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Analysis of Tri-Star Frame in Stair Climbing Hand Truck

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Muthanna A.V1 , M. Sajay Krishnan 2 , Nasruddin P.N3 , Pavan Ku mar.M 4

B.Tech Student1, 2, 3, 4

Depart ment of Mechanical Engineering

Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India

Abstract:

Normally the hand trucks are used to carry heavy loads in places like railway stations, schools, colleges and industries. T hese hand

trucks used are designed to carry the load on flat surface but moving the hand truck on stairs is very difficult. To overcome this

problem a new design of tri-star frame is been invented which helps in climbing on stairs in past few years. Th is paper describes about

the analysis of tri-star frame by calcu lating the maximu m safe load of the hand truck. The analysis done is structural and modal

analysis in ANSYS 16.0 for the maximu m load. Selection of bearings for the maximu m load is done with respect t o life of the

bearing. Then the force required to pull the hand truck on the flat surface and force required to climb the stairs is been a nalysed with a

suitable example. Which can be used in future to make a powered hand truck which can climb the stairs a nd it can also be used in

robots to climb the stairs.

Keywords: Load capacity, Structural analysis of tri-star frame, Modal analysis of tri-star frame, Bearing selection, Fo rce analy sis.

I. INTRODUCTION

station, shopping malls, airports, and the trolley bags etc. These

are designed to carry the loads on the flat surfaces but when it

comes to the stairs it is very difficult to move the hand tru ck.

Therefore to move the hand trucks or to make them climb on

stairs a new design is been invented in past few years that is a

hand truck with tri-star frame[1][2]. The model of a stair-

climb ing hand truck is shown in Figure 1.

Figure. 2. Moti on of Tri-Star Wheel on Stairs [4].

This hand truck is been modelled using UG NX 9.0 and the

assembly is also done in the same software. In figure 2, the tri-star wheel comes in contact with the stairs

then due to obstacle the whole tri-star frame will rotate as shown

The centre axle which carries the wheel is a solid cylinder and in the figure. As the frame rotates the upper wheel rest on the

others are hollow pipes. The below images shown will help to next step and moves forward. This is how the tri-star frame

understand the working of the tri-star frame in the stairs or in design helps in climbing the stairs with less effort [3]. This paper

irregular surfaces. describes about the maximu m load carrying capacity of the hand

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2017 6444 http://ijesc.org/

truck made by mild steel. For this load bearings will be selected suitable is roller bearings of single ro w. The wheel is self bearing

with respect to the life of the bearings. Then structural and modal with ro ller bearings and the life o f the bearing has to be

analysis for maximu m load obtained will be shown and the calculated.

analysis of force while climb ing the stairs is also shown.

We know the life of bearing is given by,

II. LOAD CAPACITY L10 = (C/P)p [5]

Where, L10 = rated bearing life (in million revolutions)

Load capacity of the hand truck can be determined, by using C = Dynamic load capacity (N)

maximu m bending stress of the solid steel axle and we will be P = Bearing load (N)

using a factor of safety of 1.5. Hence fro m this we can find the p = 3 for Ball bearings

allo wable bending stress for solid axle and wh ich will give us the = 10/ 3 for ro ller bearings

maximu m load.

The ma ximu m bending stress = 160MPa [5] Fro m bearing catalogue we have the value of C= 819 N and P=

A llo wable working stress = Max bending 409.0355 N.

stress / 1.5. Therefore, a llo wable working stress = 160/1.5

= 106.66 MPa The value of P is 1/4th of the maximu m load because there will

We know the bending equation is be four wheels but while climb ing on the stairs only two wheels

M/I = σy /C [6] will be supporting the entire load hence it is half of the maximu m

load.

The figure 3 shows the SFD and BMD of simp ly supported L10 = (819/ 409.0355)10/3

beam. L10 = 10.1175 million revolutions

million revolutions. Therefore we use this wheel of self bearing.

