)

Blue Wire Jacket


Copper (+)
T -300 to 750 -310 to 660 Blue (+)
Constantan (-)
Red (-)

58
Thermocouple - worked examples (how to read the thermocouple tables)

Sample problem: What is the Millivolt (mV) output of a Type “J” thermocouple at 218°F and
referenced to a 32°F electronic ice bath?

Find the nearest temperature in Table A1 - Thermocouple Table (Type J) in the appendix of this
guide.

The nearest temperature in the first column is 210. Look at the column headers at the bottom of the
chart. Find the column header labeled 8. Follow the column up to the row with the 210 value. Where
they meet is a total of 210°F + 8ºF = (218°F).

Read the value of mV. The answer is: 5.45 mV

Sample problem: What is the Millivolt (mV) output of a Type “K” thermocouple at 672°F from the
data given? Assume the thermocouple is linear.

Given:
670°F = 14.479mV
672°F = mV
680°F = 14.713mV

We will have to interpolate the mV value for the desired temperature as follows:

Interpolation:

 deg desired - deg lower value  


mV     mV upper value - mV lower value  
 deg upper value - deg lower value  
 mV lower value

Therefore the new mV for 672°F:

 672 - 670  
14.526    14.713 - 14.479    14.479
 680 - 670  

The mV at 672°F is 14.526 mV

This can be verified in Table A2 –Thermocouple Table (Type K) in the appendix.

59
RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector)

The process control industry also uses RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) for many applications, for
example, when precise temperature measurement is needed, such as mass flow measurements or critical
temperature measurements of motor bearings.

RTDs typically come in 10-ohm copper and 100-ohm platinum elements. Their resistance is typically very
linear over the scale.

Resistance values for the examination can be found in the Table A5 - Platinum 100 Ohm RTD Table in
ohms, in the appendix section of this guide.

Typical wiring configurations and uses of RTDs

2-wire RTD 3-wire RTD 4-wire RTD

Good for close applications, at Good for further distance Best application and usually uses 20
the transmitter. applications. Remote from the mA driving current and a voltage
transmitter. measurement.

RTD - worked examples

Sample problem: A RTD is platinum and has a resistance of 100 ohms at a temperature of 32°F
and an alpha 0.2178 ohms per °F. What is the resistance of the RTD at a temperature of 240°F?

Find the difference in the temperature first. 240°F – 32°F = 208°F

Now find the resistance for the differential temperature:


208°F * 0.2178 ohms/deg F = 45.3 ohms

Now we add the change in resistance to the resistance at 32°F:


100 ohms + 45.3 = 145.3 ohms

Referring to Table-A5. Platinum 100 Ohm RTD Table in ohms, in the appendix. The resistance
value for the RTD can be interpolated and found for a given temperature.

60
Sample problem: In the bridge circuit below, if R1 and R2 are 200 ohms and the RTD is at 60°F.
What resistance should R3 measure, to balance the circuit and give the meter a reading of 0 volts?
The RTD is platinum and measures 100 ohms at 32°F with an alpha of 0.2178 ohms per °F.

Find the difference in the temperature first. 60°F – 32°F = 28°F

Now find the resistance for the differential temperature:

28°F * 0.2178 ohms/°F = 6.0984 ohms

Now we add the change in resistance to the resistance at 32°F:

100 ohms + 6.0984 = 106.0984 ohms

The resistor R3 needs to be 106 ohms to balance the bridge and give 0 volts at the meter.

Sample problem: In the bridge circuit above, R1 and R2 are 200 ohms. R3 is150 ohms. The
excite voltage to the bridge is 10 volts. If the meter is reading 0.4 volts (the positive is on the right
side and the negative on the left side) what is the temperature at the RTD?

Find the voltage on the left side of the bridge. This is the voltage we will add to the meter voltage on
the right side. We will use the voltage divider theorem to find the voltage across R1.

R1 200
VR1  (10V )  (10V )  5V
R1  R2 200  200

This means the voltage across the RTD is 5.0V + 0.4V = 5.4 volts.

We will now use the voltage divider theorem to find the resistance of RTD.

RRTD RRTD
VRTD  (10V ) ; 5.4V  (10V )
RRTD  RR 3 RRTD  150

Solving for RRTD :

 RRTD 
5.4   10
 RRTD  150 
61
5.4  RRTD  10
 
10  RRTD  150  10

 RRTD 
0.54  RRTD  150      RRTD  150 
 RRTD  150 

0.54( RRTD  150)  RRTD

0.54 RRTD  0.54(150)  RRTD

0.54 RRTD  81  RRTD

0.54 RRTD - 0.54 RRTD  81  RRTD - 0.54 RRTD

81  RRTD - 0.54 RRTD

81  (1  0.54) RRTD

81  (0.46) RRTD

81 (0.46) RRTD

0.46 0.46

176.087  RRTD

We can prove that the 176.087 ohms for the RTD is correct by plugging the value into the voltage
divider formula to find the 5.4 volts at the meter.

176.087
VRTD  (10V )  5.4V
176.087  150

We have the ohms of the RTD, now we can find the temperature.

