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SYNTAX ERROR

EDEXCEL UNIT 2
CHEMISTRY

MIXED QUESTIONS

BY: SYNTAX ERROR

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SYNTAX ERROR
1. This question is about bond angles.

A 90°

B 104°

C 107°

D 109.5°

Select, from A to D above, the most likely value for the bond angle of

(a) HCH in methane, CH4.

D
(1)

(b) FSF in sulfur hexafluoride, SF6.

D
(1)

(c) FOF in oxygen difluoride, OF2.

D
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

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SYNTAX ERROR
2. Consider the following compounds, P, Q, R and S.

CH3CH2CH3

Compound P Compound Q

CH3CH2CH2CH2Br

Compound R Compound S

The boiling temperatures of compounds P, Q, R and S increase in the order

A PQRS

B RSPQ

C QSPR

D QPSR
(Total 1 mark)

3. Buckminsterfullerene has the formula C60. Its structure is shown below.

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SYNTAX ERROR
The bonding in buckminsterfullerene is similar to the bonding in graphite.

Which of the following is true?

A All the bond angles in buckminsterfullerene are 120°.

B The melting temperature of buckminsterfullerene is higher than that of graphite.

C There are delocalized electrons in buckminsterfullerene.

D On complete combustion, buckminsterfullerene forms carbon dioxide and water.


(Total 1 mark)

4. When concentrated sulfuric acid is added to solid sodium bromide, bromine is produced. When
concentrated sulfuric acid is added to solid sodium chloride, no chlorine is produced.

The reason for this difference is

A sulfuric acid is a strong acid.

B hydrogen chloride is a weak acid.

C the chloride ion is a weaker reducing agent than the bromide ion.

D bromine is less volatile than chlorine.


(Total 1 mark)

5. Compound X is a white solid. On heating this compound, a colourless, acidic gas is the only
gaseous product. A flame test is carried out on the solid residue and a reddish flame is observed.

Compound X is

A calcium nitrate.

B calcium carbonate.

C magnesium carbonate.

D strontium nitrate.
(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
6. Which of the following does not apply to the elements Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba in Group 2 of the
Periodic Table?

A Their oxides, MO, are all basic.

B Their metal hydroxides, M(OH)2, become more soluble down the group.

C Their oxides, MO, react with water to form the metal hydroxide, M(OH)2.

D Their carbonates, MCO3, all decompose on gentle heating.


(Total 1 mark)

7. Which of the following compounds shows hydrogen bonding in the liquid state?

A Hydrogen bromide, HBr

B Hydrogen sulfide, H2S

C Silane, SiH4

D Ammonia, NH3
(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
8. For the reversible reaction

X Y

which of the following could represent the change in the concentrations of X and Y with time,
starting with a mixture of both X and Y? Equilibrium is reached at time teqm.

(Total 1 mark)

9. Which of the following molecules is polar?

A Carbon dioxide, CO2

B Beryllium chloride, BeCl2

C Ammonia, NH3

D Boron trifluoride, BF3


(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
10. The electronegativities of four pairs of elements are given below. Which pair would form the
compound with the greatest ionic character?

A 0.7 and 4.0

B 0.7 and 3.5

C 1.0 and 4.0

D 0.8 and 2.8


(Total 1 mark)

11. Which of the following statements about the elements in Group 7 is incorrect?

A They all show variable oxidation states in their compounds.

B They all form acidic hydrides.

C Electronegativity decreases as the group is descended.

D They all exist as diatomic molecules.


(Total 1 mark)

12. What are the products, other than water, when chlorine is passed through cold, dilute aqueous
sodium hydroxide solution?

A NaCl and NaClO

B NaClO and NaClO3

C NaCl and NaClO3

D NaClO and NaClO4


(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
13. When solutions of iodine are titrated with aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, Na2S2O3(aq),
the thiosulfate ions are oxidized to

A S2O42–

B S2O62–

C S2O82–

D S4O62–
(Total 1 mark)

14. The best method of converting ethanol, C2H5OH, into iodoethane, C2H5I, is to

A heat iodine and ethanol under reflux.

B react ethanol and potassium iodide in the presence of dilute acid.

C heat potassium iodide and ethanol with concentrated sulfuric acid.

D heat red phosphorus, ethanol and iodine under reflux.


(Total 1 mark)

15. The use of poly(ethene) packaging has been criticised mainly because

A the complete combustion of poly(ethene) produces dangerous fumes.

B large amounts of oil are consumed in producing the monomer, ethene.

C poly(ethene) degrades to form toxic products.

D the catalyst used in the polymerization of ethene is expensive.


(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
16. Which of the following is essential if a species is to act as a nucleophile?

A A lone pair of electrons.

B A negative charge.

C An unpaired electron.

D A strongly polar bond.


(Total 1 mark)

17. Calculate the volume of dilute sulfuric acid, concentration 0.500 mol dm–3, required to
neutralize 20.0 cm3 aqueous sodium hydroxide, concentration 0.100 mol dm–3.

H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2H2O

A 2.0 cm3

B 4.0 cm3

C 8.0 cm3

D 20.0 cm3
(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
18. Which of the following features is shown by the mass spectra of propanone and propanal?

propanone propanal

m/e of the molecular ion Fragmentation pattern

A same same

B same different

C different same

D different different
(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
19. A student carried out an experiment to determine the concentration of ethanoic acid in a solution
of vinegar.

• The student used a measuring cylinder to measure out 25.0 cm3 of the vinegar solution.

• This solution was then transferred to a 250 cm3 volumetric flask and the liquid level was
carefully made up to the mark with distilled water.

• A pipette was used to transfer 25.0 cm3 portions of the acidic solution to conical flasks.

• The solution was then titrated with sodium hydroxide solution, concentration 0.100 mol
dm–3, using phenolphthalein as the indicator.

CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)

Results

Titration number 1 2 3 4
Burette reading (fi nal) / cm3 28.55 28.00 40.35 28.05

Burette reading (initial) / cm3 0.00 0.05 12.30 0.05

Volume of NaOH used / cm3 28.55 27.95 28.05 28.00

(a) In this titration, what is the colour change of the phenolphthalein indicator?

From .................................................. to ..................................................


(2)

(b) Explain why the mean titre should be based only on titrations 2, 3 and 4.

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(1)

(c) Calculate the mean titre in cm3.


(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(d) (i) Using your answer to (c), calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide in
the mean titre.
(1)

(ii) Hence state the number of moles of ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, in 25.0 cm3 of the
diluted solution used in the titration.
(1)

(iii) Calculate the concentration of the diluted acid solution in mol dm–3.
(1)

(iv) Hence calculate the concentration of the ethanoic acid in the original vinegar
solution in mol dm–3.
(1)

(v) Use your answer from (d)(iv) to state the concentration of the ethanoic acid in the
original vinegar solution in units of g dm–3.

[The molar mass of the ethanoic acid is 60 g mol–1.]


(1)

(e) Suggest, with a reason, how the student’s method of preparing the diluted solution could
be improved.

Improvement

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Reason

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(2)

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(f) The burette used in the titration had an uncertainty for each reading of ± 0.05 cm3.

(i) Identify, by letter, which ONE of the following should be regarded as the true
value of the titre in titration number 2?

X Between 27.90 and 28.00 cm3

Y Between 27.925 and 27.975 cm3

Z Between 27.85 and 28.05 cm3

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(1)

(ii) Suggest ONE reason why a student may obtain volumes outside the uncertainty of
the burette when performing a titration.

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(1)
(Total 13 marks)

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SYNTAX ERROR
20. (a) Propene, C3H6, reacts with hydrogen bromide, HBr, in an electrophilic addition reaction.

2-bromopropane is formed as the major product.

H3CCH==CH2 + HBr → H3CCH(Br)CH3

(i) Complete the mechanism for the reaction, using ‘curly arrows’ where appropriate.
Show clearly the structure of the intermediate carbocation formed.

(3)

(ii) Draw the structure of the alternative carbocation that can be formed in the reaction
between propene and hydrogen bromide.
(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Four isomers, each with the molecular formula C4H10O, are shown below.

Isomer A: CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

Isomer B: CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3

Isomer C: (CH3)3COH

Isomer D: CH3CH(CH3)CH2OH

(i) Which isomer is a secondary alcohol? Justify your answer.

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(2)

(ii) Which isomer is resistant to oxidation when heated with acidified potassium
dichromate(VI)? Justify your answer in terms of the structure of the isomer.

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(2)

(iii) Which isomer can be oxidized to a ketone? Draw the displayed formula of the
ketone produced.

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(1)

(iv) Which isomers can be oxidized to an aldehyde?

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(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(v) Phosphorus(V) chloride (phosphorus pentachloride), PCl5, is used to test for the
presence of an –OH group.

What would you expect to see when any of the above four isomers, A, B, C or D,
are reacted with phosphorus(V) chloride?

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(1)

(vi) Complete the equation for the reaction shown below. State symbols are not
required.

C4H9OH + PCl5 →
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

21. (a) In the catalytic converter of a car engine’s exhaust system, the following reaction occurs.

2NO(g) + 2CO(g) N2(g) + 2CO2(g) ΔH = –745 kJ mol–1

The temperature in a catalytic converter is high.

(i) State the effect, if any, on the position of equilibrium if the temperature is lowered.
Give a reason for your answer.

Effect.................................................................................................................

Reason...............................................................................................................

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(2)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) The gases from the engine are not cooled before entering the converter. Explain
why this is so.

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(2)

(iii) State the effect, if any, on the position of equilibrium if the pressure on the reacting
gases is increased. Give a reason for your answer.

Effect................................................................................................................

Reason...............................................................................................................

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(2)

(b) Nitrogen monoxide, NO, is formed when nitrate ions, NO 3– , in acidic solution are
reduced by silver metal.

(i) Calculate the oxidation number of nitrogen in NO and in NO 3–

In NO...............................................................................................................

In NO 3– .............................................................................................................

(2)

(ii) Balance the half-equation for the reduction of nitrate ions, NO 3– , in acidic
solution.

NO 3– + .............H+ + ........e– → NO + ........H2O


(2)

(iii) Write the half-equation for the oxidation of silver metal, Ag, to silver ions, Ag+.
(1)

(iv) Hence deduce the full ionic equation for the reaction between silver metal and
nitrate ions in acidic solution. State symbols are not required.
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

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SYNTAX ERROR
22. This question is about the chemistry of some halogenoalkanes.

Halothane is a colourless and sweet-smelling liquid. It has a boiling temperature of 50°C.


Halothane vapour was used as a general anaesthetic in hospitals during the mid to late 20th
Century. Patients inhaled the halothane vapour under medical supervision.

However, halothane was found to have some adverse side-effects and was therefore replaced by
other halogenoalkane anaesthetics.

Halothane has the structure

In an experiment, halothane was heated in a test tube with aqueous silver nitrate and ethanol,
using a water bath. Compound X and bromide ions were formed. The structure of compound X
is shown below.

Compound X

(a) (i) Give the systematic name of halothane.

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(1)

(ii) Suggest the types of intermolecular force present between molecules of liquid
halothane.

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(2)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) In the above experiment, suggest ONE reason why a water bath was used rather
than heating the test tube containing the reaction mixture directly over a Bunsen
flame.

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(1)

(iv) Suggest why ethanol was used in this experiment.

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(1)

(v) What would be seen in the test tube as the reaction progressed?

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(1)

(vi) Write an ionic equation to show the reaction between aqueous silver ions and
aqueous bromide ions. Include state symbols in your equation.
(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Chloroethane, C2H5Cl, can also be used as an anaesthetic. In an experiment, chloroethane
was hydrolysed by aqueous sodium hydroxide, NaOH.

(i) Name, and give the structural formula of, the organic product of the hydrolysis of
chloroethane.

Name................................................................................................................

Structural formula.............................................................................................
(2)

(ii) The hydrolysis of chloroethane is an exothermic reaction which takes place in a


single step.

On the diagram below, draw the energy profile for the reaction. Label clearly the
activation energy for the reaction.

(3)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(c) In the early 1900s, the CFC with formula CCl2F2, was identified as a refrigerant which
was both non-flammable and non-toxic.

(i) What does the term CFC stand for?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Suggest ONE use for CFCs other than as a refrigerant.

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(1)

(iii) In the stratosphere, CFCs are broken down by absorption of UV radiation to form
chlorine free radicals.

The following two reactions occur.

Cl• + O3 → ClO• + O2

ClO• + O → Cl• + O2

Combine these two equations to give the overall equation for the reaction of ozone
in the stratosphere. State the role played by the chlorine free radical in the overall
reaction. Hence explain why many scientists consider the effect of CFCs on ozone
to be harmful.

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(5)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(d) The compound of formula CH2F2 has replaced several CFCs for commercial use. If
molecules of CH2F2 reach the stratosphere, they do not break down to produce fluorine
free radicals.

(i) Suggest why C–F bonds are not broken in the stratosphere.

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(1)

(ii) The compound CH2F2 acts as a greenhouse gas when it absorbs a particular type of
radiation.

Name the type of radiation and explain why a molecule of CH2F2 is able to absorb
this radiation.

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(2)
(Total 22 marks)

23. Which of the following bond angles occur in a molecule of ethanol, C2H5OH?

A 90° and 180°

B 104.5° and 180°

C 104.5° and 109.5°

D 109.5° and 120°


(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
24. Which of the following molecules is linear?

A Carbon dioxide, CO2

B Sulfur dioxide, SO2

C Water, H2O

D Methanal, HCHO
(Total 1 mark)

25. Which of the following molecules contains polar bonds but is not a polar molecule?

A Chlorine, Cl2

B Hydrogen chloride, HCl

C Trichloromethane, CHCl3

D Tetrachloromethane, CCl4
(Total 1 mark)

26. Which of the following has dipole-dipole interactions between its molecules, but no hydrogen
bonding?

A Methane, CH4

B Methanol, CH3OH

C Ammonia, NH3

D Hydrogen iodide, HI
(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
27. Which list below shows the compounds in order of increasing boiling temperature?

A CH4, HCl, HF

B HF, CH4, HCl

C HCl, HF, CH4

D HF, HCl, CH4


(Total 1 mark)

28. Which of the following has the highest boiling temperature?

A Pentane, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

B Hexane, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

C 2-methylbutane, CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH3

D 2-methylpentane, CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3
(Total 1 mark)

29. Which of the following could not be an element in Group 2?

A An element with an oxide which forms a solution of pH 10.

B An element with an insoluble sulfate.

C An element with a chloride which is liquid at room temperature.

D An element with a carbonate which decomposes on heating.


(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
30. Chlorides of Group 1 elements produce coloured flames when

A electrons become excited to a higher energy level.

B excited electrons move from a higher to a lower energy level.

C an outer electron leaves the atom.

D electrons move between the negative and positive ions.


(Total 1 mark)

31. This question is about the following compounds.

A Barium carbonate

B Lithium nitrate

C Potassium bromide

D Potassium nitrate

(a) Which compound gives a green colour in a flame test?

D
(1)

(b) Which compound gives a lilac colour in a flame test and does not decompose on heating?

D
(1)
(Total 2 marks)

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SYNTAX ERROR
32. 20 cm3 of sulfuric acid, concentration 0.25 mol dm–3, was neutralized in a titration with barium
hydroxide, concentration 0.50 mol dm–3. The equation for the reaction is

Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

(a) The volume of barium hydroxide required was

A 10 cm3

B 20 cm3

C 25 cm3

D 40 cm3
(1)

(b) During the titration, the barium hydroxide was added until it was present in excess. The
electrical conductivity of the titration mixture

A increased steadily.

B decreased steadily.

C increased and then decreased.

D decreased and then increased.


(1)
(Total 2 marks)

33. Which of the following trends occurs going down the elements in Group 2?

A The solubility of the hydroxides increases.

B The first ionization energy increases.

C The solubility of the sulfates increases.

D The stability of the carbonates to heat decreases.


(Total 1 mark)

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SYNTAX ERROR
34. Which of the following is not a true statement about hydrogen iodide?

A It forms steamy fumes in moist air.

B It dissolves in water to form an acidic solution.

C It forms a cream precipitate with silver nitrate solution.

D It forms dense white smoke with ammonia.


(Total 1 mark)

35. Chemical reactions may involve

A oxidation

B reduction

C no change in oxidation number

D disproportionation

Which of the terms above best describes what happens to the chlorine in the following
reactions?

(a) Cl2(g) + H2O(l) → HCl(aq) + HOCl(aq)

D
(1)

(b) Cl2(g) + 2Na(s) → 2NaCl(s)

D
(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(c) NaCl(s) + H2SO4(l) → HCl(g) + NaHSO4(s)

D
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

36. When chloroethane is heated with a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol,
the reaction which occurs is

A substitution.

B elimination.

C hydrolysis.

D redox.
(Total 1 mark)

37. Chloroethane reacts with aqueous potassium hydroxide solution, producing ethanol as the
organic product.

(a) The hydroxide ion is acting as

A an electrophile.

B a nucleophile.

C an oxidizing agent.

D a reducing agent.
(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Which of the following shows the correct electron-pair movements in this reaction?

(1)
(Total 2 marks)

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SYNTAX ERROR
38. Magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2, decomposes when it is heated. One product is the brown gas,
nitrogen dioxide.

(a) (i) Write an equation for this reaction. State symbols are not required.
(2)

(ii) Calcium nitrate decomposes in a similar way to magnesium nitrate, but at a higher
temperature.

Explain why the two nitrates have different stability to heat.

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(2)

(b) Sodium nitrate decomposes to give different products to magnesium nitrate. Write an
equation for the decomposition of sodium nitrate. State symbols are not required.
(1)

(c) A student suggested that the structure of the nitrate ion, NO3 –, is

Scientists have found that the bonds between nitrogen and oxygen in the nitrate ion are all
the same length. Is the student’s suggestion supported by this evidence? Explain your
answer.

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(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(d) Nitrogen dioxide gas can dimerize to dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4, a very pale yellow gas,
as shown in the equation below.

2NO2(g) N2O4(g) ΔH = –58 kJ mol–1

(i) What would you see when an equilibrium mixture of these gases is warmed gently?
Explain your answer.

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(2)

(ii) Explain why an equilibrium mixture of these gases eventually becomes paler in
colour when the pressure on it is increased.

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(2)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(e) Two Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions showing the energy of particles in a gas at
different temperatures, T1 and T2, are shown below. The activation energy for the
reaction is labelled EA.

Use the distributions to explain why gases react faster when the temperature is increased.

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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

32
SYNTAX ERROR
39. This question is about some reactions of halogens and halide ions.

(a) (i) When chlorine is added to a solution containing bromide or iodide ions, a colour
change occurs. What solvent would you add to the mixture to confirm the identity
of the halogen produced?

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(1)

(ii) Give the result for the test with this solvent in a reaction in which bromine is
produced.

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(1)

(b) (i) Solid potassium bromide and potassium iodide can be distinguished by their
reactions with concentrated sulfuric acid.

Potassium bromide reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid initially to produce


hydrogen bromide. This reacts further, as shown below, to produce a sharp
smelling gas and a brown fuming liquid.

2HBr(g) + H2SO4(l) → SO2(g) + Br2(l) + 2H2O(l)

Show, by use of oxidation numbers for sulfur, that the sulfuric acid has been
reduced.

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(2)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) State TWO observations, which would differ from those with potassium bromide,
when potassium iodide reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid.

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(2)

(iii) One product of the reaction with potassium iodide is hydrogen sulfide, H2S. How
does this show that iodide ions are more powerful reducing agents than bromide
ions?

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(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(c) In areas where the natural concentration of fluoride ions in rocks is low, some water
authorities add fluoride to the water supply to improve the dental health of children. An
alternative would be to supply free fluoride tablets.

Give ONE reason why it could be considered more ethical to supply free fluoride tablets
rather than to add fluoride compounds to the water supply.

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(1)
(Total 8 marks)

40. Butan-1-ol and three other alcohols, X, Y and Z, are isomers.

(a) (i) Give TWO observations you would make when any one of the alcohols reacts with
sodium.

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(2)

(ii) Give the molecular formula of the organic product of the reaction.

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(1)

(b) Isomer X does not react with a mixture of potassium dichromate(VI) and sulfuric acid.

Draw the displayed formula of X and name it.

Name ............................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) When isomer Y is heated under reflux with a mixture of potassium dichromate(VI) and
sulfuric acid, it forms 2-methylpropanoic acid.

Deduce the structural formula of the alcohol Y.


(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(d) (i) Isomer Z reacts with a mixture of potassium dichromate(VI) and sulfuric acid to
form a compound Q, which does not react with Fehling’s or Benedict’s solution.

Deduce the structural formula of the alcohol Z.

(1)

(ii) What would be the principal difference between the infrared spectrum of Q and the
infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropanoic acid?

You are not expected to quote absorption values.

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(1)

(e) One of the isomers, X, Y or Z can be converted to 2-chlorobutane.

What reagent would you use to carry out this conversion?

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(1)

(f) (i) 2-chlorobutane reacts with silver nitrate in a mixture of ethanol and water as a
solvent. What would you see when the reaction occurred?

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(1)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Both ethanol and water contain hydrogen bonds. By considering the hydrogen
bonding on these two solvents, suggest why 2-chlorobutane is more soluble in
ethanol than in water.

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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

41. The concentration of iodine in solution can be measured by titration with sodium thiosulfate
solution.

I2(aq) + 2S2O3 2–(aq) → 2I–(aq) + S4O6 2–(aq)

(a) Name a suitable indicator which could be used for this titration.

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(1)

(b) The amount of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere can be measured by passing a known
volume of air through iodine solution. Sulfur dioxide converts iodine to iodide ions.

SO2(g) + I2(aq) + 2H2O(l) → SO42–(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2I–(aq)

In an experiment, 100 m3 of air were passed through 100 cm3 of iodine, concentration
0.0100 mol dm–3. The remaining iodine was titrated with sodium thiosulfate solution and
reacted with 12.60 cm3 of sodium thiosulfate, concentration 0.100 mol dm–3.

(i) How many moles of iodine were present in the solution of the iodine at the start of
the experiment?
(1)

37
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) How many moles of iodine remained in the solution at the end of the experiment?
(2)

(iii) Calculate the number of moles of iodine which reacted with the sulfur dioxide, and
hence the number of moles of sulfur dioxide in 100 m3 of air.
(2)

(iv) The European Commission recommend exposure to sulfur dioxide in air should be
less than 350 micrograms (350 × 10–6 g) per cubic metre.

Calculate whether the sulfur dioxide in this sample of air was within this limit. One
mole of sulfur dioxide has mass 64.1 g.
(2)

(c) Explain whether the changes below would or would not improve the experimental
procedure for measuring the concentration of sulfur dioxide in air used in (b).

(i) The 100 cm3 of iodine was divided into 25 cm3 samples before titration.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) The concentration of sodium thiosulfate used to titrate the iodine was changed from
0.100 mol dm–3 to 0.050 mol dm–3.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) 150 m3 of air was passed through the iodine. The solutions used were of the same
concentrations as in the original experiment.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

38
SYNTAX ERROR
42.

Fuel from the air?

A new catalyst that can break down carbon dioxide gas could allow us to use carbon
from the atmosphere as a fuel source in a similar way to plants.

Plants break the stable bonds in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. In the natural
process, the carbon dioxide molecule is initially bonded to nitrogen atoms, making
reactive compounds called carbamates. Carbamates are derivatives of carbamic acid,
NH2CO2H. These compounds can then be broken down, allowing the carbon to be
used in the synthesis of other plant products such as sugars and proteins.

A new catalyst produced by scientists is a graphite-like compound made from flat


layers of carbon and nitrogen atoms arranged in hexagons. Carbon dioxide binds to
the catalyst and takes part in the following reaction, which occurs at 150°C and at
about three times atmospheric pressure.

C6H6 + CO2 → C6H5OH + CO

benzene phenol

Carbon monoxide can then be used to make liquid fuels such as methanol.

The energy required for photosynthesis comes from light, and experiments are now
going on to develop a light activated catalyst which could break down carbon
dioxide in a new process.
(Source: adapted from an article from the NewScientist.com by Tom Simonite, March 2007)

(a) Why are the bonds within a layer of carbon atoms in graphite stronger than the bonds
between the layers of carbon atoms?

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

39
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) The data below gives the relative electrical conductivity of a pure graphite crystal.

Relative conductivity in plane of Relative conductivity perpendicular to


carbon hexagons plane of carbon hexagons
3.7 0.0017

Explain why the relative electrical conductivity of graphite differs with direction.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Suggest why the strength of the bond between the layers in graphite would increase if
some carbon atoms were replaced with nitrogen atoms.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) Suggest ONE benefit of using a light activated catalyst for the new process.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(e) The liquid fuel, methanol, is made by reacting carbon monoxide with hydrogen.

Write an equation for this reaction. State symbols are not required.
(1)

40
SYNTAX ERROR
(f) Benzene, which is needed for the new process of breaking down carbon dioxide, can be
made from coal. It is now usually made by catalytic treatment of one fraction of crude oil
at temperatures of around 500 °C and 20 atmospheres pressure.

Suggest the benefits and disadvantages of breaking down carbon dioxide using benzene
and the catalyst as described in the passage. You should consider

• the energy and resources needed

• the effects on the atmosphere

• whether it is a beneficial method for producing energy compared to direct use of


fossil fuels.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(6)

(g) Carbon exists in forms other than graphite. Nanotubes are rolls of graphite layers, and
fullerenes are cages of carbon atoms. Both nanotubes and fullerenes can trap other
substances in their structures, and fullerenes can be coated with other substances.

Give ONE application of carbon nanotubes or fullerenes which exploits this behaviour.
(1)
(Total 15 marks)

41
SYNTAX ERROR
43. What is the oxidation number of chlorine in the ClO3– ion?

A –1

B +4

C +5

D +6
(Total 1 mark)

44. Which of these reactions is not a redox reaction?

A Mg(NO3)2(s) → MgO(s) + 2NO2(g) + ½O2(g)

B HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

C Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) → FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

D Cl2(aq) + 2Br–(aq) → 2Cl–(aq) + Br2(aq)


(Total 1 mark)

42
SYNTAX ERROR
45. Which of these carbon structures is represented by the diagram below?

A Graphite

B Diamond

C A fullerene

D A carbon nanotube
(Total 1 mark)

46. What colour precipitate would you expect to see if 1-bromopropane was heated with a solution
of silver nitrate?

A Orange

B White

C Yellow

D Cream
(Total 1 mark)

43
SYNTAX ERROR
47. Which of these bond angles is the smallest?

A HNH in NH3

B HCH in CH4

C HOH in H2O

D OCO in CO2
(Total 1 mark)

48. Which statement best describes the shape and bond angles in the molecule SF6?

A Octahedral, 90° and 180°

B Trigonal bipyramidal, 90° and 180°

C Octahedral, 90° and 120°

D Trigonal bipyramidal, 90° and 120°


(Total 1 mark)

49. Which of the following values for the mass/charge ratio for singly charged ions would be
present in the mass spectrum of propanal, CH3CH2CHO, but not of propanone, CH3COCH3?

A 15

B 29

C 43

D 58
(Total 1 mark)

44
SYNTAX ERROR
50. The infrared spectrum below is most likely to be that of a member of which homologous series?

C―Cl stretching vibrations 600 – 800 cm–1


O―H stretching vibrations 2500 – 3300 cm–1
C==O stretching vibrations 1680 – 1740 cm–1

A Alcohol

B Chloroalkane

C Aldehyde

D Carboxylic acid
(Total 1 mark)

45
SYNTAX ERROR
51. In the reaction profile below, which energy change would alter if a catalyst was added to the
reaction?

D
(Total 1 mark)

46
SYNTAX ERROR
52. In the equilibrium below, what effect would the changes described have on the system?

2H2S(g) + SO2(g) 3S(s) + 2H2O(g) ΔH is negative

(a) Increase in temperature

A increase rate, decrease yield

B increase rate, increase yield

C decrease rate, decrease yield

D decrease rate, increase yield


(1)

(b) Decrease in pressure

A increase rate, decrease yield

B increase rate, increase yield

C decrease rate, decrease yield

D decrease rate, increase yield


(1)
(Total 2 marks)

53. What is the correct systematic name for the alcohol shown below?

A hexan-4-ol

B hexan-2-ol

C pentan-4-ol

D pentan-2-ol
(Total 1 mark)

47
SYNTAX ERROR
54. Which of these compounds is a secondary halogenoalkane?

A CH3CH(OH)CH3

B CH3CCl(CH3)CH3

C CH3CHClCH3

D CH3CH2CH2Cl
(Total 1 mark)

55. The bonding in gaseous hydrogen halides is best described as

A mainly covalent with an increasing tendency towards ionic as you go down the group.

B mainly covalent with an increasing tendency towards ionic as you go up the group.

C mainly ionic with an increasing tendency towards covalent as you go down the group.