For tri- frame we use ball bearings because the

thickness of frame is 6mm and roller bearings of length 6mm is

not available in the market. As on each side there will be two

frames and hence we will use four bearings of single row deep

groove ball bearing. The load P will be 1/4th of the maximu m

load that is 204.518 N. Fro m bearing catalogue the value of

C=2290 N. Hence the life in million revolutions is as follows.

L10 = (2290/204.51775)3

L10 = 1403.8 million revolutions

Hence, with maximu m load this bearing can sustain for 1403.8

million revolutions. Therefore we use this single row deep

groove ball bearings.

IV. ANALYS IS

Figure.3. S FD and B MD of Simpl y Supported Beam.

Analysis is of tri star frame has to be done for the maximu m load

Where, obtained. The analysis of the axle is also done to verify the

M B = maximu m bending mo ment in N-mm = F* L/4 theoretical stress value. The analysis is done in ANSYS 16.0,

I = Mo ment of Inertia in mm4 = πd 4 /64 = 19174.75 mm4 first the structural analysis of axle and tri-star frame will be done

σy = Bending Stress in MPa = 106.66 M Pa and then the modal analysis of tri-star frame.

C = distance fro m upper layer to neutral axis in mm = d/2

= 12.5mm A. Structural Anal ysis Of Axle

We know the length of the axle L= 800mm and diameter The figure 4 shows the structural analysis of shaft.

d= 25mm.

Therefore,

(F*800/4)/ 19174.75 = 106.66/12.5

F = 818.071 N

The maximu m weight that an axle can carry is = F/9.8

= 83.476 Kg.

the life of the bearing in terms of million revolutions. On the

basis of load it depends on the type of load like axial, thrust and Figure.4. Stress Induced and Total Deformation of Axle For

radial loads. Here we have only rad ial loads therefore the bearing Maxi mum Load.

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2017 6445 http://ijesc.org/

The results obtained are as follows: The results obtained are as follows:

Stress = 107.8 M Pa Maximu m stress obtained = 9.0416 MPa

Deformat ion = 0.005936mm Deformat ion in Y-d irection = 0.00044231mm

Theoretically the stress obtained was 106.66 MPa, the Hence the stress induced is less than the yield stress of mild

variation of the value of stress is due to the load round off error steel, the design is safe. Second, when the hand truck is moving

and even stress round off error. Therefore we can tell that our on the stairs, total load will be div ided to four parts and

theoretical calcu lations are correct and the design is safe for the supported by only one arm of each frame.

load of 86 Kg.

ANSYS. We have to see the stresses induced in the tri-star frame

and deflection for the maximu m load obtained. If the stress

induced is more than the yield stress then the design is not safe.

The analysis procedure is, we support the arms of the tri-frame

by giving ‘0’ displacement in one direction. The support is given

in the holes where the wheels are to be fixed and it is given to the

upper half of the hole. Then the load applied is a pressure

because it is a uniform load on the hole of the shaft and it will be

acting on the lower half o f the hole. We analyse this in two

situations that is when load is supported by two arms and other is

when load supported by one arm. First, when the hand truck is Figure.7. Load Application on Tri-Star Frame When Load

moving on the flat surface the total load will be divided to four Supported B y One Arm.

parts and supported by two arms of the each frame.

The figure 7 shows the load and displacement applied on the tri-

star frame. In the figure ‘A’ represent the displacement in Y-

direction and ‘B’ represents the pressure applied. At this point

the stress induced is shown in the figure 8.

Supported B y Two Arms.

Figure 8: Total Deformati on and Maxi mum Stress induced

in Tri-Star Frame for Maximum Load (Single arm support).

Figure 5 shows the load and displacement applied on the tri-star

frame. In the image ‘A’ and ‘B’ rep resents the displacement in

Y-direction and ‘C’ represents the pressure applied. At this point The results obtained are as follows:

Maximu m stress obtained = 9.2742 MPa

the stress induced and maximu m deformat ion is shown in the

figure 6. Deformat ion in Y-d irection = 0.0034273mm

Hence the stress induced is less than the yield stress of mild steel

the design is safe.

