THE NEW METAL WORKER PATTERN BOOK

^^KjrBiKn

THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

Arthur H. Memmler 1874-1956

THE NEW

METAL WORKER
PATTERN BOOK
A TREATISE

ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF PATTERN CUTTING AS APPLIED TO SHEET METAL WORK.

BY GEO. W. KITTREDGE.

.

NEW YORK:
232-238 WILLIAM STREET.

DAVID WILLIAMS COMPANY,
1901.

THE NEW METAL WORKER PATTERN BOOK,
COPYRIGHTED, 1896, BY DAVID WILLIAMS.

THE METAL WORKER PATTERN BOOK,
COPYRIGHTED,
l88l, BY

DAVID Wll.LlAMS.

GIFT

CONTENTS,
PAGE.
Introduction
9

CHAPTER
Terms and
Definitions

I.

ALIMIABETIOAL LlST OF TERMS

-

-

15

CHAPTER
Drawing Instruments and Materials

II.

17

CHAPTER
Linear Drawing
-

III.

CHAPTER
Geometrical Problems

IV.

CONSTRUCTION OF REGULAR POLYGONS
TIIK KLLIVSE TIIK

-

43
. -

59

VOLUTE

-

-

-

-

-

67

CHAPTER
Principles of Pattern Cutting

V.
71
-

PARALLEL KOKMS

72
-

REGULAR TAPERING KOKMS
IRREGULAR KOKMS
-

79 86

CHAPTER
Pattern Problems
SECTION SECTION SECTION
1.

VI.
-

96
('

PARALLEL FORMS (MITEK CUTTING)

2.

REGULAR TAVKRING FORMS (FLARING WORK)
IRREGULAR FORMS (TKIAXGULATION)
-

240

3.

306

Index of Problems

421

766

the benefit of those

FOR well

who may contemplate
for

making- use of this work, wholly or in part,

it

is

to lay before

them

at the outset a general statement of the plan

upon which

it is

written,

together with some advice

the use and study of

the same, which

A under any of the several headings comprising the subject matter. From tents immediately preceding will give at once a clear idea of its scope and arrangement. this it will be seen that the first five chapters are theoretical or educational in their nature,
devoted to practical work; and further, that the book does not presume upon anv previous technical knowledge upon the part of the beginner, but aims to place before
while the last chapter
is

may not properly belong glance at the table of con-

him

in

the
in

preliminary chapters
the last chapter,

all

that

is

necessary to a thorough

understanding of the work

performed

which constitutes the bulk of the book.
the

A

very important feature of

work

is

the classification of

the problems.

The forms

for

which patterns mav be required are divided, according to the methods employed in developing their surfaces, into three classes, and the problems relating to each are arranged in three corresponding sections of the
last chapter,

thus bringing near together those in which principles and
is

methods are

alike.

In Chapter

V

(Principles of Pattern Cutting) this classification

defined and

the principles governing each class are explained and illustrated under three sub-headings of the
chapter.

The

third

subdivision
a subject

treats

of

the

method

of

developing the surfaces
treated
in

of

irregular

forms by
cutting.

Triuiir/ulation,

not

heretofore

systematically

any work on

pattern

A

chapter on drawing (Chapter III) has been prepared for the benefit of the pattern cutter

especially interested in cornice wcrk, and
tectural draftsman, this chapter will render

though he may not intend to become a finished archi-

him valuable
required in

assistance in reading the original drawings

received from architects, from which
to his

he

is

many

cases to

make new drawings adapted

own

peculiar wants.

The New Metal Worker Pattern Book,
pattern cutting,
is

besides being a systematic treatise on the principles of

also valuable as a reference

book

of pattern
is

convenience, and be read independently of the others so that the student whose time is limited can turn to any portion of the work the title of which promises the information sought, The relative importance of the chapters without feeling that he must read all that precedes it.

on

the subject treated, to be

drawn from

at

problems and as a fund of information so written that each problem, or chapter
;

of descriptive matter, can

depends, of course, upon the individual reader, and will be determined by what he considers his weakest points. However, it is advisable in the study of all works of a scientific nature to begin
at the beginning

and take everything in its course. continued progressively from the first, much advantage

If,

therefore, the study of this

work can be

will

be gained.

The statement

of each

problem

in

prominent type appears at the head of the demonstration,

iv

Tlie

Neiv Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

and every problem is numbered, by which arrangement the problems are well separated from each other and easily found.

While each demonstration
into detail

is

considered complete in

itself,

some

are necessarily carried farther

than others, and references arc made from one problem to another, pointing out similarity

of principle,

where such comparison would be advantageous to one who

is

looking for principles

rather than for individual solutions.

In preparing the diagrams used to illustrate the solutions of the problems, forms have been

chosen which are as simple in outline as the case will admit, upon the supposition that the reader will be able to make the application of the method described in connection with the same to his own
especial case,

small scale

which may embody more complicated forms. It must also be noted that, owing to the to which the drawings in this work are necessarily made, extreme accuracy in the
is

operations there performed

impossible.

In

many

instances the length of

the spaces used

in

dividing the profiles

is

much

too great in proportion to the

amount

of curvature to insure accuracy.

Therefore

if

apparent errors in measurements or results are found, they must not be considered the

fault of the

system taught.

If

such errors arc discovered the student
in

is

recommended

to reconstruct

the drawing upon his

own drawing board

accordance with the demonstration given and to a scale

sufficiently large to insure accurate results, before passing

judgment.
the basis,

In the preparation of this to a

book, the former Metal

Worker Pattern Book has been made
of the

certain extent,

of the

new work.*

Such problems or portions

former work as were

found satisfactory have been assigned to their proper places in the new work without change. In most of the problems, however, the demonstrations have been revised and the drawings accompanying them have been amended or corrected in accordance with the text, and in many cases
the case of
entire

new drawings have been made.

To

these have been added a large

number
MHul

of

new problems
since the
also

based upon inquiries and solutions that have appeared in the columns of

Tin-

WrL-<'i-

former work was published.

Much new

explanatory matter not

in

the former

work has

been

added

in

the preliminary chapters, prominent
in

among which

are Chapter III, and the principles of

Triangulation

Chapter V. p]special care has been taken
it

in

the composition of the book to have each engraving and the

text referring to

arranged, as far as possible, on the same page or upon facing pages, so as to

obviate the necessity of turning the leaf in making references.

A

great advantage

is

gained over the former work by the classification and numbering of the

problems, which, in connection with the table of contents, renders any desired subject or problem
easily found.

In regard to the system of reference letters

employed

in the

drawings,

it

should be said that the
in

same

letter

has been used so far as possible to represent any given
it

point

the several views or
in

positions in which
fully

may

occur, the superior figure or exponent

being changed

each view.

To

comprehend

this

the reader

must carry
a

in

mind

the concrete idea of the

form under consideralie

tion, just as

though he held in his hand

perfect completed model of the same, which

turned

this

way

or that to obtain the several views given.

Any

point, therefore,

be marked by a letter A, would be designated in one of the views as A 2 etc., or as A', A", places where it might appear it would be designated as A
1

which might on the model A. while in other views or
etc.

,

,

In the

The author of this book, George W. Kittredge, prepared the drawings and outlined the but a few of the less important problems in The Metal Worker Pattern Book, which was published in 1881, and also prepared portions of. the introductory chapters of that wcrk.
demonstrations of
all

* Publisher's Note.

Introduction*

solution of problems by triangulation, dotted lines arc alternated

w-itli

solid linos, as lines of meas-

urement, merely Occasions arise

for the
in

sake of distinction and
the experience of

to facilitate the

work.

every pattern cutter wherein some portion of the work
is

before him, of relatively small importance,
strietly

development of its pattern by a accurate method would involve more labor and time than would be justified by the value
BO situated
It is

that the

of the part wanted. ing the

the purpose of this work to teach the principles of pattern cutting, leavsuch questions to the individual. Nevertheless, if one is thoroughly conversant with pattern cutting methods and familiar with pattern shapes it may be possible in such
decision
of

cases to obtain accurately the principal points of a required pattern

and

to

complete the same by the
explicit than others.

eye with sullicient accuracy for all practical purposes.

As intimated above, some work

of the demonstrations are' necessarily

made more

In the longer demonstrations and those occurring near the ends of the Sections, less important details x
of

the

described in

sometimes omitted and certain parts of the operation arc only hinted at or are a general way, upon the supposition that the simpler problems in which the demonare

strations are carried further into detail

would naturally be studied
fair

first.

Although the principles
intricate,
it

of pattern cutting here set forth

may

at times

be regarded as somewhat

is

believed that any one possessed of a

degree of intelligence

and application can

easily master them.

Notwithstanding the great care which has been used in the preparation of this work, it is Should errors be discovered by any into its columns. possible that errors mav have found their way
of
its

readers, information of such will be gladly received.

CHAPTER

I.

by

its

Pattern cutting as applied 1<> sheet-metal work. verv nature, involves ilic application <i{ geo-

faces of solids,
as

the

and may be more accurately described development <>f .<,////;<<<*, under which name its

metrical principles.
in

Any

treatise

on descriptive geom-

the principles that general way etry presents enter into the science of pattern cutting. To those who have had the advantages of a mathematical education
a
all

principles are now being taught to a great extent in schools of practical instruction. Articles made from sheet metal are hollow, being only shells, and must,
therefore, be considered in the process of pattern cutting as though they wen.' the coverings or casings

these principles are well
plication
is

known and

l>v

such their ap-

easily

made.

For the benefit of those,

who have not had such advantages, this work to make specilic purposes application of those princihowever,
readily understood bv the mechanic. While throughout the work the use of an unnecessarv number of technical terms and words not in common use among mechanics will be carefullv avoided, it must
ples in a

stripped from solids of the same shape. Point is that which has place or position with3. out magnitude, as the intersection of two lines or the

A

way

to

lie

center of a circle

;

it

is

usually represented to the eye

by

u small dot.

LINES.
4.

A

Line

is

be here noted

that which has length merely, and

that

precise ln</ii<i</f

in

describing
a

all

geometrical figures and operations becomes

may

be straight or curved.
5.

necessity,

A

Straight Line, or, as

it

is

sometimes

and therefore compels the employment of some terms not in the every day vocabulary of the workshop, which it is to delinc ami explain at the outset. As proper
the language of the workshop is usuallv far from accurate and varies with the locality, student of

called, a

right line, is the shortest line that

can be drawn between

two given points. Straight lines are generally designated by letters or figures at their extremities, as B,

A

Fig.

1.
(i.

every

A

Curved Line

is

this

introductory chapters for the purpose of increasing and improving his vocabulary, and of enabling him to more
readily

greatly to his advantage to give careful attention to this and the other
it

book

will lind

tion at every point, or

one which changes its direcone of which no portion, how-

Fig. 1

A S
It

raight Line.

Comprehend

The

list

the demonstrations in the pages following. of terms herein defined has not been restricted
rccpiireniciits of

ever small,

is

straight.

is

therefore longer than a
points.

to the barest

the book, but has been

straight line connecting the

same

Curved

lines

belonging to plain geometry, and such architectural terms as are usually met with in problems relating to cornice work. The terms are arranged first logically, in classes, after which
follows an alphabetical be readily found.
1.
list

made

to include nearly all the terms

by which an v definition can

Geometry

is

that branch of mathematics which
Fiy.

2.

Curved Lines.

treats of the relations, properties
lines, angles, surfaces
i'.

and measurements of
are designated by letters or figures at their extremities and at intermediate ~R C or I) K ', points, as

and

solids.

Cutting is founded upon those principles of geometry which relate to the sur-

Sheet-Metal Pattern

A

1

I

l-'iu'.

2.

7.

Parallel Lines are those

which have no

inclina-

tion to cadi other, being

everywhere equidistant.

A

in

Lines are perpendicular 11. Perpendicular Lines. each other when the angles on either side ol the
Vertical and horizontal

B

and

A

1

B' in Fig. 3 are parallel straight lines, and -B
-B

point of meeting are equal.
lines are

to each other, but perare not always vertical and horizontal, pendicular but may be at any inclination to the horizon, provided

always perpendicular
line.s

that the angles tion are equal.
said to
C'
Fig.
3.
D'

on either side of the point of intersecIn Fig. 5, C F, D II and E G are Also in Fig. G, be perpendicular to A B.

Parallel Lines.

G D and can never meet though produced to infinity. C' D' are parallel curved lines, being arcs of circles
which have a common center.
Horizontal Lines are lines parallel to the horiHorizontal Line in a drawing is indizon, or level. cated by a line drawn from left to right across the
8.

A

paper, as

A

B

in Fig. 4.

B
Fig.
6.

F
Perpendicular Lines.

C D and E F

are perpendicular to Line? perB. to the same line are parallel to each other, pendicular as C F and H, Fig. 5, which are perpendicular

A

D

to
Horizontal

A

B.
12.

Fig.

4.

Names of Lines by
lines

Direction.

linos

An Angle is the opening between two straight which meet one another. An angle is commonly

designated by three letters, the letter designating the
9.

Vertical

Lines are

parallel

to a

plumb

line

Vertisuspended freely in a still atmosphere. cal Line in a drawing is represented by a line drawn up and down the paper, or at right angles to a horizontal line, as E C in Fig. 4. 10. Inclined or Oblique Lines occupy an intermediate between horizontal and vertical lines, as C D,
B

A

point in which the straight lines containing the angle

meet being between the other two

letters, as

the angle

BCD,

Fig. 4.

13. Right Angle. 'When a straight line meets another straight line so as to make the adjacent angles equal to each other, each angle is a right angle, and the straight lines are said to be perpendicular to each
Fig.
5.

A

Perpendicular Lines.

other.
14.

(See

C B E
or

or

C B D,
is

Fig. 7.)

An

Acute Angle

an angle less than a right
Fig. 7.
is

which converge toward each other produced, would meet or intersect, are said to incline to each other.
Fig. 4.
lines

Two

and which,

if

angle, as 15.

A BD
An

ABC,
E, Fig.

Obtuse Angle

an angle greater than
7.

a

right angle, as

AB

7'rrrnx

uml

Definitions.

3

STRAIGHT SIDED FIGURES.
16.

A

Surface

is

that

which

has length
if

and

breadth without thickness. 1 7. Plane is a surface such that

25. An Isosceles Triangle is one in which two of the sides are equal. (Fig. 9.) 26. Scalene Triangle is one in which the three

A

A

any two of

points be joined by a straight line, such line will be wholly in the surface. Every surface which is not a
its

sides are of different lengths. (Fig. 10.) 27. Right-Angled Triangle is one in

A

which one
its

of the angles

is

a right angle.

(Fig. 11.)
is

plane
I'l-rri'd

surface,
surface.

or

composed

of

plane surfaces,
is

is

a

28.

An

Acute-Angled Triangle

one which has

18.

A

Single Curved Surface

one

in

certain points

may be

joined

by

straight lines

which only which

three angles acute. (Fig. 12.) 29. An Obtuse-Angled Triangle

is

one which has

an obtuse angle.

(Fig 13.)

Fig. IS.

An Acute-Angled
Triangle.

Fig.

IS.

An

Obtuse-Angled

Triangle.

Fig.

8.

An Equilateral

Triangle.

Fig.

9.

An

Isosceles Triangle.

B B
Apex orVcrtX

Base
B

Fig.
Fig. 10.

14.

Names of the Sides of a

Fig. IS.

Names of

the Parts

A

Scalene Triangle.

Fig. 11

Right-Angled Triangles.

Right- Angled Triangle.

of a Triangle.

shall lie

wholly in

its

surface.

The rounded

surface of

a cylinder or cone is a single curved surface. Double Curved Surface is one in which no 19.

A

is the longest side in a rightor the side opposite the right angled triangle, angle. C, Fig. 14.

30.

A

Hypothenuse

A

two points can be joined by
in its surface.
is

a straight line lying

wholly

31.

The Apex The Base The

of a triangle of a triangle

is its

upper extremity,

The

surface of a sphere, for example,

as B, Fig. 15.

It is also called vertex.
is

a

double curved surface.
20.

32.

the line at the bottom.

A
all

Plane Figure

nated on
21.

A

a portion of a plane termilines either straight or curved. sides by Rectilinear Figure is a surface bounded by
is

B C and A
33.

C, Figs. 14 and 15.
Sides of a triangle are the including lines. and B C, Figs. 14 and 15.

A
to
is

C,

A
34.

B

straight lines.

(See Figs. 8, 16, 21, etc.) 22. Polygon is the general name applied to all rectilinear figures, but is commonly applied to those

having more than- four sides. in which the sides are equal.
23.

A

The Vertex is the point in any figure opposite and furthest from the base. The vertex of an angle the point in which the sides of the angle meet. B,
The

regular polygon is one

A

Triangle

is

a flat surface

bounded by three

Altitude of a triangle is the length of a let fall from its vertex to its perpendicular base, as

Fig. 15. 35.

B

straight lines.

24.

An

Equilateral Triangle
(Fig. 8.)

(Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, etc.) is one in which the

D, Fig. 15,
36.

A

three sides are equal.

four straight lines.

Quadrilateral figure is a surface bounded by There are three kinds of Quadri-

Tlie

\'.'-

M' "/.</

Pattern Bool".

laterals:

Tlie Trapezium,

tin-

T rape/old and
its

the J'ar-

411.

A
An

Heptagon
Octagon

is

a plane

figure of seven sides.

allelo<rram.

37.
(Fig.

Tlio Trapezium has no t\vui>f

sides parallel.
sides parallel.

47.

is

a plane a

figure of eight sides.

n;.)

38.

The

Trapezoid has only two of

its

(Pig. 25.) 4S.

A A

Decagon

is

plane

figure

of

ten

sides.

(Fig. IT.) 3i. Tlu- Parallelogram has
allel.

(Fig. 2<>.)
its

opposite sides par-

49.

Dodecagon

is

a

plane figure of twelve sides.
the line or lines

There are four
the

varieties of parallelograms:

The
till-

(Fig. 27.)
5<i.

Rhomboid,
Square.

Rhombus,

the

Rectangle

and

The Perimeter is

bounding any

figure, as

AB

C U

E, Fig. 22.

6

Fig.

16.

A

Trapezium.

Fig.