100 ohms = 32°F,

So subtract the difference in ohms 176.087 – 100 = 76.087 ohms.

Divide the 76.087 ohms by the alpha 0.2178 ohms per °F.

76.087 ohms
F   349.34 F
 0.2178 ohms 
 deg F 
 

62
Add the 32°F bias for 100 ohms to the 349.34°F for 76.087 ohms and we get:

349.34°F + 32.00°F = 381.34°F.

Installing RTDs and Thermocouples into a process stream

63
Typical RTD and thermocouple applications

A complete assembly with a 4-20 mA transmitter in an explosion proof housing

Industrial RTD or Thermocouple with head Various Industrial Thermometers


A straight and tapered thermowell is shown Threaded for mounting in tanks and pipes

64
Pressure Measurement and Calibration

Pressure measurement and head pressure

Pressure is measured in typically two different forms. Pounds per square inch (psi) or in head
pressure. Head pressure is measured in inches or feet of water column (H2O).

Head pressure is independent of the tank’s height or area. The transmitter


measures head pressure. Head pressure is the measure of the potential
energy in the system. The transmitter measurement is from how high is the
fluid falling. The distance the fluid falls indicates the force generated (F=ma).
This is why the density of the fluid must be known to calibrate a pressure
transmitter for a process, to obtain the fluid mass. The calibration process uses
specific gravity (s.g.), the ratio of a known density of a fluid divided by the
density of water (H2O).

To illustrate these facts, we will start with one gallon of water. The gallon of
water equals 231 cubic inches and weighs approximately 8.324 pounds at
60°F. Pressure is measured in PSI (pounds per square inch). Only one (1)
square inch of area is needed to calculate the height of the water and the
force it is excerpting. Remember force divided by area = pressure.

Stack 231 cubic inches of water on top of each other, to form a tall column of
water, with a base of one (1) square inch. The column of water will be 231
inches tall. Divide the height of the column of water, 231 inches, by the weight
of one (1) gallon of water, 8.324 pounds. The result will be 27.691 or 27.7
inches of water per pound of water, over a one square inch of area. Therefore
27.7 inches H2O, of head pressure, equals one (1) PSI.

By knowing the specific gravity of the fluid to be measured, multiplied by the


height of the tank in inches, an equivalent value in inches of water can be
found. The transmitter can now be calibrated in inches of water, regardless of
the fluid. If the tank’s fluid has a s.g. equal to 0.8 and a height of 100 inches
tall, then the height in inches of H2O will be:

(100” of fluid * 0.8 s.g. = 80” of H2O).

Pressure transmitters are purchased in different sizes of measurement. They


are in ranges of inches H2O, psig (the “g” stands for gauge pressure) or psia
(the “a” stands for absolute pressure). When the symbol psid (the “d” stands
for differential pressure) is called for, a standard psig transmitter is used. Most industrial pressure
transmitters are differential pressure transmitters. They act on differential forces applied to each side of
the transmitter. The force is produced by the pressure in the system multiplied by the area of the
diaphragm.

65
Applying pressure measurement and signals - worked examples

Differential pressure and meter calibration

Differential pressure or differential head pressure is used to calibrate transmitters for pressure, level, flow
and density measurements. The transmitter has a high side, marked with an H, and a low side, marked
with a L. The low side will typically go to atmospheric pressure or to a fixed height wet leg measurement.
The high side will typically go to the tank, where the varying height of fluid is to be measured. When
calibrating an instrument remember: The low side is the negative scale, below zero, and the high side is
the positive scale, above zero. The transmitter’s sensor element is static in position or elevation and
therefore the transmitter itself is always equal to zero elevation. This will be discussed in detail in the
section on Level Measurement.

Transmitters can be purchased in ranges of 25 in. of H2O, 250 in. of H2O, 1000 in. of H2O, 300 psi
and 2000 psi.
The formula for calibration is:
(high side inches x s.g.) – (low side inches x s.g.) = lower or upper range value.
Note: Gives LRV when empty or minimum and URV when full or maximum

Sample problem: A pressure gauge is reading 25 pisg. It is attached to a tank filled with a fluid.
The bottom of tank is 65 feet above the ground. The pressure gauge is 5 feet above the ground. The
fluid has a specific gravity of (0.7 s.g.). What is the level of the fluid in the tank?

First convert the psi gauge measurement to feet of head measurement.

25 psi * 2.31 feet per psi = 57.75 feet of H2O.

Next find the elevation of the bottom of tank in relation to the elevation of the pressure gauge. Tank
bottom in feet – pressure gauge elevation in feet, equals the height in feet to the bottom of tank.

65 feet– 5 feet = 60 feet of head to bottom of the tank.

Note: Head is always measured in the standard of inches or feet of water column (WC / w.c.).

Multiply the head between the bottom of the tank and the pressure gauge times the s.g. to get the
head equal to H2O.
60 feet of fluid * 0.7 s.g. = 42 feet H2O to bottom of tank from the pressure gauge.

Next subtract (the height from the pressure gauge to the bottom of the tank in feet of H2O), from (the
total height of fluid in feet of in H2O above the pressure gauge), to find (the height of the fluid in the
tank in H2O).