D mainly ionic with an increasing tendency towards covalent as you go up the group.
(Total 1 mark)

56. What would be the colour of the solution when iodine is dissolved in a hydrocarbon solvent?

A Grey

B Brown

C Yellow

D Purple
(Total 1 mark)

48
SYNTAX ERROR
57. Starch is often used as an indicator in titrations between sodium thiosulfate and iodine solutions.
What colour change would you see at the end-point as sodium thiosulfate is added to iodine
solution in the presence of starch?

A Yellow to colourless

B Colourless to yellow

C Blue-black to colourless

D Colourless to blue-black
(Total 1 mark)

58. An electric field can affect the direction of a stream of some liquids. Which of these liquids
would be affected by an electric field?

A 1-chloropropane

B Pentane

C Tetrachloromethane

D Cyclopentane
(Total 1 mark)

59. Which of these isomers has the highest boiling temperature?

(Total 1 mark)

49
SYNTAX ERROR
60. Which of the following statements is true?

A Calcium hydroxide is more soluble in water than magnesium hydroxide.

B Chlorine is more electronegative than fluorine.

C Iodine is a stronger oxidizing agent than bromine.

D The first ionization energy of barium is greater than that of strontium.


(Total 1 mark)

61. Iodine can react with sodium hydroxide solution to form NaIO3(aq), according to the equation
below.

3I2(aq) + 6NaOH(aq) → 5NaI(aq) + NaIO3(aq) + 3H2O(l)

Which of the statements about the reaction is false?

A The oxidation number of some iodine atoms goes up.

B At high temperatures NaIO(aq) also forms.

C Sodium ions are spectator ions.

D The oxidation number of some iodine atoms goes down.


(Total 1 mark)

50
SYNTAX ERROR
62. When 2-chloro-2-methylpropane is heated in a mixture of water and ethanol at 65 °C, two types
of reaction occur. A mixture of two organic products, 2-methylpropan-2-ol and
2-methylpropene, is formed.

(a) (i) Name the two reaction types that are taking place.

Reaction 1........................................................................................................

Reaction 2........................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Explain how the two products form, by describing the role of the water in each
case.

Reaction 1.........................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Reaction 2.........................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)

51
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) A proposed mechanism for Reaction 1 involved the formation of the carbocation,

(i) What type of bond breaking must have occurred during the carbocation formation?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Suggest why 1-chlorobutane reacts with water via a different mechanism.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Another halogenoalkane, 2-chlorobutane, behaves in a similar way to


2-chloro-2-methylpropane but in Reaction 2 can form three different alkenes.
Suggest how three different alkenes can form and give their displayed formulae.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

52
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) Suggest why 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane would react more slowly than
2-chloro-2-methylpropane in Reaction 1.

What reagent could you use instead of water to increase the rate of this reaction involving
2-fluoro-2-methylpropane? Explain why the reagent would have this effect.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 16 marks)

63. The graph below shows the boiling temperatures of the hydrides of Group 7.

53
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) (i) Identify the type of intermolecular force that gives rise to the unusually high
boiling temperature of hydrogen fluoride.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) State and explain whether the electronegativity of fluorine is greater than, similar
to or less than, that of bromine.

Hence explain why hydrogen fluoride can form the type of intermolecular force
named in (a)(i) but hydrogen bromide cannot.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii) Use the graph to predict what the boiling temperature of hydrogen fluoride would
be without the presence of the type of intermolecular force named in (a)(i).

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

54
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Propanone, CH3COCH3, is a useful solvent for cleaning glassware in laboratories.

(i) Why is propanone able to dissolve a wide range of substances?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Propanone can be used to remove both water and octane from glassware. For each
of these substances, identify the strongest intermolecular force formed with
propanone and the feature of the propanone molecule involved.

Water................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Octane...............................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

55
SYNTAX ERROR
64. Calcium oxide, known as quicklime, is produced by the thermal decomposition of calcium
carbonate, found naturally in limestone.

(a) (i) Explain what is meant by the term thermal decomposition.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Write an equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate, including
state symbols.

(1)

(iii) Other Group 2 carbonates can also undergo thermal decomposition. Describe and
explain the trend in thermal stability of carbonates down Group 2.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

56
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) 0.121 g of an impure sample of quicklime was dissolved in 50.0 cm3 of hydrochloric
acid, concentration 0.100 mol dm–3. The excess hydrochloric acid was titrated with
sodium hydroxide solution, concentration 0.100 mol dm–3, and 18.0 cm3 was needed to
just neutralize the acid. The indicator used was methyl orange.

The equations for the reactions involved are shown below.

CaO(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l)

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

(i) What colour would the indicator be at the end-point?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid that reacted with the sodium
hydroxide solution.

(1)

(iii) Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid originally added to the
quicklime. Use this answer and your answer to (b)(ii) to calculate the number of
moles of quicklime that reacted with the hydrochloric acid.

(2)

(iv) Calculate the percentage purity of the sample of quicklime. Give your answer to
three significant figures.

(2)

57
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) Describe how to carry out a flame test on the impure sample of quicklime to
confirm that it contains calcium ions.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) If the flame test gave a green colour, in addition to the expected brick red flame,
which Group 2 metal is also likely to be present?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 16 marks)

65. As levels of fossil fuel resources are getting lower, society is increasingly looking at the use of
biofuels as alternatives to coal, oil and gas. Biofuels are derived from plants and examples
include bioethanol, biodiesel and Miscanthus, a plant more commonly known as elephant grass.
These fuels have the advantage of being renewable and the plants take in carbon dioxide as they
grow.

Bioethanol is produced from crops such as sugar cane or corn. The raw plant material is treated
to produce a sugary solution which is then fermented to produce ethanol, water and carbon
dioxide gas. The ethanol is removed by distillation. The resulting solution contains about 96 %
ethanol. The remaining water has to be removed by absorption using a suitable drying agent so
that the ethanol can burn efficiently. The bioethanol can then be burnt alone or mixed with
petrol in vehicle engines.

Biodiesel is formed by the hydrolysis of vegetable oils using sodium hydroxide solution,
followed by esterification with methanol and a sodium hydroxide catalyst. Biodiesel can then be
used on its own in diesel-engined vehicles or mixed with diesel derived from crude oil. Plants
which are used to produce the vegetable oils include rapeseed in the UK, soya bean in the USA
and palm oil in Asia.

58
SYNTAX ERROR
Miscanthus, or elephant grass, is a quick growing, high-yield plant that grows up to four metres
in height. After harvesting, the grass is left to dry and then burnt in power stations designed to
run on solid fuels such as coal. In the United Kingdom, farms that produce elephant grass are
normally situated within 50 miles of such a power station.

In an experiment to simulate the production of bioethanol, a student produced a water/ ethanol


mixture by fermentation of sucrose solution using yeast. It was then proposed to separate the
ethanol from water by carrying out a distillation on the mixture. The mixture would then be
dried using a suitable drying agent.

(a) Draw a diagram to show the most significant intermolecular force between an ethanol
molecule and a water molecule. Label the bond angle between the molecules and state its
value.
(2)

59
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) The student proposed to set up the apparatus as shown below to carry out the distillation
to try to separate the ethanol from water.

There are three errors with the set-up. Draw a circle around each error.

Describe what effect these errors would have if the student attempted to carry out the
separation as shown.

[Clamps are not shown in the diagram but you can assume the apparatus is supported
adequately.]

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(6)

60
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) If a balance accurate to two decimal places was used to record the mass of ethanol
collected, what would be the percentage error due to the balance readings if the total mass
of ethanol collected was 20.10 g?
(1)

(d) Suggest a suitable drying agent to absorb the water remaining with the ethanol after
distillation. Describe how you would use it to produce a dry sample of ethanol.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(e) Describe a chemical test you could carry out to confirm the presence of the –OH group in
ethanol. What result would you expect to see?

Test .............................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

Result ..........................................................................................................................
(2)

61
SYNTAX ERROR
(f) (i) Explain what is meant by a carbon neutral fuel.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Suggest TWO reasons why these biofuels may not be carbon neutral and describe
TWO effects that large scale production of biofuels may have on society. Which of
the three biofuels do you think is the most sustainable? Justify your choice.
(5)
(Total 20 marks)

66. 10.0 cm3 of 0.250 mol dm–3 potassium hydroxide solution was placed in a conical flask and
titrated with 0.200 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid solution, using phenolphthalein as an indicator.

(a) What colour would phenolphthalein turn at the end-point in this titration?

A Colourless

B Pink

C Yellow

D Orange
(1)

(b) The best piece of apparatus to accurately measure out 10.0 cm3 is a

A pipette.

B burette.

C syringe.

D measuring cylinder.
(1)

62
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) What volume of 0.200 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid solution was added by the end-point?

A 8.00 cm3

B 10.00 cm3

C 12.50 cm3

D 25.00 cm3
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

67. Which of these metal hydroxides is the most soluble in water?

A Barium hydroxide

B Calcium hydroxide

C Magnesium hydroxide

D Strontium hydroxide
(Total 1 mark)

68. Which of these metals will give a lilac flame colour?

A Sodium

B Calcium

C Potassium

D Magnesium
(Total 1 mark)

63
SYNTAX ERROR
69. Which of these is a tertiary alcohol?

A 3-methylpentan-2-ol

B Pentan-2-ol

C Pentan-3-ol

D 2-methylpentan-2-ol
(Total 1 mark)

70. Which of these statements about fluorine is not correct?

A It is a gaseous element at room temperature and pressure.

B It can react with chloride ions to form chlorine.

C It forms salts with Group 1 metals.

D It is less electronegative than chlorine.


(Total 1 mark)

71. What is the oxidation number of oxygen in dioxygen difluoride, O2F2?

A –1

B –2

C +1

D +2
(Total 1 mark)

64
SYNTAX ERROR
72. Which of these four molecules, PCl3, CO, CO2 and CCl4, are polar?

A All four

B PCl3 and CO

C CO and CCl4

D PCl3 and CO2


(Total 1 mark)

73. Which intermolecular forces exist between molecules of ethoxyethane?

A Instantaneous dipole – induced dipole only

B Permanent dipole – permanent dipole only

C Instantaneous dipole – induced dipole and hydrogen bonds

D Instantaneous dipole – induced dipole and permanent dipole – permanent dipole


(Total 1 mark)

74. The following liquids all have the same number of electrons in each molecule. Which one is
likely to have the lowest boiling point?

A CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

B CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

C CH3C(CH3)2CH3

D CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH3
(Total 1 mark)

65
SYNTAX ERROR
75. Which of these is likely to be the best solvent for cyclohexanol?

A H2O(l)

B CH3COCH3(l)

C NaCl(aq)

D CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3(l)
(Total 1 mark)

76. The ability of a liquid to flow is linked to the strength of its intermolecular forces.Suggest which
of these liquids flows the slowest when poured.

A Propane-1,2,3-triol

B Propane-1,2-diol

C Pentane

D Butane
(Total 1 mark)

77. What type of species forms when a bond breaks homolytically?

A Nucleophile

B Electron

C Electrophile

D Free radical
(Total 1 mark)

66
SYNTAX ERROR
78. In the reaction between Ag+(aq) ions and Fe2+(aq) ions, what would be the effect of increasing
the concentration of Ag+(aq) ions?

Ag+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq) + Ag(s)

A Rate of reaction increases, yield of Fe3+(aq) stays the same.

B Rate of reaction increases, yield of Fe3+(aq) decreases.

C Rate of reaction decreases, yield of Fe3+(aq) stays the same.

D Rate of reaction increases, yield of Fe3+(aq) increases.


(Total 1 mark)

79. Which one of these reactions is not a disproportionation reaction?

A 2H2O2(aq) → O2(g) + 2H2O(l)

B S2O3 2–(aq) + 2H+(aq) → SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l)

C Cl2(aq) + 2Br–(aq) → 2Cl–(aq) + Br2(aq)

D 2Cu+(aq)→ Cu(s) + Cu2+(aq)


(Total 1 mark)

80. Molecules absorb IR radiation because

A they change their polarity when they vibrate.

B they change their velocity when they vibrate.

C they change their magnetic field when they vibrate.

D they change their direction of rotation when they vibrate.


(Total 1 mark)

67
SYNTAX ERROR
81. How many of the following molecules will absorb IR radiation?

H2O N2 CH4 O2 CO2

A Two

B Three

C Four

D Five
(Total 1 mark)

D 2Cu+(aq)→ Cu(s) + Cu2+(aq)


(Total 1 mark)

82. Infrared (IR) spectra can be used to follow the progress of reactions involving propan-1-ol and
propan-2-ol. Some absorption ranges by chemical bonds in the IR spectrum are given below.

1 O―H stretching in alcohols at 3750 – 3200 cm–1

2 C==O stretching in aldehydes at 1740 – 1720 cm–1

3 C==O stretching in ketones at 1700 – 1680 cm–1

4 C==O stretching in carboxylic acids at 1725 – 1700 cm–1

(a) To identify the formation of the product when propan-1-ol has been partially oxidized,
you can look for absorptions in the IR spectrum at absorption range

A 1

B 2

C 3

D 4
(1)

68
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) To monitor whether all of the sample of propan-2-ol has been oxidized, you can look for

A a lack of absorptions in the IR spectrum at 1.

B a lack of absorptions in the IR spectrum at 2.

C absorptions in the IR spectrum at 3.

D absorptions in the IR spectrum at 4.


(1)
(Total 2 marks)

83. This question is about the reactions and properties of some halogenoalkanes.

(a) State the reagents and conditions needed to convert the following halogenoalkanes into
the named product.

(i) 1-bromobutane into butan-1-ol

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) 1-iodobutane into butylamine

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) 2-chloropropane into propene

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Chloroethane can be prepared by reacting ethanol with potassium chloride in the presence
of concentrated sulfuric acid.

Explain why a similar reaction using potassium iodide and concentrated sulfuric acid
should not be used to prepare iodoethane.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Two gaseous halogenoalkanes that could be used as fire retardants have the structural
formulae CF2ClBr and CF3CHF2.

(i) Give the systematic name of CF2ClBr.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Draw the skeletal formula of CF3CHF2.

(1)

(iii) Suggest TWO reasons to explain how these compounds can help put out fires.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv) Explain why fire retardants containing some halogenoalkanes, such as CF2ClBr,
are being phased out.

Suggest a reason why the scientific community still supports the use of fire
retardants containing CF3CHF2.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 16 marks)

71
SYNTAX ERROR
84. 10.0 cm3 of a solution containing Cu2+(aq) ions was added to excess potassium iodide solution
and the following reaction occurred.

2Cu2+(aq) + 4I–(aq) → 2CuI(s) + I2(aq)

(a) What happens to the Cu2+(aq) during this reaction? Justify your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

72
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) All of the mixture containing iodine was titrated using sodium thiosulfate solution of
concentration 0.200 mol dm–3. The volume of sodium thiosulfate solution added at the
end-point was 12.75 cm3.

The equation for the reaction is

I2(aq) + 2Na2S2O3(aq) → Na2S4O6(aq) + 2NaI(aq)

(i) The end-point is shown most effectively using an indicator. State a suitable
indicator and the colour change you would expect to see at the end-point.

Indicator

...........................................................................................................................

Colour change at end-point

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Calculate the number of moles of iodine in the solution.

(2)

(iii) Use your answer from (ii), and the equation for the reaction between Cu2+(aq) and
I–(aq), to calculate the concentration of the Cu2+(aq) in the original sample of
solution.

Give your answer to three significant figures and justify why this is an appropriate
level of accuracy.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iv) The whole of the solution containing iodine was used in one titration. Explain how
this affects the reliability of your answer to (iii).

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

73
SYNTAX ERROR
85. This question is about boron and nitrogen compounds.

(a) Draw and name the shape of a boron trifluoride, BF3, molecule. Suggest the FBF bond
angle.

Name of shape

.....................................................................................................................................

FBF bond angle

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Ammonia has the formula NH3. Its HNH bond angle is less than the FBF bond angle in
boron trifluoride.

(i) Estimate the HNH bond angle in NH3.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Explain why the HNH bond angle is less than that for FBF.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Name the strongest intermolecular force between BF3 molecules.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Name the strongest intermolecular force between NH3 molecules.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

74
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Ammonia will react with oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst at 750°C forming
water and nitrogen(II) oxide, NO.

(i) What is the oxidation number of nitrogen in ammonia, NH3?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) The diagram below shows the distribution of molecular energies in the reaction at
750°C. On the same diagram, draw a curve to show the distribution at 500°C and
explain what effect this change in temperature would have on the rate of the
reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

75
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) Explain how a catalyst speeds up the rate of a reaction.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

76
SYNTAX ERROR
86. Ethanoic acid is used industrially in the manufacture of polymers and glues and also in the food
industry as an acidity regulator.

It can be synthesized in the laboratory by the reaction of ethanol with excess sodium
dichromate(VI) solution, acidified with concentrated sulfuric acid. Ethanol is placed in a
suitable flask along with some anti-bumping beads. The concentrated sulfuric acid is then added
a drop at a time. The sodium dichromate(VI) solution is then added a drop at a time causing the
mixture to boil spontaneously. When the addition of the sodium dichromate(VI) solution is
complete, the mixture is heated under reflux for approximately 15 minutes. The ethanoic acid
formed can then be separated from the reaction mixture.

Na 2Cr2O7
CH3CH2OH     → CH COOH
3
H 2 SO 4

Ethanoic acid can be produced industrially by the Cativa™ process. Methanol, which can be
obtained from wood, is reacted with carbon monoxide in the presence of an iridium catalyst.

Iridium catalyst
20-30 atm
90°
CH3OH(g) + CO(g) CH3COOH(g)

(a) (i) Balance the half-equation for the reduction of dichromate(VI) ions.

Cr2O72– + ............. H+ + ............. e– → ............. Cr3+ + ............. H2O


(1)

(ii) The half-equation for the oxidation of ethanol is

CH3CH2OH + H2O → CH3COOH + 4H+ + 4e–

Use this and your answer to (a)(i) to write a full equation for the overall reaction
between acidified dichromate(VI) ions and ethanol. State symbols are not required.
(2)

77
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Why are the concentrated sulfuric acid and sodium dichromate(VI) added a drop at
a time in the laboratory process?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus that could be used to heat the mixture
under reflux.
(3)

(iii) What colour would the mixture be after it was heated under reflux?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) A solution containing both water and ethanoic acid is produced by distillation of the final
reaction mixture.

(i) Explain why the other products and any excess reactants are left behind in the
distillation flask.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Suggest a method to separate pure ethanoic acid, boiling temperature 118°C, from
the water.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

78
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) (i) In the Cativa™ process what effect, if any, would increasing the pressure have on
the yield of ethanoic acid? Justify your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Suggest TWO reasons why it might be difficult, or undesirable, to produce


ethanoic acid in industry by scaling up the laboratory process.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

79
SYNTAX ERROR
(e) An alternative industrial process for the production of ethanoic acid is the oxidation of
butane using a transition metal catalyst at 150°C and 55–60 atm.

2C4H10(l) + 5O2(g) → 4CH3COOH(aq) + 2H2O(l)

Evaluate the ‘greenness’ and sustainability of the two industrial processes.

Suggest TWO additional pieces of information that would help you make a more
informed decision.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 20 marks)

80
SYNTAX ERROR
87. Which of the following best describes the molecular shape of carbon dioxide, CO2?

A linear

B trigonal planar

C triangular

D v-shaped
(Total 1 mark)

88. Which of the following species is polar?

A NH3

B BF3

C SO3

D CO3
(Total 1 mark)

89. Polar liquids are affected by electric fields. For which of the following liquids would a jet of the
liquid be affected by an electric field?

A hexane

B cyclohexane

C cyclohexene

D cyclohexanol
(Total 1 mark)

81
SYNTAX ERROR
90. What are the intermolecular forces in methanal, HCHO?

A London forces only

B hydrogen bonds and London forces

C permanent dipole – permanent dipole only

D permanent dipole – permanent dipole and London forces


(Total 1 mark)

91. Which of the following substances is likely to be insoluble in water?

A methanol, CH3OH

B ethanol, CH3CH2OH

C fluoromethane, CH3F

D hydrogen fluoride, HF
(Total 1 mark)

92. The following liquids have a similar number of electrons per molecule. Suggest which is likely
to have the highest boiling point?

A CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

B (CH3)3COH

C CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3

D CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
(Total 1 mark)

82
SYNTAX ERROR
93. Which concentrated acid should be used to dissolve a carbonate of a Group 2 metal to carry out
a flame test?

A ethanoic acid

B hydrochloric acid

C nitric acid

D sulfuric acid
(Total 1 mark)

94. What colour does a barium salt give in a flame test?

A colourless

B green

C red

D yellow-red
(Total 1 mark)

95. Separate flame tests are carried out with lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and
strontium salts. How many of these metal ions would colour the flame red?

A 1

B 2

C 3

D 4
(Total 1 mark)

83
SYNTAX ERROR
96. A Group 2 element reacts vigorously with water to produce a soluble hydroxide, which forms a
white precipitate when neutralised by sulfuric acid and forms a carbonate which is very stable to
heat. The element could be

A magnesium

B calcium

C strontium

D barium
(Total 1 mark)

97. The Group 2 metals, considered in order of increasing atomic number, show a decrease in

A first ionisation energy

B nuclear charge

C chemical reactivity

D ionic radius
(Total 1 mark)

98. When a Group 1 metal nitrate is heated, brown fumes are observed. The metal could be

A lithium

B sodium

C rubidium

D caesium
(Total 1 mark)

84
SYNTAX ERROR
99. Methyl orange is red in acidic solutions and yellow in alkaline solutions. What is the colour of
the indicator at the end point of a titration of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution with
hydrochloric acid?

A red

B pink

C orange

D yellow
(Total 1 mark)

100. The volume, in cm3, of 0.25 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid required to neutralise 100 cm3 of
0.125 mol dm–3 barium hydroxide solution, Ba(OH)2(aq), is

A 25

B 50

C 100

D 200
(Total 1 mark)

101. What is the oxidation number of sulfur in sodium tetrathionate, Na2S4O6?

A –½

B +1½

C +2½

D +5
(Total 1 mark)

85
SYNTAX ERROR
102. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

A iodine is more electronegative than bromine.

B fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine.

C metallic elements tend to react by loss of electrons.

D chlorine is more electronegative than sulfur.


(Total 1 mark)

103. A commercial production of iodine involves the reduction of a solution of iodate(V) ions, IO3–,
with hydrogen sulfite ions, HSO3–. The equation for the reaction may be written

xIO3– + yHSO3– → zSO42– + I2 + 3H+ + H2O

What are the balancing numbers x, y and z?

A 5,2,2

B 2,5,2

C 2,5,5

D 5,5,2
(Total 1 mark)

104. An organic compound is found to react with sodium metal and to react with acidified sodium
dichromate(VI), but not to decolourise bromine water, nor to neutralise sodium carbonate
solution. The liquid could be

A ethanol

B ethane

C ethanoic acid

D ethene
(Total 1 mark)

86
SYNTAX ERROR
105. Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

A CH4

B CO2

C H2O

D N2
(Total 1 mark)

106. Which of the following fuels has the smallest carbon footprint?

A petrol made from crude oil

B hydrogen made from methane

C ethanol made from sugar

D coal
(Total 1 mark)

107. Which of the following would not lead to a greater sustainability in an industrial process?

A using a catalyst that improves atom economy

B running the reaction at a higher temperature

C using biofuels to run the process

D recycling waste products


(Total 1 mark)

108. This question concerns the preparation of 1-bromobutane from butan-1-ol, 50% sulfuric acid
and sodium bromide. The mixture was placed in a flask and heated under reflux for ten minutes.

Boiling temperature / °C
1-bromobutane 100
butan-1-ol 118

87
(a)
SYNTAX ERROR
The reason that 50% sulfuric acid was used rather than concentrated sulfuric acid is
because concentrated sulfuric acid

A would oxidise some of the bromide ions to bromine.

B would cause the reaction to go too fast.

C would react with the bromide ions to produce hydrogen bromide.

D is too hazardous a chemical.


(1)

(b) The reaction mixture was distilled. The impure distillate did not contain

A butan-1-ol

B 1-bromobutane

C sodium bromide

D hydrogen bromide
(1)

(c) The impure 1-bromobutane was washed with concentrated hydrochloric acid and shaken
in a tap funnel with a base to remove acidic impurities. Which of the following would
remove acidic impurities without reacting with the 1-bromobutane.

A calcium hydroxide solution

B sodium hydroxide solution

C calcium chloride solution

D sodium hydrogencarbonate solution


(1)

88
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) The 1-bromobutane was washed with water, dried and distilled. Which of the following is
the correct procedure?

A heat the liquid to 118 °C and collect the substance given off

B heat the liquid to 100 °C and collect the substance given off

C boil the liquid and collect the fraction that boils off between 116 and 120 °C

D boil the liquid and collect the fraction that boils off between 98 and 102 °C
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

109. Almost two thirds of the world’s ethanoic acid is made using the following equilibrium reaction,
with the aid of an iridium complex as a catalyst.

CH3OH(l) + CO(g) CH3COOH(l) ∆H = –135 kJ mol–1

Which of the following changes in conditions would increase the equilibrium yield of ethanoic
acid?

A increase pressure

B decrease pressure

C increase temperature

D add a catalyst
(Total 1 mark)

89
SYNTAX ERROR
110. Some absorptions by chemical bonds in the infrared spectrum are given below.

A O–H stretching in alcohols at 3750–3200 cm–1

B C–H stretching in alkanes at 2962–2853 cm–1

C C=O stretching in aldehydes at 1740–1725 cm–1

D C=O stretching in ketones at 1700–1680 cm–1

From A–D above, select which feature of the infrared spectrum would enable you to distinguish
between the following compounds:

propanone, CH3COCH3, propanal, CH3CH2CHO

propan-1-ol, CH3CH2CH2OH

(a) propanone from propanal and propan-1-ol

D
(1)

(b) propanal from propanone and propan-1-ol

D
(1)

90
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) propan-1-ol from propanal and propanone

D
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

111. This question is about organic compounds with the molecular formula C3H8O.

(a) Draw the structural formulae of the two isomers with molecular formula C3H8O which
are alcohols. Give the names of these alcohols.

Alcohol 1 Alcohol 2

Structural
formula

Name …………………………. …………………………


(4)

(b) Primary alcohols can be oxidised to carboxylic acids.

(i) Give the name and structural formula of the carboxylic acid formed when the
primary alcohol C3H8O is fully oxidised.

Name ................................................................................................................

Structural formula

(2)

91
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) State the reagents used for this oxidation.

Reagent 1 ..........................................................................................................

Reagent 2 ..........................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

112. (a) This part of the question is about the hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes.

2 cm3 of ethanol is added to each of three separate test-tubes.

Three drops of 1-chlorobutane are added to the first, three drops of 1-bromobutane to the
second, and three drops of 1-iodobutane are added to the third test-tube.

2 cm3 portions of hot aqueous silver nitrate solution are added to each test-tube.

A precipitate forms immediately in the third test-tube, slowly in the second testtube and
extremely slowly in the first test-tube. In each reaction the precipitate is formed by silver
ions, Ag+(aq), reacting with halide ions formed by hydrolysis of the halogenoalkane.

(i) Why was ethanol added to each test-tube?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

92
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) The mechanism of this reaction is similar to that of the reaction between
halogenoalkanes and aqueous hydroxide ions.

What feature of a water molecule enables it to act as a nucleophile in this reaction?


Suggest the mechanism for the reaction between water and 1-iodobutane. (You
may represent 1-iodobutane as RCH2I).

Feature of water molecule

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Mechanism

(4)

(iii) What is the colour of the precipitate in the third test-tube?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Name the precipitate which forms slowly in the first test-tube.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(v) Ammonia solution is added to the precipitate in the first test-tube. Describe what
you would observe.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

93
SYNTAX ERROR
(vi) Suggest, why the rates of hydrolysis of the three halogenoalkanes are different, in
terms of bonding and kinetics.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) One method of the manufacture of alcohols is to react steam with an alkene.
For example

C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → C2H5OH(l)

Suggest TWO reasons why this method is preferred to the hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

94
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) 1-bromobutane reacts with an ethanolic solution of potassium hydroxide on heating to
form but-1-ene. A diagram of the apparatus that could be used to carry out this reaction
and to collect the gaseous but-1-ene is shown below.

but-1-ene

ethanolic potassium
hydroxide +
l-bromobutane

Heat

(i) State the hazard when the heating is stopped.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) How would you minimise the risk associated with this hazard?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 15 marks)

95
SYNTAX ERROR
113. Chlorine was used in swimming pools as a bactericide.

The amount of chlorine present can be determined by adding excess potassium iodide solution
to a known volume of swimming pool water. This reacts to form iodine:

Cl2(aq) + 2I–(aq) → I2(aq) + 2Cl–(aq)

The amount of iodine formed is then found by titration with sodium thiosulfate solution of
known concentration.