17.

A

Trapezoid.
Fig. 22.

A Pentagon.

Fiy. 23.

A

Hexagon.

Fig. 24.

A Heptagon.

Fig. 15. Fig.
IS.

An

Octagon.

Fig. 26

A

Decagon.

Fig.

S7.A Dodecagon.

A

Rhomboid.

Fig. 19.

A Rhombus or

Lozenge.

Fig. tO.

An Equiangular Parallelogram Called a Rectangle.

Fig.

il.An

Equiangular

and Equilateral Parallelogram Called a Square.

A~
Fig. 28.

Diagonals.

'.

29.

A

Circle.

40.

Tlie

equal, the length and width being

Rhomboid has onlv the opposite sides different and its
(Fig. IS.)

51.
site

A Diagonal

is

a straight line joining

two oppo-

angles of a figure, as

AB

and C D, Fig. 28.

angles are not right angles.
41.

The FhombUS, Lozenge
of

or

diamond
(Fig.

is

a

rhomwhose

CIRCLES AND THEIR PROPERTIES.
plane figure bounded by a curved (Fig. -''.) line, everywhere equidistant from its center. The term cirele is also used to designate the boundary
52.
Circle
is

boid

all

whose

sides are equal.
is

I'.'.)

A

a

42.

The Rectangle

a

parallelogram

all

of

(Fig. 20.) angles are right angles. 43. The Square is an equilateral rectangle.

(Fig.

line.

(See also Circumference
53.

)

21.)

The Circumference

of a circle

is

the boundary

44.

A

Pentagon

is

a

plane figure of live sides.
of

line of the figure.
.~>4.

(Fig. 22.)

The Center

(Fig. 29.) of a circle

is

a point within the
its

45.

A

Hexagon

is

a plane

figure

six

sides

circumference equally distant from every point in
circumference, as

(Fig. 23.)

A,

Fig. 29.

Terms and Definitions.
55.

The Radius

of a circle

is

a line ilra\vn

from

dicnlar

to

the

radium drawn
I)

to

the
to

point
!'

of

tan-

the center to any point in the circumference, as A 15. The plural of radius Fig. ait, that is, half the diameter.
is rinlii.

gency. to F 15.

Tims K

is

perpendicular

Hand A

56.

The Diameter
('
I),

of a

circle

is

any straight

line

drawn through the renter
cumference, as
57.
Fig.
is

to opposite points of the cirL'!.

A

Semicircle

the half of a cirele,

and

is

Fig. 35. -Tangents.

64. Concentric circles are those

which are described

about the same center.
65.
Dismeter

(Fig. 36.)

B
Fiy. SI

Eccentric circles are those which are described
(Fig. 37.) are inscribed in, or circumscribed by, Polygons

Fig

SO.

A
'

Semicircle.

about different centers.
Stymints.
a

66.

bounded
(Fig. 3i.)
.V>.

liv

half the circumference and

diameter

A Segment
oil'

of a circle

is

face

cut

l.v a

straight line, as

anv part of its surA K 15 and C F D

Fig- 31.
.V.i.

An

Arc of

a circle

is

any part of the circumFig.
3:2.

ference, as

ABE

and C F

I),

Fiy. S6.

-

Concentric Circles.

Fig
all

-17

Eccentric Circles.

circles

when

the vertices of
(Fig. 3s.)
is

their angles are in

the

circumference.
67.

A

circle

inscribed

in a

straight-sided figure

when

tangent to all sides. (Fig. 3!t.) All regular may be inscribed in circles, and circles may polygons
it is

Fig.

fig

Arcs and Chords.

Fiij.

.:.',.

Sec/o

.1.

(!<t.

A

Chord

is

a straight line joining the extrem-

ities of

an arc. as

A

E and C D,
a circle is

Fig.

3:2.

61.

A
A A

Sector of
radii

the space included be-

tween two

A C

15

and

D C

K. Fig. 33,
is

and the arc which they intercept, as and B C. Fig. :!4.

A

62.

Quadrant
a

a sector

whose area
C. Fig. 34.)

is

equal to

one-fourth of the circle.
radii

(B

A

The two
is

Fig.

.

An

In'C'ibed Tiiangle.

Fig

3!).

-An

Inscribed Circle.

bounding
ti:i.

quadrant are at right angles. Tangent to a circle or other curve

a
1)

in the polygons hence the which polygons may lie constructed.

be inscribed

;

facility

with

straight line

which touches

it

at only

one point, as K
is

and

A

(_'.

Fig. 35.

Every

tangent to a circle

perprn-

>S. A Degree. The circumference of a circle is considered as divided into 3t>< equal parts, called i/cr/rei-a

Neiu Metal

Worker Pattern

ffook.

(marked (marked
')

).
;

Each degree

is

divided into 60 minutes

and each minute into 60 seconds (marked "). the circle be large or small the number of divisions is always the same, a degree being equal to

intercept a portion of ber of degrees given.
40,
is

the

circle equal to the

numFig.

Thus

the angle

AE

II,

Thus

if

an angle of 60. In the measurement of angles the circumference of the circle, and in the various by mathematical calculations based thereon, use is made
of certain lines

known

as circular functions,

always

liearing a fixed relationship to the radius of the circle

and to each other, which gives rise to a number of terms, some of which, at least, it is desirable for the
pattern cutter to understand.
69. The Complement of an arc or of an angle is the difference between that arc or angle and a quadIn Fig. 41, D B is the complement of B D C, rant.

A

and

vice versa.

To.

The Supplement

of an arc or of an angle

is

the

difference between that arc or angle

and a semicircle.

Fig. 40.

A

Circle Divided into Degrees for

Measuring Angles.

is

part of the whole circumference equal to 180 and the quadrant to

;

the semicircle

90.

The

radii

drawn from the center

of a circle to the extremities of

a quadrant are always at right angles with each other; a right angle is therefore called an angle of 90 (A E

B, Fig. 40).
line, it

If a right angle be bisected by a straight divides the arc of the quadrant also into two

equal parts,

each being equal to one-eighth of the

whole circumference, or 45, (A E F and FEE, Fig. 40) if the right angle were divided into three equal divide the arc into parts by straight lines, it would
;

Fig.

4$.

Diagram Showing the Circular Functions or Angle A C H. of the Arc A

H

In Fig. 42,
vice versa.

BDC

is

the supplement of
is

A

I)

B, and

three equal parts, each containing 30 H, E B, Fig. 40). Thus the degrees of the circle are

(AEG, G E

H

71.

The

Sine of an arc

a straight line
to a

from one extremity perpendicular
the other extremity of the arc. 72. The Co-Sine of an arc
is

drawn radius drawn to

(II

B, Fig. 43.) the sine of the comis

plement of that H. arc

arc.

H
Of

K,

Fig.

4:1.

the sine of the

A

73.

The Tangent

an Arc

is

a line

which touches

Fig. 41.

Complement.

Fig. 42.

Supplement.

the arc at one extremity, and is terminated by a line passing from the center of the circle through the other

extremity of the arc.

In Fig. 43,

AE

is

the tangent

used to measure angles, therefore by an angle of any number of degrees, it is understood that if a circle with

of

AH
74.

or of the angle

A

C H.

any length of radius be struck with one foot of the compasses in its vertex, the sides of the angle will

the

The Co-Tangent of an arc is the tangent of Thus F G, Fig. 43, is the co-tan complement.

gent of the arc

A

H.

Terms ami
75.
Tlic Secant of an
arc
is

Definitions,

a straight lino drawn

from the center of a circle through one extremity of that arc and prolonged to meet a tangent to the other
(K 0, Fig 48.) extremity of the arc. 70. The Co-Secant of an arc or angle
of the
43. 77. The Versed Sine of an arc is that part of the radius intercepted between the sine and the circumference. (A B, Fig. 43.) 78. An Ellipse is an oval-shaped curve (Fig. 44),
is

In this and the straight lino (CD) the directrix. anv point, as N or M, is equally distant from lignre F ami the nearest point in I>, as II or K. (See defiix.

nition

1

1

'.',.

i

the secant

SO.
in

A

Hyperbola (A B. Fig.
if

4ti) is a

curve from any

complement

of

that arc or angle, as V C, Fig.

point fixed points, their difference shall always be the same. and L is II L. Thus, the difference between E

which,

two straight

lines

be drawn to two

G

G

and the difference between
and

E F

and F

L

is

B L

are equal.

The two.

fixed points,

B L. II L E and L,

are called /oa.

(See definition 113.)

Fig. 44.

.In KlHpse.

Fig. 40.

A

Hyperbola.

Fig.
Fig. 45.

47.Evolute and

Involute.

Fig. 4S.

A

Parabola.

A Triangular Prism.

from any point in which, if straight lines be drawn to two fixed points within the curve, their sum will be
always, the same.

81.

An

Evolute

is

a circle or other curve from

and

II).

These two points are called The line A B, passing through the

foci (F
foci, is

which another curve, called the involute or evolutent, is described by the aid of a thread gradually unwound
from
it.

(Fig. 47.)

called the major or transverse a.r/.s. The line E G, perto the middle of the major axis, and extendpendicular

82.

An

Involute

is

string

wound upon another curve

a curve traced by the end of a or unwound from it.

ing from one side of the figure to the other, is called the minor or conjugate axis. There are various other
definitions of the ellipse

(Fig. 47.)

(See also Prob. 84, Chapter IV.)

besides the one given here,
83.
84.
is

SOLIDS.

dependent upon the means employed for drawing it, which will be fully explained at the proper place

A Solid has length, breadth and thickness. A Prism a solid of which the ends are equal,
parallel straight-sided figures,

among

the problems.

79.

A

(See definition 113.) Parabola (A B, Fig. 45) is a curve in which

similar

and

and of which

any point is equally distant from a certain fixed point and a straight line. The fixed point (F) is called the

the other faces are parallelograms. 85. Triangular Prism is one whose bases or ends

A

are triangles.

(Fig. 48.)

8

n<-

\>->r

.\f't,il

Pattern

*;. A Quadrangular Prism is one whose bases or ends are quadrilaterals. (Fig. 49.) 87. A Pentagonal Prism is one whose bases or ends

97.
l>y
is

A

Truncated Cone

is

a

plane

parallel to its base.
a
/;;/.-//////

one whose apex is out off This 1'iLnire (Fig. .~>7.
)

also called
ti:in<<-<ili<l.

of a cone.
t'>9

A

are pentagons. (Fig. 50.) 88. A Hexagonal Prism
are hexagons.
s'.t.

be
is

(Sec

Figs.

and

pyramid may also ~o and dctinition
a

one whose bases or ends

112.)
9S.

(Fig. 51.)
is
~>~2.

A Pyramid

is

a

solid

having

A Cube
(Fiir.

a
i

prism of

which

all

the

faces arc

base and triangular .sides
apex.

terminating

in

straight-sided one point or

squares.
'.>(>.

Pyramids arc distinguished
JM iitnijnniil.
lir.rni/niiiil.

as /rim n/u/rn-. f/nn</-

der,

is

Cylinde.",or properly sjieakingaCirCUlarCylina round solid of uniform diameter, of which the
circles.

A

i-"ii>//t/ti>;

etc.,

according as the

base has three sides, four sides,
etc.

live sides, six sides.

ends or bases are equal and parallel

(Fig..V!.j

(Figs.

.Vs;.

59 and 60.)

Fig. 49.

A Quadrangular Prism.

Fig. 50.

A

Pent-

Fig. 51.

agonal Prism.

A Hexagonal Prism.

Fig .o. -.1 Ti-iangular Pyramid.

Fig.

'>!>.

.4

Quadran-

gular Pyramid.

Fig.6().An,Octagonal Pyramid.

Fig.

5S.A

Cube.

Fig. 53.

A

Cylinder.

Fig

.14.

A

Cone.
Fig. 61

A Right

Fig.

r,2.

Altitude

Pyramid.

of a Cone.

Fig <;.! Altitude of a Pyramid.

/

BOM
Fig
55.

\
Fig. 56

\
Fig.
r,5

A

Right

Cone.

An Oblique or Scalene Cone.
is

Fig.H7.-A Tiuncated Cone.

fig. r,4.-AUitude

Altitude

Fig. 66.

A

Sphere,

of a Priam.

of a Cylinder.

or Globe.

91.
ellipses.

Aii Elliptical Cylinder

one whose bases are

92.
is

A

Right Cylinder
its

is

one whose curved surface

perpendicular to
93.

bases.
is

Right Pyramid is one whose base is a regular and in which the perpendicular let fall from polygon, the apex upon the base passes _ through the center of This perpendicular is then called the ".'/.-the base.
99. of the pyramid.

A

An

Oblique Cylinder
its

one whose curved surfor its

face

is

inclined to

base.

100.
solid with a circle to

The

(Fig. 61.) Altitude of a

94.

A

Cone

is

a

round

base,

and tapering uniformly

a

point ac the

top

A which the perpendicular from the vertex upon the base passes through the center of the base. This perpendicular is then
let
fall

called the apex. (Fig 54.) 95. Right Cone is one in

length of the perpendicular The altitude of a prism or the plane of the base. cvlinder is the distance between its two bases or ends.
let

pyramid or cone is the fall from the apex to

and

is

measured bv

a

line

drawn from

a

point in one
(Figs.

base perpendicular to the plane of the other.
:,<!.

il-2,

63, 64 and 65.)

called the axin of the cone.
'.<;.

An
is

(Fig. 55.) Obliqe Cone or Scalene Cone
its

lul.
is

The

Slant hight of
to

one

in

which

from
base.

its

apex

the

a pyramid middle of one of

is

the distance
sides at the

its

the axis

inclined to the plane of

base.

(Fig. 5G.)

The

xlimt

///<////

of

a

cone

is

the

distance

Terms mul

Definitions.

from
base.

its

apex

to

any point

in

the eireumference of

its

io

the other.

each other as to appear as though one passes through The intersection of their surfaces forms

l(>'2. A Sphere or Globe is a solid hounded bv a uniformly curved surface, anv point of which is equally

the basis of the greater part of the problems of Chap.

VI.
1
1

distant from a point within the sphere called
(Fig. 66.)

tin-

center.

>.

The Frustum

of a

Cone or Frustum

of a

Pyra-

mid

103.
ligurcs.

A

Polyhedron
Tetrahedron

is

a solid

hounded by plane
vi/,.
:

that portion of the original solid which remains after the apex has been cut away upon a plane parallel
is

There are

live regular
is

polyhedrons,

to the base..
f<> in-

(Figs.

.">".

<i!)

and 7u.)

When

the cut-

104.
equilateral

A A

a .solid
is

hounded by

ting plane

is

oblique to the base of the solid they are
nliliijur

triangles.
(

It

one form of

triangular
six

spoken

of as

frustums.
is a

pyramid.
105.
squares.

(.Fiji.

>7.)
is

113.
a solid

A Conic Section
a cone

curved
a

line

formed by the

Hexahedron

bounded by
is

intersection of

and

plane*.

The

different

The common name
(Fig. 52.)

for this solid

which

see.

conic sections are the triangle, the circle, the ellipse, the parabola and the hyperbola. When the cutting

Fig. 67.

A

Tetra-

Fig. CS.

An

Octa-

hedron.

hedron.

Fig. 69. Frustum of a Scalene Cone. Fig.
72.

A

C

A

Cone Cut by a Plane Parallel to One of Its Sides.

Fig. 73.

A Cone Cut by a Plane Which Makes an Angle with the Base Greater than the A ngle Formed by the Side.

Fig.

70.

Frustum

Fig.

71.

.-1

Cone Cut by a Plane Obliquely

of a Pyramid.

throu'jh Its Opposite Sides.

106.

The Octahedron

is

a solid

bounded by
solid

eight

equilateral triangles.

(Fig. 68.)
is

plane passes obliquely through its opposite sides the resulting figure is called an ellipse. (Fig. 71.) (An
ellipse
is

lo".

The Dodecahedron
is

a

bounded by

twelve pentagons. 108. The Icosahedron
equilateral triangles.

When
a solid

a cone

also an oblique section through a cylinder.) is cut by a plane parallel to one of its
a.

bounded by twenty

sides, the resulting figure is

parabola.

Thus

in Fig.

109.

An

Axis
it

is

body on which
revolve.

a straight line, passing through a revolves, or may be supposed to

72 the cutting plane B is parallel to the side of the cone C D. See definition 79. When the cutting makes a greater angle with the base than the side plane

A

and 61.) 110. By the Envelope of a solid is meant the surface which encases or surrounds it, as the envelope of
(Figs. 55
a

cone.

cone makes, or when it passes vertically through the cone to one side of the axis, the resulting figure is a hyperbola. Thus in Fig. 73 the angle A B C is greater " than the angle See definition 80. The paraof the

ADR.

111. Intersection Of Solids

is a

term used to describe

the condition of solids which are so joined and fitted

bola and hyperbola resemble each other, both beiny incomplete figures, with arms extending indefinitely.

10

Tlie

New

Mrtitl

\\~,,, /.<;

Pallrrn

Book.

The

ellipse is a

complete figure, but of varying prois

has been omitted.
illustration are

portions, as the cutting plane

inclined

more

or less.

114.

Concave means hollowed or curved inward.

The names of parts given in the such as are generally understood l>r architects and cornice makers. The cornice of clasarchitecture

sical

may

contain simply a bed
it

mold,

planceer and crown mold, or
tion, a dentil

may

contain, in addi-

course or a modillion course, or both. 117. The Entablature was used by the ancients to

colonnade (more especially the latter), of three parts, the cornice, the frieze and the architrave. (Fig. 75.)
finish a wall or

and consisted
118.
Fig. 74-

The

Architrave, the

lower division of the

Sections of Curved Surfaces.

entablature, was

in reality a lintel used to span the

said of the interior of an arched surface or curved line in opposition to convex.
(Fig. 74.)
is

space between the columns, but its form was maintained when used above a wall. In modern imitations
of the antique styles the

115.

A
is

Convex surface

one that

is

curved out-

used without the

fascias, in

molded portion which case it
(Fig. 75.)

is is

frequently

regularly protuberant or bulging, when viewed from without. The opposite of convex is concave. (Fig. 74.)

ward, that

known
itrave

as the foot mold.
is

commonly The term arch-

also used to designate the molding and fascias running around an arch or a window opening.

