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# CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview
Speeding has been implicated as a major contributing factor in all fatal motor-vehicle crashes. A
small increase in traveling speed before braking begins can result in large increases in impact
speed and the risk of fatal injury. Even small differences in impact speed will make a large
difference to the probability of serious injury. Figure 1.1 shows the risk of a crash at
difference speeds relative to travelling at 60 km/h.

From the figure, driving at 65 km/h is twice as likely to have a crash as a driver traveling at 60 km/h,
and driving at 70 km/h the driver is more than 4 times as likely to crash. When a driver is speeding,
there is less time for both that driver and any other road user to recognize danger, decide on an
evasive action (brake) and complete the evasive action.

When a vehicle is traveling with higher speed, the reaction and braking distances are also longer.
Figure 1.2 shows the total stopping distance at various speeds. The reaction distance is referred to
the distance that a vehicle travels from the time a driver recognizes an emergency until the driver can
react, whereas the braking distance is referred to the distance it takes to stop the vehicle. The faster a
vehicle travels the more distance it takes to stop the vehicle.

Besides, speeding can lead to higher impact speeds and crash energy as well as are associated with
high risk of losing control of the vehicle. The crash severity increases based on the vehicle speed at
the time a crash happens. Figure 1.3 shows the impact speed at different traveling speed. When a
crash does occur, people are killed or seriously injured only when the impact speed and hence the
energy absorbed by the human exceeds the human tolerance to violent forces. The greater the vehicle
speed, the greater the chance of death or serious injury. Vehicles and their occupants in motion have
kinetic energy that is dissipated in a crash. The greater the energy that must be dissipated during the
crash, the greater the chances of severe injury or death. In a collision, the vehicle speed decreases
abruptly, while its occupants continue on toward the point of impact. The kinetic energy released
equals the weight of the vehicle multiplied by the square of its speed and the energy released will
result in injuries. Therefore, the seriousness of a crash depends on the weight of the vehicle but
especially on the speed.

Besides that, speeding will reduce driver’s ability to steer safely around curves on the roadway. It is
also known that vehicle traveling around a curve or around an object is subject to centrifugal force.
Every curve has a critical curve speed and should be taken at the recommended speed or below
depending on the conditions. If a vehicle travels faster than the curve is designed for, the driver will
break the centrifugal force and the vehicle will start to slide out of the curve sideways, which can lead
to a rollover. This becomes more significant when the driver is speeding. Furthermore, higher speed
will also reduce the ability of vehicles, safety belts, air bags and barriers to protect vehicle occupants
in a crash. Moreover, higher speeds of approaching vehicles are more likely to be misjudged by
turning drivers and the consequences of this are more serious.
These factors clearly show that it is important for a vehicle to travel at lower speed and even if a
vehicle can not be stopped in the available distance during an emergency, the collision can still
sometimes be avoided. With this objective, the Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System is
designed and developed in this project to monitor the vehicle speed and to determine if the vehicle
has exceeded the preset speed limit, where the speed limit indicates the maximum speed at which the
driver should drive under good road and traffic conditions. After installation of the unit in vehicle,
the system is calibrated for proper operation. This unit will give an audible warning, which will alert
the driver to impending speeding violations. The driver should then reduce the speed of the vehicle
and this will drastically reduce the probability of road accident. The unit also has provision to record
the violation and this data can be read by the law enforcement officers for necessary action.

1.2 Background
The design and development idea of this Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System come from
irresponsible and reckless speeding of some commercial vehicles including truck, trailer, lorries and
buses, which have resulted in fatal accidents leading to loss of innocent road users lives. There are
well as speeding. Since these commercial vehicles have poor braking capability and greater
momentum at higher speed, speeding will be considered as a base for the warning system
development. Besides that, with large amount of the commercial vehicles operating in country, it is
virtually impossible for the authorities to police all these drivers continuously.

There are a number of out-of-vehicle and in-vehicle speed tracking and monitoring technologies with
the potential to enhance speed compliance. Since the out-of-vehicle speed tracking device will only
make the drivers obey the speed limit just in the speed enforcement zone, the Commercial Vehicle
Speed Warning System will focus on the in-vehicle approaches, which will continuously monitor
these commercial vehicle speeds at all time and will record the relevant information.

The Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System consists of two primary subsystems, the in-vehicle
subsystem and the peripheral interface subsystem as shown in Figure 1.4. The in-vehicle subsystem
is a main control module that will be installed in the commercial vehicle for speed monitoring, where
the date, time and total time for speeding when the speeding incident happened will be recorded into
the memory, whereas the peripheral interface subsystem is a supporting system to interface and
communicate with the in-vehicle subsystem by using wireless communication module, including
data setting and retrieving. Once the speeding records in the in-vehicle subsystem memory has been
retrieved by the wireless communication module, a host computer can be used to display and analyze
the data, providing variable and useful insight into the commercial vehicle's speeding information.
Besides that, this warning system is a passive system, that is, it monitors rather than controls the
vehicle speed.

1.3 Objectives
The aim of the project is to design a Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System, which consists of
two subsystems, the in-vehicle subsystem and the peripheral interface subsystem. The objectives of
this project are as follows:
a) To design a speed warning system (in-vehicle subsystem) that will monitor the vehicle speed and
activate an auditory warning as well as record the violation when the preset speed limit is exceeded.

b) A peripheral interface subsystem for remote set-up manipulation and remote data retrieval will be
designed. This subsystem provides flexible calibration set-up and has capability to identify which in-
vehicle subsystem should be communicated based on identification code programmed into the in-
vehicle subsystem.

## 1.4 Thesis Organization

This report is divided into 5 chapters.

Chapter 1 Introduction gives a brief introduction to Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System and
specifications of project being done. Thesis overview and objectives of the project are also explained
briefly.