The ionic equation for the reaction between iodine and sodium thiosulfate in aqueous solution is

I2(aq) + 2S2O32–(aq) → S4O62–(aq) + 2I–(aq)

A student carried out the determination of chlorine in a sample of swimming pool water.
A record of the measurements obtained is given below:

Volume of water sample tested = 1000 cm3

Final reading of burette = 16.3 cm3

Initial reading of burette = 7 cm3

Volume added from burette = 9.3 cm3

Concentration of sodium thiosulfate solution = 0.00500 mol dm–1

(a) (i) The record of measurements reveals faults both in the procedure and the recording
of measurements. State one fault in each of these.

Procedure .........................................................................................................

Recording of measurements .............................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Calculate the number of moles of sodium thiosulfate used in the titration.

(1)

96
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Use your answer to (ii) to calculate the number of moles of iodine which reacted.

(1)

(iv) Deduce the concentration of chlorine, in mol dm–3, in the swimming pool water.

(1)

(b) The disinfecting action of chlorine in swimming pools is due to the presence of chloric(I)
acid, HClO, formed by the reaction of chlorine with water.

In many swimming pools, chemicals other than chlorine are used to form chloric(I) acid.
This is partly because the use of chlorine gas causes much more corrosion of metal parts
in swimming pools than does chloric(I) acid.

Compounds used to chlorinate swimming pool water in this way include calcium
chlorate(I) and chlorine dioxide.

(i) State and explain the type of reaction that occurs when chlorine attacks a metal,
using the example of iron.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Suggest one other reason why the use of chlorine is undesirable in swimming
pools.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Give the formula for calcium chlorate(I).

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

97
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) Chlorine dioxide, ClO2, undergoes a disproportionation reaction when it reacts
with water.

4ClO2 + 2H2O → HClO + 3HClO3

Explain, in terms of oxidation numbers, why this is a disproportionation reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

98
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Discuss and explain the science community’s advice that CFCs should no longer be used
in aerosols, foams and refrigerants. Support your answer with one or more equations.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 17 marks)

99
SYNTAX ERROR
114. The data below shows the decomposition temperatures of the carbonates of two Group 2
elements.

Compound Decomposition
temperature / °C
MgCO3 400
BaCO3 1360

Use the idea of polarisation of ions to explain why MgCO3 decomposes more readily than
BaCO3.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 3 marks)

115. Bromine is extracted from seawater using chlorine.

(a) (i) Write the equation for the reaction of chlorine with sodium bromide solution.
Do not include state symbols.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

100
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) The seawater is acidified before the reaction with chlorine to prevent the bromine
produced reacting with the water.

Br2 + H2O HBr + HOBr

Name the type of reaction taking place between bromine and water.

Explain your answer in terms of the changes in oxidation number of bromine.

Type of reaction ..............................................................................................

Explanation

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Bromine vapour reacts with sulphur dioxide and water as follows.

Br2 + SO2 + 2H2O → 2HBr + H2SO4

State the oxidation number of sulphur in

SO2 ......................

H2SO4 ......................
(2)

(iv) Use the data from (iii) to show that bromine is acting as an oxidising agent.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

101
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) The ionic half-equation for the reduction of iodate(V) ions, IO3–, to iodine in acid
solution is

2IO3– + 12H+ + 10e– → I2 + 6H2O

(i) Write the ionic half-equation for the oxidation of SO2 in water to SO42– and H+
ions. Do not include state symbols.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Combine the reduction reaction of iodate(V) ions, IO3–, with the oxidation reaction
of SO2 to give the full ionic equation for the reaction of IO3– with SO2.
Do not include state symbols.

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

116. (a) State the flame colours of

(i) barium

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) strontium

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

102
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) When barium is burnt in excess oxygen a compound containing 81.1% barium and 18.9%
of oxygen is formed.

Calculate the empirical formula of this compound.

(2)

(c) (i) Write the equation for the reaction of barium with water. Do not include any state
symbols.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) When a small piece of barium is added to water, the barium gets smaller and
eventually disappears.

State TWO other observations you could make.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) What would be the effect of adding a piece of blue litmus paper and a piece of red
litmus paper to the aqueous product of the reaction in (ii)?

Red litmus .........................................................................................................

Blue litmus ........................................................................................................


(1)
(Total 8 marks)

103
SYNTAX ERROR
117. Phosphorus reacts with a limited amount of chlorine to produce phosphorus trichloride, PCl3.

(i) Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the arrangement of the electrons in phosphorus
trichloride, PCl3. You need only show the outer shell electrons.

(2)

(ii) Draw the phosphorus trichloride molecule, making its three-dimensional shape
clear.

(1)

104
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Explain

• the shape of the phosphorus trichloride molecule.

• why the ClPCl bond angle is different from the HCH bond angle in
methane, CH4.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

118. This question is about the manufacture of sulphuric acid, H2SO4.

(a) The first stage in the manufacture of sulphuric acid is the combustion of sulphur.

The following equation shows the reaction taking place when the standard enthalpy of
combustion of sulphur is measured.

S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g)

Define the term standard enthalpy of combustion.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

105
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) In the second stage of the manufacture of sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide is oxidised to
sulphur trioxide as shown in the following equation:

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ΔH = –196 kJ mol–1

(i) Explain, in terms of collision theory, why the rate of a reaction is increased by
increasing the temperature and by the addition of a catalyst.

Temperature

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Catalyst

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(ii) State and explain the effect, if any, of increasing the temperature on the
equilibrium yield of sulphur trioxide.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

106
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) State and explain the effect, if any, of an increased pressure on the equilibrium
yield of sulphur trioxide.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) The following equation represents the overall reaction for the manufacture of sulphuric
acid from sulphur, oxygen and water.

2S(s) + H2O + 3O2 → 2H2SO4(l)

Use the data below to calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction.

Substance ΔHfο
/ kJ mol–1
H2O (l) –286
H2SO4 (l) –814

(2)
(Total 13 marks)

107
SYNTAX ERROR
119. (a) Consider the following series of reactions.

reaction 1 reaction 2
CH2 CH2   → CH2OHCH2OH   → CH2BrCH2Br
Ethene Compound A Compound B

(i) Identify the reagent required for reaction 1.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Name compound B.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Identify the TWO reagents required for reaction 2.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv) Compound A can be oxidised by heating with an acidified solution of potassium


dichromate(VI).

Give the colour change that would be observed and draw the full structural
formulae of TWO possible oxidation products, showing all bonds.

Colour from ................................................ to ................................................

Oxidation products

(3)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(v) Suggest the name or formula of a compound that would be obtained if compound
B were reacted with ethanolic potassium hydroxide.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) Compound B can be produced by reacting ethane with bromine in the presence of
ultra-violet light.

Suggest why a good yield of compound B would not be obtained and identify
another organic product that would be formed during the reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Write an equation for the complete combustion of ethane.

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Define the term empirical formula.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Give the empirical formula for ethane.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

109
SYNTAX ERROR
(v) Give the formula of an alkane, containing more than one carbon atom, whose
molecular and empirical formulae are the same.

(1)
(Total 15 marks)

120. Wine is an aqueous solution of ethanol with traces of other organic compounds which give the
wine its characteristic flavour and aroma. Once opened, oxidation of the ethanol in the wine
produces ethanoic acid.

• A white wine with an ethanol concentration of 2.25 mol dm–3 was opened and allowed to
stand at room temperature for 2 weeks.

• A 25.0 cm3 sample of the wine was transferred to a clean conical flask and phenolphthalein
indicator added.

• Aqueous sodium hydroxide of concentration 0.205 mol dm–3 was added from a burette until
the colour of the indicator changed.

• The titration was repeated and the titre values in cm3 were 26.35, 26.90 and 26.45.

The equation for the neutralisation reaction is

CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O

(a) (i) Name the piece of apparatus used to measure 25.0 cm3 of wine.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) State how the burette should be rinsed.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

110
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) State the colour change at the end-point.

From ...................................................... to ......................................................


(2)

(b) (i) Explain, by reference to appropriate error limits, what is meant by the term
concordant results.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

111
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Calculate the mean (average) titre which will be used to calculate the concentration
of ethanoic acid.

(1)

(iii) Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide reacting with 25.0 cm3 of the
wine.

(1)

(iv) Hence calculate the concentration of the ethanoic acid, in mol dm–3.

(2)

(v) Calculate the percentage of the ethanol that has oxidised, given that one mole of
ethanol forms one mole of ethanoic acid.

(1)

(c) Suggest why this method would not be effective for the analysis of the acid content of a
red wine.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 11 marks)

112
SYNTAX ERROR
121. This question is about the alcohols labelled A – F and some of their reactions.

A B
CH3 CH3

CH3CHCHCH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CCH3

OH OH

C D
CH2CH2CH2OH CH3

CH3CH2CH2 CH3CH2CCH2OH

CH3
E F
OH HO––CH2

CH3CCH2CH3

CH3

(a) (i) Two of the formulae A – F represent the same compound. Identify them by letter
and give the systematic name of this compound.

.........................................

.........................................

Systematic name ..............................................................................................


(2)

(ii) Select from A – F any tertiary alcohols. Explain how you would recognise a
tertiary alcohol from its structure.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Five of the alcohols A – F are isomers. Explain what is meant by isomers.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Give the letters of all the alcohols that would form carboxylic acids when refluxed
with acidified sodium dichromate(VI).

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What type of reaction takes place during the formation of the carboxylic acids?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) What colour change would you expect to accompany the reaction?

From .................................................. to ..................................................


(1)

(c) (i) Alcohol E can be converted to a liquid alkene in a reaction with concentrated
phosphoric acid. Draw and label suitable apparatus to carry out this reaction and
collect the alkene formed.

(3)

114
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) 15.0 g of alcohol E formed 9.84 g of the alkene cyclohexene, after purification.
Calculate the percentage yield of the reaction.

[Relative molecular mass, Mr, of alcohol E = 100, Mr of cyclohexene = 82]

(2)
(Total 14 marks)

122. (a) The diagram shows the type of bonding present in the elements lithium and sodium in the
solid state.

+ + + Ions

+ +

+ + +

Delocalised
electrons

(i) What name is given to this type of bonding?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

115
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Suggest why the melting point of lithium is greater than that of sodium.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) Lithium can react with chlorine to produce lithium chloride. When a sample of lithium
chloride is heated in a Bunsen flame, a red colour is seen.

(i) Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram of lithium chloride showing all the electrons.
Indicate the charges clearly on your diagram.

(2)

(ii) Describe the changes that occur within the lithium ion to produce the flame colour.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

116
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Name ONE other metallic element whose compounds produce a red coloured
flame.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

123. A halogenoalkane, P, has the molecular formula C4H9X, where X represents chlorine, bromine
or iodine. P reacts with a hot aqueous solution of silver nitrate to form a yellow precipitate very
quickly.

(a) (i) Give the formula of the yellow precipitate.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Write the ionic equation, including state symbols, for the formation of this yellow
precipitate.

(1)

(b) (i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction of the halogenoalkane, P, with water.

(1)

(ii) State the type of reaction which has occurred in (b)(i).

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

117
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) What type of reagent is water in this reaction?

Explain why water can act in this way.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) The halogenoalkane, P, reacts with a hot concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide in
ethanol very quickly, to form methylpropene.

(i) Draw a fully labelled diagram of the apparatus you would use to carry out this
reaction and collect the methylpropene gas formed.

(3)

(ii) Deduce the displayed formula and the name of the halogenoalkane, P.

Name .................................................................................................................
(2)

118
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) Explain why the halogenoalkane, P, reacts very quickly with water.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(e) (i) At high temperature and high pressure, in the presence of a suitable catalyst,
methylpropene polymerises.

Draw a section showing two units of the polymer chain.

(1)

(ii) Explain why working at high pressure increases the yield of this equilibrium
reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

119
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) In general, how does a catalyst increase the rate of a chemical reaction?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 17 marks)

124. This question is about three organic compounds with the following physical properties:

ΔHοvap
Compound Formula Boiling Point /K
/ kJ mol–1
Butane CH3CH2CH2CH3 273 6.9
Propan-1-ol CH3CH2CH2OH 371 14.8
Propanone CH3COCH3 330 9.0

(a) (i) Name the intermolecular force present in all three compounds.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Explain why this intermolecular force is likely to have a similar strength in butane
and propan-1-ol.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

120
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram for the propan-1-ol molecule, showing outer
electrons only.

(1)

(ii) Name the strong additional intermolecular force between propan-1-ol molecules
not present in the other two compounds.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Using displayed formulae, draw a diagram to show this intermolecular force
between two propan-1-ol molecules.

State the values of the following bond angles:

COH ..................

The bond angle between the molecules ..................


(3)

(c) (i) Name the intermolecular force between propanone molecules that is not present in
butane.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

121
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why you would expect propanone to mix with propan-1-ol.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

125. (a) (i) What condition is necessary to make a solution containing a mixture of potassium
iodate, KIO3, and potassium iodide from iodine and 4.0 mol dm–3 potassium
hydroxide solution?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) State the oxidation number of iodine in

iodine ...............

potassium iodate, KIO3 ...............

potassium iodide ...............


(2)

(iii) Write a balanced equation, with state symbols, for the reaction between iodine and
potassium hydroxide solution.

(2)

122
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) Explain why this is classified as a disproportionation reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) The purity of a sample of potassium iodate, KIO3, can be found by reacting it in aqueous
solution with two chemicals to form iodine. The quantity of iodine formed can then be
found by titration.

(i) Name these two chemicals.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Name the solution used to determine the iodine concentration by titration.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Name the indicator used in this titration and state the colour change.

Indicator .....................................................................................................

From ................................................... to ...................................................


(2)
(Total 11 marks)

123
SYNTAX ERROR
126. The drug ibuprofen can be synthesised from benzene by the route shown below.

CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3

H—C—CH3 H—C—CH3 H—C—CH3 H—C—CH3

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2


CO/Pd
Step A Step B Step C catalyst

C O H—C—OH H—C—CO2H

CH3 CH3 CH3


Ibuprofen

(a) Name the type and mechanism of the reaction in Step A, and suggest a suitable reagent
and catalyst.

Type and mechanism ..................................................................................................

Name of the reagent for Step A ..................................................................................

Catalyst .......................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Step C is a reduction.

Give ONE reason why lithium tetrahydridoaluminate, LiAlH4, is preferred to hydrogen as


a reducing agent in this reaction.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

124
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) A sample of the final product was analysed by combustion. 1.00 g was burnt in oxygen. It
produced 2.78 g carbon dioxide and 0.786 g water.

State the molecular formula of ibuprofen and show that these results are consistent with
it.

(4)

125
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) Ibuprofen can be analysed by instrumental methods. The infrared spectra of ibuprofen
and two other drugs, aspirin and paracetamol, not necessarily in that order, are shown
opposite.

CH3

H—C—CH3

CH2

Ibuprofen has the formula

H—C—CO2H

CH3

CO2H
O
—O—C
Aspirin has the formula CH3

OH

Paracetamol has the formula


CH3
H—N—C
O

(i) Explain, referring to the structure of each molecule, why infrared spectroscopy is
not a good technique to distinguish aspirin from ibuprofen.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

126
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Deduce which of X, Y or Z is the infrared spectrum of paracetamol, giving a piece
of evidence from the spectrum you select.

Spectrum X
100

Transmittance (%)

50

0
4000 3000 2000 1500 1000
Wavenumber / cm–1
Spectrum Y
100
Transmittance (%)

50

0
4000 3000 2000 1500 1000
Wavenumber / cm–1
Spectrum Z
100
Transmittance (%)

50

0
4000 3000 2000 1500 1000
Wavenumber / cm–1

127
SYNTAX ERROR
...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Ibuprofen and aspirin can be distinguished using their mass spectra.

A line at mass/charge ratio 57 occurs only in the mass spectrum of ibuprofen.


Give the formula of the ion which produces this line.

...........................................................................................................................

Suggest the mass/charge ratio of one line which occurs in the mass spectrum of
aspirin but not ibuprofen, and the formula of the species which produces it.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

127. (a) Lithium chloride, potassium carbonate and sodium iodide can be distinguished using
flame tests. Complete the table below.

Formula Flame colour


lithium chloride LiCl
potassium carbonate K2CO3
sodium iodide NaI
(2)

128
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Explain the origin of the colours in the flame test.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Write equations for the following reactions. Do not include state symbols.

(i) Lithium chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Sodium iodide solution and silver nitrate solution.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

129
SYNTAX ERROR
128. Beryllium chloride, BeCl2, is covalent.

(i) Use ideas of ion polarisation or electronegativity to suggest why beryllium chloride, a
compound of a metal and a non-metal, is covalent rather than ionic.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram to show the bonding in a beryllium chloride molecule,
BeCl2. In your diagram show all the outer shell electrons in the atoms of beryllium and
chlorine.

(1)
(Total 3 marks)

130
SYNTAX ERROR
129. In hydrogen fluoride, HF, and water, H2O, the major intermolecular force is the hydrogen
bond.

(a) Draw a diagram to show the formation of hydrogen bonds between water molecules in
ice. Show at least three water molecules in your diagram and any relevant polarity in the
molecules.

(3)

(b) Suggest why water has a higher boiling temperature than hydrogen fluoride.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

131
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) When hydrogen fluoride reacts with water it forms hydrogen ions. A lone pair of
electrons on the water molecule joins with the hydrogen ion, H+, to produce the ion H3O+.

(i) Draw a diagram to show clearly the shape of the H3O+ ion.

(1)

(ii) Suggest an approximate value for the bond angle H—O—H in H3O+.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) The oxygen atom in water has two lone pairs of electrons. Suggest why the ion
H4O2+ is not generally formed in acid solutions that contain the H+ ion.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

130. (a) Explain the term reducing agent in terms of oxidation number change.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

132
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Write ionic half-equations (do not include state symbols) to show:

(i) chlorate(I) ions, ClO–, in acidic solution, being reduced to chlorine molecules and
water.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) chloride ions being oxidised to chlorine molecules.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Combine the two equations in (b) to show the effect of adding an acid to a mixture of
chlorate(I) ions and chloride ions.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Describe what you would see if concentrated sulphuric acid is added to solid sodium
iodide.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(e) Potassium chlorate, KClO3, decomposes on heating to give potassium chloride, KCl, and
oxygen, O2.

(i) Write the equation for this reaction. State symbols are not required.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

133
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Show, by the use of oxidation numbers, why this is a redox reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

131. (a) Cooking fuels and petrol for car engines need to be gases or liquids which vaporise
easily. This will be the case if the intermolecular forces are weak.

Two common fuels are methane, CH4, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, C8H18.

Electronegativity
carbon 2.1
hydrogen 2.5

(i) Explain the meaning of the term electronegativity.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

134
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) The C—H bond in methane has some polarity but overall the molecule is
non-polar.

Explain why methane is a non-polar molecule.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Identify the strongest intermolecular force that exists between


2,2,4-trimethylpentane molecules in the liquid state.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) In a car engine 2,2,4-trimethylpentane burns in air to produce carbon dioxide and water.

The equation is

2C8H18 + 25O2 → 16CO2 + 18H2O

Molar mass of C8H18 = 114 g mol–1

(i) Calculate the volume of oxygen needed to burn 700 g of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane.


[Assume the molar volume of a gas = 24.0 dm3 mol–1]

(3)

135
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide produced in the reaction in (i).

(2)
(Total 10 marks)

132. This question is about ammonia, NH3, which is produced as shown in the following equation.

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

(a) Use oxidation numbers to explain why this is a redox reaction.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

136
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Use the average (mean) bond enthalpy data to calculate a value for the enthalpy
change for this reaction. You are reminded to show all your working.

Average bond enthalpy


Bond
/ kJ mol–1
N≡N 944
H—H 436
N—H 388

(3)

(ii) The actual standard enthalpy change for this reaction is –92 kJ mol–1. Explain why
the value you calculated in (b)(i) is not the same as this.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

137
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) At room temperature, a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen is thermodynamically
unstable with respect to ammonia, but is kinetically stable.

Use the data in (b)(i) and (ii) to help you explain why this mixture is

thermodynamically unstable

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

kinetically stable

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

138
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) The manufacturer of ammonia would like to achieve a high rate of reaction and a high
equilibrium yield of product.

(i) State and explain, in terms of collision theory, TWO ways to increase the rate of
the reaction. An increase in pressure does not alter the rate in this process.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(6)

139
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) State and explain TWO ways to increase the equilibrium yield of ammonia.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 19 marks)

133. (a) Compound A, CH3CHBrCH2CH3, can be converted into butan-2-ol by reaction with
potassium hydroxide solution.

(i) Name compound A.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Write an equation for the conversion of compound A into butan-2-ol.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Identify the solvent required for this reaction.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

140
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) Classify this reaction.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Compound A can also be converted into a mixture of the structural isomers but-1-ene and
but-2-ene by reaction with potassium hydroxide under different conditions.

(i) Write the ionic equation for the conversion of compound A into either but-1-ene
or but-2-ene.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What is the solvent required for this reaction?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Classify this reaction.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) But-2-ene exists as two geometric isomers.

(i) Draw the structural formulae of these TWO geometric isomers.

(1)

141
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why but-2-ene exists as two geometric isomers.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) Both but-1-ene and but-2-ene react with hydrogen, in the presence of a suitable catalyst,
to give the same product.

(i) Identify the catalyst.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Identify the product of this reaction.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

134. Compound A, CH3CHBrCH2CH3, reacts with ammonia.

(i) Write an equation for this reaction.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Give ONE essential condition for this reaction.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

142
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) With excess halogenoalkane, further substitution of the hydrogen atoms in the ammonia
molecule takes place and a different product, compound B, is formed.

Analysis of compound B gave the following data.

Element % by mass
carbon 74.4
hydrogen 14.7
nitrogen 10.9

Use the data to calculate the empirical formula of compound B.

(2)
(Total 4 marks)

143
SYNTAX ERROR
135. (i)
Formula of substance Standard enthalpy of formation / kJ mol–1
CH4 (g) –75
O2 (g) 0
CO2 (g) –394
H2O (g) –242

The equation for the complete combustion of methane at 150 °C is:

CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

Use the given data to calculate the enthalpy of combustion of methane under these
conditions.

(2)

(ii) The standard enthalpy of combustion of methane is –891 kJ mol–1.

Explain why this is very different from the value you have calculated in (a)(i).

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

144
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Here are some data about different fuels:

Energy evolved Relative cost


Name Formula Standard state
per gram / kJ per kJ
hydrogen H2 gas 143 2
octane C8H18 liquid 48.4 70

State and explain the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen compared with
octane as a fuel for aeroplanes.

Use the data in the table above and your knowledge of the combustion of fuels to help
you.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

145
SYNTAX ERROR
.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

146
SYNTAX ERROR
136. Ethanol is a primary alcohol and can be oxidised if heated with an acidified solution of
potassium dichromate(VI). Two possible organic oxidation products may be obtained.

(i) Draw the full structural formula, showing all bonds, of both oxidation products.

(2)

147
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Give the name and structural formula of an alcohol that would not be oxidised by heating
it with an acidified solution of potassium dichromate(VI).

(2)
(Total 4 marks)

148
SYNTAX ERROR
137. 1-bromopropane may be prepared from propan-1-ol using the following method:

• Propan-1-ol, water and solid sodium bromide are mixed in a flask and 50 % sulphuric
acid is added, a little at a time, with cooling.

• The mixture is heated under reflux and then distilled.

• The distillate is mixed with sodium carbonate solution in a separating funnel and the
lower organic layer removed.

• Solid anhydrous calcium chloride is added to the organic layer, which is finally distilled.
The distillate boiling in the range 70–72°C is collected.

The reaction may be represented by the following equation:

CH3CH2CH2OH + HBr → CH3CH2CH2Br + H2O

Hazard information about 1-bromopropane


• flammable
• harmful by skin absorption

149
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) (i) Why is the mixture cooled while the sulphuric acid is added?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

150
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus used for heating under reflux.

(3)

151
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) What property of 1-bromopropane allows it to be separated from the sodium
carbonate solution using a separating funnel?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

152
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) What is the purpose of the anhydrous calcium chloride?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

153
SYNTAX ERROR
(v) Suggest a safety precaution (other than the use of a fume cupboard, laboratory coat
or safety goggles) that would be appropriate for this experiment.
Give a reason for your choice.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

154
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Calculate the theoretical maximum mass of 1-bromopropane that could be obtained
from 7.55 g of propan-1-ol.

[Molar masses/g mol–1 : propan-1-ol 60.0, 1-bromopropane 123]


(2)

(ii) In the actual experiment 8.30 g of 1-bromopropane was obtained.


Calculate the percentage yield of the reaction.

(1)

(iii) Suggest a reason why the yield is less than 100 %.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

155
SYNTAX ERROR
138. Silicon, phosphorus and sulphur form chlorides with molecular formulae SiCl4, PCl3, SCl2.

Draw the shapes you would expect for these molecules, suggesting a value for the bond angle in
each case.

SiCl4

ClSiCl bond angle ...............

PCl3

ClPCl bond angle ...............

SCl2

ClSCl bond angle ...............


(Total 3 marks)

156
SYNTAX ERROR
139. (i) Phosphorus trichloride reacts with oxygen to form phosphorus oxychloride in an
equilibrium reaction.

PCl3(g) + ½O2(g) POCl3(g) ΔHο = –153.6 kJ mol–1

Suggest how you would adjust the temperature and pressure to increase the yield of this
reaction. Justify your answer in each case.

Temperature ...............................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

Pressure ......................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) State the effect of the adjustments you propose in part (i) on the rate of the reaction.

Temperature ...............................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

Pressure ......................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

157
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) On the axes below, sketch the energy profiles of the reaction in (c)(i) with and without a
catalyst. Label the profiles.

Energy

Reaction path
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

140. This question is about the four halogenoalkanes:

E 1-chlorobutane, CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl
F 2-chloro-2-methylpropane, CH3CCl(CH3)CH3
G 1-iodobutane, CH3CH2CH2CH2I
H 2-iodo-2-methylpropane, CH3CI(CH3)CH3

(a) (i) Explain why 1-iodobutane has a higher boiling point than 1-chlorobutane.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

158
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Which has the higher boiling point, 1-chlorobutane or 2-chloro-2-methylpropane?
Justify your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Which of the halogenoalkanes, E, F, G or H, has the highest boiling point?

Put a cross ( ) in the box of the correct answer. If you change your mind about the
answer, put a line through the box ( ) and then mark your new answer with a
cross ( ).

E
F
G
H
(1)

(b) All four halogenoalkanes form precipitates when mixed with hot aqueous silver nitrate.

E 1-chlorobutane, CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl
F 2-chloro-2-methylpropane, CH3CCl(CH3)CH3
G 1-iodobutane, CH3CH2CH2CH2I
H 2-iodo-2-methylpropane, CH3CI(CH3)CH3

(i) Which of these halogenoalkanes would react most rapidly?

Put a cross ( ) in the box of the correct answer. If you change your mind about the
answer, put a line through the box ( ) and then mark your new answer with a
cross ( ).

E
F
G
H
(1)

159
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Which of these halogenoalkanes would take the longest time to react? Justify your
answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Name the functional group present in the organic product formed when
halogenoalkanes react with the water in hot aqueous silver nitrate.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Write an ionic equation to represent the part of the reaction which forms the
precipitate, using X to represent the halogen. Include state symbols.

(1)

(c) (i) Under appropriate conditions, halogenoalkanes react with ammonia.

What are these conditions?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Complete the balanced equation for the reaction of 1-iodobutane with ammonia.

CH3CH2CH2CH2I + 2NH3 →
(2)

160
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Name the organic product of the reaction in (c)(ii).

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 15 marks)

141. Read the passage below straight through and then more carefully. Answer the questions that
follow.

Fluorine

Fluorine was first isolated by the French chemist Henri Moissan in 1886 after twenty-five years
of continuous research. Fluorine is the most reactive element, reacting with nearly all organic
and inorganic chemicals. It started to be produced on an industrial scale in the 1940s. It was
needed to make uranium(VI) fluoride, UF6, a chemical essential for the enrichment of uranium
which was needed initially for the first atomic bombs and is now used in some nuclear power
stations.

Fluorine is produced industrially by the electrolysis of an electrolyte made by dissolving


anhydrous potassium fluoride in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is
a poor conductor of electricity so it cannot be electrolysed on its own. A 2:1 mixture of
hydrogen fluoride and potassium fluoride has high electrical conductivity and a melting point of
about 70°C. An aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid cannot be used because hydroxide ions
would be preferentially discharged at the anode.

The electrolysis cell uses a carbon anode and a steel cathode. The anode is made of hard carbon,
not graphite, since graphite would rapidly disintegrate due to infiltration of the small fluorine
atoms between the carbon layers. A typical cell has up to 40 anodes and contains 1,250 kg of
electrolyte. Such a cell can work at 12 V with a current of 6,000 A producing 4 kg of fluorine
per hour. Because of the hydrogen fluoride impurities, about 2.08 mol of hydrogen fluoride are
needed to make each mole of fluorine, F2. Cells operate at about 90°C. Cooling is necessary to
maintain this temperature. This is achieved by a cooling jacket around the cell through which
water is pumped at 80°C.