ARCHITECTURAL TERMS.
ordinarily used to designate any molded projection or collection of moldings which finishes or crowns the part to which it is affixed.

119.
is

The

Frieze, the

middle division of the entab-

116.

The term

Cornice

is

lature, really a continuation of the wall surface to add hight and effect to the building, and was originally intended for the display of symbols, inscriptions, orna-

ments, &c., appropriate to the use of the building of

The term

in this sense

is

applicable in all styles of
it is

architecture. In classical architecture, however,

con-

fined to the upper division of the entablature, the

whole

was a part. It is sometimes treated very and sometimes receives considerable ornamenplainly tation, being subdivided into panels or enriched by

which

it

CORNICE

<

ENTABLATURE <

Ti'/-iiis

ii/nl

Definitions.

11

ArCi. Tin curved top of an opening in a wall. Tlio arch of masonry is constructed of separate blocks
120.
1

plan, designed as a support for an entablature. It cona base, a shaft and a capital. sists of three parts
:

and

joint supported only lines between the bloeks are disposed in the direcis

at

the extremities.

The

is a column placed the face of a wall or other surface, from which against

12-2.

An

Engaged Column

Fig. 76.

A

Semicircular Arch.

Fig.

77.

A

Pointed Arch.

Fig. 80.

A

Pilaster.

tion of radii of the curve, thus enabling the arch to support the weight of the wall above the opening.

it

projects one-half or

more than one-half

its

diam-

eter.

When

in classical designs

its

face

is

finished

with

123.

A

Pilaster differs

moldings their proper profile is that of an architrave. The level lines at which the curve of the (Fig. 75.)

square in plan instead of within a wall.
124.

from a column in that it is round and is usually engaged

Sometimes arch begins are called the springing lines. the lower stones of the arch rise vertically a short distance from the supports before the springing lines
are reached, in

(Fig. 80.) Pedastal. structure designed to support a column, statue, vase or other object. It is by some described as the foot of a column, but is, properly

A

which case the arch

is

said to be

stilted.

speaking,

not a part of

it.

It

consists

of

three

Fig. 81.

An Angular

Pediment.

Fig.

78.

A

Moresque Arch.

Fig.

79.-A Flat Arch.
parts, a base, a
a die

Fig. 82.

A

Segmental Pediment.

The

stones composing the arch are called the voussoirs, and the middle or top stone is called the keystone. The

middle portion cubical in shape called and a cap or cornice. It is also used as a finish
ends of a balustrade course.

supports below the ends of the arch are called imposts.

at the

Arches are usually
elliptical,

semicircular

(Fig. 76), semi-

segmental, pointed (Fig. 77) or Moresque (horseshoe) (Fig. 78) in shape, according to the style of architecture with which they are used.

The
to

top of an opening
of

may be

perfectly level and
it is

Fig.

SS.A

Broken Pediment.

yet composed
arch.

wedge-shaped blocks so combined as
called a flat

be self-supporting, in which case
(Fig. 79.)

121.

A

Column

is

a vertical shaft or pillar round in

Pediment is a triangular or segmental orna125. mental facing over a portico, door, window, etc. (Figs. 81, 82 and 83.

A

12
126.
of

TJie

Xeir

Wor/,->

Ifook.

A

Broken Pediment
<>r

is

one. cither
is

in

the

frm
in
its

1:;:;.

A

Cortd

is

a modified form of bracket.

It is

a gable

a

segment, which
for

cni

away

central

portion

the

purpose

of

ornamentation.

used to terminate the lower parts of window caps, and also forms the support for arches, etc., in gothic forms.

(Fig. 83.)
\-2~t.

A

Gable

is

the vertical triangular end of a
to

house or other building, from the cornice or eaves
the top.
I'JS.

A

Lintel Cornice
lintel.

is

a

cornice above or some-

is very generally used to designate the cornice used above the lirst story

times including a

This term

of stores.
1

(Fig. S4.)

2!).

A

Deck Cornice or Deck Molding

is

the cornice

Fig.

S6.A
13-t.

Modillion.

Fiij.

X7.A Head

Block.

A

Fig.

S4.A

Lintel Cornice.

bracket
all tlu>

in

Head Block or Truss is a large terminal a cornice, projecting suflicientl v to receive

to the

moldings against its side, thus forming a finish end of the cornice. (Fig. ST.) 135. A Stop Block is a block-shaped structure, vari-

ously ornamented,

which

is

placed

above the end

Fig. 85.

A

Bracket.

or molding used to finish the edge of a
it

flat

roof where

joins a steeper portion. 130. Bracket, as used

A

in

sheet metal work,

is

Brackets in stone simplv an ornament of the cornice. architecture were originally used as supports of the Hence modern architecture parts coming above them.
has kept up that idea in their designs. 1:51. Modillions are also cornice
differ

(Fig. So.)

ornaments, and
(Fig. 86.)
Fig. 88.

from brackets onlv

in

general shape.

While a bracket has more' depth than projection, modillions have more projection than depth. 132. A Dentil is a cornice ornament smaller than a modillion, which i,i shape usuallv represents a solid
with
plain

A

Stop Mock.

Fig. 89.

A

Pinnacle.

bracket in a'cornice, and which projects far enough to
receive against
its

side the various moldings occurring
linish.

above the brackets, forming an end
136,

(Fig.

*V

i

rectangular
in

face

and

sides.

Dentils are

never used singly, but

courses, the spaces between
(Fig. 76.)

slender turret or part of a elevated above the main building. A small building
is

A

Pinnacle

a

them being

less

than their face width.

spire.

(Fig. s!.)

Definitions.

13
ni'/'l.illinii

137.

A

Finial

is

an ornanie-nt. variously designed,
of
a

she-et

metal work the

lauid. anil
///<////'////,/<

the molding
(Fig.

placed
roof.

at

tlic

apex

pediment, gable,

spire or

immediatelv below them the
7:,.)

nmldiny.

13.s.
iiniii
<>r

Capital.
It

pilaster.

The upper member or head of acolmay vary in character according to
which
it is

147.
dentils

The
all

Dentil Course of a cornice embraces the
tiie

and

moldings

to

which the dentils are
the'/'/////

the style of architecture with

employed, from

attached as ornaments, comprising
ill

Imnd and

a few simple projecting moldings around the top of tincolumn to an elaborately foliated ornament. The lower-

niil nKiii/iiiij.

(Fig. 75.)

'A8ACUS
IVOLUTE

Foot Molding is the common term used to It is freelesignate the lower molding in a cornice. in this connection used in the sense of archiquently
14S.
trave.

(Fig. 75.)

149.

A

Bracket Molding, alsocalh-d bracket

/,<>l, is

the molding around the upper part of a bracket, ami which generally members with the bed molding, against

which
Fig. 00.

it

finishes.

(Fig. 75.)
is

Capitals,
is

150.

A Gable Molding
A
A
Ridge Molding
It
is

an inclined molding which
a

used

in

the finish of a gable.
is

most mold

member
above
is
1:5!).

muld and the uppermost the weight of the lintel or arch sustaining
is

called the

ni'i'l:

151.

mohling used
//'/<//

to

cap or

tinish a rielge.

also culled a

fn/i/i///;/

or sim-

called the

ulnu-ii*.

(Fig. 90.)

Panel.

A sunken compartment having molded
a plane surface', as a frieze ceil-

ply

ridtjiii'j.

152.

Hip Molding

is

a molding

used to protect
It is

cdu'cs used to

ornament

ing, planceer or tvmpanum. be raised instead of sunken.

A

anel finish the hips or angles of

a n>of.

very

fre-

panel may, however,

quently included in the more general term
153.

'''</'//'//.</.

A
A

Fascia

is

a plain

band or surface below

a

or space between the sides of the pane! and the edges of the surface- in which it is placed is usuallv made equal all around and is called the stil<
j

The margin

molding,

or, in

other words, the unornamente-el face of a

.

140.

A Volute

(Fig. 75.) portion of a cornice or architrave. Fillet is a narrow plain member of a mold154.
finish or separate the different forms a a a Fig. 75 are fillets.) (a 155. Drip is a downward projecting member

is

a spiral scroll used as the principal

ing

used to

ornament

of a capital

and

is

placed

under the corners

of the abacus.

For
8i>,

inethe>il of

drawing the volute see

A

Probs. 81 and
14-1.

A

Chap. IV. Molding is an assemblage of forms projevtto

in

a cornice or

in a

molding, used to throw the water
(Fig. 75.)

off

from the other
15(i.
Sollit
is

parts.

ing bevoiid the wall, column or surfaceaffixed.

which

it

is

the term

applied to the under side

Chap. V.) 142. Crown Molding is the term applied to the upper or projecting membe-r of a cornice. (Fig. 75.) 143. Planceer or PlanCher is the ceiling or under
(See
side of the projecting part of a cornice. (Fig. 75.) 144. The Bed Moldings of a cornice are those moldings forming the lower division of the cornice proper, and which are made up of the bed course, modillion

tirst

part of

of a projecting molding, cornice or arch. Sink is a depression in the face of a piece 157.

A

Fig. 91.

Stays.

course and dentil course.
145.

(Fig. 75.)
is

the upper division of the the part with which the bracket heads be-d moldings,

The Bed Course

of

and modillion heads ordinarily correspond, and against which they miter. (Fig. 75.) 14<i. The Modillion Course <>f a cornice embraces the modillions and all the moldings which are imme-

in a plain surface. (See face of bracket Fig. 85, side of modillion, Fig. sti.) 158. Incised Work is a style of ornamentation

work or

e-onsisting of

line-

members and

irregular lines,

sunken

or cut into a plain surface.

(See- side of

bracket Fig.

85.)

The plain surface below them. diately back of and modillions is called in the lying back of or between

Stay of a molding cut in sheet metal. (Fig. lU.)
15!).

The

is its

shape or profile

u

The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.
kinds of projections, viz. Cavalier and Perspective.
explanation
jection.

160. Rake Moldings are those which are inclined, as in a gable or pediment; since to miter a rake mold-

:

Chapter
of

Orthographic, Isometrical, II I is devoted to an

ing with a level return under certain conditions necessitates a change or modification of profile in one or
the other of the moldings
to

of

the

principles

orthographic pro-

rake

means

to

make such

change of
161.

profile.

A Raked Molding, therefore, is a term describ-

1

Fig.
Fig. 92.

94.

Section

of House on Line
Elevation.

Elevation of a Hoiise.
is

A B of Plan and
167.

ing a molding of which the profile some other profile.
162.
profile

a modification of
I

or Raked Stay describes the which has been derived from another or stay

A Raked Profile
by

a geometrical projection of a building or other object on a plane perpendicular to the horizon. (Fig. 92.)
is

An

Elevation

profile or stay,

like that of mitering a horizontal

certain established rules, in a process and inclined molding
Profile or

the representation of the ]utrts as they would appear if cut by a horizontal plane. (Fig.
is

168.

A

Plan

93.)

together. 163.

169.

A

Section

is

The Normal

Normal Stay

is

the

appear

if

cut in two

a view of the object as it would by a given vertical or horizontal

original profile or stay from which the raked profile or stay has been derived.
B

In the one case the resulting view plane. (Fig. 94.) is called a vertical section, and in the other a horizontal

Fig. 9$.

Plan of a House.
section.

fig. 05.

Perspective View of House.

a projecting edge by which a piece is strengthened or fastened to anything. 165. Hip is the external angle formed by the
164.

A A

Flange

is

Oblique sections are representations of objects

cut at various angles. 170. Perspective

A

is

meeting have their wall plates running in different directions.

of

two sloping sides or

skirts of a roof

which

ing or other object

upon

a representation of a builda plane surface as it would

appear

DRAFTING TERMS.
166. Projection

viewed from a particular point. (Fig. 9o.) Detail Drawing or Working Drawing is a 171. drawing, commonly full size, for the use of mechanics
if

A

drawing which
plans, sections

that department of geometrical treats of the drawing of elevations,
is

in

constructing work. Scale Drawing 172.

A

is

one made of some scale

and perspective views.

There are four

less

than

full size.

Ti.'i-inx

an'/.

Definitions.

15

173.

A A

Miter

is

a joint in a molding, or between
at

two pieces not moldings,
17i.

Butt Miter
of

is

any angle. the term applied to the cut
molding
to
lit

17S. An Octagon Miter is a miter joint between two sides of a regular octagon, or between any two
pieces at an angle of
1

135.

made upon the end

a

it

against

applied to the miter either at the peak or at the foot of the moldings of a gable or pediment.
176.
ings,

another molding or against a surface. Gable Miter is the name 175.

Inside Miter indicates a joint at an interior or re-entrant angle.
7'.i.

An

A
A

180.
angle. 181.
of finding,

An

Outside Miter

is

a

joint at an exterior

The Development
from a drawing

of a surface

is

the process

one of

Rake Miter is a miter between two moldwhich lias undergone a modification of

prolile to

admit of the joint being made. 177. Square Miter is the common term for a

or pattern upon a flat bent or formed as indicated by that drawing, will constitute its envelope or, in other words, the stretching
;

rounded form, a shape surface which, when cut out and
of a

joint at right angles, or at

90.

out

flat

of a surface

shown by

a drawing to be curved.

Alphabetical List
In the following
to the
list

all

words are arranged
:

in alphabetical order, the figure following each referring

number

of the definition in the list preceding

Abacus Acute Angle
Altitude
35,

138
14

Cone, Truncated Conic Section

97
113 115 133

Entablature

117

100
12

Convex
Corbel

Envelope Evolute
Eccentric

no
81

Keystone' Line
Line,

120

4

Curved

6
8
10

Angle
Angle, Right
Angle, Acute

65
153

13

14
15
'

Cornice Co- Sine

116

Fascia
Fillet

72 76

154
137
:

Line, Horizontal Line, Inclined or Oblique.. Lines, Parallel

7

Angle, Obtuse

Co-Secant

Finial

Line, Perpendicular Line, Straight Line, Vertical
Lintel Cornice

n
5

Apex
Arc Arch
Architrave
.

31

59 120
1

Co-Tangent Crown Molding Cube
Cylinder
Cylinder, Elliptical Cylinder, Oblique

74
142

Flange Foot Molding
Frieze

148,

164 118
119 112
127 175 150
I

9
128
41 173
131

89 90
91

18

Frustum
Gable Gable Miter Gable Molding

Lozenge
Miter
Modillion Modillion Course

Axis Base

109
32.

121,

124
145

93

Bed Course Bed Moldings
Bracket

Cylinder, Right

92 48
129

146
141

144

130 149 126
174 138 54

Decagon Deck Cornice
Degree
Dentil

Geometry
Globe

102

Bracket Molding

68
132 147
I7t

Head Block
Heptagon

134

Broken Pediment
Butt Miter
Capital

46
45
105
165

Molding Neckmold Normal Profile Oblique Cone
Oblique Cylinder Obtuse Angle

138
163

96
93
15

Dentil Course
Detail

Center

Drawing Development
Diagonal Diameter Die

Hexagon Hexahedron
Hip Hip Molding
Hyperbola Hypothenuse
Icosahedron

181
51

Chord
Circle

60
52 53

152

56
124

80
30 108
120

Octagon Octagon Miter Octahedron
Outside Miter
Panel

47
178 106
180

Circumference Circumscribed

66
121
,

Column
Complement Concave
Concentric

Dodecagon Dodecahedron
Drip
Elevation
Ellipse
Elliptical

49
107
155 167

139

Impost
Incised

Parabola
Parallelogram Pedestal

79

69
114

Work

158
66, 6-

39
124 125 126

Inscribed
Inside Miter Intersection of Solids

Cone
Cone, Oblique or Scalene..

64 94
96

78

1/9

Pediment
Pediment. Broken

Cylinder

91
121

in
82

Engaged Column

Involute

Pentagon

44

16
Perimeter
Perspective
Pilaster

Tlie

Xc/c Metal

\Vorker Pattern Book.

50 i/o
123

Radius

Pinnacle

Plan Planccer

136 168
143
17

Rake Rake Miter Hake Moldings Raked Molding Raked Profile
Rectangle
Rectilinear Figure

55 160
I/O 160
161

Sector

61

Surface, Single Curved....

18

Segment
Semicircle

58
57
121

Shaft
Sides of a Triangle

Tangent Tangent of an Arc Tetrahedron

63
73 104

33
157
71

Trapezium
Trapezoid
Triangle
Triangle, Aeute- Angled.
Equilateral Triangle, Isosceles
'triangle,
.

37

162
4-'

Sink
Sine
Slant Hight
Soffit

38
23 28 24 25
.

Plane Plane Figure Point

20
3

21

101

.

Polygon Polyhedron Prism
Prism, Hexagonal Prism, Pentagonal Prism, Quadrangular Prism, Triangular
Projection

22
103

Rhomboid Rhombus
Ridge Right Right Right Right
Scale

40
41
151

156

Solid

83
102 120

84 88
87 86
85 166

Molding Angle Cone
Cylinder Line

13

95

92
5

Sphere Springing Line Square Square Miter
Stay
Stile

Triangle, Obtuse-Angled. Triangle, Right- Angled. Triangle. Scalene

29
27 26

..

43
177

159
139 120
135

Right Pyramid

99
172

Drawing

Stilted

Pyramid
Pyramid. Right Quadrant
Quadrilateral

98 99
(12

Scalene Cone Scalene Triangle Secant
Section

96 26
75

Stop Block

Supplement
Surface
Surface, Double Curved..
.

70
16 19

Truncated Cone Truncated Pyramid Truss Versed Sine Vertex Volute Vmissoir

97
97
134

77 34
140

120
171

36

169

Working Drawing

CHAPTER

II.