(57.75 feet of H2O total head) – (42 feet of H2O below the tank) = (feet of fluid in H2O in the tank).
(57.75 feet total) – (42 feet to bottom tank from the pressure gauge) = 15.75 feet in H2O in the tank

Next convert height in feet of H2O to height of fluid with a specific gravity (s.g.) of 0.7:

15.75 feet of H2O / 0.7 s.g. = 22.5 feet of total height of the fluid column in the tank

66
Pressure change in a pipe for a given flow rate

On the CSE examination you will be asked to correlate signals and measurements using Flow, Pressure
and the Output in (4 mA to 20 mA) signals. A change in flow in a pipe will cause a change in the head
pressure across the pipe and measurement element. If the flow decreases in the pipe the pressure in the
pipe will increase at any point along the pipe.

If the flow rate increases, the pressure in the piping system decreases. If the flow rate decreases, the
pressure in the piping system increases. This is because the total head of the system remains constant
due to the head pressure developed by of the pump. The total energy head being endowed into the pump
and piping system, remains constant. This can be seen with a pump at a constant speed and two
pressure gauges, one at each end of the pipe and a hand valve at the end of the pipe.

2
F 
h1 F12  h2 F22 h1  1   h2
 F2 

Sample problem: There is a flow rate of 300 gpm in a piping system. There is a pressure gauge
reading 100 psi somewhere in the piping system. If the flow rate is decreased to 240 gpm. What is
the new pressure gauge reading in psi in the piping system?

Find the new pressure at the point of the gauge in the piping system for a flow rate of 240 gpm.

2
F 
2
 300 
h2  h1  1   100    156.25 psi
 F2   240 

Pressure change across the flow element for a given flow rate

If the flow in the pipe increases, the head pressure on the outlet of the measurement element will
decrease. This correlation can be demonstrated by the following equations for differential head pressure
(∆P) across the orifice element (a fixed resistor) or smaller section of pipe (venturi or dall tube). See the
section on applications of basic fluid mechanics in process control.

2
F 
hF h F
1 2
2
2 1
2
h1  2   h2
 F1 

Sample problem: a) A flow of 250 gpm has a head pressure measurement of 309 inches of
H2O. If the flow is decreased to 150 gpm, what is the new head pressure (∆P) in H2O for the
measurement element?
b) What would be the new output to the PLC or DCS, in a mA signal, if the transmitter was
calibrated in 0 to 400 inches of H2O? The signal is calibrated for 4 mA to 20 mA.

Answer:
a) Find the new head pressure for 150 gpm.

67
2
F 
2
 150 
h2  h1  2  ; 309    111.24 in H 2O
 F1   250 

b) Find the mA output:

The output signal is the square root of the ratio of change in head pressure (new measurement) to
the full scale calibrated range of the transmitter. First find the % of head pressure in the scale of 0
to 400 inches H2O.
111.24
% head   0.2781
400
The output is a 4 mA to 20 mA current signal. The span is 16 mA (20 mA – bias of 4 mA)

Since the flow rate is a squared function, we must first extract the square root of the %
measurement to find the % of output signal.

output mA = 0.2781*16 mA +4 mA bias=12.44 mA

Pressure calibration of transmitter

Sample problem: The pressure in a pipe is to be measured. The maximum pressure is measured
as 462 feet of head of natural gas. It is to be displayed in units of psig. What is the calibration of the
transmitter to display this pressure in 0 to 100% psig on the display? The minimum pressure
measurement will be zero feet of head?

Find the psig for the given maximum head pressure:


psig = feet head / 2.31 psig per foot of head

Maximum measurement in psig:


200 psig = 462 / 2.31

Next find the calibration range to order the transmitter:

The formula for calibration is:


(high side psi) – (low side psi) = lower or upper range value.

Note: Gives lower range value when minimum and upper range value when maximum

LRV = 200 – 0 = 200 psi


URV = 0 – 0 = 0 psi

The transmitter will be calibrated as:


0 to 200 psig

68
Level Measurement and Calibration

Applying level measurement and calibration - Worked examples

TUNED-SYSTEM BALANCED SYSTEM WET LEG WET/DRY LEG

The calibration procedure below is as follows.

The level in a vessel or tank can be measured by a number of methods: differential pressure;
displacement of volume; bubbler tube; capacitance; sonar; radar; weight, to name a few. This book will
focus on differential pressure, displacement of volume, and bubbler tube for the examination.

REMEMBER: (high side inches x s.g.) – (low side inches x s.g.) = lower or upper range value.

See Example 1.

The low side of the transmitter is open to atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure is pushing on the low side. The
high side of the transmitter is connected to the tank; it also has atmospheric pressure pushing on it. The
atmospheric pressures on each side of the transmitter cancel out. In the example, the first line of math
will be the LRV and the second line of math will be the URV. The tank has 100 inches of fluid with a s.g. of
1.0. The calibrated Range of the instrument will be 0” to 100” of water or H2O.
The Span of the transmitter is: (100” x 1.0 = 100”)

See Example 2.