Hydrogen gas is collected from the cathode. It is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride gas
which is removed by passing the mixture through sodium or potassium hydroxide solution.
Fluorine gas, also contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, is collected from the anode. The
hydrogen fluoride is removed by reaction with sodium fluoride to form sodium hydrogen
difluoride, NaHF2. The electrolyte has to be continually replenished by the addition of hydrogen
fluoride. Fluorine is used immediately or liquefied and stored. Fluorine is transported as a gas in
steel containers.

161
SYNTAX ERROR
Fluorine is still used to make uranium(VI) fluoride in a two-step process. First, uranium(IV)
fluoride is made from uranium(IV) oxide and hydrofluoric acid, then uranium(IV) fluoride is
reacted with fluorine directly. An alternative second step is to react uranium(IV) fluoride with
chlorine trifluoride (made by reacting fluorine with chlorine).

Fluorine is also used to make sulphur hexafluoride, by direct fluorination of sulphur. The
reaction is highly exothermic and is self-sustaining without the application of heat. Crude gas
from the reactor is heated at 500°C to disproportionate any disulphur decafluoride present.

S2F10(g) → SF6(g) + SF4(g)

The mixture is then washed with sodium hydroxide to remove sulphur tetrafluoride.

Sulphur hexafluoride is an important gaseous electrical insulator in high voltage transformers or


X-ray equipment.

Fully saturated fluorocarbons made from fluorine have many uses, including use as refrigerants,
lubricants, and in artificial blood. Many anaesthetics, such as enflurane and isoflurane, are made
indirectly from fluorine. Important inorganic compounds made from fluorine include nitrogen
trifluoride and tungsten hexafluoride used in electronics manufacture and ‘graphite fluoride’
used in battery manufacture.

(538 words)

(Source: adapted from Blue John and family: F, HF and Fluorides by Harold Fielding and Brian Lee, Chemistry in
Britain, April 1978)

(a) (i) Suggest why the electrolytic cell needs to be cooled.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Explain why water at 80°C is used to cool the cell rather than water at a lower
temperature.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Give the oxidation numbers of:

Chlorine in chlorine trifluoride ..................

Sulphur in disulphur decafluoride ..................


(2)

162
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) In the production of uranium(VI) fluoride from uranium(IV) oxide, in which of the
reactions is uranium oxidised?

Justify your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Suggest ONE reason for and ONE reason against the enrichment of uranium.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

142. (a) Write the equations to show the action of heat on the following solid nitrates. State
symbols are not required.

(i) lithium nitrate, LiNO3.

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) caesium nitrate, CsNO3.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

163
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) The solubilities of the sulphates and hydroxides of calcium and barium are shown below.
Use the information in the table to answer the questions that follow.

Substance Solubility Substance Solubility


CaSO4 slightly soluble Ca(OH)2 slightly soluble
BaSO4 insoluble Ba(OH)2 soluble

(i) Both calcium and barium metals react with water to give the metal hydroxide and
hydrogen gas.

What difference would you expect to see after calcium metal and barium metal
have reacted with water?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) The reaction between barium metal and excess dilute sulphuric acid stops after a
very short time. Suggest an explanation for this.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

164
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Suggest the solubility in water of radium sulphate. Put a cross ( ) in the correct box.

A Very soluble

B Soluble

C Slightly soluble

D Insoluble
(1)

(d) Write the ionic equation for the reaction of calcium metal with dilute hydrochloric acid.
Include state symbols in your equation.

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

143. (a) Define reduction in terms of change in oxidation number.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) The reaction between solid sodium halides and concentrated sulphuric acid changes as the
group is descended.

(i) Complete the balancing of the equation for the reaction of sodium bromide with
concentrated sulphuric acid.

NaCl + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HCl

2NaBr + ……H2SO4 → ……NaHSO4 + ……SO2 + ……Br2 +


……H2O

8NaI + 9H2SO4 → 8NaHSO4 + H2S + 4I2 + 4H2O


(1)

165
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Write the oxidation numbers of sulphur in the following:

H2SO4 ..................................

NaHSO4 ..................................

SO2 ..................................

H2S ..................................
(2)

(iii) Use the changes in oxidation number of sulphur in the reactions in (i) to show that
the halides become more powerful reducing agents as the group is descended.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

144. (a) Chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, are useful compounds as they are non-flammable and
unreactive. In the stratosphere, the C—Cl bonds are broken producing free radicals.

(i) Draw the structure of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane.

(1)

166
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Suggest why C—F bonds are not broken in the stratosphere, whereas C—Cl bonds
are.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) What are free radicals and what is needed to produce them from CFCs?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) Draw the repeating units in

poly(chloroethene)

poly(tetrafluoroethene).

(2)
(Total 6 marks)

167
SYNTAX ERROR
145. (a) When excess chlorine and methane are mixed at room temperature and pressure no
reaction takes place but when ultraviolet light is shone into the mixture an explosion
occurs, producing carbon and hydrogen chloride.

uv
CH4(g) + 2Cl2(g) 
→ C(s) + 4HCl(g) ∆H = –219 kJ mol–1

Calculate the mass of methane needed to produce 1000 kJ of energy.

(2)

168
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Draw a labelled reaction profile for the reaction between methane and chlorine and use it
to explain why the reaction does not take place unless ultraviolet light is present.

Enthalpy

Progress of reaction

Explanation

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 7 marks)

169
SYNTAX ERROR
146. Hydrogen gas is manufactured by passing methane and steam over a heated catalyst.

CH4(g) + H2O(g) CO(g) + 3H2(g) ∆H = +206 kJ mol–1

Explain the effect, if any, on the equilibrium yield of hydrogen by using:

(i) a higher pressure

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) a higher temperature

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) a catalyst.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

170
SYNTAX ERROR
147. A titration is carried out by adding sodium hydroxide solution from a burette to 25.0 cm3 of
aqueous 0.0500 mol dm–3 butanedioic acid, (CH2COOH)2, to which a few drops of
phenolphthalein have been added.

(CH2COOH)2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) → (CH2COONa)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

Diagram I

sodium hydroxide
solution

25.0 cm 3 of
butanedioic acid
+ phenolphthalein

171
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) A preliminary (‘rough’) titration shows that between 23.0 cm3 and 24.0 cm3 of sodium
hydroxide is required to react with the butanedioic acid solution.

Describe the procedure you would follow, using the apparatus shown in Diagram I, for a
second, accurate titration. Include in your description the colour change at the end point.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b) The burette readings recorded by a student carrying out the titrations are shown in the
table below.

Titration numbers 1 2 3
Burette reading
23.90 23.60 23.65
(final) / cm3
Burette reading
0.00 0.00 0.15
(initial) / cm3

Titre/cm3 23.90 23.60 23.50

Used in mean ( )

172
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) On Diagram II below, show the level of the sodium hydroxide solution when the
final burette reading is recorded in titration 3.

Diagram II

23

24

(1)

(ii) Calculate the mean (or average) titre.

Show which titres you have used in your calculation by putting a tick ( ) in the
appropriate boxes in the table above.

(2)

173
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) Calculate the amount (moles) of butanedioic acid, (CH2COOH)2, in 25.0 cm3 of the
0.0500 mol dm–3 solution.

(1)

(ii) Calculate the amount (moles) of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, in the mean titre.

(1)

(iii) Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution in mol dm–3. Give
your answer to three significant figures.

(1)
(Total 10 marks)

174
SYNTAX ERROR
148. In an experiment to prepare iodoethane, solid moist red phosphorus is placed into a flask to
which ethanol is added. The flask is then arranged as shown in Apparatus I.

20.0 g of powdered iodine is then added to the flask in small portions. Before each addition the
condenser is removed, the iodine is added and the condenser is immediately replaced. At least
two minutes must be allowed between additions of iodine.

When all the iodine has been added, the flask is allowed to stand for about 10 minutes and is
then heated for an hour in Apparatus I.

2P + 3I2 → 2PI3

3CH3CH2OH + PI3 → 3CH3CH2I + H3PO3

The iodoethane is then removed from the reaction mixture, purified and dried. A final
purification is then carried out using Apparatus II. Iodoethane is collected over a narrow
temperature range.

Apparatus I Apparatus II

Heat Heat

Data
Ethanol: colourless liquid, flammable, boiling temperature 78 °C
Iodoethane: colourless liquid, flammable, boiling temperature 72 °C

(a) (i) Give the name of the practical technique carried out in each apparatus shown
above.

Apparatus I .....................................................................................................

Apparatus II ....................................................................................................
(2)

175
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why it is important that a stopper should not be placed in the top of the
condenser in Apparatus I.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) Suggest a reason why the iodine is added in small portions and over a period of
time.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Give ONE reason why water baths are used in both Apparatus I and Apparatus
II, rather than heating the flasks directly with a Bunsen flame.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Why is the reaction mixture in Apparatus I heated for such a long time after all
the iodine has been added?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Suggest the readings on the thermometer in Apparatus II between which


iodoethane should be collected.

From ........................................ to ........................................°C


(1)

176
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) Calculate the amount (moles) of iodine molecules, I2, in 20.0 g of iodine.

(1)

(ii) Calculate the maximum mass of iodoethane that would be formed from 20.0 g of
iodine.

[molar mass iodoethane = 156 g mol–1]

(2)

(iii) In such a preparation, the yield of iodoethane was 16.7 g. Calculate the percentage
yield.

(1)
(Total 11 marks)

149. Calcium nitrate decomposes on strong heating.

(a) Balance the equation for the reaction which takes place.

Ca(NO3)2(s) → CaO(s) + NO2(g) + O2(g)


(1)

177
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) A little water is added to the solid product of this reaction and the mixture is tested with
full-range pH indicator paper.

(i) What colour will the indicator paper turn?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Write the formula of the ion responsible for turning the indicator paper this colour.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

150. (a) What colour do lithium compounds produce during a flame test?

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) In what way do the electronic transfers taking place in the production of a flame colour
differ from those occurring when lithium atoms ionise?

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 2 marks)

151. This question is about the manufacture of bromine from bromide ions found in seawater.

(a) In the first step, chlorine gas is bubbled into acidified seawater. This converts the bromide
ions to bromine. The low pH prevents hydrolysis of the liberated bromine.

(i) Complete and balance the equation for the hydrolysis of bromine with water which
is a disproportionation reaction.

Br2(aq) + H2O(l) .......H+(aq) + .......................... + .........................


(2)

178
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) What is the meaning of the symbol ?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Explain, using oxidation numbers, why this reaction is known as


disproportionation.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv) Write the ionic equation, including state symbols, for the reaction of chlorine gas
with bromide ions.

(2)

179
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) In the second step, air is blown through the reaction mixture to remove the bromine as a
vapour which is then mixed with sulphur dioxide gas and water vapour.

The unbalanced equation for this reaction is Br2 + H2O + SO2 → H+ + Br− + SO42–

(i) Identify the elements which are oxidised and reduced and give their oxidation
numbers.

Element oxidised ........................

Oxidation number initial ........................ final ........................

Element reduced ........................

Oxidation number initial ........................ final ........................


(2)

(ii) Using this information, or otherwise, balance the equation.

Br2 + H2O + SO2 → H+ + Br− + SO42–


(1)
(Total 10 marks)

152. The main reactions involved in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol in both methods are

CO(g) + 2H2(g) CH3OH(g) ΔH = –91 kJ mol–1

CO2(g) + 3H2(g) CH3OH(g) + H2O(g) ΔH = –49 kJ mol–1

Compare the old and the new methods by considering their operating conditions.
Discuss ONE advantage of the old method and THREE advantages of the new method. Justify
your answers.

(i) Advantage of old method.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

180
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Advantages of new method.

Advantage 1 ................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

Advantage 2 ................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

Advantage 3 ................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 4 marks)

153. A methanol molecule has 18 electrons in total.

(i) Give the name and formula of a hydrocarbon with the same number of electrons.

Name ............................................

Formula

(1)

(ii) Which intermolecular force depends to a large extent on the number of electrons present?

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

181
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Would you expect methanol or your hydrocarbon in (i) to have the higher boiling point?
Justify your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Draw a diagram to show the strongest intermolecular force between TWO molecules of
the compound with the higher boiling point.
Indicate and give the value of the bond angle between these two molecules.

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

154. Read the passage below straight through and then more carefully. Answer the questions that
follow.

RADON: NOT SO NOBLE?

There are three naturally occurring isotopes of radon which result from the decay of thorium,
uranium and actinium. In addition, there are 26 isotopes which have been produced artificially.
The most stable isotope is 222
86 Rn which has a half-life of 3.28 days and decays by emitting
α-particles.

Artificial radiation contributes only 13% to the total in the UK. 12% of this is from medical
sources such as X-rays for the examination of our lungs, teeth and broken bones. This means
that 87% of our total radiation dose comes from naturally occurring sources in the Earth’s crust,
and enters the air, our food and water. Of this, 51% comes from radon. Food and drink account
for a further 10%. Other sources of natural radiation are γ-rays (14%) and cosmic rays (10%).

In the uranium-238 decay series, all of the decay fragments are both radioactive and solid and
remain in the soil apart from radon-222. If the radon gas decays in the ground, it forms daughter
products, which are solid and thus remain in the ground. However, some radon gas may escape
through cracks in the rocks and soil. This gas, and its decay products, are normally diluted in the
atmosphere, and thus pose no significant danger. However, if radon collects in enclosed spaces
it may be a health risk.

182
SYNTAX ERROR
It was first recognised in the 1920s that radon was probably associated with the high rate of lung
cancer in groups of metal miners. In recent years, there has been concern about the risk of lung
cancer because radon is thought to build up in houses. The gas could be produced by the
building materials, particularly if the building is made of granite. However, the radon that enters
through cracks or through porous building materials from the ground, is thought to pose a much
more serious problem. Furthermore, since radon is soluble in water it may travel considerable
distances underground. Radon may also enter houses through the drains.

The levels of radon in houses vary from month to month throughout the year, being lowest in
the summer and highest in the winter. This is probably related to having more windows open in
summer. Similarly, the level also increases with the time of day, building up during the night.

It is estimated that in a room in an average house, each breath of air inhaled contains 3000
atoms of radon. Most of these atoms are breathed out again, so no harm is done. However, some
may dissolve in the blood and a few radon atoms will decay and give off α-radiation which may
be harmful to the lungs.

When radon decays in the air, the daughter products formed are solids and are absorbed onto
dust or smoke particles which remain in the air. When these particles are breathed in, they stick
to the moist surface of the bronchi and lungs emitting α-radiation over a longer time.

Although about 2800 deaths per year in England and Wales can be attributed to radon-induced
cancer, you are 96 times more likely to die from a heart attack or stroke.

The amount of radon building up in a house can be reduced by improving the ventilation,
provided that the replacement air is drawn from the outside and is not drawn up through the
floor. Paradoxically, the use of extractor fans may aggravate radon problems by drawing more
gas from the ground. The use of coal fires gives excellent ventilation with up to four room
changes of air per hour, whereas with modern central heating the trend is to keep houses sealed
up.

There are several ways of limiting the amount of radon entering a house. Where the ground
floor is suspended timber, it can be sealed by using a polythene sheet or hardboard to prevent air
being sucked in through cracks. The ventilation beneath the floor can be improved by adding
more air bricks or an extractor fan.

Don’t panic. Devon and Cornwall are by far the most affected counties in the UK but estimates
for these two counties suggest only 1000 – 2000 houses exceed the potentially dangerous level
of radiation.

(691 words)

(Source: adapted from Radon: not so noble? by JD Lee and TE Edmonds. Education in Chemistry, November 1991)

183
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) (i) What TWO things do all isotopes of the same element have in common?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What else do all the isotopes of radon have in common?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Suggest why radon is more hazardous than the other decay products of thorium, uranium
and actinium.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) By considering the forces between radon particles and between water particles, why is it
surprising that the passage says that radon is soluble in water?

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) (i) The volume of a normal breath when resting is about 3 dm3.

How many gas particles are breathed in when you take a normal breath?
[Molar volume of a gas is 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure.
The Avogadro constant, L = 6.0 × 1023]

(1)

184
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) In an average house, what percentage of the particles inhaled in a single breath are
radon?

(1)
(Total 7 marks)

155. (a) Complete and balance an equation for each of the following reactions. Do not include
state symbols.

(i) Ba + H2O → ...............................................


(1)

(iii) NaCl + H2SO4 → ...............................................


(1)

(b) State the flame colours produced by compounds of:

(i) barium .................................................................................


(1)

(ii) lithium ................................................................................


(1)

(c) Explain how compounds of elements in Groups 1 and 2 produce colours in the flame test.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

185
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) When potassium is burnt in excess oxygen, a compound is produced that contains 54.9 %
potassium.

Calculate the percentage of oxygen present and hence calculate the empirical formula of
this compound.

(3)
(Total 10 marks)

156. (a) (i) A diagram of the structure of solid sodium chloride is shown below.

Label the diagram to identify the particles present in solid sodium chloride.

(1)

186
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why sodium chloride has a high melting temperature.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) A diagram of the structure of solid graphite is shown below.

On the diagram name and label the types of bonding that exist in solid graphite.

(2)

187
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) A diagram of the structure of solid diamond is shown below.

On the diagram name and label the type of bond that exists in solid diamond.

(1)

(d) The densities of diamond and graphite are

Density / g cm–3
Diamond 3.53
Graphite 2.25

Suggest, using information from (b) and (c), why diamond is more dense than graphite.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

188
SYNTAX ERROR
157. The graph shows the boiling temperatures of the hydrogen halides, hydrogen fluoride, HF, to
hydrogen iodide, HI.

310
290

×
boiling 270
temperature / K 250

×
230
210 ×
190

×
170
150
HF HCl HBr HI
hydrogen halide

(a) Complete the table to identify the strongest intermolecular forces present in the liquid
form of each hydrogen halide.

Hydrogen
Strongest intermolecular force
halide
HF
HCl
HBr
HI
(2)

189
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Explain why HF has a higher boiling temperature than the other hydrogen halides and
why there is an increase from HCl to HI.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

158. (a) Write ionic half-equations for the following changes.


Do not include state symbols.

(i) Chlorate(I) ions, ClO–, in a solution containing hydrogen ions, H+, reduced to
chlorine molecules and water.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Chloride ions, Cl–, oxidised to chlorine molecules.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Combine (a)(i) and (ii) to show the reaction between chlorate(I) and chloride ions in
acidic solution to produce chlorine.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

190
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) Write an ionic equation to show how chlorine liberates bromine from sea water.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What is the role of chlorine in reaction (c)(i)?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Boron trichloride, BCl3, reacts with water as follows

BCl3 + 3H2O → H3BO3 + 3HCl

Calculate the mass of water that would be needed to react with 12.3 g of BCl3.

(3)

(e) Explain why the solution produced in (d) is acidic.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

191
SYNTAX ERROR
159. (a) (i) Draw a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular energies in a gas at a
temperature T.

(2)

(ii) Add a curve to your diagram to show the distribution at a higher temperature and
label it TH.
(1)

(iii) Mark on your diagram a line at a suitable place for the activation energy, Ea, for a
reaction.
(1)

(b) (i) Use your answer to (a) to explain, in terms of the frequency and energy of
collisions, why an increase in temperature increases the rate of a reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)

192
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Suggest whether the frequency of the collisions or the energy of collisions is more
important in increasing the rate.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

160. 1-bromobutane can be prepared in a laboratory by heating under reflux butan-1-ol, sodium
bromide and 50 % sulphuric acid.

The apparatus is then arranged for distillation and a mixture of water and 1-bromobutane is
distilled off. This mixture is collected in a separating funnel where two layers form. The denser
1-bromobutane is separated from the water and dried by adding solid anhydrous calcium
chloride.

The 1-bromobutane is finally purified by distillation, collecting the fraction boiling between
101–103 °C.

(a) (i) Explain how the apparatus for heating under reflux works and suggest why it is
necessary.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

193
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Draw a diagram of the apparatus used for the final distillation.

(3)

(b) Suggest ONE safety precaution that could be used when heating flammable liquids such
as butan-1-ol.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

161. Tartaric acid is an organic acid. Volumetric analysis can be used to find out how many acid,
–COOH, groups each molecule of the acid contains.

The formula of tartaric acid can be represented in this acid-base reaction as HxTa.

Ta represents the rest of the tartaric acid molecule, and x is the number of hydrogen atoms in
the molecule which are part of the acid, –COOH, groups.

The equation for its reaction with sodium hydroxide can be written as follows:

HxTa + xNaOH → NaxTa + xH2O

The value of x can be found by experiment. 25.0 cm3 of 0.110 mol dm–3 tartaric acid solution
was titrated with 0.235 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution, using phenolphthalein as the
indicator. The following results were obtained.

1 2 3
Burette reading (final) / cm3 36.25 23.50 47.35

Burette reading (initial) / cm3 12.30 0.05 24.00

Volume of NaOH used / cm3 23.95 23.45 23.35

194
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) In this titration what is the colour change for the phenolphthalein indicator?

From ..................................................

to ........................................................
(1)

(b) State why the mean (or average) titre should be based only on titrations 2 and 3.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Calculate the mean titre.

(1)

(d) (i) Calculate the amount (moles) of tartaric acid in 25.0 cm3 of 0.110 mol dm–3
solution.

(1)

(ii) Calculate the amount (moles) of sodium hydroxide in the mean titre.

(1)

195
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide that reacts with 1 mol of
tartaric acid.

(1)

(iv) Hence state the value of x, which is also the number of –COOH groups in each
tartaric acid molecule.

x = ....................
(1)

(e) Tartaric acid has a molar mass of 150 g mol–1. The percentage composition by mass is C
32%, H 4%, O 64%.

Use these data to show that the molecular formula of tartaric acid is C4H6O6.

(4)

196
SYNTAX ERROR
(f) Most burettes are capable, if read correctly, of giving a reading which is ±0.05 cm3 of the
true value.

Suggest why the experiment is designed to give a titre of between 20 to 30 cm3, rather
than 5 to 10 cm3. Justify your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

162. Ethanol, C2H5OH, can be converted into ethanal, CH3CHO, if it is heated with an acid and
sodium dichromate(VI) solution, provided that the ethanal is immediately distilled off.

A possible arrangement of apparatus for this experiment is shown below. However, it is


incompletely labelled and the diagram contains some errors. You may assume that the apparatus
is correctly clamped.

Thermometer

Water in

Item B

Item A
Ethanol + acid
+ sodium Item C
dichromate(VI)
Gauze Water out
To fume
Heat cupboard

Ice cold
water

Ethanal

197
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) What are the names of the three items labelled A, B and C?

A .................................................................................................................................

B .................................................................................................................................

C .................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) List THREE errors in this diagram.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c) Which acid should be used?

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) What type of reaction is the conversion of ethanol to ethanal? Justify your answer by
considering their formulae.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

198
SYNTAX ERROR
(e) (i) What is the formula of the dichromate ion in sodium dichromate(VI) Na2Cr2O7?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What colour change would you expect to see as the reaction proceeded?

Colour at start ...................................... Colour at end ......................................


(1)

(f) If the mixture is refluxed first before being distilled, what is the name and formula of the
organic product?

Name ...........................................................................................................................

Formula .......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

163. (a) Hydrogen chloride can be prepared by reacting concentrated sulphuric acid with solid
sodium chloride.

Write an equation for the reaction which occurs. State symbols are not required.

(2)

199
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) When concentrated sulphuric acid is added to solid sodium bromide, the products of the
reaction include sulphur dioxide and bromine.

2H2SO4 + 2NaBr → Br2 + SO2 + 2H2O + Na2SO4

Sulphur and bromine change oxidation number in this reaction.

(i) Write the oxidation numbers at the start and the end of the reaction.

Sulphur changes from ..................... to .....................


(1)

Bromine changes from ..................... to .....................


(1)

(ii) Explain why the numbers in the balanced equation are consistent with the changes
in oxidation number.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) The boiling points of three hydrogen halides are shown below

Hydrogen halide Boiling point


/K
Hydrogen chloride 188
Hydrogen bromide 206
Hydrogen iodide 238

200
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) Explain the trend in boiling point of the three hydrogen halides.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Predict a value for the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. Explain your reason for
choosing this value.

Predicted value ......................................

Explanation

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

201
SYNTAX ERROR
164. This question is about the chemistry of propane, C3H8.

Propane is sold for use as a fuel for camping stoves. On complete combustion it forms carbon
dioxide and water.

(a) The enthalpy change of combustion of propane, ΔHc, can be measured by burning a
known mass of propane below a container of water and measuring the temperature rise of
the water.

The heat capacity of the apparatus (the energy required to raise the temperature of the
apparatus by 1 °C) is found by calibrating it with a fuel with known enthalpy change of
combustion.

The results of an experiment are shown below.

Mass of propane burned 0.500 g


Temperature of water at start 21.0 °C
Final temperature of water 39.0 °C
Heat capacity of apparatus 1.35 kJ °C–1

(i) Calculate the number of kilojoules of energy transferred when the 0.500 g sample
of propane burns in this experiment.
(1)

202
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Use your answer to (i) to calculate ΔHc for propane in kJ mol–1. Give your answer
to three significant figures.

Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.

(2)

(iii) The Book of data gives the value of ΔHc for propane as –2220 kJ mol–1.

Calibrating the apparatus means that the answer you calculated in (ii) allows for
errors due to heat loss.

Suggest the other main source of error which makes the experimental result
different from the data book value.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

203
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) A value of ΔHc for propane can be calculated using mean bond energies and the Hess
cycle below.

(i) Complete the Hess cycle, and use the mean bond energies to calculate ΔH1.
Hence calculate ΔHc.

Mean bond energies


/kJ mol–1
C=O 805
H–O 464

∆Hc
C3H8 (g) + ..........O2 (g) 3CO2 (g) + 4H2O (g)

+6490 kJ mol–1 ∆H1 = ........................................

3C(g) + 8H (g) + ..............................

ΔHc = ................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) Give ONE reason why the value you calculated in (b)(i) also differs from the value
for the heat of combustion of propane in the Book of data.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) When propane reacts with chlorine in the presence of ultraviolet light one of the products
is 2-chloropropane.

(i) Name the mechanism and type of this reaction.

Mechanism .......................................................................................................

Type ..................................................................................................................
(2)

204
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) In this reaction a small quantity of an alkane, C6H14, is produced.

Explain how this occurs. Include an equation in your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) 2-Chloropropane and 2-iodopropane are both colourless liquids at room temperature.
They can be distinguished by their reactions with aqueous silver nitrate.

(i) What would you see when the reaction is carried out with each halogenoalkane?

2-chloropropane ...............................................................................................

2-iodopropane ..................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Write an ionic equation showing how silver ions react in the mixture made from
2-iodopropane and aqueous silver nitrate. Include state symbols in your answer.

(2)

(iii) Both 2-chloropropane and 2-iodopropane form the same organic product in the
reaction with aqueous silver nitrate.

Name, or give the structural formula of, this organic product.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 17 marks)

205
SYNTAX ERROR
165. This question is about some of the chemicals used in car engines and their reactions.

(a) Compound X, shown below, is one component of petrol.

H CH3 H H H

H—C——C——C——C——C—H

H CH3 H CH3 H

(i) Name X.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Give the empirical formula of X.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) X can be made by cracking decane, C10H22.

Assuming only one other product forms in a cracking reaction, deduce the
molecular formula of this other product.

(1)

(iv) What is the sign of the enthalpy change for the reaction in which decane is
cracked? Give a reason for your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

206
SYNTAX ERROR
(v) If the air supply in a car engine is poor, there is not enough air for carbon dioxide
to be produced.

Use this information to suggest ONE possible equation for the combustion of X in
this engine. Use the molecular formula of X in your equation.

(2)

(b) When air enters a car engine, as well as the fuel burning, nitrogen and oxygen can react to
form nitrogen(II) oxide.

N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) ΔH = + 180 kJ mol–1

(i) What, if any, is the effect on the percentage of nitrogen(II) oxide in an equilibrium
mixture of these three gases if the pressure and temperature are increased?
Explain your answers.

Increase in pressure

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Increase in temperature

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) In a car exhaust pipe, nitrogen(II) oxide passes over a catalytic converter.
The following reaction occurs.

2NO(g) + 2CO(g) → N2(g) + 2CO2(g) ΔH = –746 kJ mol–1

Explain why this reaction speeds up when the car engine has been running for a
few minutes.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

207
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) A textbook says “The catalytic converter converts the gases coming out of the
engine into less harmful ones”.

State, with a reason, which of the four gases in the equation in (ii) you consider to
be least harmful.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) The diagram below shows the reaction profile for the change which occurs in the
catalytic converter.

Energy

2NO(g) + 2CO(g)

N 2 (g) + 2CO 2 (g)

Progress of reaction

On the diagram, show the activation energy, EA.

Add a line showing the reaction profile if no catalyst is present.


(2)
(Total 12 marks)

208
SYNTAX ERROR
166. Read the passage on BONE MAKERS straight through, and then more carefully, in order to
answer the following questions.