Chapter 2 Literature Review presents more specific discussions on the speed warning system such as
history and classifications of vehicle speed tracking and monitoring systems and definition as well as
features and applications of these systems.

Chapter 3 Methodology features the synthesis steps and methodology used to design the Commercial
Vehicle Speed Warning System. The tools acquired are listed and the design and development of
software and hardware are explained. Majority part of the project is emphasized on the
programming and verification.

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion contains the details of the Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning
System, including the feature and construction of the warning system. Besides that, the data setting
and retrieving process between subsystems of the Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System are
also explained.

Chapter 5 Conclusion is the conclusion being made for the project being done. Apart from that,
suggestion of future improvement of this project is discussed.

## CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction
A number of vehicle speed monitoring and tracking systems exist in the market, most notably the
Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) speed gun, Radio Detection and
Ranging (RADAR) speed gun, speed camera system and fleet monitoring system. Law enforcement
in the last decade has moved increasingly to newer technologies such as Global Positioning System
(GPS) based vehicle tracking system to catch speeding motorists and improve road safety as well as
for fleet management applications. These newer technologies are likely to supplement rather than
replace traditional speed monitoring and tracking systems.
2.2 Vehicle Speed Measurement
2.2.1 Evolution of Speed Sensors
Since the early years of the automobile, a need to monitor vehicle speed has evolved. As vehicle speed
increased and roads improved, the main objectives of a speedometer were to allow the driver to
accurately view the vehicle speed, possibly to avoid a speeding ticket, and to be able to read the
odometer to verify how many miles were on the vehicle. Most speedometers (Jurgen, R. 1994)
operated off the rear driveline but some used a front wheel as its input. This method was calculated
by gear ratio, tire circumference and somewhat averaged how fast the vehicle was traveling. Later,
when a vehicle had a different rear axle ratio installed or when different profile tires were used, the
process of matching the plastic "speedo" gears was used to ensure accurate speed. This system of
measuring speed did not have the capability of comparing individual wheel speed differences
between two wheels like found between the inside and outside wheels during a turn. This technology
is still with us today, but modern vehicles mostly rely on electronic sensors to perform that job.

The operation of most speed sensors (Soloman, S. 1998) is similar and might fall into one of three
categories: variable reluctance, hall-effect and magneto resistive. As a result of the use of modern
speed sensors, today's vehicles utilize this technology not only to monitor vehicle speed, but also to
monitor component position or rate of speed change on virtually any moving part of the automobile.
They can be mounted on the vehicle in a variety of locations to perform different tasks. The variable
reluctance wheel speed sensor is basically a permanent magnet with wire wrapped around it. It is
usually a simple circuit of only two wires where in most cases polarity is not important. The physics
behind the operation include magnetic induction. A toothed ring on the wheel passes by the speed
sensor and disrupts this magnetic field. The disruption in the field causes the wheel speed sensor to
produce a sinusoidal voltage signal. The frequency and amplitude of the voltage signal are
proportional to the speed of the wheel. The amplitude of the wheel speed signal is also directly
related to the distance between the wheel speed sensor coil and the toothed ring.

Magnetic speed sensors (Silva, C. 1989) rely on a magnet as the sensing element to capture rotational
or linear speed. They are typically used as gear tooth speed sensors or incorporated into stroboscopes
or tachometers. The technology types for magnetic speed sensors include magneto resistive,
inductive, variable reluctance and Hall Effect. In a magneto resistive sensor the resistance of the
sensing element is a function of the direction and magnitude of an applied magnetic field. In an
inductive sensor an oscillator circuit generates a radio frequency electromotive force that radiates
from a ferrite core and coil assembly. The field is directed at the sensor face. When a metal target
enters the field, eddy currents are induced into the surfaces of the target. This causes a reduction in
the amplitude of the oscillator circuit and change in inductance. Variable reluctance speed sensors
are typically self-generating and require no external power. When a magnetic surface is passed in
close proximity to the sensor, a small voltage is induced. In a Hall Effect sensor, a current is passed
through a semiconductor material. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the surface of
the semiconductor, a voltage is developed. This Hall voltage is proportional to the applied field
intensity, driving the magnetic speed sensor.
Analog variable reluctance speed sensor (Webb, J. and Greshock, K. 1993) is a passive sensor and
requires no outside power source. The sensor generates a sinusoidal output voltage proportional to
target speed and air gap. Analog signal is generated in response to fluctuation in magnetic field
resulting from interruption by ferrous targets. This sensor can be configured for use in very high
temperatures and high speed. The output voltage, depending on air gap and the target surface speed,
ranges from a few milli-volts at the slowest target surface speed to several volts at the highest target
speed.

The Delta speed sensor (GMH Engineering, 2003) is an inexpensive, non-contact Doppler radar
speed sensor suitable for a wide variety of speed measurement applications. Small size and
lightweight as well as requires only a small power source, making it useful in situations requiring
portability or remote sensing. The sensor may be placed on a moving vehicle to measure vehicle
ground speed. It also may be fixed in a stationary mounting to measure the speed of a moving object,
which can be anything from a wire passing under the sensor to a vehicle a thousand feet away. The
output of the sensor is a pulse with frequency proportional to measured speed. The cumulative
number of pulses may be used to determine distance traveled or the length of a moving surface.
Besides, it can be used with many different types of electronic hardware, such as timer, counters or
digital tachometers, and can be integrated into electronic control or data acquisition systems.

2.2.2 Speedometer
Regular car speedometers can never know the exact speed of a vehicle without knowing how quickly
the wheels rotate combined with the precise circumference of the tyres. Optical speedometer system
(clausage, 2002) is installed on the underside of the car, seeing the surface of the road move beneath
it and determines the speed of the car as well as the mileage. But using this system to calculate
mileage might be easily foiled by a mounted sheet, to fool the system into thinking the road is not
moving, thus stopping mileage increment.