It is the study of the dynamic properties of structures under

vibrational excitation. Modal analysis is the field of measuring

and analysing the dynamic response of structures and or fluids

during excitation. Examp les would include measuring vibrations

of car body when it is attached to an electromagnetic shaker,

analysis of unforced vibration response of vehicle suspension. In

our project we are doing modal analysis for tri-star frame

because it experiences more jerk when travelling through the

stairs. Modal analysis is done in ANSYS 16.0, we have fixed the

Figure 6: Total Deformati on and Maxi mum Stress induced

in Tri-Star Frame for Maximum Load (Two arm support). centre of tri-star and solved the model. We have done for 8

modes and the results are as follows.

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2017 6446 http://ijesc.org/

Table 1: Results of Modal Analysis. d) 7th and 8th mode.

1. 73.067 mm 1780.9 Hz

2. 101.56 mm 2514.2 Hz

3. 110.8 mm 2514.2 Hz

4. 73.405 mm 8787.2 Hz

5. 73.185 mm 9398.2 Hz

6. 73.538 mm 9398.2 Hz

7. 73.214 mm 10397 Hz

8. 73.874 mm 10397 Hz

Figure 12: 7 th and 8 th Mode of Analysis.

To tell the model is safe, we have to compare the forced

frequency with natural frequencies obtained. When compared if

V. FORCE REQUIRED TO MOVE THE HAND TRUCK

the forced frequency matches the natural frequency then the

resonance will occur and there is a chance of failing. Hence the

Actually the main aim is to move the hand truck on the stairs

minimu m natural frequency is in the first mode of analysis that is

easily so we are going to calculate the force required to move the

1780.9 Hz, this means that it has to rotate at a speed below

hand truck on the flat surface and on the stairs.

1780.9 RPS. Then there will be no failure due to vibration. The

below figures show the different modes in modal analysis:

A. On Fl at Surface

st nd In flat surface the force required to pull or push the hand truck

a) 1 and 2 mode.

will be equal to frict ional force generated by the wheels of the

hand truck. The figure 13 shows how frict ional force will be

acting to the direction of motion.

Figure 9: 1 st and 2 nd Mode of Anal ysis.

In figure 13 we can see that the friction acts in the opposite

b) 3rd and 4th mode. direction of the motion hence if the pushing force overcomes the

friction force then the body will roll and move as shown above.

The formula for frictional force is given below.

Fr = µr*N [8]

Where,

Fr = rolling frictional force in N

µr = co-efficient of friction

N = normal react ion in N

The co-efficient of frict ion in this is case is between the tyre and

concrete surface is 0.014. Then the normal reaction is equal to

Figure 10: 3 rd and 4 th Mode of Analysis. the weight of the body, that is N = weight of the hand truck.

N = 818.071 N (maximu m load)

c) 5th and 6th mode. Therefore,

Fr = 0.014* 818.071

Fr = 11.45299 N

Hence by this calculation we can conclude that the maximu m

load can be easily pulled or pushed with less effort of 11.45299

N.

B. On Stairs

In stairs, finding the load required to climb is little co mplicated

and load is also more because it is against the gravitational force.

Whereas the load required to push down the stairs is very less as

it is towards gravitational force. Hence no need of calculat ing the

Figure 11: 5 th and 6 th Mode of Analysis. force required to push down the stairs. To find the load required

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2017 6447 http://ijesc.org/

to climb, first we have to analyse the motion of the tri-star frame That is acceleration of the hand truck should be more than

on the stairs. The motion of tri-star frame on the stairs can be acceleration due to gravity, which is difficu lt in the case of hand

explained with an example pole vault athletic game [7]. The truck. So there has to be an extra force fro m hu man which adds

figures below show the pole vault game. up with the force by the motion and make it more than the

weight of the hand truck. Fro m this we can tell that while

climb ing the stairs in the first two to three steps the effort will be

less but as it precede to higher number of steps the effort will

increase and then become constant. Hence this hand truck is

useful in the stairs where numbers of steps are less.