BONE MAKERS

Injuries to the skull and face can leave the bones damaged beyond repair. In the past, surgeons
have resorted to metals, such as titanium, to pin bones together. More recently, they have used
polymer composites as implants, which come close to bone in strength and mechanical
properties. But for facial surgery to be really successful, the implant needs to be made to a
precise three-dimensional structure so that it complements the person’s skull, and gives them
back their own unique features.

For about ten years surgeons have been using ‘artificial bone’ as their implant material. This
was originally a composite of poly(ethene), which is well tolerated in the body, together with
hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)), a brittle inorganic mineral that makes up most of our bones.
The composite behaves like bone in the body because it is chemically similar to natural bone.
Thus some of the calcium phosphate which is present in hydroxyapatite forms ions and
dissolves. This encourages bone to grow up to the surface of the artificial material unlike
metals, which cause loss of bone tissue at the metal-bone junction.

Research chemists have used supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) to process polymers. Under
supercritical conditions – at temperatures above 31 °C and pressures 70 times above
atmospheric pressure – carbon dioxide is neither liquid nor gas, but has the properties of
both.Like a liquid, scCO2 can dissolve a range of solutes, and like a gas it has low viscosity.
Adding scCO2 to a polymer lowers its “melting” point. Normally, high temperatures are
required to turn a polymer to a viscous liquid. It is difficult to mix a solid such as
hydroxyapatite into the polymer, but with added scCO2 this process becomes easier.

Surgeons need implants with very precise shapes for facial implants. To reproduce these shapes
the face is scanned, information is captured on a computer and sent to a laser machine. The
computer-controlled laser plays on the surface of a bath of liquid monomer, hydroxyapatite and
scCO2, and the monomer is converted into solid polymer where the laser hits. The base in the
bath then moves down a step and the laser draws the next layer and so on until there is a
three-dimensional model of the image. The model is then removed from the bath and cleaned
with scCO2, the latter now acting as a solvent to remove toxic residual monomers.

This method can only be used with acrylic monomers (i.e. derivatives of propenoic acid,
CH2=CHCOOH) because these absorb laser light and convert to the solid polymer. However,
acrylic polymers are not the ideal implant material. They are intrinsically toxic, which can lead
to inflammation in the body. Despite these drawbacks, precision-shaped implants have been
made with composites of poly(methyl methacrylate), common name Perspex, mixed with
hydroxyapatite.

When one of these implants is used to repair a bone, the piece of plastic, like a metal plate or
pin, will be there for the rest of the patient’s life. These implants would not be suitable for a
younger child who is still growing. The composite would not grow with the child.

209
SYNTAX ERROR
Chemists are now making implants out of biodegradable polymers. They have used poly(lactic
acid), and mixed it with growth hormone. They hope this will stimulate the growth of bone
cells, and eventually bone, on and around the implant, so that as the polymer degrades it would
be replaced by real bone. However biodegradable polymers do not absorb laser light so the
chemists add a surface coating of carbon. This absorbs enough energy from the
computer-controlled laser to melt the surface of the polymer, fusing the particles together and
making a three-dimensional model.

The next step will be to make real implants to transfer into patients. Eventually, such
biodegradable implants with specific shapes could be used in patients who are still growing, and
who will end up with natural bone in their bodies rather than plastic.

[644 words]

Adapted from “Bone Makers” by Kathryn Roberts, Education in Chemistry, March 2005

(a) Poly(ethene) is non-toxic. Suggest ONE other property of poly(ethene) which makes it
tolerated in the body.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Explain why a high temperature is required to turn poly(ethene) into a liquid.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Suggest why adding supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) to a polymer makes it easier to
turn it into a liquid.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

210
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) A diagram of a phosphate ion, PO43–, is shown below.

O 3–

O P O

Suggest, with a reason, a value for the OPO bond angle.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(e) Draw a section of the polymer poly(propenoic acid) showing TWO monomer units.

(1)

(f) The formula of lactic acid is

CH3 C CO2H

OH

Which term below describes the type of reaction which occurs when propenoic acid is
converted to lactic acid?

A oxidation B reduction

C hydration D hydrolysis

E hydrogenation

Answer ................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

211
SYNTAX ERROR
167. (a) Methane and poly(ethene) are both hydrocarbons.

(i) State the type of bond between carbon and hydrogen atoms in the molecules of
both compounds.

.....................................................................................
(1)

(ii) State the type of intermolecular force present in both compounds.

.....................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Explain why poly(ethene) melts at a higher temperature than methane.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Explain, in terms of its bonding, why magnesium has a high melting temperature.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

168. Flame tests were performed on the following compounds of calcium and sodium.

(i) State the flame colour in each case:

calcium hydroxide ......................................................................................................

sodium hydroxide .......................................................................................................


(2)

212
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain the origin of the colours obtained in flame tests.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

169. (a) Sodium iodide reacts with chlorine to produce sodium chloride and iodine.

(i) State the oxidation numbers of the iodine and chlorine species in the spaces
provided.

2NaI + Cl2 → 2NaCl + I2

.......... .......... .......... .........


(2)

(ii) Use these oxidation numbers to explain why this reaction is a redox reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

213
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Calculate the maximum mass of iodine that could be produced from 30.0 g of
sodium iodide.

(3)

(iv) Calculate the volume of chlorine gas required to produce this amount of iodine.

[1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm3 under the conditions of the experiment]

(1)

(b) (i) Give the colour of iodine and its physical state at room temperature and pressure.

Colour ........................................................................................

Physical state .............................................................................


(2)

214
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Write an equation, including state symbols, to represent the process occurring
when the first ionisation energy of iodine atoms is measured.

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

170. (a) (i) Explain why a water molecule does not have a linear shape.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) State the HOH bond angle in water and explain why it has this value.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Draw the boron trichloride molecule, BCl3, making its shape clear. Mark in the
bond angle on your diagram.

(2)

215
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why a B–Cl bond is polar.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Explain why a BCl3 molecule is non-polar.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Name the strongest intermolecular force between boron trichloride molecules.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

216
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) A compound of phosphorus and chlorine has the composition by mass shown below.
Element % by mass
P 14.9
Cl 85.1

Calculate the empirical formula of this compound.

(2)
(Total 11 marks)

171. (a) A primary alcohol, a secondary alcohol and a tertiary alcohol are isomers with molecular
formula C4H9OH. Each was heated under reflux with potassium dichromate(VI) in dilute
sulphuric acid.

Complete the table below.

Structural Structural formula Structural formula for


type of the isomer the compound (if any)
formed by complete
oxidation of the alcohol

primary

secondary

tertiary

(6)

217
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Propan-1-ol, CH3CH2CH2OH, can be converted to CH3CH2CH2I using red phosphorus
and iodine.

(i) Name the compound CH3CH2CH2I.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) State the conditions needed to react propan-1-ol with red phosphorus and iodine.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) This halogenation of propan-1-ol is brought about by an intermediate compound


produced from the reaction between red phosphorus and iodine. Suggest the
formula of this intermediate.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) CH3CH2CH2I will react with cyanide ions.

(i) State the conditions needed for this reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Write the formula of the organic product.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Classify the type of reaction that has occurred.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 13 marks)

218
SYNTAX ERROR
172. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes according to

2H2O2(aq) → 2H2O(l) + O2(g)

The reaction is catalysed by solid manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2.

(a) Two experiments are carried out under the same conditions except that in one experiment
the manganese(IV) oxide is a fine powder and in the other the same mass of coarse
granules is used.

Which experiment would show the faster rate of decomposition? Explain your answer in
terms of collision theory.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Draw a labelled Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular energies in a


mixture of gases at two different temperatures T1 and T2, where T2 is higher than
T1.

(4)

219
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Mark on your graph a suitable value for the activation energy, Ea, for the reaction
between the gases. Use your drawing to account for the increase in reaction rate
with increasing temperature.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii) Use the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution to explain why a catalyst increases the
rate of a reaction at temperature T1.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

173. (a) Define the term standard enthalpy of formation.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) The dissociation of phosphorus pentachloride is a reversible reaction.

PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)

220
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) Use the values of enthalpy of formation given to calculate ∆H for the forward
reaction.
∆Hf /
kJ mol–1
PCl5(g) – 399
PCl3(g) – 306

(1)

(ii) Explain, with reasons, the effect that raising the temperature would have on the
composition of the equilibrium mixture.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Other than by changing the temperature, suggest how the amount of PCl5 present at
equilibrium could be increased. Give a reason for your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

221
SYNTAX ERROR
174. Before a solution of hydrochloric acid can be used in volumetric analysis, its concentration must
be found accurately.

(a) Suggest why hydrochloric acid cannot be made up as an accurate (standard) solution from pure hydro

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) The accurate concentration of a solution of hydrochloric acid can be found by titrating it
against a standard solution of sodium carbonate.
This is made by dissolving a known mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, in
distilled water. Distilled water is added to make the solution up to exactly 250 cm3 in a
graduated flask.

Give ONE reason why the sodium carbonate is dissolved in distilled water and then made
up to 250 cm3 of solution, rather than just dissolved in 250 cm3 of distilled water.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) The following results were obtained for the titration of 25.0 cm3 of 0.0500 mol dm–3
sodium carbonate solution, Na2CO3, against hydrochloric acid.

Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O

Number of titration 1 2 3
Burette reading (final) / cm3 31.10 32.55 30.30

Burette reading (initial) / cm3 0.00 2.05 0.00

Volume of HCl used / cm3 31.10 30.50 30.30

222
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) Which TWO titrations should be used to calculate the mean (average) titre?
Explain your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Calculate the mean titre.

(1)

(iii) Calculate the amount (moles) of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, in 25.0 cm3 of the
0.0500 mol dm–3 solution.

(1)

(iv) Hence calculate the amount (moles) of hydrogen chloride, HCl, used.

(1)

223
SYNTAX ERROR
(v) Calculate the concentration of the hydrochloric acid solution to three significant
figures.

(2)
(Total 9 marks)

175. (a) Write an equation for the reaction of calcium with oxygen to form calcium oxide, CaO.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

224
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram of calcium oxide, CaO, showing all the electrons.
Indicate the charges clearly on your diagram.

(2)

(c) (i) Name the compound formed when calcium oxide reacts with water.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Which pH or pH range would include the pH of a saturated solution of the product
of this reaction?

pH 0–4 5–6 7 8–9 10–14

................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

225
SYNTAX ERROR
176. This question is about the reactions of a compound Z, CH3CH(OH)CH3.

(a) Name compound Z.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Explain, in terms of its structure, why Z is classified as a secondary alcohol.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Write an equation for the complete combustion of Z using the molecular formula for Z.
State symbols are not required.

(2)

(d) A small piece of freshly cut sodium was added to Z. Give TWO observations which
would be made.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

226
SYNTAX ERROR
(e) A few drops of Z were put in a boiling tube with a mixture of sodium dichromate(VI)
solution and dilute sulphuric acid and the mixture was warmed gently until a reaction
occurred.

(i) What colour change would be observed?

From ......................................................to ..........................................................


(1)

(ii) Draw the displayed formula of the organic product of this reaction and name it.

Name .................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) A pure sample of the organic product was mixed with Benedict’s solution. State the
colour of the mixture after it was warmed.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

227
SYNTAX ERROR
(f) A sample of Z was dehydrated using a solid dehydrating agent.

Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus you would use to dehydrate Z and collect the
gaseous product.

(3)
(Total 13 marks)

177. Sodium carbonate forms hydrated crystals. These contain water of crystallisation and their
formula can be written as Na2CO3.xH2O.

The value of x can be found by titrating a sodium carbonate solution, which is alkaline, with
hydrochloric acid as follows:

• 7.15 g of hydrated sodium carbonate crystals were dissolved in water and made up to exactly
250 cm3.

• 10.0 cm3 of this solution was pipetted into a conical flask.

• The solution was titrated with hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.100 mol dm–3.

• 20.0 cm3 of the hydrochloric acid was needed.

The sodium carbonate in the crystals reacts as shown.

Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

228
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) Name a container suitable for making up exactly 250 cm3 of solution.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Suggest a suitable indicator for the titration and state the colour change you would see at
the end-point.

Indicator ......................................................................................................................

Colour change from .................................................to ...............................................


(2)

(c) Calculate the mass of hydrated crystals present in the 10.0 cm3 sample.

(1)

(d) Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid used in the titration.

(1)

229
SYNTAX ERROR
(e) Use your answers from (c) and (d) to calculate the mass of the hydrated crystals which
would react with two moles of hydrochloric acid.

(1)

(f) Deduce the molar mass of the hydrated sodium carbonate, using your answer to (e) and
the equation for the reaction.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(g) The molar mass of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is 106 g mol–1. Use this value and your
answer to (f) to work out the value of x in the formula for the hydrated crystals.

If you did not get an answer to (f) use the value 196 (this is not the answer you would get
if you do the calculation correctly).

Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.

(2)
(Total 9 marks)

230
SYNTAX ERROR
178. This question is about the chemistry of sodium and magnesium.

(a) Sodium and chlorine react together as shown in the equation.

2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → 2NaCl(s)

Is sodium oxidised or reduced in this reaction? Explain your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) Sodium chloride and magnesium chloride can be distinguished by carrying out a
flame test. State the observation you would make for each.

Sodium chloride .........................................................................................

Magnesium chloride .........................................................................................


(2)

(ii) Explain the changes which occur when electrons in sodium produce a flame
colour.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Suggest ONE use for the coloured light produced by sodium.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Write the electron configuration of a magnesium ion, Mg2+, using s, p notation.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

231
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) The table below gives some ionisation energies for sodium and magnesium.

First ionisation Second ionisation


energy / energy /
kJ mol–1 kJ mol–1
Sodium 496 4563
Magnesium 738

(i) Write the chemical equation, with state symbols, which corresponds to the first
ionisation energy of magnesium.

(2)

(ii) Explain why the first ionisation energy of magnesium is greater than the first
ionisation energy of sodium.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

232
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Predict a value for the second ionisation energy of magnesium. Explain your
choice.

Value ........................................kJ mol–1

Explanation .......................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(e) Which atom has the larger radius, sodium or magnesium? Explain your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 15 marks)

233
SYNTAX ERROR
179. The Hess cycle below can be used to estimate the enthalpy change of formation, ∆Hf, of the
unstable gaseous compound with the formula HOCl(g).

HOCl(g) +667 kJ mol –1


Gaseous atoms of the elements

∆H f +589 kJ mol –1

Elements in their standard states

(a) (i) Insert formulae, with state symbols, into the appropriate boxes, to show the correct
quantities of each element.
(1)

(ii) Use the cycle to calculate a value for the enthalpy change of formation,
∆H f [HOCl(g)].

(1)

234
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Assuming that the H—O bond energy is +464 kJ mol–1, calculate a value for the
O—Cl bond energy.

(1)

235
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram for the HOCl molecule showing outer electrons
only.

(2)

(ii) Predict the HOCl bond angle. Justify your answer.

Angle ................................................................................................................

Justification ......................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

236
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) HOCl(g) can be made from chlorine(I) oxide by the reversible reaction

Cl2O(g) + H2O(g) 2HOCl(g)

What effect, if any, would an increase in pressure have on the proportion of HOCl(g) at
equilibrium? Justify your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

180. Two reactions of a chloroalkane, X, are shown below.

Reaction 1 Reaction 2
Propanol-2-ol ←    Chloroalkane X ←    CH2=CHCH3
propene

(a) The chloroalkane X can be used to make propan-2-ol in Reaction 1.

(i) Name and draw the displayed formula of the chloroalkane X.

Name ...........................................................................................................

Displayed formula

(2)

237
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Reaction 1 is an example of nucleophilic substitution. The nucleophile is the
hydroxide ion. Use the diagram below to show how it is able to attack the
chloroalkane X.

C Cl

(2)

(b) (i) What type of reaction is Reaction 2?

.............................................................................
(1)

(ii) Give the reagent and conditions needed for this reaction.

Reagent .............................................................................................................

Conditions .........................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Propan-2-ol has a higher boiling point than both the chloroalkane X and propene.

(i) Name the strongest intermolecular force between propan-2-ol molecules.

...........................................................................
(1)

238
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Draw a diagram to show this force between two propan-2-ol molecules. Clearly
mark and label the bond angle between the molecules.

(2)

(d) Propene, CH2=CHCH3, can be polymerised forming poly(propene).

(i) Draw a section of the poly(propene) polymer chain formed from two monomer
units.

(2)

239
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain, in terms of intermolecular forces, why poly(propene) is a solid at room
temperature.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

181. (a) The molecule isoprene has the displayed formula

H C H
H H
C C C C
H H H

(i) Give the systematic name of isoprene.

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) What colour change occurs when aqueous bromine solution is added to isoprene?

From ..................................................... to .......................................................


(1)

(iii) State the type and mechanism of this reaction.

Type ................................................ Mechanism .............................................


(2)

240
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) Suggest the displayed formula of the product formed when excess bromine reacts
with isoprene in the dark.

(1)

(b) Compound Q, an isomer of isoprene, has the structural formula


CH2 =CHCH2CH=CH2.

(i) Give the name of the intermolecular force present in both isomers.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Which isomer would you expect to have the higher boiling point? Justify your
answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

182. Read the passage on ‘BUILDING A BETTER BLEACH - A GREEN CHEMISTRY


CHALLENGE’ straight through and then more carefully. Answer the following questions.

BUILDING A BETTER BLEACH – A GREEN CHEMISTRY CHALLENGE

Your dark red T-shirt has turned everyone else’s white washing pink. The problem is how do
you remove the stain?

A stain is a colour where you don’t want it, but stain removal is not actually removal at all.
Instead the stain molecules are altered chemically so they no longer reflect light in the same way
as before. We call it bleaching and chemistry is behind the process.

241
SYNTAX ERROR
The active ingredient in household bleach, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), keeps white clothing
white and your toilet sparkling, but how does the bleach act on stain molecules? Bleaching is an
example of a redox reaction. The colour of the stain is a property caused by the chemical
structure of its molecules. When the bleach removes electrons from a molecule, the chemical
structure of the molecule is changed and properties like colour are altered. Any excess sodium
hypochlorite is washed away in the rinse water. However, oxidation with such chlorine-based
bleaches sometimes adds chlorine atoms to the stain molecules as well as removing electrons.
This can lead to the formation of hazardous by-products such as dioxins, which can persist in
the environment and accumulate in the food chain.

Non-chlorine bleaches to the rescue

If the release of chlorine-based bleaches on a large scale could be bad for the environment, what
else can we use to get rid of the stains? Alternative non-chlorine bleaches are available. They
contain hydrogen peroxide or other peroxide compounds. As hydrogen peroxide is a liquid it is
not actually present in solid non-chlorine bleaches such as ‘Oxi-Clean’. Solid non-chlorine
bleaches contain ingredients like perborate or percarbonate - solid compounds which react with
water to release hydrogen peroxide. Whilst removing stains, the hydrogen peroxide decomposes
to release highly reactive free radicals. These oxidise other molecules by removing electrons or
hydrogen atoms from them.

Hydrogen peroxide sounds like our ideal bleach. In addition to its use in household cleaners,
stain removers and hair dyes, it is now used in the pulp and paper, textile and laundry industries.
Best of all, hydrogen peroxide contains no chlorine atoms so produces no organochlorine
pollutants. So why not stop using chlorine-based bleaches altogether?

The challenge of replacing traditional chlorine bleaches with hydrogen peroxide is twofold.
Firstly, the peroxide oxidation process can be unselective. This means any molecules in the
vicinity that are exposed to the hydrogen peroxide get exposed to free radicals, and some
unwanted reactions might accompany the desired oxidation. Secondly, successful bleaching
with hydrogen peroxide requires higher temperatures and pressures and longer reaction times
than those needed for chlorine-based bleaches. On an industrial scale this means higher costs for
energy, equipment and labour.

However, the Institute for Green Oxidation Chemistry at Carnegie Mellon University, in the
USA, may have solved our bleaching problems. They have developed some heroic molecules
called tetraamido macrocyclic ligands or TAML for short. These molecules function as catalysts
in the hydrogen peroxide bleaching process and their presence allows the oxidation to proceed
at much lower temperatures and pressures. Like all catalysts, they are not consumed in the
process. This could make the process environmentally benign, meaning the materials used are
made from renewable resources, the process consumes minimal energy resources and does not
release polluting by-products into the environment.

242
SYNTAX ERROR
So bleaching using TAML activated peroxide would be an ideal example of green chemistry in
action. Made from naturally occurring biochemicals, TAML catalysts reduce energy costs and
prevent pollution. In addition their highly selective nature means they can ‘hunt and destroy’
dye molecules in solution preventing dye transfer to other clothes, which may mean in the
future TAML could protect you and your pink-clothed family from further laundry mishaps.

[613 words]

(Source: adapted from Chem matters — Demystifying Everyday Chemistry by Kathryn Parent, April 2004)

(a) Name sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, using Stock notation.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Explain what is meant by a free radical.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) TAMLs can act as catalysts in the peroxide bleaching process. Explain how catalysts
increase the rate of a reaction.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) Describe the THREE key features of an environmentally benign process.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

243
SYNTAX ERROR
(e) Suggest why accumulation of dioxins in the food chain may be harmful to people.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

183. (a) Calcium reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide and hydrogen.

Write the equation for this reaction. Give TWO observations that could be made during
this reaction.

Equation

.....................................................................................................................................

Observations

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b) State the trend in the solubility of the Group 2 hydroxides, as the atomic mass of the
Group 2 element increases.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

244
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) Show that the following data are consistent with the empirical formula CaN2O6.

Symbol of element % by mass


Ca 24.4
N 17.1
O 58.5

(2)

(ii) Explain why the thermal stability of the Group 2 nitrates increases as the atomic
number of the Group 2 element increases.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

245
SYNTAX ERROR
184. (a) Draw the ammonia molecule, NH3, making its three-dimensional shape clear. Mark in the
bond angle on your diagram. Explain why ammonia has this shape and this bond angle.

Diagram

Explanation

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b) Explain whether ammonia is a polar molecule or not.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

246
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Explain, in terms of the intermolecular forces in both compounds, why ammonia has a
higher boiling temperature than phosphine, PH3.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(d) (i) Explain, in terms of electrons, how ammonia can react with hydrogen ions to form
ammonium ions, NH4+.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) State the number of protons and the number of electrons present in an ammonium
ion.

number of protons .....................................

number of electrons....................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

247
SYNTAX ERROR
185. (a) Define the term oxidising agent in terms of electron transfer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) Suggest which halogen is the strongest oxidising agent.

...........................................................................
(1)

(ii) What is the physical state of bromine at room temperature?

...........................................................................
(1)

(c) State the appearance of a gas evolved when concentrated sulphuric acid is added to solid
sodium bromide.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Give the oxidation number of chlorine in each of the following species.

ClO– ......................................................................

ClO3– ......................................................................
(2)

248
SYNTAX ERROR
(e) Chlorine reacts with sodium hydroxide.

Write an ionic equation for this reaction and explain, in terms of oxidation numbers, why
this is a disproportionation reaction.

Equation

.....................................................................................................................................

Explanation

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(f) (i) Write an equation, including state symbols, to show the process that occurs when
the first electron affinity of chlorine is measured.

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Explain why the second electron affinity of chlorine would be endothermic.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

249
SYNTAX ERROR
186. One stage in the manufacture of sulphuric acid is the exothermic reaction

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

(a) In a closed container this mixture of gases would be in dynamic equilibrium.


State the meaning of the words dynamic and equilibrium in this context.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) State the conditions of temperature and pressure used industrially for the
manufacture of SO3.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Justify the choice of temperature for this reaction in terms of yield and rate.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

250
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) The yield of products would be greater if a higher pressure were to be used for the
reaction.

Suggest a reason why a higher pressure than you have given in (i) is not used.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) (i) Calculate ΔH for the forward reaction, given the enthalpies of formation below.

ΔHf / kJ mol–1
SO2(g) –297
SO3(g) –395
O2(g) 0

(2)

(ii) State why the enthalpy of formation of oxygen, O2(g), is zero.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) (i) State the formula of the catalyst used in the industrial process.

...............................................................
(1)

251
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Draw an enthalpy level diagram to show the reaction profiles of the uncatalysed
and catalysed reactions.

(3)

(iii) Explain how the catalyst increases the reaction rate.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(e) Suggest why the sulphur trioxide produced is passed into concentrated sulphuric acid
rather than water to form sulphuric acid at the end of the process.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 18 marks)

252
SYNTAX ERROR
187. This question is about laboratory techniques used in organic chemistry.

The hydrolysis of ethyl benzoate, C6H5COOC2H5, produces ethanol and sodium benzoate,
C6H5COONa.

Reaction I C6H5COOC2H5 + NaOH → C6H5COONa + C2H5OH

The sodium benzoate can be converted to benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, by the addition of dilute
hydrochloric acid.

Reaction II C6H5COONa + HCl → C6H5COOH + NaCl

Method
• Place 4.5 g of ethyl benzoate in a flask and add an excess of sodium hydroxide solution.
• Heat the mixture under reflux for fifteen minutes.
• Distil off the ethanol formed.
• Add hydrochloric acid to the sodium benzoate solution left in the flask.
• Allow the mixture to cool to room temperature.
• Filter off the solid benzoic acid.

Data Ethyl benzoate Benzoic acid Ethanol

Molar mass
150 122 46
/g mol–1

Soluble in hot water.


Solubility in water Insoluble Insoluble in cold Soluble
water.

(a) The reaction mixture was heated under reflux. Suggest why it was:

(i) heated

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) under reflux.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

253
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Draw a labelled diagram to show the apparatus used for heating under reflux.

(4)

(c) (i) Suggest why hydrochloric acid is added in Reaction II.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Explain why the flask was cooled before filtering off the benzoic acid.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

254
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) (i) The benzoic acid produced weighed 2.93 g.

Calculate the percentage yield.

(3)

(ii) What would be the effect on the yield of benzoic acid if the mixture was not cooled
thoroughly before filtering? Justify your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(e) The presence of the —OH group in ethanol can be shown by testing the dried distillate
with phosphorus pentachloride.

Why must the distillate be dry?

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 13 marks)

188. Butan-1-ol is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2CH2OH.

(a) Butan-1-ol can be converted into an aldehyde.

(i) What type of reaction is this?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

255
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Give the names or formulae of the TWO reagents you would mix with butan-1-ol
to carry out this reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) What colour change would you see when the reaction occurs?

From ..................................................... to ......................................................


(1)

(iv) Draw a labelled diagram showing the apparatus you would use to carry out this
reaction and collect the product.

(2)

256
SYNTAX ERROR
(v) Draw the displayed formula of the aldehyde that forms.

(1)

(vi) An isomer of butan-1-ol produces butanone if treated as in (ii).

How would you distinguish the aldehyde from butanone?


Name the reagent you would use and state your observation with each
compound.

Reagent .............................................................................................................

Observation with aldehyde ...............................................................................

Observation with butanone ...............................................................................


(3)

257
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Draw the displayed formula of another primary alcohol which is an isomer of
butan-1-ol, and name it.

Name ...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

189. Magnesium oxide is a basic oxide which produces an alkaline solution with water. Write an
equation to show how the oxide ion, O2–, acts as a base in the reaction with water.

...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 1 mark)

258
SYNTAX ERROR
190. (a) Calculate the enthalpy change of atomisation, ΔHat, in kJ mol–1, for but-2-ene,
CH3CH CHCH3

CH3CH CHCH3(g) → 4C(g) + 8H(g)

Use the following average bond energies.

Average bond energy


/kJ mol–1
C—C +347
C C +612
C—H +413

(3)

(b) The enthalpy changes of atomisation and the boiling points of some alkenes are shown
below.

Alkene ΔHat Boiling point


/kJ mol–1 /°C

Ethene, C2H4 +2260 –103.6


Propene, C3H6 +3440 –47.3
But-1-ene, C4H8 –6.2
Pent-1-ene, C5H10 +5800 +30.0
Hex-1-ene, C6H12 +6990 +63.4

(i) On the grid below, plot values for the enthalpy change of atomisation (vertical
axis) against the number of carbon atoms in the alkene molecule (horizontal axis).

(One page of graph paper should be provided).


(3)

259
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why these enthalpy changes rise regularly.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Use your graph to estimate the value of the enthalpy change of atomisation for
but-1-ene.

....................................... kJ mol–1
(1)

(c) (i) Which intermolecular force occurs between alkene molecules?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Explain why the boiling points increase from ethene to hex–1–ene.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) There are two boiling points for CH3CH CHCH3, but only one for
CH3CH2CH CH2. Why is this?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

260
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) 2-methylbut-1-ene, CH 3 CH 2 C CH 2 , is an isomer of pent-l-ene.
CH 3

Predict which of these isomers has the higher boiling point. Justify your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) By considering the intermolecular forces in water, suggest why liquid alkenes do not mix
with water.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 17 marks)

191. This question is concerned with some redox reactions of iodine.

(a) Iodide ions can be converted into iodine using chlorine.


In the laboratory this can be carried out by adding an aqueous solution of chlorine to one
of sodium iodide.

(i) Write an ionic equation, with state symbols, but omitting spectator ions, for the
reaction which takes place.