Vehicle navigation using the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been of increasing interest over
the past decade and GPS navigation is frequently installed in today's high-end luxury cars and in
many commercial vehicles. Deductive reckoning (Analog Devices, Inc., 1995) is one method widely
used in vehicle navigation. It utilizes three distinct inputs to predict position: a set of starting
coordinates, the direction of travel, and the speed of travel. The ADXL202 dual-axis accelerometer
can be used to develop accurate speed estimates for this navigation system. The method for
determining velocity uses an accelerometer to sense the time interval for both front and back wheels
to encounter a bump in the road while moving straight ahead. Whether one is driving on a local road
or a highway, there will always be imperfections in the road. These imperfections translate into
bumps and jolts sensed immediately by the car's wheels, and ultimately by its passengers. In order to
track the speed by sensing these bumps, an accelerometer is used to identify their magnitudes and
timing.

## 2.3 Components Implementation

2.3.1 Axiom CME11E9-EVBU Development Board
The functional architecture of today’s microcontrollers can vary from one design to another.
However, all the designs consist of the same basic elements (Miller, G. H. 1999); there are a central
processing unit, memory, including Read-only Memory (ROM) and Random Access Memory (RAM),
Input/output circuitry and the address data and control buses. The Axiom CME11E9-EVBU
development board, which is shown in Figure 2.1, has been chosen as a development platform for the
Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System. This board is a fully assembled and fully functional
development system for the Motorola 68HC11 Microcontrollers. The main programming interface to
this development board is the AxIDE program for 32-bit Windows. This program communicates with
the development board via its COM port and includes a terminal window for interfacing with other
programs running on the CME11E9 development board, such as the Buffalo Monitor or the Basic11
interpreter. It can also be used for displaying information or data from running programs that send
output to the serial port. In addition to the terminal interface, this AxIDE program also provides an
easy to use programming and configuration interface to the development board.

## 2.3.2 Serial Port (DB9S Style Connector)

The 9-pins D-type connector, commonly known as the DB9S connector (Texas Instruments
Incorporated, 1995), is used as communication port between the host computer and the CME11E9-
EVBU development board. Figure 2.2 show the pins diagram of the DB9S connector. Pin 1 is Data
Carrier Detect (DCD), where the on condition of this signal line, as sent by the Data-Circuit-
Terminating Equipment (DCE), informs the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) that it is receiving a
carrier signal from the remote DCE that meets its criteria. Pin 2 is Transmit Data line (TD), which
refers to serial data from DTE to DCE, whereas pin 3 is Receive Data line (RD), which refers to serial
data from DCE to DTE and when DCD is in the off condition, the RD signal must be in the MARK
state. Pin 4 is Data Terminal Ready (DTR), where this signal in conjunction with Data Set Ready
(DSR) indicates equipment readiness. Pin 5 is Ground (GND) terminal. Pin 6 is Data Set Ready
(DSR) and is turned on by the DCE to indicate to the DTE that it is connected to the line. Pin 7 is
Request to Send (RTS), where this signal indicates the DTE is ready to transmit data, and then the
DCE must prepare to receive data. After some delays, the DCE turns on the Clear to Send (CTS) line
to inform the DTE it is ready to receive data. Once communication is complete, the DTE turns off the
RTS signal. After a brief delay to ensure that all transmitted data has been received, the DCE turns
off CTS. Pin 8 is Clear to Send (CTS). This signal is turned on by the DCE to inform the DTE that it is
ready to receive data. Finally pin 9 is Ring Indicator (RI) and is turned on by the DCE while ringing

## 2.3.3 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Port

A LCD display, which is connected to CME11E9-EVBU development board through the LCD display
port is used to display time, date and speed information. The LCD display interface is connected to
the data bus and memory mapped to locations \$B5F0 through \$B5F3. Addresses \$B5F0 and \$B5F1
are the command and data registers respectively. The LCD interface supports almost all LCD
displays up to 80 characters and provides the most common pin out. Figure 2.3 shows the pins
diagram of the LCD display port.

## 2.3.4 MC68HC11E9 Microcontroller

There are many of different architecture of microcontrollers available in market. The MC68HC11E9
microcontroller (Matloff, N. S. 1992) has been chosen as a microcontroller development platform
instead of a Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC). Although the PIC may be easy to apply, it is
limited in many ways that the MC68HC11E9 microcontroller is not. The MC68HC11E9
microcontroller as shown in Figure 2.4 has a versatile linear memory map and is expandable up to 64
kilobytes easily, but the PIC has only a fixed amount of internal memory and is not expandable. The
MC68HC11E9 microcontroller provides a development environment onboard while the PIC must
have an emulator system for similar development features. Besides that, the PIC has a small
instruction set with little math capability and 8 bit operations only while the MC68HC11E9
microcontroller provides a large, easy to use instruction set with 16 bit math operations including
multiply and divide instructions. In addition, the MC68HC11E9 microcontroller also provides 64
kilobytes indexing or pointers which are beyond the PIC capability. Additional board features include
a solderless prototype area, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) module port, keypad port and 32 kilobytes
external static RAM for program debug or user data.

The MC68HC11E9 microcontroller is one of the MC68HC11 Family Members (Spasov, P. 1992). The
microcontroller is a 52-pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) package and is an upgrade version of
the MC68HC11A8. Figure 2.5 is a block diagram of the MC68HC11E9 microcontroller. This block
diagram shows the major subsystems and how they relate to the pins of the microcontroller.