To
tin: lirst

the person about to liegiu ;i new occupation consideration is, what tools and materials does

one draftsman or pattern cutter will require the whole table, but for ordinary work, such as window caps,
cornices, etc., two men can work at it without interfering w,ith or incommoding each other.

lie need ? In the following description of the appliances, tools and materials likely to be of service to the pattern cutter in the class of work in which he is sup-

interested, the description is limited posed to articles of general use. Those who are interested
in

to he the

most

Various woods may be used for drawing tables, but white pine is the cheapest and best for the purInch and one-half to two-inch stuff will be pose.

drawing

tools

and materials upon a broader basis

found economical,

as

it

allows for frequent redressing

than here presented are referred to special treatises on drawing and to the catalogues of manufacturers and dealers in drawing materials and drawing instruments.
Drafting: Tables.

made necessary by pricking in the process of pattern Narrow stuff, tongued and grooved together cutting.
or joined

by

glue,

is

preferable to wide plank, as

it is

A

drafting table suitable for a

johbing shop .should be about five feet in length and It is better to have a three to four feet in width.
table,

somewhat too
it

large, than

to

have one so small

that
in.

frequently inadequate for work that comes In hight the table should be such that the draftsis

man, as he stands up,
ID his

may

not be compelled to stoop
it.

work.

While

for

some reasons

is

desirable

that the table should be fixed

upon a strong frame and for convenience such tables are generally made legs, Two horses are used for supports and a portable.
movable drawing board
is

hung by

for the top. shallow drawer cleats fastened to the under side, and is ar-

A

Fig. 96.

Drafting Table.

ranged for pulling either way.

Sometimes horizontal

less liable to warp.

Eods run through the

table edge-

pieces are fastened to the legs of the horses, and a shelf or shelves are formed by laying boards upon

ways, as

shown

in Fig. 96, are desirable

for

drawing

them.

Fig. 96

shows such a table

as is here described.

the parts together and holding them in one compact The nut and washer are sunk into the edge of piece.

When

properly made, using heavy rather t'han light

material, such a table is quite solid and substantial, and when not in use can be packed away into a very

the table, a socket wrench being used to operate them. drafting table should be an accurate rectangle

A

small space. For cornice makers' use, a table similar in construction to the one described and illustrated (Fig. 96)
is

every corner should be a right angle, and The edges the opposite sides should be parallel.
that
is,

should be exactly straight throughout their length. Methods of testing drafting tables and drawing boards,
with reference to these points, are given below. usual way of adjusting a table or board to make
curate
is
is

.

well adapted.

Its

ing

the

extremes

dimensions, however, considerof work that are likely to arise,

The
it

acthis

live feet in breadth.

ihould be twelve to fourteen feet in length by about Three horses are necessary, aud

to plane off

its

edges as required.

But

two drawers may be suspended.

For very large work,

It requires the a task less simple than it appeal's. nicest skill and accuracy to render it at all satisfactory.

18

Tlu:

\<-iv

Metal

Worker Pattern

llouk.

remembered that 110 matter how well seasoned the lumber employ ed may he the table will be affected by even slight changes in the atmosphere, it

"When

it

is

ing board, consisting of a pine

wood

edges with a plane, under certain circumstances, might be constantly reFor great accuracy, adjustable metal strips quired. be fastened to the edges of the table in such a may
is

apparent that dressing

off the

wood top with hardledges are put on by means of a dovetail, tapering probably one-half inch in the width of the board, so that while allowing entire freedom for
ledges.

The

manner

that,

by simply turning

a few screws,

any
arFig.
97.

variation in the table

maybe

compensated.

This

rangement
ner:

maybe

The edge

of the table

accomplished in the following manon all sides is cut away so

Drawing Board, with Ledges.

as to allow a bar of steel, say one-eighth or one-six-

teenth of an inch thick and about an inch wide, to lie in the cutting, so that its surface is even with the face
of the table, with its outer edge projecting somewhat beyond the edge of the table. Slotted holes are made
in the table

seasoning there is no danger of cracking the board, and they may be driven tight as required. "Where it
the ledges they arc passed through slotted holes furnished with a metallic bushis

desirable to use screws

in

ing.

through which bolts with heads counter-

In Fig. 98

sunk

into the metal are passed for holding the steel washer and nut are used on the under side strips.

which

is

simpler form of board. ilardadapted only for the smallest sizes,
is
still

shown a

A

of the table.

very
the

slight.

The adjustment required is, of course, The edge of the metal projecting slightly,
is

as described,

T-square,

well adapted for receiving the head of rendering the use of that instrument

satisfactory than when it is used against the plane edge of the table, even if equally accurate. Drawing; Boards. The principal difference between

more

Fig. 98.

Drawing Board, with Tongued and Grooved

Cleats.

a drafting table and a drawing board

is

in the size.

The

wood

same general requirements in point of accuracy, etc., Convenient sizes of tables for are necessary in each.
various
sizes of boards for different

strips are

tongued and grooved onto the ends

to

uses Tiave been mentioned, but to point out purposes is not so easv a

prevent warping, as shown in the engraving. By using strips of wood thicker than the board, keeping their

matter, their application being far
their use

more extended and

upper surfaces flush with the surface of the board, it may be constructed so as to have the advantage of
ledges on the under side equivalent to those
Fig. 97. Fig. 99

more

general.
size,

A drawing board may be made

shown

in

of

any required
article is

an

from the smallest for which such adapted up to the extreme limit con-

shows a construction which, while being

In the larger sistent with convenience in handling. sixes the general features of construction noted under
drafting tables are entirely applicable, save that thinner material should be used in order to reduce the weight. In small sizes there is a choice between several different

modes

of construction,

two or three of which

will

be

described, although boards of almost, any required construction can be purchased ordinarily of dealers in

drawing tools and materials at lower prices than they can be made. However, it is very convenient, in many
cases, to

Fig. 99.

Bottom View of Drawing Board, with Grooved Back and
Cleats Attached with Slotted Holes.

have boards madeof

to order,

and therefore de-

tailed descriptions

Any

carpenter or cabinet

good constructions are desirable. maker should be able to do
a very

the work.

In Fig. 97

is

shown

common form

of draw-

somewhat more expensive than the others, is unJt is made of strips of doubtedly much better. pine to make the required width. wood, glued together A

19
pair of

hard-wood

cleats

is

screwed to the hack, the
in

of a file or

line

sand paper folded over a block of

screws passing through the cleats
brass bushings, which vet allow the screws to
tit

oblong

slots

with

wood.

Careful work in this manner will produce very

closely under the heads and move freely when drawn by the

satisfactory results. means of testing a board with reference to the

A

shrinkage of the board.

To overcome

the tendency of

accuracy of the corners

the surface to warp, a series of grooves are sunk in half To the thickness of the board over the entire back.

is shown in Fig. 101. caror an ordinary steel square used penter's try-square

A

make the working edges easy movement with the
is let

perfectly smooth, allowing an

into the end of the board.
at

T-square, a strip of hard-wood The strip is afterward

sawn apart

about every inch, to admit of contraction.

In the construction of such boards additional advantage is obtained by putting the heart side of each piece of

wood
a

to the surface.
Fig. 101.

pattern cutting is nothing if not accurate, it is matter of the utmost importance that the drawing
If

As

Testing the Corner of a

Drawing Board.
far

board or table should be perfectly rectangular.
angle
is

each

upon the corners does not ordinarily reach
in either direction to satisfactorily

enough

determine that the

a right angle

if

its

the T-square may of it with satisfactory results. portion accurate the drawing will be accurate
parallel

opposite sides are exactly be used at will from any
If

adjacent end and side are perpendicular to each other; hence it is desirable to obtain some kind of a test with
reference to this point from the middle portions of the With the head of the T-square placed against edges.

the board the board

is is

If

not accurate the drawing can only be

made accurate

at

one side of the board draw a

fine line, as indicated

by

the dotted line in the engraving, and from one end draw If the side and end a second line in the same manner.
are at right angles the two lines will coincide with the arms of a square when placed as shown in the engraving. Eepeat this operation for each of the corners.

Fig. 100.

Testing the Sides of

a Drawing Board.

The two methods above described for testing drawing boards, especially when used together, cannot fail to
enable any one to obtain a board as nearly accurate as Modifications of the methods it is possible to make it.
here given, and based upon the same principles, will suggest themselves to any one who will give the matter careful thought.

the cost of extra trouble and care.

While

it is

easy to

get a board approximately correct by ordinary means, one or two simple tests will serve to point out inaccuracies for correction which

by ordinary means would
T-square and an or-

pass unnoticed.

For such

tests a

dinary two-foot steel square that are exactly correct
will

In connection with every set of drawing instruments there should be one or more
Straight-Edfes.

be required.

Having made the opposite

board as nearly accurate as the T-square against one side, as shown

and ends of the possible, place the head of
sides
in Fig. 100, to a chisel edge, or

o
Fig. 102.

Straight-Edge.

and with a hard pencil sharpened
board.

straight-edges.
to be

If

with the blade of a knife, scribe a fine line across the
side of the board, as

made upon

nothing but pencil or pen lines are paper, those of hard-wood or hard
;

Then carrying the T-square to the opposite shown by the dotted lines, bring

rubber will answer very well

but

if

lines are to

be

drawn upon metal,
terial.

steel is the

only satisfactory

ma-

the edge of the blade to the line just scribed and see that it exactly coincides throughout its length with the

The
it

termined by

length of the straight-edge must be dethe work to be done, but a safe rule is to

Eepeat this operation at frequent intervals along the edges of the board, both at the sides and ends. Remove any small inaccuracies on the edges by means
line.

have

board.

somewhere near the length of the table or Of course this is out of the question in cornice work, where tables are frequently upward of

The.

New

Metal

Wurl,-<r

Pattern

fSuok.

twelve feet in length. In such cases the size of the If iron 96 material to be cut determines this matter.
inches long is used, the straight-edge, for convenience, should not be less than 8-J- feet. If shorter iron is
regularly used, a shorter straight-edge will answer. In cornice work, two and even three different lengths are

\Vlien

made

in

the ordinary manner, and depending

upon the friction of the nut of a small bolt for holding the head in place, it is almost impossible to obtain a
bearing that can be depended upon during even a In practice it is found to be far less simple operation.
trouble to

work from a straight-edge

found advantageous. described; a second

longest might be as just might be about four feet in

The

across the board and weighted

down

properly placed or otherwise held

length and made proportionately lighter, while the smallest might be two feet and still lighter than the
four-foot size.

Instead of

long arm
purpose.

of the

common
\ise in

steel

the latter, however, the square serves a good
in

Fig. 103.

l-Sifiiare

with Fixed Head.

general jobbing shops, a threefoot straight-edge in many cases, and a four-foot one in a few instances, will be found very convenient.

For tinners'

place

by means
is

of

a

triangle

or

set-squaiv,

as

greater accuracy

thus assured.

Some mechanics
the

same

desire their straight-edges graduated, as a steel square, into inches and fractions.

In point of materials, probably a "[-square having a walnut head and maple blade is as satisfactory as any.

This kind

There is, however, no special advantage in this; it adds considerably to the cost, without rendering the
tool

is the cheapest and is generally considered the best for practical purposes. good article, !>ut of higher price, consists of a walnut head with a Lard-

A

more

useful.
in

wood
one end
of

blade,

edged with some

oilier

kind of wood.

A

hole should be provided

the

Still

It should always be straight-edge for hanging up. when not in use, as in that position it is not suspended liable to receive injury. It is almost superfluous to

another variety has a mahogany blade edged with T-squares constructed with cast-iron head ebony.

add that straight-edges must be absolutely accurate, for if inaccurate they would belie their name. A simple and convenient method of testing straight-edges is to place two of them together by their edges, or a single one against
the edge of a square, and see

open work finished by japanning with nickel-plated steel blade, are also to be had from dealers. They are also made with a hard rubber blade, of which Fig. 104
is

an illustration.

The

liability to fracture,

however,

by dropping
and
is

necessitates

the

otherwise hard rubber makes

use: greatest a very desirable article
care in

the favorite material with
to size,

many

draftsmen.
selected

them.
edges

If
it is

no space

is

light passes between to be observed between the
if

As

T-squares

should be

with

reference to the use to be

satisfactory evidence that they are as nearly

straight as they can be

made by ordinary

appliances.
it is

Generally, the blade should be a very little less in length than the width of the table or board upon which it is to be

made

of them.

In addition to having the edges straight necessary to have the two sides parallel.
T-Squares.
all

also

With

this instrument, as
is

with almost

drawing instruments, there

the choice of various

and kinds, and selection must be made with reference to the kind of work that is to be per T formed. Whatever quality may be chosen, the dequalities, sizes

Fig.

W4.t-Square with Fixed and Swivel Bead.
a large board or a
table
is

sirable features of a T-square are strict accuracy in ail respects, and a thin, flat blade that will lie close to the

used.

Where

used

it

will
dif-

be found economical to have two instruments of
ferent sixes.

paper.
Fig.

103,

For most purposes a fixed head, as shown in is For drawings in which a preferable.

The

Ste.l Square.

One

of the

most useful

tools in

great parallel oblique lines are required, and where a small size J-square can be used, a particularly swivel head, as shown in Fig. 104, is sometimes desirable.
is

number of

connection with the pattern cutter's outfit is an ordinary The divisions upon it concern him much steel square.
less than its accuracy. He seldom requires other divisions than inches and eighths of an inch; therefore in selection the principal point to be considered is that

The

objectionable feature about a swivel head
of

the

difficulty

obtaining

positive

adjustment.

21
of aeeuracv.

The

finish,

bowever,

is

a imittcr not to

two-foot size
one-foot sixe

is is

most desirable.
better suited.

In

some

cases the

he overlooked.

Since a nickel-plated square costs hut
it is'

Many

pattern cutters

a trilling advance ii|nin the plain article, in the long' run to have the plated tool.

cheaper

on cornice work like to have both sixes at their com-

mand, making use
to the nature of the

of

convenient method of testing the correctness of the outside of a square, and one which can be used
at

A

them interchangeably, according work to he done.
In the selection of
tri-

Triangles, or Set Squares.

the time and place of purchase,

is

illustrated

in

angles, the draftsman has the choice in material be-

Fig. 107.

Open Hard Rubber Triangle or Set
Degrees.

Sfauare, 45 x 43 x 90

Fig. 105,

Testing the Exterior Angle of

a

Steel Square.

Tig.

squares are placed against each other and against a straight-edge, or against the arm of a third square. If the edges touch throughout, the
H>.">.

Two

squares
the

mav be considered

correct.

Having procured a square which is accurate upon outside, the correctness of the inside of another

Place square may he proven, as shown in Fig. 10t>. If the mi" square within the other, as shown. edges

mahogany, ebony lined hard rubsilver, and steel, silver or nickel plated. In style he has the choice between open work, of the form shown in Fig. 107, and the solid, as in Fig. In shape, the two kinds which are adapted to 108. the pattern cutter's use are shown in Figs. 107 and 108, the latter being described as 30, 60 and 90 degrees, or 30 by 60 degrees, and the former as 45, 45 and 90 degrees, or simply 45 degrees. The special uses of each of these two tools are shown in the chapter on Geometrical Problems (Chap. IV). In size,
;

tween pear wood
;

;

ber

German

the

pattern cutter

requires

large

rather than small

Fig.

lOS.Hard Wood

Triangle or Set Square, SO x GO x 00 Degrees.

Fig. Uifi.Ttas ing the Interior

Angle of a

Steel Square.

together tightly and uniformly throughout, the square may he considered entirely satisfactory.
fit

he can have two sizes of each, the smaller should measure from 4 to 6 inches on the side, and the larger from 10 to 12 inches; but if only a single size is to be had, one having dimensions intermediate
ones.
If

to those

An

accurate square

is

especially desirable, as

it

named will be found the most serviceable. The value of a triangle, for whatever purpose used,
its

ail'ords the readiest

the drawing table The greatest care should be given, therefore, to the For all ordinary. purposes the selection of a square.

means of testing the "[-square and and beard, as elsewhere described.

depends on

accuracy.

Particularly

is

this to

be said

of the right angle, which is used more than either of method of testing the accuracy of the the others. is shown in Fig. 109. Draw the line B right angle

A

A

22

Tin'

Xc

Mdal Worker

Pattern Boole.

Place the with an accurate ruler or straight-edge. of a triangle near the center of this line, as right angle

a profile line
scribed below.

is

called spacers, as illustrated and de-

shown by
with the

DC

line,

B, and make one of the edges coincide and then draw the line D C against the

A

pair of compasses consists of the parts

shown

in Fig. 110, being the instrument proper with detachable points, and extras comprising a needle point, n pencil point, a pen and a lengthening bar, all as shown to the left.

In selection, care should be given to the

workmanship; notice whether the parts lit together neatly and without lost motion, and whether the joint works tightly and yet without too great friction. A
B

C
Fig. 109.

good German

Testing the Right Angle of

a

Triangle.

instrument, although quite expensive at the outset, will be found the cheapest in the end. pencil point of the kind shown in our

silver

A

other edge. 'Turn the triangle into the position indiIf it is found that the sides agree cated by D C A. C and C D, it is proof that the angle is a right with

A

is to be preferred over the old style which a common pencil to the leg. The latter is not clamps nearly so convenient and is far less accurate.

engraving

angle and that the sides are straight. Besides the kinds of triangles described above, a fair article can be made by the mechanic from sheet
zinc or of

Of dividers there
dividers, as

are

two general kinds, the plain
hair-spring
differ

dividers, as

shown in Fig. Ill, and the shown in Fig. 112. The latter

from

heavy

tin.

Care must, however, be taken

in cutting to obtain the greatest possible accuracy. For many of the purposes for which a large size 45 degree

the former simply in the fact of having a fine spring and a joint in one leg, the movement being controlled

by the screw shown

at the right.

In this way, after

Fig. 110.

Compasses with Interchangeable Parts.

Fig.

111.

Plain

Fig.

Dividers.

112.- Hair-Spring Dividers.

Fig. US.

Steel

Spring

Spacers.

triangle would be used the steel square is available, but as the line of the hypothenuse is lacking, it can-

the instrument has been set approximately to the distance desired, the adjustable leg is moved, by means
of the screw, either in or out,
as

not be considered a substitute.

may be

required,

Compasses and Dividers.

