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Civil engineering

© All Rights Reserved

- Strip Footing
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Structure Volume 1
- Prestressed Concrete
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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND TYPES OF PROBLEMS WORKING STRESS DESIGN (WSD) Stress of Concrete

where:

CONCRETE 1. Design - given the load, determine the size Mc (kd)

DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR FLEXURE fc = Mc - resisting moment

a mixture of sand, gravel, crushed rock or other 2. Investigation - given the size, determine the load IN.A. of concrete

aggregates held together in a rock-like mass with a b b fc = 0.45 fc'

paste of cement and water.

kd C

Stress of Steel

ADMIXTURES MODES OF FAILURE IN BENDING N.A.

materials added to concrete to change certain h

characteristics such as workability, durability and time 1. Crushing of Concrete - when the strain concrete d-kd fs = Ms (d - kd) where:

of hardening. reaches the ultimate strain of 0.003 mm/mm. T n IN.A. Ms - resisting moment

As z nAs fc/n of steel

JOSEPH ASPDEN 2. Yielding of Steel - when the actual tensile stress of

an English bricklayer who obtained a patent for steel "fs" reaches the yield stress "fy" Beam Section Transformed Stress Diagram

Portland cement Section Compressive force of Concrete

3. Simultaneous crushing of concrete and

JOSEPH MONIER Yielding of Steel where:

C = 1/2 fc kd b

a Frenchman who invented reinforced concrete a h = overall depth of the beam (mm)

received a patent for the const. of concrete basins and z = steel covering (measure from the centroid of bar)

tubs and reservoirs reinforced w/ wire mesh and iron TYPES OF DESIGN d = effective depth of the beam (mm) Tensile force of Steel

wire in 1867. 1. Overreinforced - when failure is due to crushing of d = h -z

concrete. As = area of the reinforcement ( square millimeters)

T = As fs

DESIGN METHODS: fc' = compressive strength of concrete (MPa)

2. Underreinforced - when failure is initiated by yielding fs = tensile strength of steel (MPa)

1. WSD - Working Stress Design, Alternate of steel. b = base of the beam (mm)

Stress Design,or Straight-Line Design n = modular ratio(always a whole number) Moment Arm ( jd )

3. Balanced Design - when failure is caused by n = Es /Ec

2. USD - Ultimate Stress Design or Strength Design

simultaneous crushing of concrete and d = jd + kd/3

yielding of steel Location of the neutral axis (kd) j = 1 - k/3

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS: S MN.A. = 0

CONCRETE: FACTORED LOAD COMBINATION b(kd)(kd/2) - nAs (d - kd) = 0

Constant ( k )

fc - allowable compressive stress of conc. (NSCP C101-01) kd = --------

- 0.45 fc' ( beams/slabs/footings) k = n ( For Design Only )

- 0.25 fc' ( columns) Moment of Inertia of the Transformed Section n + fs/fc

1. U = 1.4DL + 1.7LL

fc' - specified compressive strength of conc.

at 28 days curing (MPa) 2. U = 0.75(1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7 W)

> (# 1)

I N.A.= (1/3)(b)(kd)³ + nAs (d - kd)²

gconc.- unit weight of concrete U = 0.90DL + 1.3W k = 2rn + (rn)² - rn (For Investigation)

- 23.54 KN/m 3 Only )

3. U = 1.1DL + 1.3LL + 1.1E)

Ec - modulus of elasticity of concrete > (# 1) Resisting Moment of Concrete:

U = 0.90DL + 1.1E Steel Ratio

- 4700 fc' (MPa)

4. U = 1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7H Mc = C(jd)

STEEL : U = 0.90DL

> (# 1)

Mc = fc/2 (b)(kd)(jd) r = As

bd

fs - allowable tensile stress of steel (MPa) Mc = (1/2)(fc)(kj)(bd²)

fs - 0.50 fy ( beams/slabs/footings)

fs - 0.40 fy ( columns)

DL - Dead Load E - Earthquake Load

fy - yield stress of steel (MPa) Resisting Moment of Steel:

LL - Live Load H - Earth Pressure

gsteel - unit weight of steel

W - Wind Load

- 77 KN/m3 Ms = T jd

Ec - modulus of elasticity of concrete

Ms = As fs jd

- 200,000 MPa

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 1/20 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 2/20

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

2. Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beam where:

FOR SINGLY REINFORCED BEAM

A. BEAMS (FLEXURAL STRESS) (Reinforced in Tension/Compression) a = depth of equivalent stress block

As = area of tension reinforcement, square millimeters A. Computing Mu with given tension

1. Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beam

b 0.85 fc' b = width of the compression face of member

(Reinforced in Tension Only) steel area (As)

C' c = distance from extreme compression fiber to N.A. (mm)

As' a

b 0.85 fc' C d = distance from extreme compression fiber to

d centroid of tension reinforcement (mm) I. Solve for r = As

C = 0.85 fc'ab bd

a N.A. d' = thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme

c

tension fiber to center of the bar or wire, (mm) II. Check if steel yields by computing rb

d T

d - a/2 fc' = specified compressive stress of concrete (MPa)

N.A. Mn As rb = 0.85 fc' b1600

fy = specified yield strength of steel (MPa)

fy ( 600 + fy)

As Mn = nominal moment, (N-mm)

T = As fy b 0.85 fc' If r < rb steel yields , proceed to step III

Mu = factored moment at section, (N-mm)

Beam Section Elevation a/2 r = ratio of tension reinforcement = As/bd If r > rb steel does not yield , proceed to

C

rb= balance steel ratio step IV

a = b1 c d - a/2 f = strength reduction factor III. r < rb

As1 Mu1 r fy

For fc' < 30 MPa , use b1 = 0.85 w =

T1 = As 1 fs fc'

For fc' > 30 MPa ,

Mu = f fc' bd w ( 1 - 0.59 w )

2

1st STAGE C. SHEAR STRESS AND DIAGONAL

b1 = 0.85 - 0.008 (fc' - 30) TENSION

but should not be less than 0.65 As' fs' d' IV. r > rb (fy = fs)

C'

As fy As' Vu = f Vn b 0.85 fc' 0.003

a =

0.85 fc' b Mu2

d - d'

where f = 0.85 a

C = 0.85 fc'ab

c c

As2 Vn = Vc + Vs d

r fy d - a/2

w = T2 = As 2 fs' N.A. Mn d-c

fc' Vc =1/6 fc' bd

2nd STAGE As T = As fy e = fs/Es

Mu = f Ru bd

2

(Resisting Moment) Spacing of Stirrups: Es = 200,000

fc' w ( 1 - 0.59 w) 1st STAGE 2nd STAGE Solve for fs from the strain diagram:

Ru = Av fy d

S= fs/Es 0.003 d-c

Forces: Forces: Vs = ; fs = 600

r = 0.85 fc' 1 - 1-

2Ru

C 1 = 0.85 fc' ab C' = As' fs'

d-c c c

fy 0.85 fc' T = As 1 fs T1 = As 2 fs (d-d') Solve for c by summing up forces along hor.

NSCP/ACI Code Specs:

As = r bd Resisting Moment: Resisting Moment: T = C ; a = b1 c

If Vs < 1/3 fc' bd ,Smax = d/2 or 600mm 2

600 As (d-c) = 0.85 b1 f'c b c

Mu1 = f 0.85fc'ab (d-a/2) Mu2 =f As'fs' (d-d')

If Vs > 1/3 fc' bd , Smax = d/4 or 300mm

Mu1 = f As1 fs (d-a/2) f

Mu2 = As2 fs(d-d')

( rb )

Use quadratic formula to solve for "c"

Balanced Steel Ratio Av min = bS/3fy Then, solve for fs and "a" with known "c"

TOTAL :

rb = 0.85 fc'b1 600 fs = 600

d-c

; a = b1c

T = T1 + T2 A S = As 1 + As2 c

fy ( 600 + fy) Vu = factored or ultimate shear

MU= MU1 + MU2 Finally, solve for Mu:

Vc = shear force provided by conc.