The low side of the transmitter is open to atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure is pushing on the low side. The
high side of the transmitter is connected to the tank; it also has atmospheric pressure pushing on it. The
atmospheric pressures on each side of the transmitter cancel out. In the example, the first line of math will
be the LRV and the second line of math will be the URV.

The tank has a 100-inch level and the tube dropping down below the tank adds 20” of fluid height, with a
s.g. of 1.0. The calibrated Range of the instrument will be 20” to 120” of water or H2O. Remember the
minimum measurement cannot be lower than the fixed tube height of 20”. Suppress the zero with the hard
wire jumper or set the variable in the transmitter and make 20” a live zero for the instrument. In pneumatic
instruments a suppression kit must be installed.
The Span of the transmitter is: (100” x 1.0 = 100”)

69
Example 1: Open Tank Example 2: Open Tank
Zero-Based Level Application Suppress the Zero

Tank Level = 0 to 100 inches Tank Level = 0 to 100 inches


s.g. = 1.0 s.g. 1.0
(switch jumper to normal zero) (switch jumper to suppress zero)

LRV = (0” x 1.0) – (0” x 1.0) = 0” = 4 mA LRV = (20” x 1.0) – (0” x 1.0) = 20” = 4 mA
URV = (100” x 1.0) – (0” x 1.0) = 100” = 20 mA URV = (120” x 1.0) – (0” x 1.0) = 120” = 20 mA
Calibrate range from 0” to 100” H2O Calibrate range from 20” to 120” H2O

See Example 3.

The low side is connected to the top of the closed tank. The high side is connected to the bottom of the
closed tank. The tank’s pressure does not matter, because the pressures in low and high side lines cancel
each other out. Since the tank is pressurized, a “wet leg” or “reference leg” must be used. This is the
piping going from the low side of the transmitter to the top of the tank. It will be typically filled with some
other type of product, such as glycol or silicon. This prevents moisture from accumulating in the line.

If moisture accumulates in the line, it will give an error in the transmitter reading. The wet leg has 100
inches of fluid with a s.g. of 1.1. In the example, the first line of math will be the LRV and the second line
of math will be the URV. The tank has 100 inches of fluid with a s.g. of 1.0. The calibrated range of the
instrument will be -110” to -10” of water or H2O. Elevate the zero in the transmitter with the hard wire
jumper or set the variable in the transmitter and make -110” a live zero for the instrument. In pneumatic
instruments a suppression kit must be installed.

The Span of the transmitter is: (100” x 1.0 = 100”)

See Example 4.

The low side is connected to the top of the closed tank. The high side is connected to the bottom of the
closed tank. The tank’s pressure does not matter, because the pressures in the low and high lines cancel
each other out. The wet leg has 120 inches of fluid with a s.g. of 1.1. The first line of math will be the LRV
and the second line of math will be the URV. The tank has 100 inches of fluid and the tube dropping down
below the tank adds 20” of fluid height with a s.g. of 0.8. The calibrated Range of the instrument will be -
116” to -36” of water or H2O. Remember the minimum measurement cannot be lower than 20” on the high
side, due to the fixed 20” height of the tube dropping below the tank. Elevate the zero and make -116” a
live zero.

The Span of the transmitter is: (100” x 0.8 = 80”).

REMEMBER: (high side inches x s.g.) – (low side inches x s.g.) = lower or upper range value.
Note: Gives lower range value (LRV) when empty and upper range value (URV) when full.

70
Example 3: Closed Tank Example 4: Closed Tank
Elevate the Zero Elevate the Zero (transmitter below tank)

Tank Level = 0 to 100 inches Tank Level = 0 to 100 inches


s.g. = 1.0, Wet Leg: s.g. = 1.1 s.g. = 0.8, Wet Leg: s.g. = 1.1
Height = 100” Height = 120”
(switch jumper to elevate zero) (switch jumper to elevate zero)

LRV = (0” x 1.0) – (100” x 1.1) = -110” = 4 mA LRV = (20” x 0.8) – (120” x 1.1) = -116” = 4 mA
URV = (100” x 1.0) – (100” x 1.1) =-10” = 20 mA URV = (120” x 0.8) – (120” x 1.1) = -36” = 20 mA
Calibrate range from -110” to -10” H2O Calibrate range from -116” to -36” H2O

Rosemount transmitters with seal Rosemount suggested mounting with


for density and level applications Wet/Dry Leg to prevent freezing

71
Level displacer (Buoyancy)

The displacer tube for liquid level measurement is based on Archimedes principle that, the buoyancy
force exerted on a sealed body immersed in a liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced.

There are two types of displacer transmitters in common use


today: torque tube and spring operated.

Vd f
f  (8.338)G f
231

Where:

f = buoyancy force in lbf


Vd f = total volume of displaced process fluid in cubic inches
Ls = the submerged length of the displacer in process fluid
231 = cubic inches in one gallon of water
8.338 = weight of one gallon of water in pounds
Gf = specific gravity of displaced process fluid

Sample problem: a) What is the force upward on the 30” displacer, if the displacer is 4” in diameter
and submerged 10” in a fluid, with a specific gravity of 0.72?

b) What is the mA output and percent output of the process signal?