The term compasses

is

applied to those tools, of various sizes and descriptions, which hold a pencil and pen in one leg, and are used for

thus making the greatest accuracy of spacing possible. Both instruments are found desirable in an ordinary dividers will naturally be used The set of tools.

drawing

circles,

while dividers are those tools which,

while of the same general form as

both legs

compasses, have ending in fixed points, and are used for used special form of dividers measuring spaces.

plain for larger and less particular work, while the hairIt frein the finer parts. spring dividers will be used
of dividers, set to difquently happens that two pairs ferent spaces, are convenient to have at the same time. of spacers, shown in Fig. 113, is almost

A

exclusively for setting off spaces, as in the divisions of

A

pair

Tool* inn!

23
use.

He will find indispensable in a pattern cutter's outfit. use for this tool, oven though possess! IILT advantageous
Imtli pairs of

in

common

A

heavier stick

is

used with

it

than

dividers described

above.

In size they

are

made

less

than that of the dividers.

The

points

with the beam compasses, and no other adjustment is provided than that which is all'orded by clamping In the illustration a carrier at the against the stick.

should be needle-like in their fineness, and should lie capable of adjustment to within a very small distance

sometimes desirable to divide a The given profile into spaces of an eighth of an inch. should be capable of this, as well as adapted spacers
of each other.
It
is

to spaces of three-quarters of an inch, without being As will be seen from the engraving, this too loose. instrument is arranged for minute variations in ad-

justment.

Beam Compasses and Trammels In Fig. 114 is a set of beam compasses, together with a portion of the wooden rod or beam on which they are used. The latter, as will be seen by the section drawn to one
shown
side (A), is in the shape of a f. This form has considerable strength and rigiditv, while at the same timr
it is

not clumsy or heavy. Beam compasses are provided with extra points for pencil and ink work, as While the general adjustment is effected by shown.

means
as
in

of the

tions are

made by the screw

shown.

clamp against the wood, minute variashifting one of the points, This instrument is quite delicate and when
side
is

Fig. 115.

Trammel.

good order is very accurate. It should be used only for line work on paper and never for scribing on metal. A coarser instrument, and one especially designed
for use

shown

in

which a pencil may be placed.

Some

trammels are arranged in such a manner that either of the points may be detached and a pencil substituted.

upon metal,

is

shown

in Fig.

115 and

is

called

A

to describe
in place

trammel, by careful management, can be made very accurate curves, and hence can be \ised
of

the

For

all

coarse

beam compasses in many instances. work it is to be preferred to the beam
for all short

compasses.

It is useful

sweeps upon

sheets of metal, but for curves of a very long radius a strip of sheet iron or a piece of wire will be found of more practical service than even this tool.

The length of rods for both beam compasses and trammels, up to certain limits, is determined by the The extreme length nature of the work to be done.
determined by the strength and rigidity of the rod It is usually convenient to have two rods for itself.
is

Fig. 114.

Beam

Compasses,

each instrument, one about 3$ or i feet in length and as long as the strength the other considerably longer In the case of the trammel, of material will admit.

n trammel. that the
to this

It

is

to

be remarked in this connection

name trammel, by common usage, is applied instrument and also to a device for drawing found described at another place. ellipses, which will be
There are various forms of this instrument, all being The engraving shows a form the same in principle.

by means of a simple clamping device, or, in lieu cf better, by use of common wrapping twine, the rods

may be

spliced

when unusual

length

is

required; but

a strip of sheet iron or a piece of fine wire forms a better radius, under such circumstances, than the

rod.

24:

The

New

Metal Worker Pattern book.

The Protractor is an instrument for laying down The instrument and measuring angles upon paper. consists of a semicircle of thin metal or horn, as represented in Fig. 116, the circumference of which is The princidivided into 180 equal parts or degrees. which the protractor is constructed and used ples upon
are clearly explained in the chapter on Terms and Defi" nitions (Def. 68 Degree "). The methods of employing
it

being
or, in
is

H inrhes

to the foot
-J-

and 3 inches

to the

fool,

other words, ^ and full size respectively. It essential that the pattern cutter should be familiar

with the various scales in

common

use, that

lie

may
Sev-

be able to work from any of them on demand.
eral of the scales are easily read

by means

af

the com-

mon

rule,

as,

for

example,

3 inches to the foot, in

in the construction of geometrical figures are

shown

which each quarter inch on the rule becomes one inch of the scale; also, 1-J- inches to the foot, in which
each eighth of an inch on the rule becomes an inch of the scale; and, likewise, f inch to the foot, in which each sixteenth of an inch on the rule becomes an inch
of the scale.

However, other scales besides these are occasionally required, which are not easily read from the common rule, and sometimes special scales are used, which are not shown on the instruments, especially calculated for the purpose. Accordingly, it is sometimes necessary for the pattern cutter to construct

his
Fig. 116.

Semicircular Protractor.

own scale. The method
is

of constructing a scale

of 1 inch to

the foot
in Chapter

IV among

the problems.

For purposes

of

accuracy, a large protractor is to be preferred to a small size, because in the former fractions of a degree
are indicated.

117, in which the diIn visions are made by feet, inches and half inches. such scales, it is usual to set off the diconstructing
illustrated in Fig.

visions representing feet in one direction (say to the right) from a point marked 0, while the divisions for

While a number

veniently solved by not one that is specially adapted to the pattern cutter's All the problems which are solved by it can be use.

of geometrical problems are conthe use of this instrument, it is

inches and fractions thereof are set off the opposite way (or to the left from 0) as shown in the illustra-

In using the scale, measurements are made by placing one point of the dividers at the number of
tion.

worked out by other accurate and expeditious methods, It is one of the which, in most cases, are preferable.
instruments, however, every case of instruments sold, and the student will find
it
it,

feet required

the

the other point can then be moved to other side of the to the required number of
;

included

in

almost

inches, thus embracing the entire number of feet and inches between the points of the dividers.

advantageous to become thoroughly familiar with whether in practice he employs it
Inches

Besides scales of the kind just described, which

or not.

Besides the semicircular form of the
protractor shown, corresponding lines and divisions to those upon it are sometimes

.,,,

Feet

Ln

iilinn

Fig.

117.

Plain Scale

(1

inch to the Foot

)

put upon some of the varieties of scales
in use, as

shown

in Fig. 120.

Scales.

Many

of

the
that

pattern cutter works are mensions, etc.,

is,

drawings from which the from which he gets di-

are termed plain divided scales, there are in common use what aBe known as diagonal scales, an illustration
of one of

what

being some

specified fraction of

are called scale drawings, the full size of the

which
is

is

shown
1-j-

in Fig. 118.

The

scale rep-

resented

that of

inches to the foot.

The

left-

object represented.

Architects' elevations and floor

hand unit
the
inches.
parts

of division has
lines

been divided by means of

plans are very generally made either -J- or -J inch to the foot, or, in other words, -5*3- or -fa full size. Scale details are also employed quite extensively by
architects, scales in

vertical

into

In width the scale

12 equal parts, representing is divided into 8 equal

very

common

use for the purpose

by means of the parallel lines running its entire Next the diagonal lines are drawn, as shown. length.

J)ra>ci>ig

7W< and
by

Materials,

Bv

a

moment's inspection
of these diagonal

it

will

bo seen

that,

Aflat scale

is

also

manufactured in both boxwood

means

lilies,

one-eighth of an inch

and multiples thereof are shown on the several horiA distanee equal to the space from A to zontal lines.
11.

and ivory. Fewer scales or divisions can be put upon it than upon the triangular scale, yet for certain purposes

as

marked on
'2

the scale, is read (first at the right for
to

feet)

feet (then

the left for inches

by means

of

be preferred to the latter. There are less divisions to perplex the eye in hunting out just what is required, and accordingly, there is less liait

is

to

Fent

Fig. US.

Diagonal Scale

inches to the foot).

lines ligured both at top and bottom) 6 inches (and last, by means of the diagonal line, figured at the end of the scale, for fractions) and three-eighths.

the vertical

bility to error in its use.

However, the limited numcontains greatly restricts
its

ber of scales which
usefulness.

it

The

top and bottom lines of the scale measure feet and inches only. The other horizontal lines measure feet, inches and fractions of an inch, each horizontal line
its own particular fraction, as shown. Such are frequently quite useful, as greater accuracy scales is obtained and, as the reader will see, may be con-

having

120 shows another form of the flat scale, in use in the past, but now virtually disquite carded in favor of more convenient dimensions and This scale combines with the various divishapes. sions of an inch the divisions of the protractor, as
Fig.

common

shown around the margin.
of

The

fact that the divisions

structed by any one to any unit of measurement, and divided by the number of horizontal lines into any desired fractious.

an inch for purposes of a scale are located in the middle of the instrument, away from the edge, which
necessary to take off the dividers, renders the article
it

makes

all

A

scale

in
is

common
shown
is

use,
in

and known

as the tri-

awkward

measurement with for use, and

angular scale,
this scale,

Fig. 110.

The shape

of

which

indicated

by

the name, and which

Fig. 119

Triangular Boxwood Scale.

is

also

shown

in the cut, presents three

sides for divi-

sion.

dividing each of these through the center lengthways by a groove, as shown, six spaces for divisions are obtained, and by running the scales in

By

taking two scales, one of which is twice the size of the other, and commencing with the unit
pairs

that

is,

at opposite

ends

the

number

of scales

which may be

put upon one of these instruments is increased to This article, which may be had in either twelve. boxwood, ivory or plated metal, and of 6, 12, 18 or

24 inches in length,

is

probably the most desirable for

general use of any sold.

T/ie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern, Book.
required which can be better
pencil.

and ending
other

at

the hardest with

makes

of pencils are

H H II II H H, while marked by systems peculiar
has the choice
in all except the finest

made with ink than with

to their v manufacturer.

The draftsman

The drawing pen
Fig.

or ruling pen, as illustrated in

of round or

hexagon shape

grades,

being made exclusively hexagon. Whatever kind of pencil the draftsman or mechanic
the latter
uses, he
I

will require different

numbers

for different

The 123, is used for drawing straight lines. drawing pen, whether as a separate instrument or as an attachment to compasses or beam compasses for drawing curved lines, consists of two blades with steel
points, fixed to a handle.

For working drawings, full-sized details, on manila paper, a No. 3 (or F) is quite satisSome like a little harder lead, and therefore factory. a No. -i (or II). For lettering and writing in prefer
mi-poses.
etc.,

The

blades are so curved

that a sufficient cavity is left between them for ink when the points meet close together or nearly so. The

connection with drawings upon manila or ordinary For detail paper, a No. 2 (II B) is usually chosen.
fine lines, as in
est possible

space between the points is regulated by means of the screw shown in the engraving, so as to draw lines of

developing a miter, in which the greatis

required, a No. 5 is very gene rally used, although many pattern cutters prefer the II II H. liner grade for this purpose and use a

accuracy

any required thickness. One of the blades is provided with a joint, so that, by taking out the screw, the blades may be completely opened and the points readily
cleaned after use.

The ink

is

H

H

put between the blades

quality and accuracy of drawings depend, in a considerable measure, upon the manner in which
pencils arc sharpened.

The

pen, or sometimes by a small hair In using the drawing pen it should be slightly brush. inclined in the direction of the line to be drawn, and

with a

common

A

pencil used for

making

fine

should be kept uniformly close to the ruler or

straiglit-

Fig. IS?.

Pencil Sharpened to

a Round Point,

Fig. 121.

Two Views of

Pencil Sharpened to

a

Chisel Point.

Fig. 123.

Ruling Pen.

straight lines, as, for instance, in the various operations of pattern cutting, should be sharpened to a chisel

edge during the whole operation of drawing a line, but not so close as to prevent both points from touching the paper equally. Keeping the blades of the pen clean is essential If the draftsman is careless in this parto good work. ticular, the ink will soon corrode the points to such an

Pencils for general point, as illustrated in Fig. 121. work away from the edges of the T-square, triangle,
etc.,

should be sharpened to a round point, as shown

in Fig. 122. It facilitates work nomical to have several pencils at

and

it

is

quite eco-

command, sharpened

extent that

it

will

ways any reason only one
ends

in different

for

different purposes. Where for pencil of a kind can be had, both

Pens

will gradually

be impossible to draw fine lines. wear away, and in course of

time they require dressing.
the blades of
a

To

dress

up the

tips of

may

be sharpened, one to a chisel point and the

other to a round point. For keeping a good point upon a pencil, a piece of fine sand paper or emery paper, glued upon a piece flat file, of wood, will be found very serviceable.

they are generally worn unequally by customary usage, is a matter of some small oil stone is most convenient for use nicety.
pen, since

A

A

The points should be screwed into in the operation. contact in the first place, and passed along the stone,
turning upon the point in a directly perpendicular plane

mill-saw cut, is also useful for the same purpose. Sharpen the pencil with a knife, so far as the wood
part
is

upon

concerned, and then shape the lead as required the file or sand paper.

Xext they arc until they acquire an identical profile. to be unscrewed and examined to ascertain the parts

Drawing Pens.
cutter's

Although most of

the

pattern

The blades are, of unequal thickness around the nib. then to be laid separately upon their backs upon the
the points until they are It is well brought up to an edge of uniform fineness. to screw them together again and pass them over the
stone,
at

work

ally arise

done with the pencil, there occasioncircumstances under which the use of ink is
is

and rubbed down

desirable.

Tracings of parts of drawings are frequently

Tun/.*

mill Materials.

27

stone once or twice more to bring up anv fault ami t<> retouch them also at tin outer and inner side of each
1

absence of ware especially designed for the purpose, India ink can be satisfactorily mixed in ;ind used from
an ordinary saucer or plate of small size.

blade to remove barbs or framing, and linally to draw them across the palm of the hand.
India Ink.
.For

The

articles

made

especially for

it,

however, are convenient, and

tracing*,
i

and fur some kinds of
is

drawings, which the

])att(

occasionally. India ink is ('arc which is used for the greater part of his work, is to lie exercised in the selection of ink, as poor grades
arc sold as well
as

obliged to make niueh better than the pencil,
rn cutter

-good

ones.

Some

little

skill

is

required in dissolving or mixing it for use. India ink is sold in cakes or sticks, of a variety of shapes. It is prepared for use by rubbing the end
1

Front with Cover On.

of the stick

upon the surface of aground
in
is

glass, or of a

porcelain slab or dish, water, until the mixture
a

very small quantity of siitlieiently thick to produce
a
of

black line as
1

it

Hows from the point

the ruling

Tin qualitv of ink may generally be determined pen. bv the price. The common si/e sticks are about 3
inches long.
Inferior grades

can be bought as low as

40 cents per stick, while a good quality is worth $(1.50 to *_' per stick, and the very best is still higher. However, except iu the hands of a responsible and experienced
dealer,
this

method
it,

satisfactorv.

To

a certain

by the brands upon

of judging is hardly extent ink may be judged although in the ease of the

Top with Cover
Fig. U4.

Off.

India Ink Slab.

higher qualities the brands frequently change, so that The quality of India this test may not be infallible. ink
is
is

and economical use worth the small price they cost. are well
in facilitating the care

of the ink

quite apparent the
a soft

moment

it is

used.

The

best

entire! v free

and has

from grit and sediment, is not musky, The feel when wetted and smoothed.

Several makes of liquid drawing ink are also to be had, which possess the advantage of being always ready for use, thus doing away with the rubbing
process.

color of the lines \Vith a poor ink
It will

may
it

also

be used as a

test of quality.

The ink

costs

about 25

cents

a

bottle,

be brown

impossible to make a black line. or irregular in color and will present
is

keeps well, and will answer almost every purpose
quite as well as the stick ink. Thumb Tacks or Drawing Pins, both
in

an irregular edge, as though broken or ragged, while an ink of satisfactory quality will produce a clean line, whether drawn very fine or quite coarse. Various shaped cups, slabs and dishes are in use
In many remixing and containing India ink. for mixing and holding used spects thev arc like those water colors. Indeed, in many cases the same articles The engraving (Fig. 1'24) shows what are employed. is termed an India ink slab, with three holes and one
for
slant.

names being

common

use, are

made

from those with heads

of a variety of sizes, ranging one-quarter of an inch in diam-

Fig. 125.

Thumb

Tacks, or

Drawing

Pins.

eter

up

to eleven-sixteenths of
to

an inch in diameter.

This

article

is

in

common

use

among draftsmen

and serves
used,

In order to retard a satisfactory purpose. in sets, is frequently evaporation, a kind of saucers, will form a cover to so constructed that one

be had of various grades and The best for general use are those of Gerqualities. man silver, about three-eighths to five-eighths of an

They

are likewise

piece

the other, and which are known in the trade as cabinet sets or cabinet saucers. They are from 2 to 3 In the inches in diameter and come in sets of six.

inch in diameter, and with steel points screwed in and Those which have the points riveted only riveted

The heads should be flat, to are of the second quality. In the allow the "T-square to pass over them readily.

28

The New Metnl
Fig. 125, are

\\'<>rke,-

Pattern

llonlc.

annexed

cut.

kinds and

sixes.

upper edges
underneath.

are

shown an assortment of Those which are beveled upon their preferable to those which are beveled
Fig-

A Box

of Instruments.

126 shows a box of

in-

any width, from 30 inches up to 54 inches, in rolls of 50 to 100 pounds each. It is ordinarily sold in (lie roll by the but can be bought at retail by the pound, There are dilVerent yard, although at a higher figure. thicknesses of the same qualitv. Sonic dealers indi-

struments of

medium

grade, as

While it the trade general Iv. that the pattern cutter has no use for,
the principal tools he requires,
all

made up and sold by contains some pieces
it

also contains
in

them by arbitrary marks, as XX, XXX. XXXX; numbers 1, 2, 3; and still others as thin, medium and thick. The most desirable paper for tincate

others by

put together

com-

pattern cutter's use
qualities.
It

is

one which combines several good
is

pact shape, and

in

a

convenient manner for keeping

should be just as thin as

consistent

The tray of the instruments clean and in good order. the box lifts out, there being a space underneath it in
which may be placed odd
selected, as
tools, pencils, etc.

with strength.

A

thick paper, like a
is,

still'

card, breaks

when
able.

folded or bent short, and

therefore, objection-

Tools

required, may be dealers in drawing instruments. vantageous to the pattern cutter to singly as

of

the large It will be found adof

most

The ] taper should be very strong and tough, as the requirements in use arc quite severe. The surface should be very even and smooth, yet not so glossv as
to

buy

his instruments

be unsuitcd
hard

requires, them, by only what he requires for use, and will probably secure

he

as

so doing he will get

be

rather than

texture as to
spot without

hard pencils. It should and should be of such a withstand repeated erasures in the same
to the use of

soft

paper, which the pattern cutter has occasionally to use in connection with his work. can be had of almost every conceivable grade and in a

damage White drawing

to the surface.