Maximum and Minimum Steel Ratio M u = f 0.85fc'ab (d-a/2) or

Vn = nominal shear

M u = f As fs (d-a/2)

rmax = 0.75 r Avmin = area of steel to resist shear

b

= 2 Asteel

rmin = 1.4 / fy

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 3/20 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 4/20

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

IV. Verify of compression will yield. III. Verify if Compression steel will yield

area (As) of beam with given Mu

b ec

d' where: fs' = 600 c - d'

I. Solve for rmax and M umax c As' c-d' es' = fs'/Es

c I. Compute the factored shear force, Vu

If fs' > fy, proceed to step IV.

II. Calculate the shear strength provided

rmax = 0.75 0.85 fc' b1600

N.A.

=

r c-d

If fs' < fy, proceed to step V.

As es by concrete, Vc

fy ( 600 + fy)

Mumax = with considered factored load Es = 200,000 IV. Since fs' > fy, compression steel yields Vc =1/6 fc' bd

r fy c - d'

w = = ________ fs' = 600

c

MU= MU1 + MU2 If Vu > f Vc , stirrups is necessary,

fc'

MU = f As1 fy (d-a/2) + f As' fy(d-d') proceed to to Step III.

2 If fs' > fy, proceed to step V.

M umax = f fc' bd w ( 1 - 0.59 w ) If Vu < f Vc , but Vu > 1/2 f Vc

If fs' < fy, proceed to step VI. V. Since fs' < fy, assumption is wrong proceed to to Step V

If Mu < Mumax design as Single Reinforced

V. fs' > fy, then use fs' = fy 0.85 fc' If Vu < 1/2 fV c , stirrups are not needed

then, proceed to step II. d' C2 = As'fs'

(compression steel yields) a c

If Mu > Mumax design as Doubly Reinforced NA

C1 III. Calculate the shear strength Vs to be

As' = As2 d - a/2 provided by the stirrup.

II. Solve for r VI. fs' < fy, then use fs' 1. Vn = Vu /f

T = As fy

(compression steel will not yield) 2. Vs = Vn - Vc = Vu /f - V c

Mu = f Ru bd

2

(Solve for Ru)

C2 = T2 c - d'

fs' = 600

c If VS < 2/3 fc' bW d , proceed to IV.

r = 0.85 fc' 1 - 1-

2Ru

= ____

As' fs' = As 2 fy From stress diagram.

fy 0.85 fc' As' = ________ If VS > 2/3 fc' bW d , adjust the size

[ C1 + C2 = T ]

of the beam

As = r bd = _________ 0.85 fc' ab + As' fs' = As fy

a = b1 c IV. Spacing of stirrups:

B. Computing Mu of a Doubly Reinforced

c - d'

FOR DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAM Beam with given As and As' 0.85 fc' b1 c b + As' 600 c = As fy Spacing, S = Av fy d

Vs

A. Computing As and As' of a Doubly b 0.85 fc' As' fs' Solve for c by quadratic formula

a/2 C' d'

If S < 25mm, increase the value of Av.

Reinforced Beam with given Mu. As' a C Solve for fs' and "a" either by bigger bar or shear area.

d d-d'

Solve for Mu :

d-a/2

b 0.85 fc' As' fs' Maximum spacing, s:

As' C

a/2 C' d'

Mu = f 0.85fc'ab (d-a/2) + f As' fs' (d-d')

As T1 = As 1 fy T2 = As fy

d

d-a/2 Mu2

d-d' If Vs < 1/3 fc' bd ,Smax = d/2 or 600mm

Mu1 I. Assume Compression steel yield If Vs > 1/3 fc' bd , Smax = d/4 or 300mm

As T1 = As 1 fs T2 = As 2 fs' (fs' = fy)

V. If Vu < f Vc , but Vu > 1/2 f Vc

As 2 = As' = _______

I. Solve for As 1 = r maxbd As 1 = As - As' = _______ Av min = bw S /3fy

II. Solve for "a" and "c": C 1 = T1 II. Solve for a and c: where S = d/2 or 600mm (whichever

0.85 f'c ab = As1 fy ; a = ____ [ C1 = T1 ] is smaller

a = b1 c ; c = ______ 0.85 fc' ab = As1 fy ; a = ____

a = b1 c ; c = ______

III. Solve for MU1, MU2 and As2

Mu1 = f As1 fy ( d-a/2 )