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) A hydrocarbon solvent is added to the reaction mixture, which is then shaken for a
few minutes, and the layers allowed to settle. What colour is this hydrocarbon
layer?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

261
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) The procedure above is repeated using an aqueous solution of sodium bromide,
instead of sodium iodide. Give the colour of the hydrocarbon layer in this case.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Iodine molecules can be converted into iodide ions using sulphur dioxide. An
unbalanced equation is given below.

I2(aq) + SO2(aq) + H2O(l) → I–(aq) + SO42–(aq) + H+(aq)

(i) Give the oxidation number of

iodine in I2 ............ iodine in I– ............

sulphur in SO2 ............ sulphur in SO42– ............


(2)

(ii) Identify, with a reason, the reducing agent in this reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Use the information above, or any other means, to balance the equation below.

I2(aq) + SO2(aq) + H2O(l) → Ι–(aq) + SO42–(aq) + H+(aq)


(1)

(c) The reaction between iodine and sulphur dioxide can be used to estimate the
concentration of sulphur dioxide, which is used as a preservative in wines.

In such a determination, a sample of red wine was treated with activated charcoal in order
to decolorise it. After filtration to remove the activated charcoal, 25.0 cm3 portions of the
decolorised wine were titrated with 0.00100 mol dm–3 aqueous iodine, using starch as the
indicator. An average titre of 12.2 cm3 was obtained.

(i) Why is there a need to decolorise the red wine before samples are titrated?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

262
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) What is the colour change at the end-point of this titration?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Use the information above and the balanced equation in (b)(iii) to calculate:

• the number of moles of iodine used in each titration

• the number of moles of sulphur dioxide with which this iodine reacted

• the concentration, in mol dm–3, of sulphur dioxide in the red wine.

(3)

(iv) Suggest why the use of activated charcoal leads to an inaccurate estimate of the
sulphur dioxide content of the wine.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 14 marks)

263
SYNTAX ERROR
192. Read the passage on Halothane – the first designer anaesthetic straight through, and then
more carefully. Answer the following questions.

HALOTHANE – THE FIRST DESIGNER ANAESTHETIC

Various methods have been used since antiquity to lessen operative pain, including hypnosis,
the use of narcotics prepared from marijuana, stupefying with alcohol or even knocking the
patient unconscious with a blow to the jaw.

In 1818, Michael Faraday noted the ability of ether vapour to induce a profound lethargic state.
Earlier, Humphry Davy had reported the results of his research on nitrogen(I) oxide, and
claimed that it appeared capable of destroying physical pain, and might probably be used with
advantage during surgical operations. But neither the application of ether nor of nitrogen(I)
oxide was followed up at this time.

Three Americans are generally credited with the introduction of inhalation anaesthesia. In 1842,
Dr Crawford Long used ether to render a patient unconscious while he removed a cyst from his
neck. In 1844, dentist Horace Wells had one of his own teeth painlessly extracted while under
nitrogen(I) oxide anaesthesia and in 1846, William Morton successfully used ether to
anaesthetise a patient at his dental practice. The era of truly painless operations had begun. In
1847, James Simpson used chloroform (CHCl3) as an anaesthetic for the first time, and for the
remainder of the century chloroform, nitrogen(I) oxide and ether reigned supreme as anaesthetic
agents.

The use of anaesthetics was not, however, without risk. When they were given in sufficiently
large amounts to cause muscle relaxation, the doses were not far removed from those which
caused breathing paralysis, and ether caused gastric irritation and post-operative vomiting.
Chloroform in large, repeated doses, sometimes caused irreversible liver damage. In the early
part of the last century, nitrogen(I) oxide was mainly used for quick operations such as tooth
extraction, where its analgesic (pain-killing) action also came in useful. However, for any but
the most trivial of operations, ether was the anaesthetic of first choice. That said, a significant
number of operations ended in explosions – the flammable ether/air mixture would have been
ignited by sparks from switches and other electrical apparatus, and sometimes static discharge
from clothing. The search was on for an agent lacking all the undesirable chemical and
physiological properties associated with ether and chloroform.

264
SYNTAX ERROR
In 1928, Thomas Midgley came up with the first of the chlorofluoro compounds (CFCs),
dichlorodifluoromethane, which he advocated for use as a heat transfer agent in refrigerators.
Several research chemists coincidentally realized that CFCs, being non-flammable, non-toxic
and volatile might well prove to be promising anaesthetics too. In the mid-1940s,
pharmacologist Benjamin Robbins carried out extensive experiments on 46 potential CFC
anaesthetics and concluded that:

• the majority of the CFCs produced anaesthesia;

• within a group of related compounds, potency increased with increasing boiling point;

• the introduction of a bromine atom increased the safety of an anaesthetic and its potency.

Subsequently, a research chemist, Charles Suckling, working in the ICI’s laboratories at


Widnes, was guided by three factors to help him choose potential anaesthetics. First was the
inertness of fluorine in the C—F bond, especially in the CF3 and CF2 groups. The C—F group
also conferred stability to adjacent C—Hal bonds. Thus compounds of the type CF3CHalX2 (X
= H or Hal) should have high chemical stability and thus low toxicity. Second, the CFCs that
had a C—H bond were safer than the totally halogenated alkanes. Chemists reasoned that the
greater polar nature of the former species enabled them to interact electrostatically with ‘brain
molecules’ and thus show anaesthetic effects at lower doses compared with the latter group.
Finally, potential anaesthetics should be able to produce narcosis ("deep sleep") at the lowest
concentrations possible.

Only one compound, halothane, CF3CHBrCl, satisfied all these requirements.

The early 1950s, and the arrival of halothane on the clinical scene, marked the start of an
exciting new era in anaesthesia. Whereas ether had several problems associated with its use,
halothane was a potent inhalation agent with a smooth, pleasant induction for the patient.
Although having no analgesic properties, when used in conjunction with intravenous painkillers
and muscle relaxant drugs, halothane provided ideal conditions for a multitude of surgical
operations, and rapidly became the agent of choice. But was it too good to be true?

Despite its huge popularity and success in the 1960s, warning bells were beginning to ring about
the role of halothane in post-operative liver dysfunction, especially after repeated exposure. In
the face of increasing concern, it became evident that the concept of a ‘safe period’ between
administrations should be questioned.

265
SYNTAX ERROR
During the 1980s, the use and popularity of halothane began to wane, while the use of even
safer and cheaper fluorinated agents, such as enflurane and isoflurane, increased. By the early
1990s halothane’s use had all but ceased, isoflurane having taken its place.

H F H F H H

F C C O C F F C C O C F

Cl F F F Cl F

enflurane isoflurane

[777 words]

Adapted from “Halothane - the first designer anaesthetic” by T. Dronsfield, M. Hill and J. Pring, Education in
Chemistry, September 2002

(a) What is the formula of nitrogen(I) oxide?

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Explain the link between the search for good refrigerants and good anaesthetics.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Explain why it was desirable to choose CFCs with CF2 and CF3 groups as potential
anaesthetics.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

266
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) (i) Suggest why the molecule CF3CH2Cl is more polar than CF3CCl3.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) According to the text, which of these two molecules is likely to be the safer to use
as an anaesthetic? Justify your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(e) Give the systematic name for halothane.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(f) Estimate the value of the COC bond angle in enflurane.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

193. (a) Complete the following table.

Physical state at room


Element Colour
temperature

chlorine

bromine

iodine

(3)

267
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Write the equation for the reaction between concentrated sulphuric acid and solid
potassium chloride, KCl.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) When potassium bromide, KBr, reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid, bromine
and sulphur dioxide are produced.

Give the oxidation numbers of bromine and sulphur in the reactants and products.
Hence identify the oxidising agent, giving a reason for your choice.

KBr ................. H2SO4 .................

Br2 ................. SO2 .................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

194. (a) Complete the electronic configuration for calcium, Ca.

1s2 ..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) Define the term first ionisation energy.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)

268
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why the first ionisation energy of calcium is lower than that of magnesium.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)

(c) A sample of magnesium contains three isotopes of mass numbers 24, 25 and 26.

(i) In terms of sub-atomic particles, state ONE similarity and ONE difference between
these isotopes.

Similarity .....................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

Difference .....................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

269
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) The following data were obtained from the mass spectrum of this sample of
magnesium.

Peak at m/e %
24.0 78.6
25.0 10.1
26.0 11.3

Calculate the relative atomic mass of this sample of magnesium. Give your answer
to 3 significant figures.

(2)
(Total 11 marks)

195. Sodium and chlorine react together in a redox reaction to form sodium chloride, NaCl.

(i) Write the half equation for

the oxidation of sodium, Na

...............................................................................................................................

the reduction of chlorine, Cl2.

...............................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Write the equation for the reaction of sodium with chlorine.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

270
SYNTAX ERROR
196. (a) (i) Potassium superoxide contains 54.9 % potassium by mass.
Show that the empirical formula of this compound is KO2.

(3)

(ii) Give the oxidation number of oxygen in the compound KO2.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

271
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Which of potassium nitrate or lithium nitrate has the higher thermal stability?
Explain your answer.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

197. Silicon reacts with chlorine to produce silicon tetrachloride, as shown in the following equation

Si(s) + 2Cl2(g) → SiCl4(l)

(a) (i) Calculate the mass of silicon tetrachloride obtained from 10.0 g of silicon.

(3)

272
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Calculate the minimum volume of chlorine that would be required to react
completely with 10.0 g of silicon.

[1 mol of gas occupies 24.0 dm3 under the conditions of the experiment]

(2)

273
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Draw a silicon tetrachloride molecule, SiCl4, showing its three-dimensional shape.
Name the shape and state the bond angle. Explain why the molecule has this shape.

Diagram

Name of shape .............................................................................................................

Bond angle ..............................................

Explanation of shape

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(5)

(c) (i) Why are silicon-chlorine bonds polar?

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

274
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why the silicon tetrachloride molecule has no permanent dipole.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

198. (a) There are two isomers of molecular formula C3H8O that are alcohols.

(i) Draw the full structural formulae of these isomers and name them.

Isomer 1 Isomer 2

Name Name

................................................... ....................................................
(4)

275
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) When heated under reflux with potassium dichromate(VI) in dilute sulphuric acid,
one of the isomers can be oxidised to give a compound C3H6O2. Draw the full
structural formula of this compound, C3H6O2. State the colour change you would
see during this reaction.

Structural formula

Colour change

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Both isomeric alcohols can be converted to bromoalkanes of molecular formula
C3H7Br. Give the reagents needed for this change.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) One of the bromoalkanes, X, reacts with potassium cyanide to produce a compound
with molecular formula CH3CH(CN)CH3.

Identify X...........................................................................................................
(1)

276
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) X reacts differently with potassium hydroxide in aqueous solution than in ethanolic
solution.

Give the structural formula of the product formed when the reaction is carried out

in aqueous solution

in ethanol.

(2)
(Total 10 marks)

199. A student investigated the ease with which Group 2 metal carbonates thermally decompose
when heated with a Bunsen burner.

XCO3(s) → XO(s) + CO2(g)

The student heated each carbonate separately in a test tube. The volume of gas collected in a gas
syringe was measured after two minutes.

277
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) Each test tube must be heated directly by a Bunsen flame in an identical manner.
Suggest how this can best be achieved.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) In each experiment, the student used the same number of moles of metal carbonate.

The mass of magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, heated was 0.21 g.

Calculate the mass of barium carbonate, BaCO3, that should be used for a valid
comparison.

(3)

(c) (i) Calculate the maximum volume of carbon dioxide that would be produced by the
complete decomposition of 0.21 g of magnesium carbonate.

[1 mol of gas occupies 24 000 cm3 under the conditions of the experiment.]

(2)

278
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) The balance used to weigh the magnesium carbonate is accurate to ± 0.01 g.
Calculate the percentage error in the mass of the magnesium carbonate weighed.

(1)

(d) The following results were obtained after heating each sample for two minutes.

Metal carbonate in the Volume of gas produced


test tube /cm3
None 9
MgCO3 20
CaCO3 13
SrCO3 11
BaCO3 9

(i) Why was a test tube containing no metal carbonate heated?

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Describe a chemical test that would be used to confirm the identity of the gas
produced.

Test ..............................................................................................................

Result ...........................................................................................................
(2)

279
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Use the results in the table to describe the trend in thermal stability of the Group 2
metal carbonates.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

200. (a) Describe TWO observations which can be made when crystals of hydrated magnesium
nitrate are heated.

Observation 1 ................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

Observation 2 ................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) Name ONE of the gases evolved. Describe a test for this gas to confirm its identity and
give the result.

Name of gas ..................................................................................................................

Test and result ...............................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

280
SYNTAX ERROR
201. (a) Barium carbonate can be converted into barium chloride solution by a reaction with
hydrochloric acid. In a particular experiment, an excess of barium carbonate was added to
25 cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 1.0 mol dm–3.

(i) Describe how you would obtain dry crystals of hydrated barium chloride,
BaCl2.2H2O, from the reaction mixture.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(4)

(ii) Write a balanced equation, including state symbols, for this reaction.

(2)

(iii) Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid used in the experiment.

(1)

(iv) Calculate the mass of one mole of hydrated barium chloride, BaCl2.2H2O. Use the
Periodic Table as a source of data.

(1)

281
SYNTAX ERROR
(v) Calculate the theoretical mass of crystals which could be obtained.

(1)

(vi) Suggest a reason why this mass of crystals is unlikely to be obtained in practice.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) What colour do barium compounds produce in a flame test?

................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) When carrying out a flame test on a solid, state a suitable material on which it can
be supported in the flame.

................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

202. (a) A few crystals of potassium iodide were put into a test tube with a similar quantity of
phosphoric acid, H3PO4. The mixture was warmed. Misty white fumes were seen at the
mouth of the test tube.

(i) Give the name or formula of the misty white fumes which formed in this reaction.

................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Write a balanced equation for the reaction. State symbols are not required.

H3PO4 + KI → +
(2)

282
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) A sample of the misty white fumes was collected and dissolved in water.

What reagent would be used to confirm the identity of the halide ion present in the
solution? State what you would expect to see when it is used.

Reagent ..................................................................................................................

Observation ............................................................................................................
(2)

(b) If potassium iodide crystals are reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid, a complicated
reaction occurs in which a mixture of gases is produced.

(i) What would you see, other than misty white fumes, when this reaction occurs?
Give ONE observation.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) One of the gases in the mixture is hydrogen sulphide, H2S. It can be identified by
holding a piece of filter paper soaked in a solution of lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2, or
lead ethanoate, (CH3CO2)2Pb, in the gas.

What would be observed if hydrogen sulphide is present?

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Suggest the name of the lead compound which forms in this reaction, using Stock
notation.

........................................................................
(1)

283
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) The equation below shows how hydrogen sulphide could be produced from
sulphuric acid in a redox reaction.

9H2SO4 + 8KI → H2S + 8KHSO4 + 4H2O + 4I2

Which element is oxidised in the reaction and which is reduced? Justify your
answer by calculating oxidation numbers.

Element oxidised .................................

Initial oxidation number ....................... Final oxidation number ......................

Element reduced ..................................

Initial oxidation number ....................... Final oxidation number ......................


(3)

(c) An experiment was carried out to measure the purity of a sample of potassium iodide.

1.75 g of impure potassium iodide was dissolved in water, and excess chlorine was
passed through the solution. The following reaction occurred.

Cl2(g) + 2KI(aq) → I2(aq) + 2KCl(aq)

The solution was warmed to drive off the excess chlorine and was then made up to
250 cm3 in a volumetric flask. A titration was used to measure the concentration of iodine
in the solution.

(i) What solution could be used in a titration to measure the concentration of iodine?

................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Name a suitable indicator and state the colour change at the end-point of this
titration.

Indicator .................................................................................................................

Colour change from ...................................... to ...............................................


(2)

284
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) A titration showed that the solution contained 4.8 × 10–4 moles of iodine, I2, in a
25 cm3 sample. Calculate the number of moles of potassium iodide, KI, which
were in the original impure sample.

(1)

(iv) Calculate the percentage purity of the potassium iodide.


Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.

(2)
(Total 17 marks)

203. (a) The table below gives the boiling points of three organic compounds.

Compound Boiling point


/K
chloroethane 285
1-chloropropane 320
2-chloropropane 309

285
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) Explain why 1-chloropropane has a higher boiling point than chloroethane.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Explain why 1-chloropropane has a higher boiling point than its isomer,
2-chloropropane.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Both chloroethane and iodoethane react with aqueous potassium hydroxide solution to
form ethanol. The hydroxide ions act as nucleophiles.

(i) What is a nucleophile?

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Explain why iodoethane reacts faster than chloroethane with aqueous potassium
hydroxide, under the same conditions.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(1)

286
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) Under what conditions does chloroethane react with potassium hydroxide to form
ethene rather than ethanol?

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Name the type of reaction in which ethene is formed from chloroethane.

...............................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

204. (a) The distribution of the energy of particles in a gas at temperature T1 is shown below.

(i) On the diagram above, draw the distribution of energy of particles at a lower
temperature, T2.
(2)

287
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Use the diagram to explain why the rate of a reaction increases with an increase in
temperature.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii) Explain fully why a catalyst increases the rate of a reaction.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(2)

288
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) The fermentation of glucose is an exothermic reaction and is catalysed by enzymes in
yeast.

C6H12O6(aq) → 2C2Η5ΟΗ(aq) + 2CO2(g)

The reaction is slow at room temperature.

(i) Describe, with the aid of a diagram, an experiment you could do to follow the
progress of this reaction at different temperatures.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(4)

289
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Would you expect ∆Ssystem to be positive or negative for this reaction? Justify your
answer with TWO pieces of evidence.

................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Deduce the sign of ∆Ssurroundings. Show your reasoning.

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 15 marks)

290
SYNTAX ERROR
205. You may find the following table useful in answering the question below.

Element Electronegativity
Hydrogen 2.1
Oxygen 3.5

Draw a diagram to show a hydrogen bond between two water molecules and explain why it
forms.

Diagram

Explanation ..........................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

291
SYNTAX ERROR
206. (a) Draw diagrams to show how the following bonds are formed from atomic orbitals.

σ bond

π bond

(2)

(b) (i) State the shape of a methane, CH4, molecule, and explain why it has this shape.

Shape: ...........................................................................................................

Explanation: ..................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) State the shape of a carbon dioxide, CO2, molecule, and explain why it has this
shape.

Shape: ...........................................................................................................

Explanation: ..................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

292
SYNTAX ERROR
207. (a) Define the term reduction.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Sodium iodide, NaI, contains iodide ions which reduce Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions in aqueous
solution.

(i) Write the ionic half-equation for the reduction of Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions.

......................................................................................................................

(ii) Write the ionic half-equation for the oxidation of iodide ions.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Hence write the overall ionic equation for the reduction of Fe3+ ions by iodide ions.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Sodium chlorate, NaClO3, is used as a weedkiller and is manufactured by the following
disproportionation reaction

3NaClO → 2NaCl + NaClO3

(i) State the oxidation numbers of chlorine in

NaClO ..................................................................

NaClO3 ..................................................................

NaCl ..................................................................
(3)

(ii) Explain why this reaction is classified as a disproportionation reaction.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

293
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) The decomposition of sodium azide, NaN3, takes place when an airbag, which is used as a
safety feature in cars, inflates. An airbag requires a large volume of a cool gas to be
produced in a few milliseconds. The gas is produced by the rapid decomposition of the
sodium azide.

2NaN3(s) → 2Na(l) + 3N2(g)

When the airbag is fully inflated, 54 dm³ of nitrogen gas are produced.

(i) Calculate the amount (in moles) of nitrogen gas produced.

[The molar volume of nitrogen gas under the conditions in the airbag is
20 dm³ mol–1].

(1)

(ii) Calculate the amount (in moles) of sodium azide, NaN3, that would produce
54 dm³ of nitrogen gas.

(1)

(iii) Calculate the mass of sodium azide that would produce 54 dm³ of nitrogen gas.

(2)
(Total 12 marks)

294
SYNTAX ERROR
208. (a) (i) Write the structural formula of 2-iodobutane.

(1)

(ii) Identify a reagent and the condition necessary for the conversion of 2-iodobutane
to butan-2-ol.

Reagent:........................................................................................................

Condition:.....................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) The same reagent can be used to convert 2-iodobutane to an alkene. In what way
are the conditions different for this reaction?

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Draw the structures of the three isomers obtained in the reaction in (iii).

(3)

295
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) The reaction in (a)(ii) takes place at a different rate when 2-bromobutane is used instead
of 2-iodobutane.

Suggest and explain in what way the rate would be different.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

209. A step in the Contact Process, for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, is the catalytic oxidation of
sulphur dioxide:

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ∆H = –196 kJ mol–1

If sulphur dioxide and oxygen are heated to a temperature of 450 °C and at a pressure of 2 atm
in the presence of a catalyst of vanadium(V) oxide, a dynamic equilibrium is reached in which
about 98 % of the sulphur dioxide is converted into sulphur trioxide.

(a) (i) Explain the meaning of the term dynamic equilibrium.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) State the effect on the percentage of sulphur dioxide converted, if extra oxygen is
added to the system in equilibrium.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) State the effect on the percentage of sulphur dioxide converted, if the catalyst is
removed from the system in equilibrium.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

296
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Use your understanding of kinetics and equilibria to justify the temperature used to obtain
an economic yield in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

297
SYNTAX ERROR
210. (a) (i) Describe how you would make up exactly 250 cm3 of aqueous sodium carbonate,
of accurately known concentration, from solid anhydrous sodium carbonate,
Na2CO3.

You may assume that you are given a weighing bottle containing an appropriate
amount of sodium carbonate, but that you still need to find the mass of sodium
carbonate by weighing.

You do not need to include details of calculating the concentration in your answer.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(6)

298
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm–3, of a solution containing 1.28 g of
anhydrous sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, in 250 cm3 of solution.

(3)

(b) In a series of titrations, hydrochloric acid was added, from a burette, to 25.0 cm3 portions
of the sodium carbonate solution pipetted into conical flasks. Methyl orange was added as
the indicator.

The burette readings are shown in the table below.

1 2 3
Burette reading at end/cm3 24.80 48.90 24.40

Burette reading at start/cm3 0.00 24.80 0.00

Titre/cm3 24.80 24.10 24.40

Number of titrations used to calculate the mean (average) titre: 1, 2 and 3


Mean titre = 24.43 cm3 of hydrochloric acid

(i) Give the colour change that would be observed at the end point.

From ................................................. to ......................................................


(1)

299
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) The student carrying out the titrations was criticised by the teacher for not carrying
out at least one more titration.
Suggest a reason why the teacher’s criticism was justified.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Using the mean titre given and your answer to (a)(ii), calculate the concentration of the
hydrochloric acid in mol dm–3. The equation for the reaction in the titration is:

Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

(2)

300
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) Before titration 2, the student rinsed the pipette with water and then immediately used it
to transfer sodium carbonate solution to the conical flask for the titration.

If 0.5 cm3 of water was present in the pipette, calculate the percentage error this would
cause in the volume of hydrochloric acid needed in this titration.

(1)
(Total 14 marks)

301
SYNTAX ERROR
211. 1-bromobutane can be prepared by the reaction of hydrogen bromide with butan-l-ol.

C4H9OH + HBr → C4H9Br + H2O

Sodium bromide and sulphuric acid are used to generate the hydrogen bromide in the reaction
flask.

The stages in the preparation are listed below.

• Mix sodium bromide, 50% sulphuric acid and butan-1-ol, then heat the mixture under reflux
for about 30 minutes.

• Rearrange the apparatus for distillation and distil off the impure 1-bromobutane.

• Transfer the impure 1-bromobutane to a separating funnel so that the 1-bromobutane may be
separated from the aqueous layer and then washed.

• Add anhydrous calcium chloride to the 1-bromobutane and leave to stand. When the liquid
becomes clear, filter off the calcium chloride.

• Carry out a final distillation to obtain pure 1-bromobutane.

Information on 1-bromobutane, C4H9Br

Density 1.3 g cm–3


Boiling temperature 102 °C
Harmful by skin absorption
Immiscible with water.

(a) (i) Calculate the maximum mass of 1-bromobutane that may be prepared from 4.0 g of
butan-1-ol if all the other reagents are in excess.
[Molar masses: butan-l-ol = 74 g mol–1, 1-bromobutane = 137 g mol–1.]

(1)

302
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) In a preparation, 5.9 g of 1-bromobutane is obtained from 4.0 9 of butan-1-ol.
Calculate the percentage yield.

(1)

(b) The diagrams below show the reflux apparatus and the separating funnel used in the
preparation.

Condenser

(i) Explain the purpose of the vertical condenser in the reflux apparatus.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

303
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) On the diagram of the separating funnel, draw and label two layers to show
1-bromobutane and water during the washing stage.
(1)

(iii) What is the purpose of adding anhydrous calcium chloride to the 1-bromobutane?

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Draw a labelled diagram of the distillation apparatus that is used to obtain pure
1-bromobutane.

(4)

(c) Give ONE safety precaution (apart from wearing eye protection and a laboratory coat)
that should be taken during the preparation. Give a reason for your choice.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 11 marks)

304
SYNTAX ERROR
212. Name a metal, in Group 1 or 2, which has compounds that do not give a colour to the flame in a
flame test.

................................................................................................................................................
(Total 1 marks)

213. (a) When an oxygen atom, O, is changed into an oxide ion, O2–, is this oxidation or
reduction? Justify your answer.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Draw a ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram for the oxide ion, O2–, showing all of the electrons.

(1)

(c) Give the formulae of a positively charged ion, a neutral atom and a negatively charged
ion with the same number and arrangement of electrons as the oxide ion.

Formula

Positively charged ion

Neutral atom

Negatively charged ion

(Total 3 marks)

305
SYNTAX ERROR
214. Five formulae of alcohols with the same molecular formula, C4H10O, are shown below.

(a) What is the name given to organic compounds with the same molecular formula, but
different structural formulae?

......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Which TWO of the formulae, A to E, represent the same alcohol?

......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Which formula represents a tertiary alcohol?

......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Name alcohol A.

......................................................................................................................................
(1)

306
SYNTAX ERROR
(e) Which TWO of the alcohols, A to E, can be each readily oxidised to a carboxylic acid?

......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f) All of the alcohols, A to E, can be dehydrated.

(i) What is meant by the term dehydrated?

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What functional group is formed when an alcohol is dehydrated?

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Draw the displayed formula and give the name of the compound formed when
alcohol E is dehydrated.

Displayed formula

Name ......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

215. This question is about strontium and some of its compounds.

(a) Complete the electronic configuration of the strontium atom, using s,p,d notation.

Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.

1s22s2 .............................................................................................................................
(2)

307
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Write a balanced equation which represents the change that corresponds to the first
ionisation energy of a strontium atom. Include state symbols in the equation.

(2)

(ii) The first ionisation energy of strontium is marked on the grid below. Estimate and
plot the next THREE ionisation energies for strontium.

(2)

(c) Suggest why strontium compounds are used in distress flares and fireworks.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Give the formula of

(i) the strontium ion in strontium compounds .......................................................


(1)

(ii) strontium hydroxide. .........................................................................................


(1)

308
SYNTAX ERROR
(e) Write balanced equations for the following reactions, including state symbols.

(i) Strontium with water to produce strontium hydroxide and a gaseous product.

(2)

(ii) Solid strontium hydroxide with dilute hydrochloric acid.

(2)

(f) Estimate the pH of a saturated aqueous solution of strontium hydroxide.

......................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 14 marks)

216. The table below shows some data for four organic compounds.

Butane Propan-1-ol Propan-2-ol Propanone

Structural
CH3CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2OH CH3CH(OH)CH3 CH3COCH3
formula

Number of
electrons per 34 34 34 32
molecule

Boiling
–0.5 97.2 82.4 ?
point/°C

(a) The molecules of each compound contain a similar number of electrons.


What type of intermolecular forces are likely to be similar in strength?

......................................................................................................................................
(1)

309
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Explain why propan-1-ol boils at a higher temperature than

(i) butane

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) propan-2-ol.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

217. Hydrochloric acid, formed when hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water, can be converted to
chlorine using an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide:

2HCl(aq) + H2O2(aq) → Cl2(g) + 2H2O(l)

(i) Give the oxidation numbers of

chlorine in HCl .......... chlorine in Cl2 ..........

oxygen in H2O2 .......... oxygen in H2O ..........


(2)

(ii) Name the reducing agent in this reaction.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

310
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Explain why the oxidation numbers you have given in (i) are consistent with the fact that
two moles of hydrochloric acid react with one mole of hydrogen peroxide.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

218. Phosphorus(III) chloride, PCl3, can be formed by the reaction of phosphorus and chlorine.

2P(s) + 3Cl2(g) → 2PCl3(s)

(a) (i) Calculate the maximum mass of phosphorus(III) chloride, PCl3, which could be
obtained from 93.0 g of phosphorus.

(3)

311
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Calculate the minimum volume of chlorine required to react completely with
93.0 g of phosphorus.
[One mole of gas occupies a volume of 24.0 dm3 under the conditions of the
experiment].