The very best qualitv, and the kinds variety of sixes. suited for the finest drawing*, come in sheets exclusively, although the

cheaper kinds are also made

in

the shape of sheets as well as in rolls.

White drawing can be bought of different widths, ranging from 36 to 54 inches, and from a verv thin grade up to a very heavy article, and of various surfaces. It
paper
in rolls
is

sold

by the pound,

in rolls

pounds each, and
Fig. 126.

also at retail

ranging from 30 to 40 kind by the yard.

A

A Box

of Instruments.

known

as eggshell is generally preferred

bv

architec-

tural draftsmen.

a better quality in the tools.

After he has made his

selection, a box properly fitted and lined should be provided for them and can be obtained at a small cost, or made if desirable. India Rubber. A good rubber with which to erase

Drawing paper in sheets is sold by the quire, and The sixes are generally at retail by the single sheet. indicated by names which have been applied to them. The following are some of the terms in common use. with the dimensions which they represent placed opposite
:

erroneous lines
outfit.

The

indispensable in the pattern cutter's several pencil manufacturers have put
is

their brands

upon rubber

as well as

upon

pencils,

and

Cap.

13

x 17 Elephant
I

The satisfactory quality can be had from any of them. shape is somewhat a matter of choice, flat cakes being the most used. very soft rubber is not so well

Demy
Medium
Eoyal Super Royal
Imperial
Still

15 x 20 Atlas

23 x 28 21! x 34

17 x 22 Columbier
|

A

adapted to erasing on detail paper as the harder varieties, but is to be preferred for use in fine drawings on

23 x 35 19 x 24 DoubleElephant. 27 x 40 1!> x 27 31 x 53 Antiquarian 22 x 30iKmpcror 48 x <is
is

good quality paper.
Paper.

another set of terms

used

in

designating French

The

principal paper that the pattern cutter

has anything to do with is or manila detail paper.

known as brown
It

detail paper, can be bought of almost

Different qualities of paper, both as drawing papers. regards thickness, texture and surface, can be had of

any of the

sizes

above named.

Drawing
Tracing

Tunis

//</

.Mni'-ri<tk.

29

Paper

and Tracing Cloth.

Tin-

pattern
ti

cutter has frequent use for tracing paper, and
article,

good which combines strength, transparency and
is

article comes exclusively in rolls, ranging in width from 18 to '2 inches. There are generally 24- yards to the roll, and prices are made according to the.

suitable surface,

sold both

Tracing paper is correspond to the draw-. ing papers above described, and in rolls, to correspond in width to the roll drawing paper. It is usually
in sheets, in

very desirable.
size to

width, or, in other words, according to the superficial Two grades are usually sold, the contents of the roll. lirst being glazed on both sides and suitable onlv for

priced by sheets or single yards

the quire and

by

the

are

to

roll, although single be obtained at retail.

ink work, and the second on but one side, the other being left dull, rendering it suitable for pencil marks.

Upon

general principles, pencil

marks are not

satis-

rolls, according to the kinds, contain from 20 to 30 yards. There are various manufacturers of this article, but it is usually sold upon its merits, rather

The

factory
little

upon

cloth,

prepared with

reference to them.

even upon the quality specially It is but a very

than by any brand or trade-mark. Tracing cloth, or is used in tracing linen, place of tracing paper where This great strength aiid durability are required.

more labor or expense to use ink, and a much more presentable and usable drawing is made. Tracing

paper
pen.

may be used

or satisfactorily with either pencil

CHAPTER

III.

In the production of all great constructive works If a piece the drawing plays a most important part. of machinery, a ship, an aqueduct or a temple is to be
built, verbal

from the observer, or
tion.
rear,

in

any oblique horizontal

direc-

may be called front, xide, end or to the relative dimensions of the object, according
elevation

An

descriptions

would be

insufficient direc-

tions to the

labor;

workmen who drawings become a
exactly what
is

are to perform the actual

necessity, because a draw-

ing

meant, where words would Therefore, to everybody connected with utterly fail. the constructive trades, to artisans in whatever field,
tells

it represents. Any elevation or section gives two sets of dimensions i. e., and horizontal distance, which lie parallel to the hight face which it shows.

one of whose faces
vertical

A

section, as the

word

imlie;ites. is

a

view of a

the ability to read, if not to make, a drawing becomes a necessity; and to those in positions of authority the ability to make a drawing is the power to convey their
ideas to others.

cut or a view of what remains after certain portions have been cnt away for the purpose of showing more

That branch

of

drawing with which

The idea of a verticlearly the interior construction. cal section can best be described by supposing that a wire stretched taut, or any perfectly straight blade,
was passed vertically down through an object at a given distance from one of its ends or sides, indicated by a

the pattern cutter has to deal is of a purely geometrical nature and is properly termed orthographic projection.

The term orthographic (signifying right line) is well applied because it exactly describes the nature of the work, as will be seen further on.
geometrical drawings made use of in representing any constructive work, whether to a large or a viz. small scale, are of three kinds ELEVATIONS,

some other view or views, and the portion not wanted was removed. The view made of the section
line in

The

properly include only the parts cnt, or if made to include or show portions that would naturally appear

may

by the removal

of the parts,

it

:

a sectional elevation.

Sections

would properly be called may also be taken hori-

SECTIONS and PLANS.

The term diagram
It

is

sometimes
is

used

in connection

with this class of drawing, but

zontally at any hight above the base or ground line, indicated by a line for that purpose upon one or more
of the elevations.

not of a specific nature.

means a drawing

of the

simplest possible character, usually strate a principle, and may partake of the properties of either of the above named drawings.

made

to

demon-

Horizontal sections are properly classed with plans. Vertical sections are known as longitudinal or tranxri-w,

An

elevation,

if

the word were judged
to

mon meaning, would be understood
of anything.
vertical

by show the hight

its

com-

according as they are taken through the long way of, Elevations or sections may also or across, an object.
be constructed upon oblique planes

when necessary

to

It does this and more. It gives all the and horizontal measurements which appear in An elevation the front, side or end which it represents. the observer to be opposite to and on a level supposes

more

fully

show construction.

Sections of small portions or members drawn to a large scale or full size are called profiles. They are applied to continuous forms, as moldings, jambs, etc., and are drawn for the purpose of showing the peculiarities in

points at the same time, and is therefore an impossible view, according to the rules of pictorial art.

with

all

form of the parts which they represent.
gives
is

Being always drawn

to scale (including full

size),

it

The view which
in

all

the horizontal distances

gives exact dimensions of hight and breadth at any part of the view, but furnishes.no view of horizontal
surfaces and no

whatever direction

called

the plan.

The name

means

of

measuring distances to HIP

I

plan applies equally well* to a horizontal section or to a top view. In the plan, as in sections and elevations,

Drawing.
the observer
is

31
are also

supposed
at

to be opposite to

(i.e.,

di-

to the elevation

shown dotted

in the engrav-

rectly above) is the same as

all

same time. In idea it points a map, the difference between the two
the

ing.

A

vertical line terminates the elevation of the

mold

at the right or

terms being
In Fig.

in the

amount included

in the view.

absence of such a line at

end nearest the section, while the its left end indicates that it

1-<S is given an illustration of the various views of an object, placed in their propel' geometrical relation one to another, showing the lines of projec-

It would also extends indefinitely in that direction. be proper, upon that supposition, to finish the eleva-

tion at the

left

with

a

broken

line.

upon which the different sections house placed upon a base has been selected as the most suitable object for purposes of It has been shown explanation in the present case.
tion

and the

lines

are taken.

A

Referring now to Fig. I'-'*, it is most likely that the front elevation would be next drawn after the plan.

'in

diagrammatic form

that

is,

denuded
in

of all cornices,

For this purpose the plan should be so placed upon the board that the part representing the front should be turned toward the bottom of the board, in which
position
it

trimmings or projecting parts
the principles of
possible.
It rests

so as to demonstrate

projection

the

clearest

manner

Place the

appears to be turned toward the observer. "["-square so that the blade lies vertically
that
it
is,

upon the board
back
and

with the designer to determine which of the views shall be drawn first, all depending upon the
If a given facts or specifications in his possession. house is to be designed, it is most likely that the plan would be drawn first, as arrangement of rooms and

bringing points of the front side of the plan, draw a line vertically from each, through that portion of space upon

to

crossing it from front to the different angles or

amount

of

ground

to

be covered would be of the

first

If a molding be the subject of the deimportance. the profile would be the view in which to first sign,

The method of adjust the proportion of its parts. the elevation from the section or obtaining deriving
any one view from one or more other views is termed it a system of orthographic projection, because by
parallel lines is
Fig. 1S7.

Elevation Projected

from

Section.

made use

of for the

purpose of obtain-

as the case ing the same hight (or width, in the different views, corresponding parts

may

be) in

the paper allotted to the elevation, all as shown by the Thus each point of the elevation comes dotted lines.
it in the plan, directly over the point which represents and the horizontal distance across any part of the new

In this connection

it is

to

be understood that each

is the angle or limit of outline in a sectional view In Fig. 127 is source of a right line in the elevation.

shown, at X, a sectional view or profile of a molding, which should be so drawn that all the faces or surfaces supposed to be vertical shall lie vertically on the
paper; that
board.
is,

elevation thus becomes exactly the same as that of the The question of bights is here a matter of deplan.
sign and is governed by specifications supplemented by the designer's judgment. With the plan and the
front elevation complete the drawing of any other elevations or sections is entirely a matter of projection, as new features might occur in those views

parallel to the sides of

the
this

drawing

To project an elevation, Y, from section, the T-square so that the blade lies horizontal place and bring" that is, crossing the board from side to side
the profile, it to the various angles A, The point E, though not drawing a line from each. is the lowest visible point or limit of that an

except

which would not appear
drawn.
If

in either of the views already

B, C, etc., of

an elevation of the right side

is

about to be conto the

angle, member of the

structed, lines

would be projected horizontally

mold when seen from the
in

front,

and

is,

therefore, entitled to representation Tn like manner the point a line.

the elevation
T>,

ject

in the front elevation of the obright from every point which would be visible when seen from the right
side, thus locating all the hights in the

by

being the

new view.

As

representation. upper limit of a curve, is entitled but being so situated as to be invisible when viewed

to

the horizontal distances in this view must agree with distances from front to back on the plan, they may best
lie

from a point

in front of

made

dotted,

The

properly lines of projection from the section

the mold, the line

is

obtained by turning the plan (or so

much

of itas nec-

essarv to this view) one-quarter around to the right, so

32

The

Sew

Metal

\\~ui-ker

I'atttni

il<><>k.

Linear Drawing.
tluit

33
is

tlic

side of \vliidi the

new

elevation

is

1<>

lie

drawn

tudinal section

for the

same reason placed
that
is,
it

at

the

left,

will

he toward
at (i
:

the bottom 'or near

side, o[

the lioanl.

of the transverse section
left

is

a view from the

as

after which lines inav lie projected with the T-square from the points of the plan into the eleva-

shown

tion, intersecting

with corresponding lines, as shown.

The same
the

result

ma\ he accomplished hv projecting
right

shown
lel

plan, as the top view, until thev reach anv line paralPYoin this line tliev may be to the side, as II I.
in

lines to the

from

the

side of the

a quarter circle from any convenient N, arriving at a horizontal line, N M, and thence dropped downward, intersecting as before.

carried

around

when placed in the' position shown hv From the foregoing is to he understood, therefore, that when a view appears to the ri^ht of another it is supposed to show what would be seen when the object is viewed from the right hand end or side of what is shown in the other, the other (or front) view being at the same time a view of the left side of what is shown by the right side elevation.
of the house

the transverse section.

it,

center, as

In this class of drawings various kinds of lines are used, cadi of which possesses a certain significance.

It

will

hand side
the front
left.

of

thus he seen that the elevation of the right anv object comes naturally at the right of
left

elevation, and the
is

side elevation, at

its

The general outlines of the different views should be linn and strong enough to he distinctly visible, without being so broad as to leave any doubt as to the ex-

This idea
in

best

illustrated

hv supposing

that

ad dimensions

of

the part

shown when the
all

rule

is

ap-

the ohject question he placed in a glass box of the of the top view, and dimensions of the base II I J

K

plied for purposes of measurement. It is not always necessary that

the lines of

that thi' elevation of

cadi side of the object be pro-

projection should be shown.

When shown

appear

as the finest possible

they may continuous lines,

or as dotted lines such as are

shown

in Figs.

Lines used in carrying 127, 128 and 129. points from a profile to a miter line, or from
lines of projection,

one line to another for any purpose, are rea v and for the pattern drafts1 1

man's purposes it may be said that the liner they are drawn the greater the accuracy obtained (see Chapter II under the head of Lead
LONGITUDINAL SECTION ON C-D
Fig. 129.

TRANSVERSE SECTION ON

A-B

Pencils).

Vertical Sections Derived

from

Fig. 128.

Dotted lines are also used to represent that is, back portions which are out of sight
of or underneath the other parts

jected
right

upon the adjacent

parallel

side of the

box

at

which constitute the
it

angles to the same, and that afterward all the sides (supposing them to be hinged at the corners) be

view under consideration, but which
show,
as,

is

necessary to

opened out into one plane, as shown by K L, II O and O 1' (the top face of the box being opened upward), thus displaying all the views in one plane as represented by Fig. 12S.

for instance, a portion of the chimnev in longitudinal section Fig. 129 and, points 1) and F in

the profile of the

mold

in Fig.

127.
to

This idea should not be carried so
the bottom
face
of the

far as to

open

show a change of position or an alternate position of some part, as, for L show that the side K example, the lines L K and
Dotted lines are also used
.J
.1

would produce a never done except
or
sollit.

box downward, because this as seen from below, which is plan
in

of the top view has been swung until it occupies the position

around on the point

K

shown by L K,

its

ex-

when

it

the case of a design of a ceiling should be spoken of as an inverted

When it is necestremity J traversing the line J L. sary to use two kinds of dotted lines, those used for
one purpose
the others
Lilies

plan.

In Fig. 129 the transverse section is shown at the the view in right of the longitudinal section, because of the arrow in is from the right, or in the direction it
the longitudinal section,
if

may be made may be made a

in line

or short dots, while

series of short dashes.

showing the part

of a view
a

section

is

taken are composed of

series of dots

through which a. and
Fig. 12S,

showing what would he seen two on the line A B of the and the right hand portion removed. The longiplan
the house were cut
in

dashes, as

shown by

A

B,
is

(.'

1>,

etc., in

and

required may be made by two dots alternating with a short or long dash.
further distinction

when

34

The

Xcw

Metal

UW/yr

I \Mvrn

Book.

When

it is

desirable to omit the drawing of a con-

necessary to indicate that some part of

it is

recessed or

siderable portion of any view it is customary to terminate the incomplete side of such view by an irregular in Fig. 128. line, as shown above the plan

raised, or that a certain edg'e is molded or chamfered, when it would not be necessary to construct an entire

G

sectional view for this purpose alo;ie.
is

To

this

end

it

views for the parts customary which are represented as being cut to be ruled or lined with lines running in an oblique direction, as in Fig.
It is

in all sectional

draw through such mold, chamfer or customary recess a small section, in which case, if tin- depression
to

or

mold runs horizontally, the section
to

is

turned

i<>

the.

129.

When

the section

comprises several different,

pieces lying adjacent to one another, each different This rulpart should be lined in a different direction.

convenience, <>r if it runs left, according it is turned in the direction the mold runs. obliquely,
right or

In Fig. 129 the ing is understood to mean solidity. walls and base in the different sections are represented
as

plane surface also shows the direction of the cut across the

In

such a section the line which represents
or line

the.

mold
in

though made

of

some

solid

material, as
it

wood or
necessary

i:;n is

upon which the shown an elevation of
a

section
a

is

taken.

In Fig.

portion of a pediment,
G,
is

stone,

and ruled accordingly.

Where

is

which

small section,

A B

introduced to show
line

to represent different kinds of material in the same section, different systems or kinds of lines may be used

the profiles of the moldings.

The

B

C, which

for the purpose.

Thus

solid

and dotted

lines

may be

used alternately, as in the base. Coarse and fine ruling, or stippling, may also be employed, according to the size of the part, or very small parts may be shown
solid black, as

window weights, piping or hinges. A heavy line is the only way that a thickness of metal can properly be shown in a section. In the case of a
molding where nothing customary to make use of section lines close to the metal surface, but not to extend them clear across the space which should be filled if the moldings were of stone or other solid material. By this means a section may be distinguished
but the sheet iron appears,
it is

sectional view of a cornice or

from what might otherwise be taken for an elevation
of a return.

architect color

In the case of elaborate drawings prepared by an is frequently resorted to as a means of
different materials as they appear in the
Fig. ISO,

showing the
sectional

Elevation with Section of Parts.

view, yellow or differing shades of brown used for various kinds of wood, while blue is being generally used for iron, gray for stone, red for brick,
etc.

represents the profile of the stile around the panel, shows the line upon which, or the direction in which,

materials

In the case of drawings showing many different it is usual to place a legend in one corner of

the section

is

taken, said section being turned upon

the drawing showing what each color or style of ruling
indicates.
It is always advisable to keep the different views, which it is necessary to construct, separate and distinct from one another, drawing them as near together as circumstances will permit, but never allowing one view to cover any part of the space upon the

It is necessary to rule this line obliquely to the left. or line this section, the ruling being kept close to and

inside the outline or profile.

By

placing the ruling in-

side the profile no doubt can exist as to are raised and which are depressed, for

which parts
if

at

D

the

ruling were upon shown the section

the other side of the line

from that

D

would indicate a depressed panel

instead of a raised one.

paper occupied by the other view if One notable exception to this rule
It frequently

it is

can be avoided.
to

be observed.