## This microcontroller, which is manufactured by using the High-density Complementary Metal-oxide

Semiconductor (HCMOS) technology, has 12 kilobytes of mask ROM, 512 bytes of RAM and 512
bytes of Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory (EEPROM).The main peripheral
functions are provided on-chip, including the Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter and an
asynchronous Serial Communications Interface (SCI) as well as the main 16-bit free-running timer
system. This timer system has three input-capture lines, five output-compare lines, and a real-time
interrupt function. Besides that, a Computer Operating Properly (COP) watchdog system is included
on-chip to protect against software failures as well as the powerful programmer’s model. The two 8-
bit accumulators, accumulators A and accumulators B are general-purpose 8-bit accumulators used
to hold operands and results of arithmetic calculations or data manipulations. In addition, these 8-
bit accumulators can be used by some instructions as a single 16-bit accumulator called the D
register, which allows a set of 16-bit operations even though the Central Processing Unit (CPU) is
technically an 8-bit processor. Furthermore, two software-controlled power-saving modes; wait and
stop mode, are available to conserve additional power. These modes make the MC68HC11 Family
especially attractive for automotive and battery-driven applications, such as the Commercial Vehicle
Speed Warning System.

## 2.3.5 FM Transmitter and Receiver Modules

The in-vehicle subsystem of the Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System will be installed in
commercial vehicle for speed monitoring, while the peripheral interface subsystem will interface
with a host computer and act as a central controller for data setting and retrieving process. The
communication between these subsystems is based on Radio Frequency (RF) transmission instead of
infrared-based interface. This is because the infrared (IR) systems with an IR transmitter and IR
receiver must be linked in line of sight (LOS) or directed method. This line of sight system has a
directional transmitter and receiver that must be pointed at each other to establish a link. In
addition, the line of sight path from the transmitter to the receiver must be clear of obstructions and
most of the transmitted light should be directed toward the receiver. This directed link provides a
limited angle of view and thus decreases the flexibility of link establishment. Moreover, these
systems typically have difficulty in penetrating building walls and hence do not allow a user to
communicate with the in-vehicle subsystem from office room. Besides, the infrared-based sensors
can be affected by background light disturbance. However, these limitations can be solved by using
the radio frequency-based sensors. Radio frequency transmission is not point to point but is multi-
pathed and has the ability to travel through many opaque mediums allowing a RF signal to be
detected even when it is not “visible” to the receiver. This means that the radio frequency-based
sensors do not depend on availability of a direct vision contact between the RF transmitter and RF
(R. F. Solutions Ltd., 1999), which are shown in Figure 2.6, have been chosen to establish the
wireless communication link between the subsystems.

This Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radio transmitter and receiver pair enables a data link at up to 40
kilobit/s at distances up to 75 meters in-building and 300 meters open ground, and the operating
frequency is 433.92 MHz. This feature allows the user to communicate with the in-vehicle subsystem
from the office room. Because of their small size and low power requirements, both modules are
ideal for use in portable, battery-powered applications such as the Commercial Vehicle Speed
Warning System. Figure 2.7 is a block diagram of the FM transmitter module, whereas the block
diagram of the FM receiver module is given in Figure 2.8.

From Figure 2.7, pin 1 (RF GND) is connected to the RF return path or ground plane. Pin 2 (RF
OUT) is RF output to the antenna and it is DC isolated internally. Whereas, Pin 3 (Vcc) is positive
supply pin and the module will generate RF when the Vcc supply is present. Pin 4 (0 Volt) is
connected to pin 1 and pin 5 (TXD) will accept either serial digital data (0Volt to Vcc levels) or high
level linear signals.

From Figure 2.8, pin 1 (RF IN) is input from the antenna and it is DC isolate internally. Pin 2 (RF
GND) is ground pin and is connected to the RF return path or ground plane. Whereas, pin 3 (CD) is
carrier detect, which is used to drive an external PNP transistor to obtain a logic level carrier detect
signal and will be connected to pin 5 (Vcc) if not required. Pin 4 (0 Volt) is suply ground connection
and is connected to pin 1. Pin 5 (Vcc) is positive supply pin with 3.0 V to 6.0 V, whereas pin 6 (AF) is
a buffered and filtered analogue output from the FM demodulator. It is useful as a test point or to
drive linear decoders. Pin 7 (RXD) is digital output from the internal data slicer and is a squared
version of the signal on pin 6 (AF). It can be used to drive external decoders and the data is true data
as fed to the transmitter.

There are two modes of operation for data transfer between the in-vehicle subsystem and the
peripheral interface subsystem, half and full duplex (Metzger, D. L. 1989). Since the in-vehicle
subsystem is always in the communication slave mode and waiting for command from the peripheral
interface subsystem, the half duplex mode is chosen for communication between these subsystems,
where this mode of operation provides two ways conversation between components, but only one
may transmit while the other receives and a pause in data flow must be achieved to switch directions
of the data flow. In this case, the both subsystems must use the same communication protocol.

## 2.3.6 Analog Switch (4066)

Since the half duplex mode is chosen for communication between the in-vehicle subsystem and the
peripheral interface subsystem, the analog switch (Maxim Integrated Products, 2000) is used to
switch on or off the FM transmitter and FM receiver. The analog switch as shown in Figure 2.9 is
connected between the power supply source and the positive power supply pin of the transmitter or
receiver in conjunction with control line from the central microcontroller. The switch is closed if the
appropriate control line is HIGH, which allows the power supply to pass to the transmitter or
receiver, otherwise it's open. This switch is digitally controlled analog switch utilizing advanced
silicon-gate Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology and it is a bidirectional
switch, thus any analog input may be used as an output and visa-versa. Besides that, the analog
switch allows control of up to 12V analog signal with digital control signal of the same range. The
microcontroller will enable the control line before a serial data is sent to the transmitter or received
from the receiver. Hence, the both subsystems must use the same communication protocol in the

## 2.3.7 Hall Effect Gear Tooth Sensor

The Hall Effect Gear Tooth Sensor (Honeywell International Inc., 2001) as shown in Figure 2.10 is
used as a speed sensor to measure the vehicle speed through vehicle engine. This Gear Tooth Sensor
uses a magnetically biased Hall Effect integrated circuit to accurately sense movement of ferrous
metal targets and this specially designed Integrated Circuit (IC), with discrete capacitor and bias
magnet, is sealed in a probe type package for physical protection. In this sensor, the Hall voltage is
generated by the effect of an external magnetic field acting perpendicularly to the direction of the
current flow. Hence, the sensor will be placed in close proximity to a toothed ferromagnetic disk and
the sensor will produce a digital square wave signal, which is directly proportional to the velocity of
the vehicle and this square wave signal is generated whenever the target wheel teeth edges pass the
sensor surface.