(2)

(iii) Identify the oxidising agent in the above reaction and explain your answer.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Draw a dot and cross diagram for a molecule of PCl3.

(2)

312
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Draw the predicted shape of a PCl3 molecule and mark on the diagram a value for
the bond angle.

(2)

(c) Suggest the name for the shape of the PCl4+ ion.

...............................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

313
SYNTAX ERROR
219. (a) State the type of bonding in the following substances and draw diagrams to illustrate their
3-dimensional structures.

Diamond

Bonding ..............................................................

Diagram

(3)

(b) Explain why sodium chloride conducts electricity when molten but not when solid.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

220. (a) (i) Write the ionic half-equation to show the oxidation of calcium, Ca, to calcium ions,
Ca2+.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

314
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Write the ionic half-equation to show the reduction of water to hydrogen, H2, and
hydroxide ions, OH–.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Combine the two ionic half-equations above to produce an equation which shows
the effect of adding calcium to water.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) State what you would expect to see when calcium is added to water.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) State the trend in solubility of the hydroxides of the Group 2 elements as the atomic
number increases.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Write an equation to show the reaction between sodium and chlorine, to produce sodium
chloride.

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

221. (a) Identify a halogen which, at room temperature, is:

a solid ....................................................................................................................................

a liquid ..................................................................................................................................

a gas ......................................................................................................................................
(3)

315
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Explain why the hydrogen halides, such as hydrogen chloride, HCl, are:

(i) water soluble

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) acidic in aqueous solution


....................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) By consideration of intermolecular forces, explain why the boiling temperature of


hydrogen fluoride, HF, is higher than that of hydrogen iodide, HI.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) Deduce the oxidation number of chlorine in the following:

ClO– ......................................................................................................................

ClO3– ......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

222. 2-bromopropane, CH3CHBrCH3, can react with hydroxide ions, OH–, to produce either
propan-2-ol, CH3CH(OH)CH3, or propene, CH2==CHCH3, depending on the conditions of the
reaction.

(i) Name the type of reaction, and give the required condition, for the conversion of
2-bromopropane into propan-2-ol.

Type of reaction ........................................................................................................

Condition ..................................................................................................................
(2)

316
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Name the type of reaction, and give the required conditions, for the conversion of
2-bromopropane into propene.

Type of reaction ...............................................................................................

Conditions ........................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

223. You are provided with the following apparatus and materials.

• A burette ready to use filled with a solution of aqueous sodium hydroxide.

• An aqueous solution of 0.0500 mol dm–3 ethanedioic acid.

• Phenolphthalein indicator.

• Access to the full range of laboratory volumetric apparatus.

317
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) Describe how you would carry out titrations to find the volume of sodium hydroxide that
reacts with 25.0 cm3 of the aqueous ethanedioic acid.

In your answer you must include how you would detect the end point and what you
would do to obtain a reliable result.

You do not need to include any details of calculations you may carry out on your results.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(6)

(b) The reaction involved in the titration is

(COOH)2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) → (COONa)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

25.0 cm3 of the aqueous 0.0500 mol dm–3 ethanedioic acid required 25.50 cm3 of the
aqueous sodium hydroxide for neutralisation.

318
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) Calculate the amount (moles) of ethanedioic acid in 25.0 cm3 of the solution.

(1)

(ii) Calculate the amount (moles) of sodium hydroxide in 25.50 cm3 of the solution.

(1)

(iii) Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution in mol dm–3.

(1)

319
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Calculate the mass of hydrated ethanedioic acid, (COOH)2.2H2O, needed to make up
200 cm3 of aqueous 0.0500 mol dm–3 solution. Give your answer to three significant
figures.

(3)

(d) When making up the solution of ethanedioic acid a student, by mistake, uses a 200 cm3
instead of a 250 cm3 volumetric flask. The student dissolves the mass of ethanedioic acid
crystals calculated to make up 250 cm3.

Explain what effect this would have on the student’s volume of sodium hydroxide
solution used in the titration.
[No calculation is required in your answer.]

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

320
SYNTAX ERROR
224. Ethanol is oxidised when it reacts with a mixture of reagent A and sulphuric acid. Using the
distillation apparatus shown in the diagram, the reaction may be used to prepare an aqueous
solution of ethanal. The reaction taking place is shown by the equation below, where [O]
represents the oxidising agent.

CH3CH2OH + [O] → CH3CHO + H2O

Data
Ethanal CH3CHO
• volatile liquid, boiling temperature 21 °C
• miscible with water
• flammable
• irritant, harmful vapour
• molar mass 44 g mol–1

Reagent A + water + ethanol

To fume
Aqueous cupboard
sulphuric acid

Ice/water
Heat

(a) Give the name or formula of reagent A.

...............................................................................................................................
(1)

321
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) The preparation is carried out by heating the flask until the aqueous sulphuric acid begins
to boil, removing the heat source and then adding the mixture from the separating funnel
slowly. The solution in the flask continues to boil.

(i) What conclusion can you make about the reaction in the flask based on the fact that
the solution continues to boil after the heat source is removed?

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Describe how the condenser converts hot vapour into liquid.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Suggest a reason for surrounding the collection flask with an ice/water mixture.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Suggest a reason for the tube leading to the fume cupboard.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

322
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Calculate the mass of ethanal that would be formed from 5.0 g of ethanol, assuming a
40 % yield.
[Molar mass of ethanol is 46 g mol–1]

(2)
(Total 7 marks)

225. Halogenoalkanes can be hydrolysed on heating with aqueous silver nitrate.

The reaction forms a halide ion, X–, which immediately reacts with aqueous silver nitrate to
form a precipitate.

The rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes can be compared by warming them with aqueous
silver nitrate and ethanol in separate test tubes in a water bath as shown in the diagram below.

Halogenoalkane, ethanol
and aqueous silver nitrate

Heated water bath

323
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) (i) Suggest why ethanol is added to the test tubes.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Write an ionic equation to show the reaction between silver nitrate and a halide ion.
Include state symbols in your equation.

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Suggest ONE reason why a water bath is used rather than heating the test tubes
directly over a Bunsen flame.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Describe how you would carry out the experiment in such a way that you can show that
the relative rate of hydrolysis of three halogenoalkanes is

2-iodobutane > 2-bromobutane > 2-chlorobutane

Include in your answer the observation you would make with each halogenoalkane and
the relative times for hydrolysis to take place.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 9 marks)

324
SYNTAX ERROR
226. Butan-1-ol, a primary alcohol, can be oxidised to form the aldehyde, butanal.

(a) Give the name or formula of an oxidising agent used in this reaction and of the other
reagent required.

Oxidising Agent

.....................................................................................................................................

Other Reagent

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) A possible by-product of this reaction is butanoic acid, CH3CH2CH2CO2H, which is


classified as a weak acid.

Explain what is meant by a weak acid.

Acid ............................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

Weak ...........................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

227. (a) Propan-1-ol can be dehydrated to produce propene gas.

(i) Draw the displayed formula of propan-1-ol.

(1)

325
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) One method used to dehydrate propan-1-ol uses a solid catalyst.

Draw a fully labelled diagram of the apparatus used to prepare and collect propene
gas. Name the solid catalyst.

(4)

(b) Propan-1-ol reacts with sodium to produce an ionic compound and hydrogen gas.

(i) Name the ionic compound formed.

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) When carrying out this reaction, a student collected 48 cm3 of hydrogen gas at
room temperature and pressure. Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen
molecules collected.
[Molar volume is 24 000 cm3 mol–1 at room temperature and pressure]

(1)

(c) Propan-1-ol can be partially oxidised to produce the aldehyde, propanal.


Some alcohols can be oxidised to produce ketones.

(i) Write the structural formula and give the name of the alcohol that can be oxidised
to produce the ketone, propanone.

Formula ............................................................................................................

Name ................................................................................................................
(2)

326
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Describe what you would expect to see if propanal and propanone were separately
warmed with Benedict’s solution.

Propanal

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

Propanone

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

228. The foot and mouth virus affects farm animals such as cattle and sheep. One of the
recommended disinfectants used to try to prevent foot and mouth disease from spreading is
sodium carbonate solution.

(a) The sodium carbonate solution is used to disinfect footwear because it is alkaline and the
virus cannot survive if exposed to a pH greater than 9.

Suggest ONE reason why the disinfectant may not destroy all of the virus present on
footwear.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

327
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) One method that could be used to determine the concentration of a solution of sodium
carbonate is to titrate it with hydrochloric acid of known concentration.

A 25.0 cm3 sample of sodium carbonate solution was titrated using 1.00 mol dm–3
hydrochloric acid to determine its concentration. 42.0 cm3 of acid was needed to
neutralise the sodium carbonate solution. The indicator used to find the end-point was
methyl orange.

(i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between a solution of sodium carbonate
and hydrochloric acid, including appropriate state symbols.

(2)

(ii) What piece of apparatus should you use to add the hydrochloric acid?

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) State the colour of the indicator:

in sodium carbonate solution ............................................................................

at the end-point of the titration. ........................................................................


(2)

(c) (i) Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid added to the sodium carbonate
solution.

(1)

(ii) Use your answer from (c)(i) and your equation from (b)(i) to work out the number
of moles of sodium carbonate in the 25.0 cm3 sample.

(1)

328
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Use your answer from (c)(ii) to work out the concentration, in mol dm–3, of the
sodium carbonate solution.

(1)
(Total 9 marks)

229. In the manufacture of beer, brewers often add small amounts of salts of Group 2 elements to the
water used. These salts influence the chemical reactions during the brewing process.
Two such salts are calcium sulphate and magnesium sulphate.

(a) A flame test can be used to confirm that a sample of a salt contains calcium ions.

(i) Describe how you would carry out a flame test.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) A positive test results in a brick-red flame colour. Describe the changes that occur
in calcium ions to produce a colour.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(2)

329
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Impurities in the salt may lead to other colours being observed in the flame.
What metal ion is likely to be present if a yellow flame is seen?

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Magnesium sulphate can be used in its anhydrous form, MgSO4(s), or in its hydrated
form, MgSO4.7H2O(s).

An experiment was carried out to find the enthalpy change when hydrated magnesium
sulphate dissolved completely in water.

MgSO4.7H2O(s) excess
  water
 → MgSO4(aq) + 7H2O(l)

12.3 g of hydrated magnesium sulphate was added to 100 g of water in a simple


calorimeter and the temperature was found to fall by 1.1 °C.

(i) Calculate the energy change, in joules, that occurred in the experiment, using the
relationship

Energy change (J) = 4.18 × mass of water × temperature change

(2)

(ii) Calculate the number of moles of hydrated magnesium sulphate used in the
experiment. Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.

(2)

330
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Use your answers to (i) and (ii) to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction.
Include a sign and units in your final answer, which should be given to 2
significant figures.

(2)

(c) The enthalpy change as hydrated magnesium sulphate is converted to anhydrous


magnesium sulphate is very difficult to measure. The Hess Cycle below can be used to
find this enthalpy change, ΔHr.

(i) Use the cycle to write an expression for ΔHr using ΔH1 and ΔH2.

(1)

(ii) Use your expression in (c)(i) and your answer from (b)(iii) to calculate ΔHr.

Include a sign and units in your final answer, which should be given to 2
significant figures.

(2)
(Total 15 marks)

331
SYNTAX ERROR
230. Iodine is obtained from three sources: sea water, seaweed and nitrate ores.

(a) (i) Sea water containing iodide ions is concentrated, and then chlorine gas is bubbled
through the solution.

Write the balanced ionic equation, including state symbols, for the reaction
between chlorine gas and iodide ions.

(2)

(ii) What is the final colour of the solution at the end of this reaction?

.............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) In nitrate ores, iodine occurs in the form of iodate ions, IO 3– .

The first step of the process to extract iodine involves reaction of iodate ions with sulphur
dioxide gas to form iodide ions and sulphate ions, SO 24− .

(i) State the oxidation number of iodine in

iodide ions, I− ....................................................................................................

iodate ions, IO 3– ................................................................................................


(1)

(ii) State the oxidation number of sulphur in

sulphur dioxide, SO2 ........................................................................................

sulphate ions, SO 24− ..........................................................................................


(1)

(iii) Balance the ionic equation for the reaction between iodate ions and sulphur dioxide
gas to produce iodide ions and sulphate ions.

IO 3– (aq) + .......SO2(g) + .......H2O(l) → I−(aq) + ....... SO 24− (aq) + .......H+(aq)


(2)

332
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) The next step is to add a small quantity of a solution containing iodate ions. These
react with the iodide ions present to form an iodine solution.

Iodine can be extracted from this solution by the addition of a hydrocarbon solvent
and separation of the hydrocarbon solution using a separating funnel.

Draw a diagram of a separating funnel and its contents. Indicate which is the
hydrocarbon layer and state its colour. [Density of the hydrocarbon is
0.660 g cm−3]

Colour of hydrocarbon layer .............................................................................


(3)

(ii) How might solid iodine be obtained from the hydrocarbon layer?

............................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 11 marks)

231. The industrial processes involved in the production of poly(chloroethene) are summarised in the
flow chart:

ethane → ethene → 1,2-dichloroethane → chloroethene → poly(chloroethene)

(a) (i) Ethane is converted to ethene by dehydrogenation.

Write a balanced equation, including state symbols, for this equilibrium reaction.

(1)

333
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why conditions of high pressure are less favourable for ethene production.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) Draw a labelled diagram of an ethene molecule, showing the electron density distribution
in the σ and π bonds between the carbon atoms.

(2)

(c) Give a chemical test which would distinguish between ethane and ethene.

State the result of your test with ethene.

Test ..............................................................................................................................

Result ...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) 1,2-dichloroethane is formed from ethene by reaction with chlorine.

State the type and mechanism of this reaction.

Type ...................................................................................................................................

Mechanism .........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

334
SYNTAX ERROR
232. Phosphine, PH3, is a hydride of the Group 5 element, phosphorus.

(a) (i) Draw a ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram of a phosphine molecule. You should include only
outer shell electrons.

(1)

(ii) Draw the shape you would expect for the phosphine molecule, suggesting a value
for the HPH bond angle.

HPH bond angle .......................................................................................................


(2)

(iii) Explain the shape of the phosphine molecule you have given in your answer in (ii).

Justify your value for the HPH bond angle.

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Write a balanced equation, including state symbols, for the atomisation of
phosphine gas.

.............................................................................................................................
(1)

335
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Use your answer to (i) and the data below to calculate the standard enthalpy change
of atomisation of phosphine at 298 K. Include a sign and units in your answer.

ΔHοf[PH3(g)] =+ 5.4 kJ mol−1

ΔHοat[½H2(g)] = +218.0 kJ mol−1

ΔHοat[P(s)] = +314.6 kJ mol−1

(3)

(iii) Calculate a value for the bond energy of the bond between phosphorus and
hydrogen, using your answer to (ii).

(1)
(Total 10 marks)

233. This question is about phosphine, PH3, and ammonia, NH3.

(a) Which compound has the stronger van der Waals forces?

Justify your answer.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

336
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) The boiling points of ammonia and phosphine are:

Ammonia 240 K
Phosphine 185 K

Name the intermolecular force responsible for the higher boiling point of ammonia.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Use displayed formulae to show this intermolecular bond between two ammonia
molecules.

Clearly mark and label the bond angle between the molecules.

(2)
(Total 4 marks)

234. The equation below shows a possible reaction for producing methanol.

CO(g) + 2H2(g) → CH3OH(l) ΔHο = −129 kJ mol–1

(a) The entropy of one mole of each substance in the equation, measured at 298 K, is shown
below.

Sο
Substance /J mol−1 K−1
CO(g) 197.6
H2(g) 130.6
CH3OH(l) 239.7

337
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) Suggest why methanol has the highest entropy value of the three substances.

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Calculate the entropy change of the system, ΔSοsystem, for this reaction.

(2)

(iii) Is the sign of ΔSοsystem as expected? Give a reason for your answer.

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Calculate the entropy change of the surroundings ΔSοsurroundings, at 298 K.

(2)

338
SYNTAX ERROR
(v) Show, by calculation, whether it is possible for this reaction to occur spontaneously
at 298 K.

(2)

(b) When methanol is produced in industry, this reaction is carried out at 400 ºC and 200
atmospheres pressure, in the presence of a catalyst of chromium oxide mixed with zinc
oxide. Under these conditions methanol vapour forms and the reaction reaches
equilibrium. Assume that the reaction is still exothermic under these conditions.

CO(g) + 2H2(g) CH3OH(g)

(i) Suggest reasons for the choice of temperature and pressure.

Temperature ........................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................

Pressure ...............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) The catalyst used in this reaction is heterogeneous. Explain this term.

.............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................
(1)

339
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Write an expression for the equilibrium constant in terms of pressure, Kp, for this
reaction.

CO(g) + 2H2(g) CH3OH(g)

(1)

(iv) In the equilibrium mixture at 200 atmospheres pressure, the partial pressure of
carbon monoxide is 55 atmospheres and the partial pressure of hydrogen is 20
atmospheres.

Calculate the partial pressure of methanol in the mixture and hence the value of the
equilibrium constant, Kp. Include a unit in your answer.

(2)

(c) The diagram below shows the distribution of energy in a sample of gas molecules in a
reaction when no catalyst is present. The activation energy for the reaction is EA.

340
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) What does the shaded area on the graph represent?

.............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Draw a line on the graph, labelled EC, to show the activation energy of the
catalysed reaction.
(1)
(Total 17 marks)

235. (a) Complete the electronic configurations of the following noble gases.

(i) Neon: 1s2 .....................................................................................................


(1)

(ii) Krypton: 1s2 .................................................................................................


(1)

(b) Explain whether krypton or neon has the higher boiling temperature.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(2)

341
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) A mass spectrometer can be used to analyse a sample of a certain element.

Explain how each of the following is achieved in a mass spectrometer.

(i) Ionisation: .....................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Acceleration: .................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Deflection: ....................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

236. (a) A 2.20 g sample of potassium nitrate, KNO3, was dissolved in water to produce 50.0 cm3
of potassium nitrate solution.

Calculate the concentration of this solution in mol dm–3.

(2)

342
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) A 2.20 g sample of potassium nitrate was heated strongly and the following reaction
occurred.

2KNO3(s) → 2KNO2(s) + O2(g)

(i) Calculate the mass of potassium nitrite, KNO2, produced.

(2)

(ii) Calculate the volume of oxygen gas produced.

(One mole of gas occupies a volume of 24.0 dm3 under the conditions of the
experiment).

343
SYNTAX ERROR
(2)

(c) State and explain the trend in the thermal stability of the nitrates of Group I as the atomic
number increases.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(3)

(d) An analysis of a potassium compound gave the following results.

Element Percentage by mass


potassium 56.5%
carbon 8.7%
oxygen 34.8%

Deduce the empirical formula of this compound.

(3)
(Total 12 marks)

344
SYNTAX ERROR
237. (a) Deduce the oxidation number of iodine in the following species.

(i) I2O7 .............................................................................................................................


(1)

(ii) IO −4 ..............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Iodine, I2, can be reduced to iodide ions, I–, by tin(II) ions, Sn2+, which are themselves
oxidised to tin(IV) ions, Sn4+.

(i) Construct the oxidation and reduction half-equations for the above system.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Use the above half-equations to construct the overall ionic equation for the
reaction.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

238. (a) Define the term oxidising agent in terms of electron transfer, and suggest which element
in Group 7 is the strongest oxidising agent.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(2)

345
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Chlorine can react with hydroxide ions to produce chloride ions, chlorate(l) ions and
water.

(i) Write the ionic equation for this reaction. There is no need to include state
symbols.

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) What type of reaction is taking place in (b)(i)?

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) (i) Write an equation for the reaction between concentrated sulphuric acid and solid
sodium chloride.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) State ONE observation that you would make.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Draw the shapes of the following molecules, and mark on the diagram the value of the
bond angles in each case.

(i) BCl3

(2)

346
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) PCl5

(3)
(Total 12 marks)

239. (a) State the meaning of the following terms:

(i) electrophile;

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) free radical;

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) nucleophile.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

347
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Classify the following reactions:

(i) chloroethane with aqueous sodium hydroxide;

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) ethane with chlorine;

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) ethene with hydrogen bromide.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

240. (a) (i) Draw a diagram to represent the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular
energies at a temperature T.

(2)

348
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Catalysts are used in the exhausts of modem motor cars to speed up the reaction
between polluting gases (carbon monoxide, CO, and dinitrogen oxide, N2O) before
they reach the end of the exhaust pipe.

Use the diagram in (a)(i) to explain how the catalyst achieves this.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(4)

(b) State ONE other method of increasing the rate of the reaction between two gases in
general. Explain how the collision theory supports your suggested method.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

349
SYNTAX ERROR
241. A laboratory technician is given the task of making up 5 dm3 of aqueous sodium hydroxide of
concentration 0.100 mol dm–3. The technician finds the following data on sodium hydroxide.

Formula NaOH
Soluble in water
Solid which absorbs moisture and acidic gases from the air
Solid is corrosive
Reacts with acids in aqueous solution
e.g. 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(i)

The technician prepares the solution and checks its concentration, following the procedure
outlined below.

I The technician calculates the mass of sodium hydroxide needed to make 5 dm3 of
0.100 mol dm–3 solution.

11 The technician adds 5 dm3 of water to a plastic bucket.

III The technician weighs the calculated mass of sodium hydroxide, transfers it to the
plastic bucket and stirs until the sodium hydroxide has dissolved.

IV The technician titrates 25.0 cm3 samples of the sodium hydroxide solution with
0.0500 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid.

V The mean titre is 23.50 cm3 of 0.0500 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid.

(a) Calculate the mass of sodium hydroxide that the technician needs to take, to make 5 dm3
of solution of concentration 0.100 mol dm–3.

(2)

350
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm3, of the sodium hydroxide solution from the
titration results in IV and V.

(3)

(c) The actual concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution is not exactly 0.100 mol dm–3
as the technician intended.

(i) Suggest ONE reason for this, which is a consequence of the way in which the
technician makes up the solution.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Suggest ONE reason for this, which is a consequence of the chemical properties of
the sodium hydroxide.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) (i) Explain the meaning of the term corrosive as applied to solid sodium hydroxide.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

351
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Suggest a safety precaution that the technician should take (apart from wearing a
laboratory coat and eye protection) when weighing out the sodium hydroxide.

......................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

242. The alcohol 2-methylpropan-1-ol, CH3CH(CH3)CH2OH, may be converted into a number of


other organic compounds in reactions which are carried out using simple laboratory techniques.
The apparatus shown below is used in two of these techniques.

Apparatus I Apparatus II

Heat
Heat

The table below summarises two conversions of 2-methylpropan-1-ol.

Organic product of conversion Reagents Apparatus used in


conversion
1-bromo-2-methylpropane Sodium bromide + sulphuric I and II
CH3CH(CH3)CH2Br acid
2-methylpropanal sodium dichromate(VI) + II
CH3CH(CH3)CHO sulphuric acid

352
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) Give the name of the practical technique carried out in each apparatus shown above.

Apparatus I ..............................................................................................................

Apparatus II .............................................................................................................
(2)

(b) The conversion of 2-methylpropan-1-ol into 1-bromo-2-methylpropane is summarised


below.

Na 2 Br + H 2SO 4
CH3CH(CH3)CH2OH   → CH3CH(CH3)CH2Br

(i) Calculate the maximum mass of 1-bromo-2-methylpropane that would be formed


from 3.70 g of 2-methylpropan-l-ol.

[Molar mass of 1-bromo-2-methylpropane = 137 g mol–1; Molar mass of


2-methylpropan-1-ol = 74 g mol–1]

(2)

(ii) In a conversion, the actual yield of 1-bromo-2-methylpropane is 4.60 g.


Calculate the percentage yield in this conversion.

(1)

353
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) When carrying out the conversion, the reagents are heated in Apparatus I for one
hour. What does this suggest about the reaction?

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) After one hour, the contents of the flask in Apparatus I are allowed to cool, then
transferred to Apparatus II and heated until the pure product collects. How could
Apparatus II be used to check the purity of the product?

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) When 2-methylpropan-l-ol is heated with sodium dichromate(VI) and sulphuric acid in
Apparatus II, it is converted to 2-methylpropanal.

(i) Describe the colour change observed in the reaction flask.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Explain why a different organic product forms if 2-methylpropan-1-ol is heated


with sodium dichromate(VI) and sulphuric acid in Apparatus 1.

......................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Explain how the use of Apparatus II avoids the formation of this different product.

......................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

354
SYNTAX ERROR
243. (a) Draw a ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram for a magnesium ion.

Show ALL the electrons present and give the charge on this ion.

(2)

(b) Why do salts containing magnesium ions give no colour in a flame test?

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

244. An alcohol, X, has the molecular formula C4H10O.

(a) X reacts with sodium, forming bubbles of a colourless gas.

Write a balanced equation for the reaction.

(2)

(b) When X is heated under reflux with a mixture of sodium dichromate(VI) solution and
concentrated sulphuric acid, a green solution forms.

(i) Give the formula of the ion responsible for the green colour of the solution.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

355
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus used to reflux the mixture.

(3)

(iii) A colourless organic liquid, Y, is distilled from the green solution.

This liquid will not neutralise sodium carbonate solution, and it will not react with
Benedict’s solution.

Draw the displayed formula of Y and state its name.

Displayed formula

Name ....................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv) Deduce the structural formula of X.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

356
SYNTAX ERROR
245. The flow chart below shows some of the reactions of alcohols, alkanes, alkenes and
halogenoalkanes.

(a) Compound A, C4H9Cl, is a tertiary halogenoalkane.

Draw the displayed formula for A and state its name.

Displayed formula

Name ..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) The halogenoalkane A can be formed from the alcohol D.

(i) What reagent could be used to bring about this reaction? ...............................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) State the type and mechanism of this reaction.

Type ................................................................................................................

Mechanism ......................................................................................................
(2)

357
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) When Ais heated with concentrated, alcoholic potassium hydroxide, only one alkene, B,
can be formed.

(i) Draw the displayed formula for B and state its name.

Displayed formula

Name ................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Can B exist as geometric isomers? Explain your answer.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) State the type of reaction in the conversion of

B to C .........................................................................................................................

B to E ..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(e) Draw the displayed formula for E.

(1)
(Total 11 marks)

358
SYNTAX ERROR
246. This question is about a mixture, M, which contains 80% of potassium bromide, KBr,
and 20% of potassium chloride, KCl, by mass.

(a) When concentrated sulphuric acid was added to mixture M and the mixture gently
warmed, four different gases were given off.

(i) What would happen to moist universal indicator paper when held in this mixture of
gases?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What would you see if a glass rod, dipped into concentrated ammonia solution, was
held in these gases?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Which of these gases would be responsible for turning potassium dichromate(VI)
solution from orange to green?

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) What would you see when silver nitrate solution is added to a solution of mixture
M?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) After adding silver nitrate solution to a solution of mixture M in (b)(i),


concentrated ammonia solution is added.

What would you see? Justify your answer.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)

359
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) The graph below shows how the solubilities of potassium bromide and potassium
chloride vary with temperature.

120

Solubility Potassium bromide


in 100
water
/g per 100 g
of water
80

60
Potassium chloride

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Temperature / ºC

(i) What is meant by a saturated solution?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)

360
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) 125 g of mixture M, containing 80% KBr and 20% KCl by mass, was added to
100 g of boiling water to make a solution.

Calculate the masses of KBr and KCl present in mixture M.

Use your calculation and the graph to predict which crystals will form on cooling
to 20 °C, and what will be left in the solution.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

247. This question is about the compounds of Group 6 elements with hydrogen.

The table below shows some of the boiling points and molar masses of these hydrides.

Hydride Boiling point /K Mass of 1 mole /g


Water, H2O –– 18
Hydrogen sulphide, H2S 212 34
Hydrogen selenide, H2Se 232 ––
Hydrogen telluride, H2Te 271 130

(a) What is the mass of one mole of hydrogen selenide, H2Se?


Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.

(1)

361
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Plot a graph of the boiling points of the three hydrides H2S, H2Se, and H2Te
against their molar masses.

300

250

Temperature
/K

200

150

20 40 60 80 100 120
Mass of 1 mole / g
(2)

362
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Why do the boiling points of these hydrides increase as the molar mass increases?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) (i) Use your graph to predict the boiling point of water if it were to follow the pattern
of the other three hydrides.

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What causes the boiling point of water to be 373 K, rather than your answer in (i)?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Explain why this arises in water and not in the other hydrides.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Give the names of TWO other hydrides which, like water, have boiling points
higher than you would expect.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)

363
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) Give TWO properties of water, other than high melting and boiling points, which are
brought about by the strong intermolecular forces between water molecules.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

248. (a) State and explain the trend in the boiling temperatures of the noble gases.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) The graph below shows the melting temperatures of the elements of Period 3 of the
Periodic Table, sodium to argon, plotted against atomic number.

1800
melting temperature / K

1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
element

364
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) Identify one of the elements above that is composed of simple molecules at room
temperature.