Answer:

a) Find displaced volume:

   D2    16 
Vd f     Ls    10  125.66 in
3

 4   4 

Find displacement force upward

Vdf 125.66
f  (8.33)G f  (8.338)(0.72)  3.266 lbf
231 231

b) Find displacement force upward for the total 30 inches submerged :

   D2    16 
Vd f     Ls     30  376.99 in
3

 4   4 

Vd f 376.99
f  (8.338)G f  (8.33)(0.72)  9.798 lbf
231 231

72
Find the % output and mA:

3.26
%  0.333 100  33.3% output
9.79

 0.333 16mA  4mA  9.328mA output

Various types of displacement measuring devices and transmitters

73
Bubbler level measurement

The bubbler tube or dip tube measures the level of the process fluid by
measuring the back pressure on the bottom of the tube. This back
pressure is the force excerpted from the weight of the fluid in the tank
against the tube opening. The tube will have to build up enough pressure
for the gas to escape through the process fluid above the opening. The
dip tube will have a static back pressure equal to the height or head of
the process fluid above the bottom of the opening, as the bubbles escape
the dip tube.

This simple level measurement has a dip tube installed with the open end
close to the bottom of the process vessel. The lowest level that can be
measured is from the bottom of the tank to the bottom of the dip tube. If
the bottom of the dip tube is 2 inches of the bottom, the minimum level
that can be measured is 2 inches. The maximum height that can be
measured is only limited to the air supply pressure minus the minimum
measureable level.

A flow of gas, usually air or nitrogen, is passed


through a regulator to reduce the pressure. Then the
flow of the gas will be controlled and monitored by
passing through a rotameter (flow meter). It then
makes its way down the dip tube and the resultant
backpressure, due to the hydraulic head of the
process fluid, forces back on the pressure
transmitter. The pressure in the bubbler tube or dip
tube equals the head pressure of level of the fluid in
the vessel and a proportional signal is sent to the
PLC or DCS. With a transmitter standard level
calibration in inches of water, the signal out will vary
proportionally with the change in level of the process
fluid.

Sample problem: a) What is the head pressure measurement of a bubbler tube submerged 24”
in a fluid with a specific gravity (s.g.) of 0.85?

b) What is the percent output and mA output, if the transmitter is calibrated for a tube 100” long and
the transmitter is calibrated 0 to 85 inches H2O (100 inches * 0.85 s.g.= 85 inches H2O)?

Answer:

a) Find the head pressure of the process fluid


h  LDipTubeG f  24  0.85  20.4 inches H2 O
(the water only excerpts a force of 20.4 inches H2O against the bottom of the tube)

b) Find percent and mA output

The transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 85 inches H2O which equals = 0% to 100%


20.4
%  0.24 100%  24% output
85
The transmitter output is a 4mA to 20 mA current signal. The span is 16 mA (20 mA – bias of 4 mA)
(0.24 * 16 mA) + 4 mA (bias) = 7.84 mA output, which equals 24% of the input measurement scale
into the control room.

The control room computer (DCS or PLC) is scaling the input signal to value of 0 inches to 100
inches for the tank level. You can see 24% signal reads as 24 inches in the tank for the control room.

74
Density measurement

Head pressure and volume displacement can be used to measure density. By using a differential head
pressure transmitter, calibrated in inches of water, connect the high and low lines to the tank at a fixed
distance of separation, such as 10”. Both taps of the density transmitter must be completely submerged
below the top of fluid whose density is being measured. The height measured in inches of water divided
by 10” (in our example), is the (s.g.) of the unknown fluid. Example: The density transmitter is measuring 7
inches H2O, the s.g. = 0.7 (7”/10” = 0.7). See figure 2 below.

With the specific gravity (s.g.) known from the density transmitter, and a second level transmitter
calibrated in inches of H2O, the tank level can be found. The level measurement can be divided by the
(s.g.) measurement from the density transmitter, to show the true height of the process fluid in the tank.

Sample problem: Find the density of the hydrocarbon product and the interface level of the
water in the bottom of the tank in figure 2. The wet leg (sealed diaphragm leg) has a s.g. equal to 1.1

Remember: [(high side * s.g.) – (low side * s.g.)] = LRV or URV

Density:
LRV = (0” * 1.0) – (10” * 1.1) = -11” H2O (transmitter not covered with fluid or tank empty)
URV = (10” * s.g.) – (10” * 1.1) = ?” H2O (transmitter completely covered with process fluid)
o
URV = (10” * 0.825) – (10” * 1.1) = -2.75” H2O (for Crude oil 40 API)
Find s.g. for crude oil 40 API: [(-11) – (-2.75)] = 8.25” so… 8.25”/10” = 0.825 s.g.
o

URV = (10” * 0.7874) – (10” * 1.1) = -3.126” H2O (for ethyl alcohol)
Find s.g. for ethyl alcohol: [(-11) – (-3.126)] = 7.874” so… 7.874”/10” = 0.7874 s.g.
s.g. process signal = mA = [16 * 0.7874] + 4 = 16.5984mA or 78.74% signal.