In addition, the optimum sensor performance is dependent on some variables, including the toothed
wheel material, toothed wheel rotation speed, gap between sensor and toothed wheel as well as
environment temperature. Moreover, this Gear Tooth Sensor will function from a 4.5 to 24 VDC
power supply and one of the major advantages of this sensor is reverse polarity protection.

## 2.4 Out-vehicle Speed Tracking System

2.4.1 AutoPatrol PR-100: Speed Camera System
The PR-100 (TransCore IP, Ltd., 1991) is among the most advanced speed camera systems available.
It couples sophisticated radar technology and digital signal processing with the latest in high speed
photo imaging. The unit is a compact, portable, camera-radar device that easily mounts on a tripod
or on a permanent fixture. Besides that, the PR-100 features an integrated digital video system that
can monitor and record traffic as it passes through the enforcement zone. Only vehicles exceeding
the preset threshold or speed limit are photographed, which enable driver identification. Moreover,
the digital signal processing ensures precise speed measurement, vehicle classification, target
discrimination and photo positioning as well as provides sharp, clear day and night photos across
multiple lanes. In addition, optional twin-camera configuration in this speed camera system will
enable photo capturing on front and rear images of the speeding vehicles.

## 2.4.2 SPECS System: Cameras and Detection Systems

The SPECS system (Acquidyre Ltd., 2000) utilizes state of the art video system with Automatic
Number Plate Reading (ANPR) digital technology. It consists of a minimum of two cameras each
fitted with infrared illuminators fitted on gantries above the road. These cameras work out the
vehicles average speed and this speed is determined by measuring the time the vehicle takes to drive
between the two camera positions. Besides that, the SPECS system can be also fitted either at the
roadside or central reservation a set distance apart to create a speed controlled zone, or where
appropriate, groups of cameras can be linked to create a speed controlled network. As vehicles pass
between the entry and exit camera points, their number plates are digitally recorded, whether
speeding or not. Then, by ANPR recognition, the images on the video of matching number plates are
paired up, and because each image carries a date and time stamp, the computer can then work out
the vehicle average speed between the cameras and will make a decision if the preset speed threshold
is triggered. This data is then digitally stored on a central computer, so that there is no need for film
to be collected and changed at the cameras site.

## 2.4.3 Speedmaster DS2

The Speedmaster DS2 (Radarfalle, 1999) is developed for police forces needing a device that will
detect speeding vehicles automatically and with certainty on quiet and busy roads. This device uses
discrete surface sensors for temporary sites and sub-surface piezo sensors for permanent sites.
Besides that, an extension reel is run out the required distance to a position where the operator can
view the traffic crossing the sensors and stop offenders as required. Moreover, the Speedmaster DS2
only displays over speed vehicles, thus simplifying the operating process. In addition, the system can
be used manually, with operator stopping and charging offending drivers, or connected to the
AUTOVISION 2, which records the offending vehicles on video for later processing and issuing of
tickets or summonses from a central ticket office.

The Speedster radar gun (Trading Direct Ltd., 1997) is the complete opposite to a radar detector. It
uses digital technology and digital signal processing to provide instantaneous real time speed
measurements to +/- one mile per hour accuracy and can be used to measure a vehicle speed when
traveling between 6 to 200 miles per hour. With the trigger engaged, operator can see the real time
speed measurement of the vehicle as it accelerates or decelerates. Furthermore, the Speedster can
also keep track of statistics such as current, last and average speeds of the speeding vehicles and the
operator can also choose between measuring in miles per hour or kilometers per hour.

## 2.4.5 SpeedLaser: Speed Measurement System

The SpeedLaser (Laser Atlanta, LLC., 2003) provides law enforcement a highly accurate solution to
measure the traveling speed of vehicles. It is laser-based as opposed to radar, which provides several
advantages including the ability to target a single vehicle on busy roadways and fast measurement
speeds. With a target size of only 75mm at 100 feet and the ability to take a reading of a targeted
vehicle in just 0.3 seconds, speeding motorists have very little chance of detecting the SpeedLaser or
slowing down before a reading is taken. Besides that, police are able to perform traffic stops more
safely because of the SpeedLaser’s test-proven ability to accurately record the speed of an
approaching or receding vehicle at 3/8 mile away. The officer has the time to safely enter traffic and
pull over a speeding motorist. In addition, the inclement weather features of the SpeedLaser improve
law enforcement’s ability to target and measure offending motorists.

## 2.4.6 COMBI: Speed and Traffic Data Processing System

The COMBI (SPG Media Ltd., 2004) is the only system to offer three traffic management options in
one compact instrument, as it is an automatic speed and traffic light violation recording system
equipped with a 35mm camera, with the capacity to capture and process data. In this system,
primary speed measurements are made using three or four thin piezo sensors, either sub-surface
(installed at permanent or semi-permanent sites) or surface-mounted (used at temporary sites for
random speed checks). Besides that, the COMBI system provides three photographic software
options. The first option takes a picture of the front of the vehicle, providing an image of the front
number plate and the driver. A second software option, suitable for front or rear vehicle
photography, takes two photographs of the vehicle, 20m apart. The third option takes two
photographs of only the rear of the vehicle, separated by half-a-second. Moreover, a paper printer,
when attached to the remote control unit, will print detailed information about each violation as well
as statistical information required for monitoring the success of law enforcement program. In
addition, for permanently installed sites, stainless steel housing is supplied as standard, fitted with
bullet proof plates and glass to protect the instrument against hand guns and vandalism.