In the solution of the class of problems treated (Miter Cutting), confusion in Chapter VI, Section
1

surface, as a

occurs in drawing an elevation of a large pediment or side of a bracket, that it is

often arises in the

mind

of the pattern cutter as to the

proper position of a profile or of a miter line,

which

Linear

Drawing,

35

confusion could never occur

if all

were

lirst

drawn

In

accordance

with

the necessary views the principles

although simply u straight line, is properly derived from the elevation or plan used, the same as all points

which
file is

is written to explain. proa section, and a miter line is either a part always of an elevation projected from the section or part of

this chapter

A

and other

lines of the pattern.

Much
knowledge

trouble

is

experienced

through

lack of

another section bearing certain relations of hight or breadth to the first. pattern is likewise always prothat is, carried off by right lines from an jected

A

Drawing, which if thoroughly understood could never result in such mistakes as producing a face miter where a return
of the principles of Linear

elevation or plan the same as an elevation

is

projected

from

a
Jt

section.

was intended or using the piece of metal from the wrong side of the miter cut. Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the importance of thoroughly understanding the subject treated
in this chapter,

should also be remembered in this connection

that the operation of developing a pattern is not completed until its entire outline is drawn. The line form-

as such

a

knowledge comprehends

within

itself

an answer to the

many questions continually

ing

its

termination at the end opposite the miter cut,

arising in the course of the pattern draftsman's labors.

CHAPTER

IV.

In presenting this chapter to the student no attempt has been made to give a complete list of ^cometrical problems, but all those have been selected which can be of any assistance to the pattern drafts-

the other shall be in a direction oblique to the lines to be drawn, as greater accuracy is attainable in this

way.

man, and especial attention has been given in their solution to those methods most adaptable to his wants.

To Erect a Perpendicular at a Given Point in a Straight Line by Means of the Compasses and Straight3.

Edge.

In

Fig.

133, let

A B

represent

the

given

They are arranged' as far as possible in logical order and are classified under various sub-heads in such a
manner that the reader will have no difficulty in finding what he wishes by simply looking through the pages,
the diagrams given with each being sufficient to indicate the nature of the problem and, as it were, form a
sort of index.

straight line, at

the point

erect a perpendicular. convenient radius strike small

C in which it is required to From C as a center with any
arcs cutting

A

B, as

shown

\)y

D

and B.

With D and B

as centers, and

with any radius longer than the distance from each of
these points to C, strike arcs, as shown by x.rand // //. From the point at which these ares intersect, E, draw a
line to the point C, as

and

To Draw a Straight Line Parallel to a Given Line a Given Distance from it, Using the Compasses and Straight-Edge. In Fig. 131, let C D be the given line
1.

shown.

Then E C
at or

will

be per-

at

pendicular to
4.

A

B.

parallel to

desired to draw another straight and B, in the given Take any two points, as line. line as centers, and, with a radius equal to the given

which

it is

To Erect a Perpendicular a Given Straight Line by Means
Straight-Edge.
First Method.

near the End of

A

Compasses and In Fig. 134, let A B be
of the

Draw a line, distance, describe the arcs x x and y y. Then E F will these arcs, as shown at E F. touching
be parallel to C D. 2. To Draw a Line Parallel
Triangles or Set-Squares.
line parallel to
to

the given straight line, to which, at the point P, situated near the end, it is required to erect a perpendicB. Take any point (C) outside of the line ular.

A

Another by the Use of

which

it

B be the In Fig. 132, let is desired to draw another.
1

A

and with a radius equal to thr distance from C to P, strike the arc, as shown, cutting the
as center,

With C

B in the point P, continuing it till it also given line From E, through the cuts in another point, as at E.
center, C.
at F.

A

Place one side of a triangle or set-square, F against While holding it, as indicated by the dotted lines. F firmly in this position, bring a second triangle, or any
,
1

draw the

Then from

line E F, cutting the arc, as shown the point F, thus determined, draw

straightedge, E, against out of
1

its

other sides, as shown.

a line to P, as shown. B. to

The

line

F P

is

perpendic nlar

A

Then, holding the second triangle firmly in place, slide the first away from the given line, keeping the edges
of the

two

triangles in contact, as

shown

in the figure.

5. To Erect a Perpendicular at or near the End of a Given Straight Line by Means of the Compasses and Straight-Edge. Second Method. In Fig. 135, let B

A

Against the

same edge

of the

first

placed against the given line draw Then C 1) will be parallel to 1). shown by
In

triangle that was a second line, as

be the given straight

line, to which, at the point P,

it is

A

B.

From the point 1', required to erect a perpendicular. witli a radius equal to three parts, by any scale, describe an arc, as indicated
point, with a radius equal

drawing

parallel
to

lines

by

this

method

it

is

found

by

./

,r.

From

the

same

longest edges of the triadvantageous cadi other, and to so place the two inangles against struments that the movement of one triangle against

place the

to four parts, cut

the line

the point 0, witli a radius equal to live parts, intersect the arc first drawn by the
in the

B

A

point C.

From

Geometrical

Problems.

87
line

arc y
1)

?/.

P.
6.

From the point of intersection T) draw the line Then I) P will l.e perpendicular to H A. To Draw a Line Perpendicular to Another Line
1

sides of the given

A

B.

A

line

drawn through

these points of intersection, as shown by G H, will liiseet the line A 15. or, in other words, divide it into

by the Use of Triangles or Set Squares. In Fig. .">;. let (' I) be the given line, to which it is perpendicular Place one side of a required to draw another line.
triangle. R, against the given line, as shown. Rring another triangle, A, or any straight edge, against tinlong side or hypothenuse of the triangle R, as shown.

two equal parts. 8. To Divide a Straight Line into Two Equal Parts by the Use of a Pair of Dividers. In Fig. 13S, it is required to divide the line
to lind its

A R

into

two equal

parts, or

Then move
triangle

the triangle
as indicated

R

along the straight edge or
lines, until

A,

hv the dotted
(!

the

middle point. Open the dividers to as near half of the given line as possible by the Place eye. one point, of the dividers on one end of the line, as at A. Rring the other point of the dividers to the line,
as
at

opposite side of

R

crosses the line

1)

at the required

C, and

turn

on this point, carrying the

first

/',;/.

;?/

allel to
d'ifeti
j>ttfsr,es

To Draw a Straight Line Para Given Straight Line, and at a Distance from it, Using the, Comand a Straight-Edge.

Fig.

To Draw a Line Parallel to 1.12. Another by the Use of Triangles or

Fig. 1S3

a

To Erect a Perpendicular at Given Point in a Straight Line,
the.

Set Squares.

Using Edgt.

Compasses and Straight-

\
D/

^~

<

9

x
X
P
1 Parts

C
Fig. 1X6.

'iy.

To Erect a perpendicular at or near the End of a Given Straight Line, Using the
1;'4

To Erect a Perpendicular Fig. ISS. at or near the End of a Given
Straight Line.

To Draw a Line Perpendicular to Another by the Use of
Triangles.

Second Method.

Compassi x anil Straight-Edge. First Method.

point.

When
is

against
to

it,

draw the
to

line

E

F, as shown.

Then K F
this rule

perpendicular

C D.

It is

evident that

around to D. Should the point D coincide with the other end of the line, the division will be correct.
I) fall within (or without) the divide this deficit (or excess) into two line, equal parts, as nearly as is possible by the eye, and extend (or contract) the opening of the dividers to this

is

adapted

point in the given line, the end.
Its use will

drawing perpendiculars at anv whether central or located near be found (-specially convenient

Rut should the point

end of the

for erecting perpendiculars to lines to the sides of the drawing board.
7.

which run oblique

To Divide a Given Straight Line into Two Equal with the Compasses, by Means of Arcs. In Fig. 137, Parts,
let it

Thus, finding point and apply them again as at first. that the point D still falls within the end of the line, the
first

division

is

be required to divide the straight line A R into two equal parts. From the extremes A and R as centers, and with any radius greater than one-half of R, describe

the deficit

I)

Therefore, divide evidently too short. R by the eye, as shown by E, and in-

A

crease the space of the dividers to the of D E. Then, commencing again at
before,

amount

of

one

A,

the.

arcs

rf/and a

e,

intersecting each other on opposite

and finding that upon

turning

step off as the dividers

38

'Hie

New

Worker PnW'rn

Honk-.

upon the point F the other point coincides with the end of the line B, F is found to be the middle point in In some cases it may be necessary to repeat the line.
this operation several times before the exact center is

obtained.
9. To Divide a Straight Line into Two Equal Parts by the Use of a Triangle or Set Square. In Fig. 139, let B be a given straight line. Place a J-square

A

/

Geometrical

I 'ml, I nun.

3'J

paper, rind by laving the paper across a scale, as shown in Fig. 141, mark the required dimensions upon it,

a straight

strip of
line

paper, as before.
2

the
as

first

and carry B

against

PlacJ A' against the fifteenth line,

divide the line

and afterward transfer them to a given line, than to itself by one of the methods explained
is

shown.

Then mark

divisions upon the edtre of the

for that purpose. It mav also occur that it to divide lines of different lengths into the
different

desirable

paper opposite each line of the scale, as shown. 12. To Divide a Given Angle into Two Equal Parts.
In

same num-

Fig. 142, let

A

B

represent any angle which

it is

ber of equal parts, or the same lengths of lines into

numbers of equal parts. Such a scale as is shown in Fig. 141 is adapted to all of these purposes. The scale may be ruled upon a piece of paper or upon a sheet of metal, as is preferred. The lines may be all of one color, or two or more colors may be alternated.

them by the eye

in order to facilitate counting the lines or following In size, the scale across the sheet.

should be adapted to the special purposes for which it is intended to be used. By the contrast of two colors
Fig. US.

To Bisect a Given Angle.

From the vertex, or point C, as required to bisect. center, with any convenient raditis, strike the arc D E, From 1) and E as cutting the two sides of the angle.
centers,

with any radius

greater

than

one-half

the

length of the arc

D

E, strike short arcs intersecting at

G, as shown. Through the point of intersection, G, draw a line to the vertex of the angle, as shown by

F

C.

Then F C
13.

will divide the angle into

two equal

parts.

To Trisect an Angle.
of solving this

No

strictly geometrical

method

Fig. HI.

To Divide a Straight Lin* into Any Number of Equal Parts by Means of a Scale.

problem has ever been discovThe following method, partly geometrical and ered. partly mechanical, is, however, perfectly accurate and can be used to advantage whenever it becomes necessary to find an exact one-third or two-thirds of an
angle
:

in ruling the lines,

one scale

may be

adapted to both
if

coarse and fine work.

For instance,

Let

the lines are

ABC,

Fig.

143, be the angle of which

it is

ruled a quarter of an inch apart, in colors alternating red and blue, in fine work all the lines in a given space

may be
red or

mensions are not required
all

used, while in large work, in which the dito be so small, either all the
the blue lines

may be

used, to the exclusion
it

of those of the other color.

Let

be required to
1

di-

B in Fig. 141 into thirty equal parts. vide the line B to one edge of a slip of paper, Transfer the length

A

A

Fig. 143.

To Trisect a Given Angle.

as

shown by

A B
1

1

,

and placing

A

1

against the

first line

Then mark of the scale, carry B' to the thirtieth line. the edge of the strip of paper opposite divisions upon
each of the several lines
it

Extend one of its sides required to find one-third. the vertex indefinitely, as shown by B E, and beyond
upon
this line

crosses, as

shown.

Let

it

from

B

as center with

be required to divide the same length A B into fifteen B to Transfer the length equal parts by the scale.

any convenient

radius describe a semicircle
of the angle.

A

cutting both sides Place a straight edge firmly against the

A

C D,

40

Tlie

Xew

Metal

Worker

Tiook.

On extended side as at F, and a pin at the point C. another straight edge (Ci) having a perfect corner at K, set oil' from one end a distance equal to the radius of the semicircle as shown by point x\ and placing
this straight edge,

15. To Find the Center from which a Given Arc is Struck by the Use of the Square. In Kig. u.v, let A B G be the given arc. Kstablisli the point B at pleas nre and draw two chords, as shown l>v A 15 and B C.

was

set

oil',

with the end upon which the radius against the other straight edge (F) and its

Misect these chords, obtaining the points E and D. Place the square against the chord 15 C, as shown in

edge near the other end, against the pin at the point C, all as shown, slide it along until the mark x comes to
the semicircle establishing the point 1). Draw the line I) B, then the D E B will be one-third of the angle

the engraving, bringing the heel against, the midd:point, D, and scribe along the Made
indefinitely.

Then
with

place the square, as shown by the dotted lines, the heid against the middle point, E, of the
in

angle
is

ABC,

and C D B

will be two-thirds of

it.

second chord, and
blade, cutting the

like

manner
in

scribe along the

14.

To Find the Center from which a Given Arc
In Fig.

Struck.

U4,

let

A

B C

represent the given

the point F. ThenF' will be the center of the circle, of which tue are 15 C
first line

A

Fig.

To Find the Center 144. from which a Given Arc is
Struck.

Fig. 146

The Chord and Right of a Segment of a Circle Being Given, to find the Center from

which

the

Arc may

be Struck.

was struck being unknown and to be found. From any point near the middle of the arc, as B, with any convenient radius,
are,,

the center from which

it

Fig. 145.

To Find the Center from which a Given Are.
Struck, by the Use of the Square.

is

strike the arc

F G,

as

shown.

Then from

the points
is

and C, with the same radius, strike the intersecting arcs I II and E D. Through the points of intersection draw the lines K M and L M, which will meet in M. Then M is the center from which the given arc was struck.
taken at

A

a part.
all

This rule

will

use in

cases where the radius

be found very convenient for is less than 24 inches
of

in length.

and C being points the arc, which would be the extremities of
Instead of

the

A

16.

The Chord and Right
In Fig.

being Given, to

a Segment of a Circle Find the Center from which the Arc
14-C.,

quite inconvenient in the case of a long arc, these, points may be located in any part of the arc which is
most, convenient.

may be

Struck.

let

A B

chord of a segment or arc of a
or hight.
Tt,

circle,

and

represent the 1) C the rise

A

and

B and

15

greater the distance between and C, the greater will be the accu-

The

of this rule

The essential feature racv of succeeding operations. is to strike an arc from the middle one of

required to find a center from which if struck, will an arc, pass through the three points D and B D. Bisect A D, as A, D and B. Draw
is

A

the points, and then strike; intersecting ares from the other two points, using tiie same radius. It is not

shown, and prolong the line 11 L indefinitely. Bisect D B and prolong I M until it cuts II L, produced in

necessary that the distance from to C shall be exact! v the same.

A

to

B

and from

15

Then E, the point of intersection, will the point E. It will be observed that be the center sought. by and intersecting it by either L or producing DC,

H

41
I

M

prolonged, the same point

is

found.

Therefore,

18.

preferred, ihr bisecting of either A Dm- 1.) 15 ma\ he dispensed with. A practical application of this
if

Points not in a Straight Line.

To Draw a Circle Through any Three Given In Kig. im, let A. Hand
not
in
a

K

lie

any three given points
it.

straight

Hue,

rule occurs quite frequently construction of window c:ips
to
lit

frames already made. ders from the master builder or carpenter to the cornice worker, it is quite customar\ to describe the shape of the head of the frames which the caps are to lit by
stating that the width is, for example-. :;tl inches, and that the rise is 4 inches. To draw the shape thus deSet oil' A 1> equal to scribed, proceed as follows:
:'>('>

cornice work, in the and other similar forum, In the conveying of orin

through 'which

is

required to draw a circle.

Con-

nect the given points by K. Bisect the line 1)

to

it,

as

shown.

drawing the lines A I) and 1) by F C, drawn perpendicular Also bisect D K by the line (! C, as

A

shown.
is

Then

the point C, at which these lines meet,

the center of the required circle. 19. To Erect a Perpendicular to an Arc of a Circle, without having Recourse to the Center. In Fig. 15o, let

A D B

be the arc of a circle to which

it is

inches, from the center of which erect a perpendicular, D C, which make equal to 4 inches. Continue D C in the direction of K indeiinitely. Draw A 1), which bisect, as shown, and draw 11 L, producing it until

erect a perpendicular.

With

A

as center,

required to and with

it-

any radius greater than half the length of the given arc, describe the arc x x, and with B as center, and with the same radius, describe the arc y y, intersecting

the point E. Then with prolonged, center and K ]) as radius, strike the arc D B.

cuts

DC
17.

in

E

as

A

To Strike an Arc of a Circle by a Triangular Guide, the Chord and Hight Being Given. In Fig. 147, let

Fig. 14?.

To Strike an Arc of a

Circle by

a Triangular

B F the given hight. The determine the shape and size of the tristep and F, as shown. Connect From angular guide.
the given chord and
is

A D be

iirst

to

Fig. IfS.

A

To Describe a Semicircle with a Steel Square.

F, parallel to the given chord A D, it in length equal to F, or longer.

draw F

(1,

A

Then

A

making F (!. as

the arc

first

struck, as shown.

intersection

draw the

line

F

E.

Through the points of Then F E will be

shown
guide
the

in

the engraving,

to

be used.

is the angle of the triangular Construct the guide of any suitable
its

perpendicular to the arc, and if sufficiently produced will reach the center from which the arc B is drawn.

A

material,

making angle A F G.

the angle of two of

sides equal to

20. To

Draw a Tangent

to a Circle or

Arc

of

a

D.

Place the guide
will

Drive pins at the points A, F and -as shown. Put a pencil at the

point F.

Shift the guide in such a

manner

that the
all

Circle at a given Point without having Recourse to the Center. In Fig. 151, let D B be the arc of a circle, to which a tangent is to be drawn at the point D.

A

pend!

move toward A, keeping

the Lruide at

With
points

D

as

center, and, with

any convenient radius,

and F. Then reversing, shift times against the pins so that the pencil at the point F will move the guide toward I), keeping the guide during this operation
atrainst the pins

A

describe the arc

A

A

F and

D.

By

this

means the pencil

Through shown by

will be

made

to describe the arc

A

F

D.

It

may

be

B, as parallel to be the required tangent. 21. To Ascertain the Circumference of a Given Circle.
1

and B. D draw
I ]

B, cutting the given arc in the Join the points and B, as shown.