Mu2 = MU1 - MU

Mu2 = f As2 fy(d-d') ; As2 = ____

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 5/20 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 6/20

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

TYPICAL RESISTANCE FACTORS ARE AS FOLLOWS: SHEARING STRESS OF RC BEAMS For members subjected to significant axial tension: For Interior Beam

SITUATION 1) b = L/4

Nominal Shear Strength Provided by Concete: Vc = 1 0.30N u

Flexure, without axial load 0.90 fc' bw d 1 + 2) b = 16t + bw choose the

6 Ag smallest

Axial tension and axial tension w/ flexure 0.90

Vn = Vc + Vs where: 3) b = S1 /2 + S2 /2 + b w

Shear and torsion 0.85 Nu/Ag = expressed in MPa

where: For End Beam

Compression members, spirally reinforced 0.75 Nu is negative for tension

Vn = nominal shear strength of RC section

Other Compression members 0.70 For shear reinforcement, fy < 414 MPa. 1) b' = L/12 + b'w

Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete

Bearing on concrete 0.70 Vs = nominal shear strength of the shear reinforcement Distance of Stirrups from support: 2) b' = 6t + b'w choose the

smallest

Plain Concrete: flexure, compression, shear 0.65 For members subjected to shear and flexure only: a. 0.50 S from face of column support

3) b' = S3 /2 + b'w

and bearing

b. 0.25 S from face of beam support

Vc = 1 fc' bw d For Symmetrical Interior Beam

6

CODE PROVISIONS: FOR DESIGN OF

For members subjected to axial compression: T - BEAMS 1) b = L/4

SINGLY-REINFORCED BEAMS choose the

2) b = 16t + b w

Vc = 1 fc' b w d 1 + Nu smallest

3) b = center-center

rmax 6 14Ag

To ensure yield failure: = 0.75 rb Code Requirements for T-beams spacing of beams

where:

To avoid sudden tensile failure : rmin = 0.25 fc' > 1.4 Ag = gross area of section in sq.mm 1. In T-beam construction, the flange and web 4. Isolated beams in which T-shape are used to

Nu = factored axial load occurring with Vu provide a flange for additional compression

fy fy shall be built integrally or otherwise effectively

To control deflection: r < 0.18 fc'

(- ) for compression, (+) for tension

bonded together. area shall a flange thickness not less than 1/2

fy Nu/Ag = expressed in MPa

the width of the web and an effective flange

2. The width of slab effective as a T-beam shall width not more than four times the width of

BALANCED STEEL RATIOS For members subjected to shear and flexure: not exceed 1/4 of the span of the beam, and the web.

effective overhanging flange on each side of the

1 fc' + 120 rw Vu d

b

Vc = bw d web shall not exceed:

1. BEAM REINFORCED FOR TENSION 7 Mu t

but shall not be greater than b1 b2

a) 8 times the slab thickness and

rb = 0.85 fc'b1 600

b) 1/2 the clear distance to the next web

fy ( 600 + fy) Vc = 0.30 fc' bw d

where:

Vu d < 1.0 3. For beams with slab on one side only, the

2. BEAM REINFORCED FOR COMPRESSION

Mu Mu = factored moment ocurring effective overhanging flange shall not exceed: bw

Checking Ductility

rw = As simultaneously w/ Vu a) 1/12 the span length of the beam,

bw d

r = rb + r ' where: r '= As'

b) 6 times the slab thickness

bd For members subjected to axial compression: c) 1/2 the clear distance to the next web

if r < r , tension steel yields fs = fy t > bw /2

4h - d b b'

For compression steel Mm = Mu - N u b < 4b w

8

rlim = 0.85 b fc' d' 600 + r'

but shall not be greater than b1 b2 b3

fy d (600-fy) t

0.30N u

if r < rlim , compression steel yields fs = fy Vc = 0.30 fc' bw d 1+

Ag S1 bw S2 S3 bw'

Interior Beam End Beam

where, h = overall thickness of member

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 7/20 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 8/20

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