## 2.5 In-vehicle Speed Monitoring System

2.5.1 Speed Trak II: Vehicle Speed Monitoring System
The Speed Trak II (Matco Industries Inc., 2004) is a speed monitoring device that is installed in each
vehicle to track and report information pertaining to speed, location, and direction. The Matco
Industries Inc. is a primary supplier to the Malaysian government for their vehicle speed monitoring
initiative, which is used as an aid to highway law enforcement. The vehicle speed monitoring system
development program is being conducted under the request of the Ministry of Transportation in the
nation of Malaysia. The government had legislated the enactment Motor Vehicle (Construction,
Equipment and Use Speed Warning Device) Rules 1985, for a system to be introduced into
commercial vehicles to monitor speed violations. However, the system proved to be ineffective be-
cause the equipment was not tamper resistant.

## 2.5.2 Track Star Fleet Management System

The Track Star Fleet Management System (Track Star International, Inc., 2000) is a GPS based
Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) system used as a tool for fleet management applications. The
system uses the GPS together with advanced telecommunications technology to provide a powerful
security, location and communication tool used to measure and adjust the operational efficiency of
vehicle fleets. The Track Star Fleet Management System is comprised of two primary components,
the Track Star Fleet Manager Software, which will be installed in a host computer, and the Track Star
Vehicle Location Units (VLU) installed in fleet vehicles and is used to monitor the vehicle
parameters. The software works in close coordination with the VLUs to provide an extraordinarily
powerful fleet management and communication tool. The VLUs embody a GPS receiver, proprietary
electronics and a cellular transceiver to allow the user or operator the ability to locate, track and
communicate with vehicles on the road. In addition, the Track Star Fleet Management System
provides managers with a completely autonomous system to locate and manage their fleet. All
relevant information such as location, speed, mileage and direction is collected and stored in the
Track Star VLU and this information can be retrieved by using the wireless communication links.
When information on location is needed, the managers can simply go to their desktop or laptop
computer with the Track Star Fleet Management Software and identify the vehicle, and view the
information they require.

## 2.5.3 Transportation Technology Solutions

The Mobius Transportation Technology Solutions (TTS) system (Cadec Corporation, 2004) is
developed for fleets in the commercial trucking industry. At the heart of the Mobius TTS system is
the Onboard Computer (OBC), which will be installed in the vehicle. This powerful computer is ready
to track the vehicle performance, driver productivity, safety and compliance information as well as a
variety of other business information needs. The Mobius TTS is modular and expandable. The users
can customize his solutions by choosing only the tools needed to meet their business objectives. One
of the features that will monitor the vehicle operation is the basic vehicle information monitoring
system. This system provides accurate vehicle data capture information such as accidents, engine
idle time, miles traveled, speed warnings and violations, and automatically generated sudden
decelerations. Besides that, an audible and visual warning from the onboard computer also helps the
drivers informed and alert so they can maintain safe vehicle handling practices.

## 2.5.4 DriveRight 600 Vehicle Driver Safety Monitor

The DriveRight 600 (Davis Instruments Corporation, 2003) is used to monitor and log vehicle trip
information including detailed driver performance data. All data recorded by the DriveRight 600 can
be downloaded to a computer by using the DriveRight Fleet Management Software (FMS). The
interactive Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) on the system allows user to set the speed, acceleration and
deceleration limits and to view the trip data. Moreover, an internal audible alarm is also used to alert
the drivers whenever one of the preset limits has been exceeded. In the event of an accident or
sudden stop, the DriveRight 600 also records the vehicle speed for each the 20 seconds before and
after a sudden deceleration. In addition, the system also monitors the vehicle functions such as brake
lights, headlights and seatbelt. The DriveRight GPS Module provides detailed information of a
vehicle’s route by recording the latitude and longitude at time intervals determined by the manager.

## 2.5.5 Fleet Manager 100

The Fleet Manager 100 (Siemens VDO Automotive, 2004) is the smaller of the Fleet Manager On-
Board Computers for recording driver and vehicle data. It is easy to install and reliably and precisely
store all relevant data for the vehicle up to 709 trips. If desired, the starter interruption, present as a
standard feature, can be connected to force drivers to log on. With a minimum of effort the data can
be transferred with data plug to the computer, where it can be evaluated by all Fleet Manager
Software Packages. The Fleet Manager 100 can be installed in all earth-bound vehicles except
motorcycles and it is suitable for vehicles with 12 or 24 Volt electrical systems. As a standard feature,
the on-board computer will record the maximum vehicle and engine speed during each trip as well as
the distance driven per trip. Moreover, the standing and parking times together with the beginning
and end of trips with date and time for the vehicle will also be recorded by the system. In addition,
the driver can be given warning signals (buzzer and light emitter diode display) for over speeding
violations, memory full and malfunction.

## 2.5.6 Wireless In-vehicle Fleet Monitoring System

The Wireless In-vehicle Fleet Monitoring System (Vetronix Corporation, 2004) is installed in vehicle
and enables fleet management system users to receive data directly from the individual vehicle via
wireless links. Unlike other in-vehicle systems that offer only GPS data, the system also retrieves
information directly from the vehicle's on-board computers. In addition to GPS, the system also
retrieves and transmits data such as vehicle speed, engine speed, odometer value, fuel levels, engine
RPM, diagnostic trouble codes, door lock/unlock controls and airbag deployment. Besides that, it
can be installed in the police cruiser, and will be connected to both the engine control module and
other outputs, such as the emergency light bar, headlights and door lock/unlock systems.