stairs. Therefore a new design of tri-star frame in the p lace of

Figure 14: Pole Vault Athlete. normal wheel was invented. In this paper the analysis of tri-star

frame is been done. The maximu m safe load that can be carried

is been calculated as 83.476 Kg and we analyse whether the tri-

star frame could withstand this load or not. This is been done in

the software ANSYS 16.0 and its been found that the stress

induced is very less than the yield stress of the material mild

steel which tells that the design is safe. As this tri-star frame gets

sudden jerks wh ile travelling on the stairs, hence it is necessary

to do modal analysis. The modal analysis with 8 modes is done

for the tri-star frame wh ich resulted in very high natural

frequencies. Therefore the forced frequency should be less than

the minimu m natural frequency obtained that is 1780.9Hz. It tells

that the tri-star frame should rotate in the speed less than 1780.9

RPS to eliminate resonance. Finally we analyse the load required

to pull the hand truck in flat surface and to climb on stairs. We

found that the force required to pull the hand truck with

maximu m safe load in flat surface is 11.45299 N which is very

small. It tells that, moving the hand truck on the flat surface is

very easy for heavier loads. This is because the load is supported

Figure 15: Pole Vault Game by four wheels on flat surface. When it co mes to stairs the load

calculation is not that easy, here it follows the principle of pole

Figure 14 and 15 shows the pole vault game, where the athlete vault game to climb fro m one step to other. It’s found that the

carrying a pole runs with a certain speed and supports the pole at force required to pull on stairs should be greater than the

the point where he has to jump and hence he gets a lift and ju mps difference of weight and the force obtained by its motion (F =

to the required height. The force required to lift any object m*a). By this we can conclude that as the numbers of steps

should be more than the weight of the body. Hence in the case of increases the effort required to pull the hand truck also increases

pole vault game the force required to lift the athlete depends on and become constant.

the force at which he supports the pole on the ground. That is

when the force at which the pole is supported on the ground is VII. REFERENCES

more than the weight of the body then there will be equal and

opposite force by the ground (Newton’s law) on the pole and [1]. Mohammad Iqbal. (March, 2012). “Mechanical design and

hence the athlete is lifted to the height of the pole. It is the same development of tri-star wheel system for stair climb ing robot”.

principle applies on the tri-frame of the trolley. When the hand Aceh Development International Conference 2012.

truck is brought to climb the stairs with some velocity and

suddenly it supports the one arm of the tri-frame to the stairs like [2]. Rubaiat I. Linda. (January, 2010). “Design and

pole is supported on the ground. Therefore as athlete jumps to manufacturing of a stair climb ing vehicle”. Proceedings of the

the height of pole even hand truck jumps to the height of the arm. 2010 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and

Hence force required to climb depends on the force at which the Operations Management Dhaka, Bangladesh, January 9 – 10,

tri-frame is supported to the stair case in turn the force depends 2010.

on acceleration of the hand truck before coming into contact with

the stairs. Therefore, to get the lift force by the motion of the [3]. Mulikshriniwas. (October, 2015). “Advance material

hand truck should exceed the weight. handling trolley using tri-star mechanism”. Interrnational

That is, journal of recent research in civil and mechanical engineering.

W <F Vo l. 2, Issue. 2, pp: (160-165).

Where, W= weight of the hand truck

F = force by the motion of the hand truck = m*a [4]. “Design and manufacture of stair climber”, (ju ly, 2012).

Therefore, m*g < m*a [online], Available @ http://mmu.ic.polyu.edu.hk/ mu_proj/

g <a 2012/ M E/ME01%20Stair%20Climber.ht ml.

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2017 6448 http://ijesc.org/

[5]. V.B. Bhandari. “Design of Machine Elements”, 2010

edition.

[online] available: http://illu min.usc.edu/143/soaring-to-new-

heig hts- the-evolution-of-pole-vaulting-and-pole-materials/.

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, April 2017 6449 http://ijesc.org/

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