Level:
(% Level signal / % Density signal) * Tank Level = level of process fluid in the tank.

Note: The tank level measurement can be any height and the fluid to be measured of any density.
Remember to elevate the zero on the density transmitter.

Figure 1 Figure 2

Using a bubbler arrangement to measure level with a varying density of process fluid:
Connect the high and low lines to the dip tubes as shown above in figure 1, at a fixed distance of
separation in height, such as 2” or 10”. We will use a 2” height differential between the bottoms of the
tubes. The maximum distance above L1 equals 20” of process fluid.

Sample problem: Find the density and level in the tank in figure 1, using a bubbler arrangement.

Density is calculated as
LRV = (0” * s.g.) – (0” * s.g.) = 0” H2O (Density minimum, tank empty)
URV = (0” * s.g.) – (2” * 1.0) = -2” H2O (Density equals H2O, L2 submersed and fluid at bottom of L1)

75
Remember to elevate the zero in the transmitter!

Since any level above L1 will cancel out in the density transmitter, the output is simply the percent
signal which equals the s.g. of the process fluid.
Example: -2” * 0.7874 = -1.5748” H2O (for ethyl alcohol) -1.5748”/-2” = s.g. = 0.7874 or 78.74%
signal.

Level is calculated as:


For a 15” level of ethyl alcohol above L1:

% mA = (15” * s.g.) = 11.811” H2O = (11.811” level)/( 20” max level) = 0.59055 or 59.055% signal
At DCS/PLC the display will show Level/Density = 59.055/78.74 = 0.75 or 75% level.

Level = 0.75 * 20” = 15” level

Interface level measurement

The combined level of the fluids in the tank must be above the top tap of the level transmitter connected
to the tank. The distance “h” is the height between the high and low side taps and must be at a known
constant distance. We want the lower tap (high side) to see the difference in height in the higher specific
gravity fluid in the bottom of the tank, minus the lower specific gravity fluid in the top of the tank. Say we
are trying to measure the level of water in a tank holding a hydrocarbon product.

If we know the s.g. of the hydrocarbon, we can calibrate the transmitter to an output of zero % signal, due
to cancellation of forces (pressure * area) on both sides. Then when the heavier water product enters the
tank we can measure this extra weight by the force it is excerpting on the transmitter in inches of water for
an interface height. If we do not know the density of the hydrocarbon product, we will do what we did in
the previous examples for finding the density of a fluid in a tank. We will put the density transmitter on the
upper fluid level and then divide the bottom level measurement by the density multiplier.

If the wet leg and the lighter hydrocarbon product in the tank are
the same fluid, the two levels (or forces) will cancel each other
out when there is no water in the tank. (The s.g. of the
hydrocarbon product must be known and consistent, otherwise
a density transmitter should be used to perform the level
calculation for accuracy).

The height in H2O in the tank = [(height of H2O) + (height of the


lighter fluid * s.g.)]

The height in H2O in the wet leg = (height of the lighter


fluid in the wet leg * s.g.)

The signal height in inches of H2O from the transmitter =


[(height of H2O) + (height of the lighter fluid * s.g.)] - (height of wet leg * s.g.) = measurement inches
H 2O

Sample problem: Find the interface level in the tank.

The distance between taps is h = 100 inches


Hydrocarbon s.g. = 0.7 (can be found from the density transmitter)
Water (H2O) s.g. = 1.0
Maximum interface level to be measured = 50 inches (50% full)

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First find the maximum level measurement in inches H2O on each side of the transmitter:
The tank level (high side):
(50” H2O ) + (50” hydrocarbon * 0.7) = 50 + 35 = 85 in H2O

The wet leg level (Low Side) :


(100” hydrocarbon * 0.7) = 70 in H2O

Max inches H2O seen by the transmitter:


(high side) – (low side) = 85 – 70 = 15 in H2O

Our transmitter will be calibrated to: 0” to 15” H2O = 4 to 20 mA signal. We are at 50% full,
therefore 100% transmitter signal or 20 mA. At 20 mA the DCS or PLC will see 100% input. We
will convert that signal to the actual height of water in the tank.

Find the difference of s.g. of the two fluids:


1.0 s.g. (H2O) – 0.7 s.g. (hydrocarbon) = 0.3 = 30%

 15 in H 2 O   15 
 =
 1.0 water  - 0.7 s.g. process fluid  .   0.3 s.g. 
= 50 inches = 100% of the maximum interface level
 

Proof it works:
The transmitter is measuring 3.75 in H2O.
Percentage of measurement = (measured inches by transmitter) / (full scale measurement or span).
This equals 3.75”/15” = 0.25 or 25% signal.
25% signal means the tank should have 12.5 inches of water in the bottom of the tank.