## 2.5.7 V-Count II: Vehicle Speed Monitoring System

The V-Count II (Apexvalue Corporation, 2002) is used to monitor vehicle speed and to determine if
the vehicle has exceeded the preset speed limit. The speed signal supplied to the V-Count II is
processed by a microprocessor that compares it with a stored calibration value to determine the
vehicle speed at any instant of time. When the maximum speed limit set by the vehicle owner or fleet
manager is violated, a loud warning tone is sounded. This warning tone remains on until the vehicle
speed is reduced below the maximum speed set point. The time in seconds of an over speed violation
before a violation is logged can be set in the range of 1 to 20 seconds. However, the default setting is
5 seconds. A flashing red light will turn on if the speed violation lasts for longer than the set time.
This over speed indicator light can only be switched off by an authorized person entering the six digit
security code. Each violation that exceeds the over speed violation set-point will cause a speed
violation counter to increment up to the maximum count of 99 for each instance of violation. Besides
that, if the V-Count II is disconnected for more than 20 seconds and then reconnected, a red flashing
tamper light will start flashing.

## 2.5.8 The SafeForce Driving System

The SafeForce Driving System (Road Safety International, Inc., 1999) is used to monitor and record
unsafe vehicle operating parameters such as speeding and high vehicle G-forces caused by rapid
accelerations, hard decelerations and high speed turns. The system provides an audible warning as
the driver approaches an unsafe condition, allowing sufficient time to take corrective action before a
crash occurs. If a driver ignores system warnings, an exception report is created so management may
take corrective action. Besides that, the system also creates a database reports ranking driver
performance. These reports encourage competition between groups of drivers to drive safely, without
excessive vehicle forces. This interactive SafeForce training approach is a best way to prevent crashes
and drastically reduce fleet maintenance costs. Moreover, the system doesn't just document why a
crash occurred, it helps prevent the crash from happening in the first place. The immediate audible
feedback will warn the drivers of excessive forces (due to hard cornering, for example) and over
speeds. At this point, the drivers have the opportunity and incentive to correct their mistake before it
results in a crash.

2.6 Conclusion
Almost all the world's police forces use radar or laser speed gun for measuring speed, enforcing
speed limits and collecting revenue. However, ever since it was invented, anti radar and laser
measures such as radar or laser detector and jammer have followed close behind, which allow
speeder to stay one step ahead of the traffic officer. When the radar or laser jammer detects a radar
or laser gun signals, it will visually and audibly notify speeder of police radar or laser gun attempting
to read the vehicle speed. The jammer also scrambles the radar or laser signals from the police radar
or laser gun returning a blocked signal, making it virtually impossible for police to read the vehicle
speed. For a few seconds, the laser gun’s display will not produce any speed reading, leaving enough
time for the driver to check, and if necessary, adjust vehicle speed safely.

Since the traffic officers are trained to aim the laser guns at vehicle front license plates as the plates
provide an excellent retro-reflective surface, the speeder can also get special plastic covers that
reduce the reflectivity of the license plates. This measure reduces the effective range of the speed gun
system, but not the range of the driver's laser detector and jammer. With this extra time, a speeder
might be able to slow down before the speed gun can get a read on the vehicle speed.

Besides that, laser beam or radar signal from the speed gun can be affected by atmospheric
conditions, especially on humid, foggy or rainy days, which can significantly reduce the operating
range of the speed gun. Moreover, when the laser beam bounces off more than one solid object
(stationary or moving), reflection errors occur, producing an incorrect speed reading on the speed
gun. Furthermore, refraction errors can produce incorrect speed readings, where light is refracted
differently by hot air than cooler air, a spot of air rising from the roadway can confuse the laser gun.

Apart from that, police enforcement cameras on the side of road, usually placed to catch
transgressors of the stipulated speed limit for that location. These speed cameras are there solely to
identify and prosecute those drivers that pass by them when exceeding the stipulated speed limit. At
first glance this seems to be reasonable. But, if these cameras are highly visible then no drivers would
travel by them exceeding the speed limit and may slow down just in that location and then increase
their speed further down the road. Used as they are, hidden away, they penalize only and contribute
little to road safety directly as well as only generating revenue to pay for their installation and
maintenance. So, hidden speed cameras do not help maintain or enforce road safety standards, only
penalize transgressors, whereas, with highly visible speed cameras will make the drivers slow down
and obey the speed limit just in that enforcement zone.
If these speed cameras are the only way to make drivers slow down, and they work effectively, then
there should be a great number of these cameras everywhere and that they would be highly visible
and identifiable to make drivers slow down, but that is not the case. The speed cameras are
invariably hidden behind trees, road signs and are a dull grey colour. The way the speed cameras are
currently used is not to make the drivers slow down, obey the speed limit and make the road safe but
to catch and penalize transgressors who may otherwise have slowed down if they have seen the

Due to these reasons, the long term “Road Safety” value of these out-vehicle speed tracking devices is
unclear and the in-vehicle speed monitoring system will be considered, which can provide
continuous speed tracking and monitoring features. Knowing the presence of such monitoring
system in the vehicle, logging the driver speeding activities will discourage the driver from speeding
and accumulating too many numbers of speeding violations and hence, this will drastically reduce

The Speed Trak II is an in-vehicle speed monitoring device that is currently used in commercial
vehicle in Malaysia. This system is introduced due to large amount of the commercial vehicles
operating in country and the traffic officer can't be everywhere to enforce the speed limits. However,
the system proved to be ineffective because the equipment is not tamper resistant. It is common
amongst the vehicle owner or operators to defeat the speed monitoring system by instigating a fault
to the equipment or disconnecting the power source of the system to disable the proper operation of
the system. Moreover, this system utilizes wireless infrared interface for data setting and retrieving
process, where the transmitter and receiver must be linked in line of sight method to establish a
communication link, which provides a limited angle of view and thus decreases the flexibility of link
establishment. Aiming at the best solution for in-vehicle speed monitoring system, it is expected to
incorporate an anti-tampering function in the system to curtail all attempts of tampering on the
system and wireless radio frequency interface will be designed instead of using the wireless infrared
interface for data setting and retrieving process.