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Silicon has a giant atomic structure. Explain how this structure results in the high
melting temperature shown on the graph.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Explain why the melting temperature of magnesium is higher than that of sodium.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

249. Consider the following equations

A Cl2 + 2I– → I2 + 2Cl–

B Cl2 + 2Br– → Br2 + 2Cl–

C 3ClO– → ClO3– + 2Cl–

365
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) From these equations identify

a species acting as a reducing agent in equation B.

...............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Describe what you would see when the reaction in A occurs.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) (i) Define disproportionation.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Select one of the equations above as an example of disproportionation and show,
by the use of oxidation numbers, how this reaction fits the definition.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

366
SYNTAX ERROR
250. (a) State the shape of a water molecule and explain why it has this shape.

Shape .....................................................................................................................

Explanation ............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Predict the shape of the H3O+ ion and draw a diagram to illustrate its shape.

Shape ....................................................................................................................

Diagram

(2)

(c) (i) Use water as an example to explain what is meant by the term hydrogen bond.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)

367
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) State the difference in density between solid ice and liquid water and describe how
the presence of hydrogen bonds accounts for this.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

251. (a) Calcium and magnesium react vigorously with dilute hydrochloric acid but with dilute
sulphuric acid the calcium stops reacting even though the magnesium continues.

(i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between magnesium metal and dilute
hydrochloric acid. Include all state symbols.

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Calcium reacts slightly more vigorously than magnesium with dilute hydrochloric
acid. Suggest, in terms of atomic structure, why this is so.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

368
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Suggest why calcium stops reacting with dilute sulphuric acid after a few seconds
even though it did react initially.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Write balanced chemical equations for the thermal decomposition of potassium
nitrate and calcium nitrate. Do not include state symbols.

Potassium nitrate

......................................................................................................................
(1)

Calcium nitrate

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) State the relative thermal stability of potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate and
explain how it is related to the sizes and charges of the ions involved.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 14 marks)

369
SYNTAX ERROR
252. (a) Halogenoalkanes react with many nucleophiles.

Define the term nucleophile.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Identify the reagent and conditions necessary for the conversion of iodoethane to
ethylamine, C2H5NH2.

Reagent:.........................................................................................................

Conditions:.....................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) State why the rate of reaction would be slower if bromobutane were used in place
of iodoethane, with all other conditions remaining the same.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(1)

370
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Iodoethane reacts with water to form ethanol and hydrogen iodide.

C2H5I + H2O → C2H5OH + HI ∆Hf = +36 kJ mol–1

Use some or all of the data below to calculate the CI bond enthalpy.

Bond Bond enthalpy Bond Bond enthalpy


/ kJ mol–1 / kJ mol–1
CH 413 HI 298
CC 347 CO 358
HO 464

(3)

(d) Ethanol was heated under reflux with an excess of a mixture of potassium dichromate(VI)
and dilute sulphuric acid. Draw the full structural formnula of the organic product.

(1)
(Total 10 marks)

371
SYNTAX ERROR
253. A 1.62 g sample of impure sodium carbonate was dissolved in distilled water and then made up
to 250 cm3. 25.0 cm3 of this solution was put into a conical flask and three drops of methyl
orange indicator added. This was titrated against a 0.105 mol dm–3 solution of hydrochloric acid
until the end point was reached. The titration was repeated three more times. The results are
shown below.

1 2 3 4
Burette reading (final) 25.30 25.30 25.85 25.95
Burette reading (at start) 0.00 0.50 0.75 1.25
Titre/cm3 25.30 24.80 25.10 24.70

The equation for the reaction is:

Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2

(a) (i) The student was supplied with a burette that may not have been clean. What
precautions should be taken before filling it with the standard hydrochloric acid
solution?

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Describe the colour change that tells when the end point has been reached.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) (i) Select the appropriate titres and calculate their mean.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................
(2)

372
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Calculate the amount (in moles) of hydrochloric acid solution in the mean titre.

(1)

(iii) Calculate the amount (in moles) of pure sodium carbonate in 25.0 cm3 of solution.

(1)

(iv) Calculate the amount (in moles) of pure sodium carbonate in 250 cm3 of solution.

(1)

(v) Calculate the mass of pure sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, taken.

(2)

373
SYNTAX ERROR
(vi) Calculate the percentage purity of the sample of sodium carbonate.

(1)
(Total 12 marks)

254. (a) Cyclohexanol and hexan-1-ol are both alcohols containing 6 carbon atoms per molecule.

(i) Draw the displayed formula of each alcohol.

cyclohexanol hexan-1-ol
(2)

(ii) Explain why cyclohexanol and hexan-1-ol are not isomers.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) State whether each of the two alcohols is a primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol.

Cyclohexanol ....................................................................................................

Hexan-1-ol ........................................................................................................
(2)

374
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) Hexan-1-ol was heated gently with a mixture of potassium dichromate and
sulphuric acid. The product of the reaction was distilled off as it formed.

Give the structural formula of the product and name it.

Name .................................................................................................................
(2)

(v) The reaction in (iv) was repeated using cyclohexanol. The products which were
distilled off from each of the two alcohols contain different functional groups.

State a test to distinguish between these functional groups and give the result in
each case.

Test ..................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

Result with the product from hexan-1-ol .........................................................

..........................................................................................................................

Result with the product from cyclohexanol .....................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Cyclohexanol can be converted to cyclohexene.

(i) What type of reaction is this?

............................................................................................................................
(1)

375
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Draw a fully labelled diagram of the laboratory apparatus, including the chemicals,
which you would use to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexene and collect the
liquid cyclohexene which forms.

(4)

(iii) Describe how you would obtain a dry sample of cyclohexene from the liquid
collected.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 17 marks)

255. (a) (i) Strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH)2, is one of the products formed when strontium reacts
with water.

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of strontium with water.

(2)

376
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why strontium is described as being oxidised in this reaction.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) An experiment was carried out to measure the solubility of strontium hydroxide.
Solid strontium hydroxide was added to water until a layer of solid remained on the base
of the container. The mixture was then left overnight. 25.0 cm3 portions of strontium
hydroxide solution were then measured by pipette and titrated with a
0.100 mol dm–3 solution of nitric acid. 16.9 cm3 of the nitric acid was needed to react
with the strontium hydroxide in the solution.

The equation for the reaction is

Sr(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) → Sr(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

(i) Why was the mixture left overnight before carrying out the titration?

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Calculate the number of moles of nitric acid used in the titration.

(1)

(iii) Calculate the number of moles of strontium hydroxide in 1 dm3 of the solution.

(2)

377
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) Calculate the solubility of strontium hydroxide in g dm–3.
Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.

(2)

(c) (i) Crystals of hydrated strontium nitrate have the formula Sr(NO3)2.4H2O.

How would you make a dry sample of hydrated strontium nitrate crystals from a
solution of pure strontium nitrate?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) Hydrated strontium nitrate crystals decompose when heated.


Complete and balance the equation for the reaction.

2Sr(NO3)2.4H2O(s) → ..........H2O(l) + .......... SrO(s) + .......... NO2 (g) + ................


(2)

378
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) A 0.5 mol dm–3 solution of strontium nitrate was mixed with a 0.5 mol dm–3
solution of potassium sulphate, K2SO4.

Write an equation for the reaction which occurs. Add state symbols to the equation,
using the data below.

Solubility
mol/1000 g water

KNO3 3.75
SrSO4 7.11 × 10–4

(2)
(Total 16 marks)

256. (a) A few crystals of potassium bromide were dissolved in water in a test tube. A few
drops of aqueous chlorine solution were then added and a colour change was observed.

(i) What colour are potassium bromide crystals?

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What colour was the solution after the chlorine solution had been added?

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction of bromide ions with chlorine
solution.
Do not include spectator ions in your equation.

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) What would you expect to see if the contents of the test tube were shaken with a
small quantity of a hydrocarbon solvent and then allowed to settle?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)

379
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) (i) Hydrogen bromide can be made by bubbling hydrogen sulphide gas into liquid
bromine.
The equation for the reaction is:

2H2S(g) + 3Br2(l) → 4HBr(g) + S2Br2(l)

Two elements show changes in oxidation number during this reaction.


Identify these elements, stating their original and final oxidation numbers.

First element.......................................

Initial oxidation number.............. Final oxidation number .........................

Second element ..................................

Initial oxidation number.............. Final oxidation number .........................


(3)

(ii) The equation shows that 2 moles of hydrogen sulphide molecules react with 3
moles of bromine molecules. Show how your answers to (i) agree with this ratio.

(1)

(c) The boiling points of three hydrogen halides are given in the following table:

Boiling point
Compound /K
HF 293
HBr 206
HI 238

(i) Explain why hydrogen iodide has a higher boiling point than hydrogen bromide.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)

380
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain why hydrogen fluoride has a higher boiling point than either hydrogen
bromide or hydrogen iodide.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Predict the boiling point, in K, of hydrogen chloride.


Justify your prediction.

Predicted boiling point.........................

Justification ......................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

257. This question is concerned with alkenes including ethene and buta-1,3-diene,
CH2 = CHCH = CH2.

(a) (i) The typical reactions of alkenes are addition reactions, for example their reactions
with bromine.

Explain why the reaction of ethene with bromine is described as an addition


reaction.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Why should this reaction be carried out in the absence of sunlight or ultra-violet
radiation?

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

381
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Explain how, in this reaction, the bromine molecule is able to act as an
electrophile, even though it is normally non-polar.

(2)

(b) (i) When 1 mole of bromine molecules is added to 1 mole of buta-1,3-diene, the
principal product is 1,4-dibromobut-2-ene, CH2BrCH = CHCH2Br, a compound
which exists as two geometric isomers.

Draw the displayed formulae of both of these two isomers.

(2)

(ii) State why geometric isomerism is possible in 1,4-dibromobut-2-ene.


[You may find it helpful to refer to the formulae you have drawn above].

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

382
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) It has been suggested that cyclohexene, another alkene, could be made by a reaction
between ethene and buta-1,3-diene.

Using molecular formulae, the reaction could be represented by the equation

C2H4(g) + C4H6(g) C6H10(l) ΔH = –200 kJ mol–1

(i) Draw the displayed formula of cyclohexene.

(1)

(ii) Decide whether high or low temperature and pressure would give the higher
proportion of cyclohexene at equilibrium. Justify your choice in each case.

Temperature .....................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

Pressure ............................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

383
SYNTAX ERROR
258. This question is concerned with hydrogen cyanide, HCN.

(a) (i) Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram for a molecule of hydrogen cyanide, showing outer
shell electrons only.

(1)

(ii) Predict the numerical value of the bond angle in hydrogen cyanide.
Justify your prediction.

Bond angle ........................................................................................................

Justification .......................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) Write a balanced equation for the combustion of hydrogen cyanide in oxygen, assuming
that the products are water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

(1)

384
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Hydrogen cyanide is an extremely toxic, volatile liquid that is used to make useful
compounds, such as ‘Perspex’. Do you think it is acceptable for it to be used in this way?

Justify your answer.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) The standard enthalpy change of formation, ΔHfο, for gaseous hydrogen cyanide,
HCN(g), is +110 kJ mol–1.

The standard molar enthalpy changes of atomisation of hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen are
given below, in kJ mol–1.

ΔHοat/kJ mol–1

½H2(g) → H(g) + 218


C(s, graphite) → C(g) + 717
1
2
N2(g) → N(g) + 473

The C–H bond energy in hydrogen cyanide is + 413 kJ mol–1.

This information can be represented on a Hess cycle in the following way, and then used
to calculate a bond energy.

385
SYNTAX ERROR
(i) Insert formulae, showing the correct quantities of each element, into the
appropriate boxes.
(2)

(ii) Insert arrows between the boxes and write the correct numerical data alongside the
appropriate arrows.
(2)

(iii) Use the cycle to calculate ΔHοat[HCN(g)] and then the carbon to nitrogen bond
energy in hydrogen cyanide.

(1)
(Total 10 marks)

259. One of the most important industrial uses of chlorine is in the production of poly(chloroethene),
usually called PVC. A sequence of reactions used to make PVC is set out below.

386
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) (i) Name compound A.

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Give the structural formula of chloroethene.

(1)

(iii) It is important that hydrogen chloride gas is not allowed to escape into the
atmosphere.

Suggest a way in which its escape could be prevented.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) Chloroethene is polymerised by a reaction involving free radicals. Explain what is
meant by a free radical.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Give a necessary condition for the production of free radicals.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

387
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) Ethane-1,2-diol, CH2OHCH2OH, is a useful compound which could be made from
compound A using a nucleophilic substitution reaction.

Suggest a suitable nucleophile for this reaction.

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) The diagram below shows part of the formula of compound A. Use the diagram to
show how your suggested nucleophile attacks A.

C Cl

(2)

(iii) What is the leaving group in this reaction?

..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) Suggest a suitable chemical test you could use to confirm the identity of this
leaving group.

You should state the reagent you would use and give the observation expected.

..........................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

388
SYNTAX ERROR
260. (a) State the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in a 7 Li+ ion.
3

protons: ……………… neutrons: ……………… electrons: ………………


(3)

(b) The mass spectrum of lithium shows two peaks. Their mass/charge ratios and
percentage abundance are shown below.

Mass/charge % Abundance

6.02 7.39

7.02 92.61

Calculate the relative atomic mass of lithium, giving your answer to three
significant figures.

(2)

(c) Describe a test that you would do to distinguish between solid lithium chloride and
solid sodium chloride. Clearly state what you would do and what you would see with
both substances.

………….…………………………………………………………………………….

………….…………………………………………………………………………….

………….…………………………………………………………………………….

………….…………………………………………………………………………….
(3)
(Total 8.marks)

389
SYNTAX ERROR
261. Nitrogen and phosphorus are in the same group of the Periodic Table. Phosphorus and hydrogen
form the compound phosphine, PH3, and nitrogen and hydrogen form ammonia, NH3.

(a) (i) State the number of bond pairs and lone pairs of electrons in a molecule of
phosphine.

Bond pairs of electrons: ..................... Lone pairs of electrons: ....................


(2)

(ii) Use your answer to (i) to draw the shape of the molecule and indicate on your
diagram the approximate HPH bond angle that you would expect.

(2)

(b) The boiling temperature of ammonia is –33 °C and that of phosphine –88°C.

(i) List all the intermolecular forces that exist between molecules of ammonia.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)

(ii) Explain why the boiling temperature of phosphine is lower than that for ammonia.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)

390
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Ammonia forms a dative covalent bond with H+ ions to form the ammonium ion, NH4+.

(i) Explain what is meant by the term dative covalent bond.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)

(ii) What part of the ammonia molecule enables it to form such a bond?

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(iii) State and explain the shape of the ammonium ion, NH4+.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

262. (a) Bromine is a p-block element Define the term p-block element.

………….…………………………………………………………………………..

………….…………………………………………………………………………..
(1)

(b) (i) Give the colour and physical state of bromine at room temperature,

Colour ……………………… Physical state ……………..…………….


(2)

(ii) State what you would see when aqueous bromine is added to a solution of
potassium iodide.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

391
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Aqueous bromine will oxidise Fe2+ ions to Fe3+ ions.

(i) Write the ionic half-equation for the reduction of bromine to bromide ions.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(ii) Write the ionic half-equation for the oxidation of Fe2+ ions to Fe3+ ions.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(iii) Hence write the overall ionic equation for the reaction of Fe2+ ions with bromine.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(d) Chlorine and bromine react with aqueous sodium hydroxide in a similar way at
room temperature.

(i) Write the equation for the reaction of bromine with aqueous sodium hydroxide.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)

(ii) What type of reaction is this?

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(e) Potassium bromide, KBr, reacts with potassium bromate, KBrO3, in the presence of
dilute sulphuric acid to form bromine, potassium sulphate and water.

5KBr + KBrO3 + 3H2SO4 → 3Br2 + 3K2SO4 + 3H2O

(i) Give the oxidation numbers of bromine in

KBr ………………….. KBrO3 ……………….... Br2 .....…………………


(3)

392
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Which substance in this reaction is the oxidising agent? Give a reason for your
choice.

Substance: …………………………………………………………………….

Reason: ………………………………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)
(Total 15 marks)

263. (a) A compound Z has the composition (by mass) of 68.2% C, 13.6% H and 18.2% O.
It has a relative molecular mass of 88.

(i) Find the empirical formula of Z.

(3)

(ii) Deduce the molecular formula of Z.

(2)

(b) Compound Z is an alcohol, which can be tested for with phosphorus pentachloride,PCl5.

(i) Using the symbol ROH to represent compound Z, write an equation to show
how it reacts with PCl5.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)

(ii) What would you see as the test is performed?

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

393
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) (i) Draw a full structural formula for Z that is a branched-chain primary alcohol.

(2)

(ii) Draw the full structural formula of the compound that would be obtained if the
primary alcohol in (c) (i) were to be oxidised so that the product distils over as it
is formed.

(1)

(iii) Suggest a suitable oxidising mixture for the reaction in (c) (ii).

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)

(iv) State what type of organic compound would be formed if the reaction in
(c) (ii) were heated under reflux.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

394
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) If the alcohol Z is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, a gas Y is produced.
Gas Y reacts with bromine solution decolourising it.

(i) Draw the functional group present in Y.

(1)

(ii) Suggest a structure for a compound that could be produced from the reaction of
bromine with Y.

(2)
(Total 17 marks)

264. (a) The reactivity of organic compounds is related to their bonding. Ethane reacts very
slowly with bromine in the dark but rapidly in ultraviolet light; ethene reacts rapidly
with bromine even in the dark.

(i) What type of reaction is the reaction of bromine with ethane?

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

395
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) Explain the difference in the reactivity of ethane and ethene with bromine in terms
of the types of covalent bonding found in these two compounds.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(4)

(b) Halogenoalkanes such as CH3CH2CH2Br react with potassium hydroxide solution in


several ways depending on the conditions.

(i) Name the compound CH3CH2CH2Br.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(ii) Draw the structure of the compound obtained if CH3CH2CH2Br is reacted with
KOH in ethanolic solution.

(1)

(iii) Draw the structure of the substance obtained if CH3CH2CH2Br is reacted with
KOH in aqueous solution.

(1)

396
SYNTAX ERROR
(iv) What is the role of the hydroxide ion in the reaction in (iii)?

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(v) CH3CH2CH2Cl reacts much more slowly with aqueous KOH than
CH3CH2CH2Br does. Why is this?

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

265. 1-bromobutane (boiling temperature 102°C) maybe prepared from butan-l-ol (boiling
temperature 117 °C).

C4H9OH + NaBr + H2SO4 → C4H9Br + NaHSO4 + H2O

(a) The reagents are heated under reflux at 100 °C for about 45 minutes.
Draw a diagram of the apparatus that you would use for this procedure.

(4)

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SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Impure 1-bromobutane containing unreacted butan-l-ol can be extracted from the reaction
mixture from (a).

(i) Give the name of the practical technique that you would use to obtain a pure
sample of 1-bromobutane from the mixture with butan-l-ol.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(ii) Explain the relevance of the boiling temperatures 1-bromobutane and butan-l-ol to
the success of this technique.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)

(c) In a preparation of 1-bromobutane, 11.1 g of butan-l-ol gave 12.4 g of 1-bromobutane.

(i) Calculate the amount (number of moles) of butan-1-ol used in this preparation.

(2)

(ii) Calculate the mass of 1-bromobutane that would be formed if all the butan-l-ol was
converted into 1-bromobutane.

(2)

398
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) Calculate the % yield in this preparation to an appropriate number of significant
figures.

(1)

(iv) Suggest a reason why the yields in organic preparations seldom approach 100%.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)
(Total 13 marks)

266. (a) Write equations to show the reactions of the amino acid alanine, CH3CH(NH2)COOH,
with:

(i) HCl

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(ii) NaOH

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(1)

(b) Explain why alanine has a relatively high melting temperature (290 °C).

………….……………………...……………………………………………………..

………….……………………...……………………………………………………..

………….……………………...……………………………………………………..
(2)

399
SYNTAX ERROR
(c) Alanine exists as two optical isomers.

(i) Draw diagrams to show the structures of the two optical isomers.

(2)

(ii) Explain how separate pure samples of each optical isomer can be distinguished
from each other.

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..

………….……………….……………………………………………………..
(2)

(d) A mixture of isomeric alkenes is obtained when butan-2-ol is dehydrated.

(i) Draw diagrams to show the two structural isomers obtained when butan-2-ol
is dehydrated.

(2)

400
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) One of the above structural isomers can itself exist as two different stereoisomers.
Draw diagrams to clearly illustrate these two stereoisomers, and name this type of
stereoisomerism.

Type of stereoisomerism ……………………………………………………..

Diagrams

(3)
(Total 13 marks)

267. (a) Alkenes such as ethene will take part in homolytic, free radical addition reactions to form
polymers such as poly(ethene).

(i) Define the terms homolytic and free radical.


(2)

(ii) Draw a repeating unit of the polymer that would be made by the same mechanism
from phenylethene, C6H5CH=CH2.
(2)

(iii) Outline the difficulties involved in the disposal of polymers such as


poly(phenylethene) by combustion and by landfill.
(2)

(iv) State a property of poly(phenylethene) and suggest why this makes it


particularly useful.
(2)

401
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Ethene, C2H4, reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid by electrophilic addition of H+ and
HSO4– across the double bond to give CH3CH2OSO3H.

(i) Suggest a mechanism for this electrophilic addition reaction.


(3)

(ii) Describe a simple chemical test to confirm that the carbon-carbon double bond is
not present in the product.
(2)

(c) (i) Use the concepts of the different types of covalent bonds and bond enthalpy to
explain the structure of the benzene ring.
(5)

(ii) Explain why benzene normally reacts by electrophilic substitution rather than by
electrophilic addition.
(2)
(Total 20 marks)

268. Two important nitrogen compounds are ammonium nitrate and nitrogen(I) oxide.

These substances can be prepared as shown by the following reactions.

Reaction A NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq)  


→ NH4NO3(aq)

Reaction B NH4NO3(s) → N2O(g) + 2H2O(g)


heat

(a) Name the types of reaction illustrated by equations A and B.

A .................................................................................................................................

B .................................................................................................................................
(2)

402
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Reaction A was carried out by titration.

10.0 cm3 of 1.00 mol dm–3 ammonia solution was reacted with nitric acid of
concentration 0.500 mol dm–3.

(i) What piece of apparatus would you use to measure out the 10.0 cm3 of ammonia
solution?

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What piece of apparatus would you use to add the nitric acid?

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Suggest a suitable indicator you could use to find the endpoint of this titration and
give the colour change you would expect.

Indicator ............................................................................................................

Colour change

from ....................................................... to .......................................................


(2)

(iv) What volume of nitric acid would be required to react exactly with the 10.0 cm3 of
the ammonia solution?

(1)

403
SYNTAX ERROR
(v) This experiment was repeated without the indicator. Describe how you would
obtain dry crystals of ammonium nitrate from the resulting solution.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(3)

(c) In reaction B, 4.0 g of solid ammonium nitrate reacted.

(i) What is the mass of 1 mole of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3?

Use the Periodic Table as a source of data.

(1)

(ii) How many moles of nitrogen(I) oxide, N2O, were formed when 4.0 g of
ammonium nitrate reacted?

(1)

404
SYNTAX ERROR
(iii) What volume (at room temperature and pressure) will this amount of nitrogen(I)
oxide occupy?
[Molar volume is 24 dm3 mol–1 at room temperature and pressure.]

(1)
(Total 13 marks)

269. This question is about the secondary alcohol, X, which has the molecular formula C4H10O.

(a) Draw the displayed formula of this secondary alcohol, X. Give its systematic name.

Name ...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) (i) Draw the structural formula of Y, a primary alcohol, which is an isomer of X.

(1)

405
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) If X and Y are heated with sodium dichromate and sulphuric acid, products with
different functional groups are formed. Give the names of the products which could
be formed.

Oxidation product of X .....................................................................................

Oxidation products of Y .....................................................................................

.....................................................................................
(3)

(c) (i) Draw a fully labelled diagram of the laboratory apparatus to show how the alcohol
Y could be fully oxidised.

(3)

(ii) How would you separate the organic product of this reaction from the resulting
mixture?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

406
SYNTAX ERROR
(d) (i) The secondary alcohol, X, can be dehydrated. Draw the structural formulae and
give the names of TWO possible alkenes which could be formed.

(3)

(ii) If either of the alkenes is shaken with acidified potassium manganate(VII), what
colour change would you see?

From .................................................... to ..........................................................


(1)

(iii) What other reagent could you use to show that the products of the dehydration of X
are alkenes?

............................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 16 marks)

270. This question is about nitrogen trifluoride, NF3, and nitrogen trichloride, NCl3, which are
covalent compounds. Van der Waals attractions and permanent dipole–dipole attractions exist
between molecules of both compounds in the liquid state.

(a) (i) Describe how van der Waals attractions are caused.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(1)

407
SYNTAX ERROR
(ii) In which of the two compounds would you expect there to be greater van der
Waals attractions? Justify your answer.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) In which of the two compounds would you expect there to be the greater permanent
dipole–dipole attractions? Justify your answer.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) The boiling point of nitrogen trichloride is much higher than that of nitrogen
trifluoride. How might this be explained in terms of the two types of intermolecular
attractions?

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) The standard enthalpy change for the formation of gaseous nitrogen trifluoride is
–125 kJ mol–1.

1
2
N2 (g) + 1 12 F2 (g) → NF3 (g) ∆Hοf = –125 kJ mol–1

The standard molar enthalpy changes of atomisation of nitrogen, N2, and of fluorine, F2,
are given below.

ΔHat/kJ mol–1

1
2
N2 (g) → N (g) + 473

1
2
F2 (g) → F (g) + 79

408
SYNTAX ERROR
This information can be represented on a Hess cycle in the following way, and then used
to calculate bond energies.

(i) Insert formulae, showing the correct quantities of each element, into the
appropriate boxes.
(1)

(ii) Insert arrows between the boxes and write the correct numerical data alongside
the appropriate arrows.
(2)

(iii) Use the cycle to calculate the N  F bond energy in nitrogen trifluoride.

(2)
(Total 9 marks)

409
SYNTAX ERROR
271. (a) A mixture of hydrogen iodide, hydrogen and iodine (all in the gaseous state) establishes
dynamic equilibrium if a constant temperature is maintained.

2HI (g) H2 (g) + I2 (g) ΔH = +9.6 kJ mol–1

(i) Explain the meaning of the term dynamic equilibrium.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) How, if at all, would the proportion of hydrogen iodide present at equilibrium
change if the temperature were to be increased? Justify your answer.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) The reaction is catalysed by metals such as gold and platinum. How, if at all, would
the proportion of hydrogen iodide present at equilibrium change if the reaction
were to be catalysed? Justify your answer.

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(1)

410
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Part of an energy profile for this reaction is shown below. It is not intended to be to scale.

Complete the profile showing:

• the products;

• the progress of both uncatalysed and catalysed reactions;

• labelled arrows to indicate the activation energies of both the uncatalysed and
catalysed reactions.
(4)
(Total 9 marks)

272. The following table was used to record the results of experiments in which aqueous solutions of
halogen elements were added to aqueous solutions of potassium halides.

411
SYNTAX ERROR
(a) (i) The ticked box indicates that a reaction occurred when bromine solution was added
to potassium iodide solution.

Place ticks in appropriate empty boxes to indicate the other experiments in which
you would expect reactions to have occurred.
(1)

(ii) Give ONE observation you would expect to make when bromine solution is added
to potassium iodide solution.

............................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction in (ii).


(Omit or delete any spectator ions).

(1)

(iv) Select ONE of the products of the reaction in (ii).

Describe a test you could carry out to confirm its identity, indicating the result of
the test.

Product ...............................................................................................................

Test .....................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

Result..................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................
(2)

412
SYNTAX ERROR
(b) Iodine and its compounds are quite expensive and it is sometimes worthwhile recovering
this element from solutions containing iodide ions. This can be done by adding a solution
of potassium dichromate acidified with sulphuric acid. Iodine is then precipitated and can
be separated from the mixture.

An unbalanced ionic equation for the reaction is:

Cr2O72– (aq) + H+ (aq) + I– (aq) → 2Cr3+ (aq) + I2 (s) + H2O (l)

(i) Identify the two elements which show a change of oxidation number during the
reaction, giving their initial and final oxidation numbers.

First element.......................................

Initial oxidation number.............. Final oxidation number ..............................

Second element ..................................

Initial oxidation number.............. Final oxidation number ...............................


(3)

(ii) Using oxidation numbers (or otherwise), balance the equation:

Cr2O72– + ........H+ + ........I– → 2Cr3+ + ........I2 + ........H2O


(1)

(c) The halogen elements have a wide variety of commercial and industrial uses.

Bromine, for example, is extracted from sea water and used to make compounds such
as bromomethane, CH3Br, an insecticide.

(i) Why must strict precautions be taken if it is necessary to transport bromine from
the extraction plant to another manufacturing site?

............................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................