(measured inches H2O by transmitter) / (difference in specific gravities) = Actual height of tank water.
 3.75 in H 2 O   3.75 
 =
  0.3 s.g. 
= 12.5 inches = 25% of the maximum interface level
 1.0 water  - 0.7 s.g. process fluid 
 

Transmitter calculation:
(high side): (12.5” H2O) + (87.5” hydro * 0.7) = 12.5 + 61.25 = 73.75 in H2O
(low side): (100” * 0.7) = 70 in H2O
(high side) – (low side) = 73.75 – 70 = 3.75 in H2O

3.75” at the transmitter = 25% of signal = 3.75”/0.3 Δs.g. = 12.5” of water in the tank.
25% of the maximum allowable level of 50” in the tank would equal 12.5” of water.

Application Hint: The analog signal will be 25% or 8 mA. If we were using a 14-bit analog input card,
14
the bit count would be 2 or 16384 bits or steps. 16384 bits / 20 mA = 819.2 bits per mA. We need to
subtract our bias of 4 mA, so 4 mA * 819.2 bits = 3276.8 or 3277 bits.

We subtract to get the full scale bit count: 16384 bits – 3277 bits = 13107 bits = 100% or full scale.
100% span equals 13107 bits to the PLC or DCS. The bits will be scaled in the PLC to floating point.

Bits for level: 25% signal = 0.25 * 13107 = 3276.75 or 3277 bits input signal.
3277 bits (signal) / 13107 bits (full scale) = 0.250019 (the PLC scaled register value)

Bits for density: 70% signal = 0.7 * 13107 = 9174.9 or 9175 bits.
Remember we want the difference of the specific gravities so: 1.0-0.7 = 13107 – 9175 = 3932
bits. Δ s.g. = (3932 bits / 13107 bits) = 0.29999237 (the PLC scaled register value)

Water interface height in inches = transmitter measurement height in inches / delta density.

[0.250019(% level signal from transmitter) * 15 inches(full scale measurement)] / 0.29999237(Δ s.g.)
= 12.50127 inches water in the tank.

77
Radar and Ultrasonic level measurement

Time of flight technology


Time of flight devices are much newer technology than hydrostatic devices and consist of ultrasonic and
radar devices (non-contact and guided wave). Radar is an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging.
Radar devices used for level measurement operate with electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths of 1.5
to 26 gigahertz. They are commonly known as microwaves. Non-contact radar and guide wave radar
operate using the same principle.

Ultrasonic level measurement


Ultrasonic waves are not electromagnetic waves; they are mechanical sound waves. The speed at which
mechanical waves travel is well known, about 1096 feet per second (334 meters/second) through air at
68°F. The level of the media can be determined by measuring the amount of time it takes for the
ultrasonic wave to travel to the liquid, reflect and travel back to the device.

Most ultrasonic transmitters and receivers operate from 10 KHz to 70


KHz, well above the frequency of audible sound waves. In order for
ultrasonic waves to be reflected, they need a media with a certain mass
(density). In level measuring applications, there must be enough mass in
the media (density) to reflect the sound waves.

Equations: L = E – D and D = C x T/2


L = media level
E = distance from measuring device to zero level
D = distance from measuring device to media
C = speed of sound or speed of light
T = amount of time for sound or light to travel from device to liquid
and back

Based on the figure to the right the level of media can be determined
from the time it takes for sound waves or electromagnetic waves to travel
from the measuring device to the media and back to the measuring
device.

Advantages Disadvantages
Accuracy independent of density Minimum density required
changes, dielectric or conductivity Foam is an issue
No calibration with medium False measurements with turbulent surfaces
required No vacuum (10 psia), no high pressures (44 psia)
Some come with SIL 2 and 3
ratings

Radar (non-contact)
Non-contact radar devices use microwaves in the 6 to 26 gigahertz range to measure liquid level in tanks.
Like the speed of sound, the speed of light (electromagnetic radiation) is well known, 186,000 miles per
second. Based on equations 1 and 2 above, the level can be calculated by knowing the dimensions of the
tank and measuring the amount of time it takes for the microwaves to reflect off the process media.

Why do radar level devices use microwaves compared to other types of energy in the electromagnetic
spectrum? Microwaves have little effect from type of gases, temperature, pressure, buildup and
condensate. However, the ability for the process medium to reflect or not reflect microwaves needs to be
taken into account. You can determine this ability to reflect light or microwaves by looking at the dielectric
number of the media.
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The dielectric number is a measure of the polarization power of an insulating material or how much
charge can be stored in a type of material vs. air. Water has a dielectric number of 80 and is considered a
great reflector of microwaves. Air has a dielectric number of 1 and is considered a poor reflector of
microwaves. Aqueous mixtures tend to work well with radar due to the high dielectric number.

However, while hydrocarbon based liquids can be measured, the measuring ranges may be lower due to
lower dielectrics numbers. Petroleum oil has a dielectric number of 2 while gasoline has a dielectric
number between 2 and 3. Because, ambient conditions have little effect on microwaves, radar devices
are generally accepted as the most accurate level devices – some can measure level to ±0.5 mm or ±0.02
inches. This is one of the main reasons why suppliers, processors, and sellers of crude oil and other high-
cost materials will use a radar device as part of their tank gauging equipment to accurately measure level.