Besides that, fleet management systems are examined and analyzed, with their function appears to
be similar to the concept of the in-vehicle speed monitoring system. But, these products are
performance enhancement tools and the information gathered from these fleet management systems
are business or profit related tools and allow the fleet manager to track the productivity and the
efficiency of his drivers as well as provide little vehicle speed information. The market research
shows that this fleet equipment is not applicable to road safety as well as the cost of the product is
too expensive, and it is decided to develop the Commercial Vehicle Speed Warning System from the
ground up, utilizing existing technology and programming knowledge.

## Vehicle Speed Limiter

By gps tracking device In Speed Limiter On April 30, 2016
22
Vehicle Speed limiter or Speed governor is a device used to restrict the top speed of the vehicle for security
reasons, widely used in public service vehicles (buses, school buses) and heavy goods vehicles. Normally
speaking, the vehicle is already equipped with an onboard speed limit system prevent the vehicle exceeding
certain speed. However in reality usage, the traffic might get dangerous with the pre-controlled speed,
especially for school buses, public buses, and heavy construction trucks. Then external speed limiter (speed
governor) is needed to ensure the public security.

The throttle is a mechanism used to control the inlet gases so as to increase or decrease vehicle speed.
Typically, the throttle is a butterfly value placed on the entrance of the intake manifold in a fuel-injected
engine or in the carburetor in a carbureted engine. Usually the throttle valve is connected and controlled with a
throttle pedal in vehicles. There are mainly 2 types of vehicle throttle: Electronic throttle and mechanical
throttle. Then the speed limiter is also divided into 2 types: Electronic throttle Speed limiter and Mechanical
throttle Speed limiter.

##  Widely application on vehicles with 12V-24 voltage

 Low power consumption 5W
 Compact design, Easy and Fast installation, High shockproof ability
 Power wire has overcurrent protector
 No need maintenance. One time installation is all.
 Configure by remote. Driver has no right to edit preset speed limit.
 Speed limit cannot be breached. There is also sound and light alarm.
 Voice alarm when vehicle speed approaches speed limit.
 Speed governor can be connected to vehicle speed meter.
 Configuration data is stored forever.
Vehicle Speed limiter parameters:

##  Working temperature: -40℃ to 85 ℃, humidity less then 90%

 Speed limit range: 40-120 KM/H
 Speed limit error: 5 KM/H
 Working voltage: 9V-28V
 Shock proof: 20-50Hz
 Pulse voltage proof: 4000V

1 Remote Button

C/4 Setting KM/H
limit

## Learn from speed Press 1 second to enter setup, press again

D/6
meter to exit

2 Operations

After correct installation of speed limiter, drive for 10 meters so as to let speed limiter learn the pulses from
vehicle speed meter, other parameters should be configured too. Then the speed limiter display will show
current vehicle speed.

## 2.1 Speed limit setting

Press button “C” for 6 seconds, display shows “B00.0”, speaker makes a bibi sound. “B” means now is speed
setting mode. Press “A” or “B” to setup required speed. Short press “C” to exit speed setting mode. Speed
limiter will store preset data.

## 2.2.1 Automatic learn

At a 10 meters straight road, press “D” for 1second and speaker makes a bibi sound, the display shows the
preread 10M pulses. Drive vehicle at any speed, display will show current pulse reading after 10 meters. Press
“D” till all number on display restored to zero and speaker makes a bibi sound, the display will show current
speed. (Make sure 10M is accurate.)

## 2.2.2 Speed restriction

When vehicle speed approaches speed limit, speed limiter controls ECU to restrict speed. Restriction is free
when vehicle speed is less then speed limit.

## Vehicle Speed limiter Installations

1 Signal wire: speed limiter yellow signal wire is connected to vehicle speed meter signal wire

## Black and Red for power supply.

Use voltage meter to read the wires between electronic throttle and brake pedal, which is 0.4V and 0.7V. Cut
them off. Connect controlling unit 0.4V and 0.7V wires to the cut wires. Direction: OUT-near the pedal, IN-
near electronic throttle.

## Automatic Speed Control of Vehicle at school

zones using IR sensor
Technical Specifications:

## Domain : Embedded Systems

Microcontroller : AT89S52

## Display : 16X2 LCD

DC Motor ; 10 (rpm)

TSOP : 1

## Project Developed By : M/S Wine Yard Technologies, Hyderabad

Phone : 040-6464 6363, 6625 6695

## Web site : www.WineYard.in

ABSTRACT

Nowadays people are driving very fast, accidents are occurred more frequently, we loss
our valuable life by making small mistake while driving. So to avoid such kind of accidents, it is
necessary to alert the driver and to control the speed of vehicle automatically. The main objective
of this project is to develop signaling unit to indicate the type of zone to the vehicle and to
control the vehicle speed. Every zone like school, highway and etc may have a IR based
transmitter tag to transmit the zone information. This signal should be received by the vehicles
and accordingly varies the speed limit of the vehicle. In practical, an actuator may be used to
control the throttle of the vehicle. But to show the demo module here we used a DC motor, and
varying the speed of it.

The project is built around AT89S52 MCU. Here we are using a pair if IR transmitter,
receiver pair to track the particular school zone and automatically reduce the vehicle speeds. This
information will be displayed on 16X2 LCD. At each and every speed limiting zone it is placed
with IR transmitter and vehicle consists of a receiver to track and automatically reduce the speed
limit in vehicles. Once it crosses the particular area automatically it gains normal speed. We are
using a DC motor for symbolic representation of vehicle.

This project uses regulated 5V, 500mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage
regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac
out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.