Guided Wave Radar (GWR)

Guided wave radar devices use the same principle as non-contact radar devices – it has the ability to
transmit and receive reflected microwave energy. Guided wave (sometimes called TDR – Time Domain
Reflectometry) operates at 1.5 GHz. While the electronics are mostly the same as non-contact radar, the
big difference is the wave guide. The wave guide is a metal rod or rope which guides the energy to the
process media. See the image to the left. The wave guide directs approximately 80% of the available
energy down the guide within an 8” radius.

GWR is suitable for a variety of level measurement applications including:


Unstable Process Conditions
- Changes in viscosity, density, or acidity do not affect accuracy
Agitated Surfaces
- Boiling surfaces, dust, foam, vapor do not effect device performance
- Recirculating fluids, propeller mixers, aeration tanks
Extreme Operating limits
- GWR performs well under extreme temperatures up to 600ºF
(315ºC) - Capable of withstanding pressures up to 580 PSIG (40 Bar)
Fine Powders and Sticky Fluids
- Paint, latex, animal fat and soy bean oil
- Saw dust, carbon black, titanium tetrachloride, salt, grain
- Oils or grease in tanks

Capacitance level measurement

Commercial capacitance level transmitters are proven devices and were first introduced
in the 1950’s. They are also extremely versatile in that they can measure the continuous
level and point level (a predetermined measurement point) of liquids, slurries, liquid-
liquid interface as well as point level of solids. Capacitance technology for level devices
has also become known as reactance, admittance or RF technology.

The capacitance calculation for empty and full is important because a minimum change
of capacitance of about 10 pF is needed for measurement. Last but not least, foam can
be tricky with capacitance probes. If the foam is conductive, the capacitance probe will
see the liquid and the foam as the complete level. Capacitance transmitters and
switches can come with SIL 2 and 3 ratings.

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Radiometric (gamma) level measurement

Similar to radar devices, gamma level devices use electromagnetic


radiation emitters and receivers to measure the level. Gama devices
can be used for liquids and solids in tanks. Gamma devices use
electromagnetic radiation at a different part of the electromagnetic
spectrum. They use gamma rays which have much higher frequency
and therefore smaller wavelengths vs. microwaves.

A source of gamma radiation, usually Cesium 137 or Cobalt 60


depending on the application, is placed in a lead source container.
The container can be closed (emitting no radiation) or open (emitting
gamma radiation). A detector, capable of measuring the amount of
radiation from the source, is installed on the other side of the tank. If
the tank is empty, the detector receives most of the available gamma
radiation. If the tank starts to be filled with liquid or solid, as the level
increases, the media will attenuate (absorb) some of the available
gamma radiation. When the tank is full, the detector receives very
little radiation compared to the empty tank scenario.

This is an excellent level transmitter for difficult level measurements,


such as catalyst levels in tanks that are in series with other tanks or the piping is in the way.

Gama devices can also be used to measure the thickness of materials as well, not just levels. Gama
devices can also be used as Irradiators. Irradiators are devices or facilities that expose products to
radiation to sterilize them, such as spices and some foods, milk containers, and hospital supplies.

Gamma level devices have been proven to be safe and reliable, if safety procedures and regulations are
followed. The safety of personnel is number one and the amount of radiation over time that an employee
can receive is well known and documented. All of this must be taken into account when purchasing
gamma level devices. However, used safely, some of the most critical level measurements can be made
with a gamma device.

Level gauging system in a tank farm

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Calculating the volume in tanks

With a head pressure measurement, the height of the liquid in a tank can be measured. This is simple
with standard cylindrical tanks, but much more difficult with irregular shaped tanks.

Calculating the volume in tanks will probably not be on the CSE exam, but the formulas to calculate the
volume in these tanks is derived from calculus and included in the appendix of this guide. It will show how
to calculate the volume of spherical tanks and bullet tanks, so the volume can be calculated in the PLC or
DCS. See the section Calculating the Volume in Tanks for the volume formulas.

The tank ends can be flat (so the tank is just a horizontal cylinder). Tanks can come with different heads
(end caps). They can be dished (ASME F&D, or Flanged & Dished), 2:1 elliptical or hemispherical.

TANK VOLUME CALCULATION

 D  
 D  2  2 -h   D  
Horizontal Cylinder   cos 
-1
 -  -h   Dh-h   L
2 0.5

 2   D  2  
  2  

HEAD VOLUME CALCULATION

ASME F&D 0.215483h 2 1.5D-h 


Elliptical Head h 2 1.5D-h 
6


Hemispherical Head h 2 1.5D-h 
3

The liquid volumes in a horizontal cylinder, and ASME F&D, 2:1 elliptical and hemispherical heads are
-1
given by these equations. The (cos ) or (arccos) or (arcos) function must return radians, NOT degrees. In
the appendix, the volume for the tank section plus both heads combine into one formula. These formulas
can be modified using the formulas above for more accuracy with different heads (end caps).

The total volume of liquid in the tank is simply the liquid volume in the cylinder plus 2 times the liquid
volume in the heads. (Hint: multiply tank diameter “D” x % level signal to get “h” (the height shown on the
HMI or display), and then calculate the total tank volume with the math formula in the appendix.
.

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