F

A

a straight

line

A

II,

then

E

II

will

interesting to
lar
it

know that if made a right guide be
be a semicircle.

the angle F of the trianguangle, the .arc described by

In Fig. 152,
line.

let

ADB
tw:>
1)

C be

the circle, eqaal to the

circumference of

which

will

By

these means, then, a steel
circles, as

Draw any

required to draw a straight diameters at right angles, as
it is

square- may in Fig. 148, the pins being placed at

be used

in

drawing

illustrated

shown by

A

B and

C.

Divide one of the four

ai'cs,

A, B and

C.

as, for instance,

D

1!.

into eleven equal parts, as

shown.

The
I'Yom
P>.

New

Mi'tal

MV/'vy

l\iU<-,-n

Hook.

!',

tlie
a.

second of these divisions from the point
perpendicular
!)

dividers arc placed
shall exist

let

fall

to

A

1>,

as

shown

l>y

''

I''.

upon the line, no perceptible curve between them, and, beginning at one end
the same, or so
tliat

To

three times the diameter of the circle
F,

(A
a

J5

or

DC)

of the curve, step to the oilier end of

very c.h>se to the length of the circumference. This approximation diameter of 1 foot, gives a length of about rule, upon
will
;\.

add the length

and the result

he

the remaining space shall be less than that between the points of the dividers, then beginning
at the end of

near the end

T T ths of an inch in excess of the actual length of the
3

circumference.
22. To Draw a Straight Line Equal in Length to the Circumference of any Circle or of any Part of a Circle -

any straight line step oil' upon it the same which add to them the remaining small space of the curve hv measurement with the This will be found the quickest and most dividers.

number

of spaces, after

accurate of any method for the pattern cutters' use.

Fig. 149,

To

Draw a

Circle

Through
in

Fig. 150.

any Three Given Points Not
Straight Line.

a

To Erect a Perpendicular an Arc of a Circle.

to

Fig. 151.

To Draw a Tangent
or Arc.

to

a

Circle

./ft

Fig. IBS.

To Ascertain the Circumfer-

Fig. 15S.

ence of a Given Circle.

To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given Circle.

Fig. 154.

To Inscribe a Square ivithin a Given Circle.

Various approximate rules, similar to the one given in the problem above, for performing these operations are known and sometimes used among workmen, but cannot be recommended here because in using them considerable time and trouble is required to obtain a result

The most common
tion of

rules in use for the construc-

polygons, whether drawn within circles or erected upon given sides, are those which einplov the Other instruments straight-edge and compasses only.

may

which is not accurate when obtained, thus rendering such methods impracticable. The simplest and most accurate method for obtaining the length of any curved line is as follows Take between the points of the
:

also be employed to great advantage, as will be shown further on, leaving the student to decide which method is the most suited to any case he may have in

hand.

dividers a space so small that

when

the points of the

Accordingly, the construction of polygons will be treated under three different heads arranged according to the tools employed.

I

I!

THE CONSTRUCTION OF REGULAR POLYGONS.
I

BY THE USE OF COMPASSES AND STRAIGHT-EDGE.
23. To Inscribe

Circle.

In

Fig.

i:.i;,

let

ABDK
is

F G

be any given

circle within

which

a

hexagon

to

be drawn.

From
A,

Given

Circle.

an Equilateral Triangle within a In Fig. Ij;;, let B D be any given

any

point in the

circumference of the

circle, as at

A

circle within

dr:iwn.

which an equilateral triangle is From any point in the circumference,

to

be

with a radius equal to the radius of the circle, describe the arc C B, cutting the circumference of the
circle in the point B.

as K,

with a radius equal to the radius of the circle, describe the arc D C B, cutting the given circle in iho points Draw the line D B, which will be one side 1) and B.
of

Then

AB

will

Connect the points A and B. be one side of the hexagon. With the

dividers set to the distance

A B,
A

step off in the cir-

cumference of the
1)

circle the points
lines
(I

G, F,

the required triangle.
1)

From D
Draw

or

B

as center, and

with

B

as radius, cut the circumference of the

given

cirele, as

shown

at

A.

A

B and

A

D, which

G, F, B, thus completing the figure. By inspection of this ligure it will be noticed that the radius of a circle
is equal to one side of the regular hexagon which may be inscribed within it. Therefore set the dividers to

Draw the connecting

E and D. F E, E D and

will

complete the iignre. 24. To Inscribe a Square within a Given Circle.

In Fig. 154, let

A

C B
to

1)

bo any given circle within

which

it is

required

draw a square.

Draw any two

the radius of a circle and step around the circumference, connecting the points thus obtained.

Fig. 155

To Inscribe a Regular Pentagon within a Given Circle.

Fig.

15fi.To Inscribe a Regular Hexagon within a Given Circle.

Fig. 157.

To Inscribe a Regular Heptagon \uithin a Given Circle.

diameters at right angles with each other, as C D and and Join the points C B, B D, D C, which B.

2f.
Circle.

A

A

A

To Inscribe a Regular Heptagon within a Given In Fig. 157, let F A G B II I K L D be the

will complete the required figure. 25. To Inscribe a Regular Pentagon within a Given
Circle.

given

circle.

From any

point,

A,

in the circumfer-

In Fig. loo,
it is

ADB

G

represents a circle in

which

any two A B and

D

Draw required to draw a regular pentagon. diameters at right angles to each other, as Bisect the radius C. II, as shown at E.

ence, with a radius equal to the radius of the circle, describe the arc cutting the circumference of the circle in the points B and D. Draw the chord B D.

BCD,
B

Bisect the chord
center,

D, as shown at E.

With

D D

as

A

With E

as center

and

E D

as radius strike the arc

D

F, and with the chord
strike the arc

D

F

as radius,

from

D as

center,

as radius, strike the arc E F, the circumference in the point F. Draw cutting F, which will be one side of the heptagon. With the

and with

D E

cutting the circumference of the Draw D G, which will G. given circle at the point With the one side of the required figure. equal to D G, step off the spaces in the dividers set equal circumference of the circle, as shown by the points

F G,

dividers set to the distance

F, set off in the circumference of the circle the points G II I and L, and draw the connecting lines F G, L II, II I, I K,

D

K

G

K

and L D, thus completing the figure. 28. To Inscribe a Regular Octagon within a Given
Circle.

I

K

and L.

Draw D

I,

I

K,

KL

and

L

G, thus com-

In Fig.

158,

let

B

I

D FAGE
is

II

be the

pleting the figure. 26. To Inscribe a Regular Hexagon within a Given

given

circle within

which an octagon

to

be drawn.

Draw any two diameters

at right angles to each other,

44
as
15

The

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
Circle.
in

A

ami
13

1)

E.

Draw

the chords

D A
II.

and

Bisect

A,

as

shown, and draw

L

Bisect

A E. A K

In Fig. 101, let
regular

B D

A

L

which a

iignre

of

eleven
as
J>

ho any given circle sides is to be

and draw

K

1.

Then connect

llie

circumference thus obtained
I

liv

several points in the drawing the lines I) I,

drawn.

Draw any diameler,

E, G, A, complete the figure. 29. To Inscribe a Regular Nonagon within a Given
11,

B

II, II

K

G

A

F and F

D, which will

D G, at right angles to thus obtaining the point E. From E as center, and with K D as radius, describe the arc D F, cutting P> A
radius, as
in the point F.

A. and draw a B A. Bisect C A,

Circle.

!

n Fig. l.V., let

MK

F E

l>e

the given circle.

Draw nnv two
(}

to^ach other, as 1> From A as and draw the chord B A. C, to one-half the chord center, and with a radius equal
radii at right angles

and

A

With D as center, and 1) F as radius, describe the arc F G, cutting the circumference in the Draw the chord G D and bisect it, as shown point. G. II C, thus obtaining the From D as by point K.
as radius, cut the circumference center, and with in the point I. Draw I D. Then I will be equal to one side of the required figure. Set the dividers to this space and step off the points in the circumference,

D K

A

D, strike the arc D E, cutting the B, as shown l>y Draw E, circumference of the circle at the point E. which will he one side of the nonagon. Set the di-

A

D

A

viders to the distance
II,

as

K, G, I, F shown, thus completing the

and step off the points M, and L, and draw the connecting lines,
figure.

AE

as

shown by N, E,

S,

M, P, L, 0, T and V, and draw

the connecting chords, as shown, thus completing the
figure.

8

M

Fig.

1~>8.

To Inscribe a Regular Octagon within a Oin-n Circle.

Fig. 159.

To Inscribe a Regular Nunagon within a Given Circle.

Fig.

160.

To Inscribe a Regular Decagon within a Given Circle.

30. To Inscribe a Regular Decagon within a Given
Circle.
in

32. To Inscribe a Regular Dodecagon within a Given
Circle.

In Fig. 100, let

DBE
to

which a decagon is diameters through the
other,
as

be any given circle be drawn. Draw any two
each
C, as

A
D

In Fig. 102, let

M
is

F

A

I

be any given

circle

in

which a dodecagon

to

be drawn.

From anv

circle at right angles to

shown by B

A

and

E.

Bisect

B

point in the circumference, as A. with a radius equal to the radius of the circle, describe the arc C B, cutting

shown

at-^F,

and draw F D.
the chord

With F

as center,

and

the

circumference
P>,

in

the

point

B.

Draw

the
line

F D
and

as radius, describe the are

D

point G.

Draw

D

in the G, cutting B G. "With D as center,

A

chord

A

which bisect as shown, and draw the

D G

as radius, strike the are

G

II,

cutting the

cir-

cumference in the point II. Connect D and ]I, as Bisect D II and draw the line C It, cutting shown.
the circumference in the point
I.

Draw C, cutting the circumference in the point D. which will then be one side of the given figure. D, With the dividers set to this space step off in the cir-

A

Draw

the lines II I

cumference the points B, I, X, II, M, G, L, F, K and F, and draw the several chords, as shown, thus completing the Iignre.
33. General Rule for Inscribing
in

and

D, which will then be two sides of the required Set the dividers to the distance II and space figure.
I
I

oil'

the circumference of the circle, as shown, and draw

a Given Circle.

Through

the given circle

the connecting lines

NO

D K, M, L, L P, P E, E N, thus completing the ligniv. II, 31. To Inscribe a Regular Undecagon within a Given
and.

K

M

any Regular Polygon draw any

diameter.
radius.

O

At right angles to this diameter draw a Divide that radius into four equal parts, ami
outside the circle to a distance equal to three

prolong

it

< i,

nun triful

Problt in*.

45

of those parts.

Divide the diameter of the circle into

the same,

number of equal parts as the polygon is to have sides. Then mm lie end of the radius prolonged,
1 1

outside ihe circle to the extent, of three of those' parts, From as sho\vn 1^\ abe, thus obtaining the point
<:.

as

above described, through the second division
a line in

in

the

in the diameter, draw r, through the second division the line c II, cutting tlie circumference in the point
II.

diameter, draw
neet
this

point,

Concutting the ci renni ferenee. the circumference and the nearest

Connect
the
11

II

and K.

Then

JI

K

will

be one side

of

required ligure.

Set the dividers to the dis-

end of the diameter.
side of

The

line thus

drawn

will lie

one

the required
oil

ligure.

Set

the dividers to this
eirclo

space and step

on the circumference of the

step oil the circumference, as shown, ihe points for the other sides, and drw thus obtaining the connecting arcs, all us illustrated in the ligurc.

tance

Hand

f,V,

To Iiixciibe a. Regular Un161. decagnn within a Given Circle.

Fig. 162.

To Inscribe a Regular Dodecagon within a Given Circle.

Fig. ItiJ.To Inscribe

a Regular Undecagun within a Given Circle by Ihe
General Rule.

Q

Fig.

M./. Ujiun a (liom Side lo Construct an Equilateral Tri-

Fig. Via.
(liren.

To Construct a Triangle, Ihe Length of the Three Sides being

Fig.

166.

I 'pan

a

Givm

Side

to

draw

n

Regular Pentagon,

angle.

the remaining

number

of sides

and draw connecting

35.

Upon a Given Side
In Fig.
lf.4, let

to Construct

lines, which will complete the ligurc. 34. To Inscribe a Regular Polygon of Eleven Sides the General Rule. (Undecagon) within a Given Circle by

Triangle.

AB

an Equilateral represent the length
as

of the given side.

Through

the given circle,

E
as

I)

F

G

in Fig.

13,
have

draw any diameter, as K same number of equal parts
sides, as
to the

K. which divide into the

the dividers, and placing one foot upon the point C, describe the are K F. Then from D as center, with the same

equal to

A

B.

Draw any line, Take the length A

C
in

D, making

it

B

the ligurc

is

to

radius, describe the are
in

(i

II,

intersecting the

first

arc-

shown by

diameter just

At right, angles the small figures. drawn draw the radius D K, which
Prolong the radius

the point K. Draw C and will be the required triangle.

K

K

D.

Then C D K

divide into four equal parts.

D K

36. To Construct a Triangle, the Length of the Three

Tlte

Xew

Metal

\\~orker Patlf.

i

Sides being Given.

In Fig. 165, let

A

B.

c D and K
ami
L.

of

the circle, obtaining the points

M

be the given sides from which it is required to conDraw any straight line, G II, makstruct a triangle.

F

Draw

A
let

M,

M
B

L and L

D, which

will

com-

Take ing it in length equal to one of the sides, E F. in the the length of one of the other sides, as B, compasses, and from one end of the line just drawn, as G, for center describe an arc, as indicated by L

plete the figure. 38. Upon a Given Side to

A

In Fig. 167,
a regular

A
is

hexagon

Draw a Regular Hexagon. be the given side upon which to be erected. as center, From

A

and with

AB

as radius, describe

the arc

B

C.

From

M.
side,
first

Then set the compasses to the length C 1), and from the opposite end of

of

third

B

as center,

and with the same radius, describe the

the line

drawn, H, describe a second arc, as I K, intersectConnect G and H. ing the first in the point 0. G II will be the required triangle. Then
37.

arc C C, intersecting the first arc in the point C. will then be the center of the circle which will cir-

A

Upon a Given Side
let

to

Draw

a Regular Pentagon.

represent the given side upon which a regular pentagon is to be constructed. With B as center and B as radius, draw the semicircle

In Fig. 166,

AB

A

cumscribe the required hexagon. With C as cent IT. and C B as radius, strike the circle, as shown. Set the dividers to the space A B and step off the circumference, as shown, obtaining the points E, G, F and D. Draw the chords A E, E G, G F, F D and D B, thus
completing the required figure.

Fig. 167.

Upon a (liven Side a Regular Hexagon.

to

Draw

Fig.

16$.l'pon a Giivji Side a lieyular Heptagon.

to

Draw

Fig.

KO.Upon

a Given Side

to

llmw

a Regular Octagon.

A D E.
A J3,

Produce A B to E. Bisect the given side shown at the point F, and erect a perpendicAlso erect a perpendicular ular, as shown by F C. With B as center, at the point B, as shown by G H.
as

39. Upon a Given Side to Draw a Regular Heptagon. In Fig. 168, B represents the given side upon which a regular heptagon is to be drawn. From B as as radius, strike the semicircle center, and with B

A

and F

B

as radius, strike the arc

F

pendicular

HG
and

in

the point G.

G, cutting the perDraw G E. With

A

E

D.

Produce
as

A AB

to D.

From

A

as center, ami

with

AB
D

radius, strike the arc

G

as radius, strike the arc E II, With E as cutting the perpendicular in the point H. as radius, strike the arc II D, cutting and E center, as center,

GE

semicircle in the point F.

B F, cutting the Through F draw F G per-

pendicular to

A

H

From

as center,

B, which extend in the direction of C. and with radius G F, cut the semi-

the semicircle

which

in the point D. Draw B, will be the second side of the pentagon. Bisect

ADE

D

the point E. Draw the line E B, which is the required heptagon. Bisect E B, and another side of
circle in

B, as shown, at the point K, and erect a perpendicular, which produce until it intersects the perpendicular F C, erected upon the center of the given side in

D

middle point, H, erect a perpendicular, which it meets the produce perpendicular erected upon the center of the given side B, in the point C. Then

upon

its

until

A

Then C is the center of the circle which point F. From C as cencircumscribes the required pentagon. and with C B as radius, strike the circle, as shown. ter,
Set the dividers to the distance

is

the center of the circle which will circumscribe

From the required heptagon. C B as radius, strike the circle.
the distance

C

as

center,

and with

Set the dividers to
the circumference, as

A

B and

step off the

AB

and step

off

Geometrical

Problems.

47
they intersect at the point C. the center of the circle which will circum-

Draw shown, obtaining the points K, N, M and L. the connecting arcs A K, K N, N M, M L and L-E,
thus completing the figure. 40. Upon a Given Side to

which

produce until
is

Then C

Draw a Regular Octagon.

From scribe the required nonagon. with C B as radius, strike the circle

C

as center,

and
Set

B

P A.

In Fig.

represent the given side upon a regular octagon is to bo constructed. which Produce A 13 indefinitely in the direction of D. From B as
10!>, let
1>

A

B and step oil the circle, the dividers to the space as shown, obtaining the points N, P, M, E, and L. Draw the connecting chords, N, P, P M, R,

A

A

N

M

center,

and with

A

H

AE
as

as radius, describe the semicircle

R

the point B erect a perpendicular to B, shown, cutting the circumference of the semicircle in the point E. Bisect the arc E D, obtaining the

D.

At

A

E, thus completing the figure. 0, 42. Upon a Given Side to Draw a Regular Decagon. In Fig. 171,

L and L

AB

is

the given side

upon which a

point F.

Draw F

15,

which

is

another side of the

re-

Bisect the two sides now obtained and erect perpendiculars to their middle points, G and H, which produce tmtil thev intersect at the point C.

quired octagon.

Produce B indefiregular decagon is to be drawn. From B as center, and in the direction of D. nitely with B as radius, strike the semicircle D.

A

A

A H

Bisect

the

Through
dicular to

given side the point B

B, obtaining the point F. draw the line B G, perpen-

A

H

(J

"then

is

the center of the circle that will circumscribe

A

B.

From B

as center,

and with

B F

as

Fig. 170.

Upon a Given Side a Regular Nonagon.

to

Draw

Fig. 171

I 'pan a Given Sid<: a Regular Decagon.

to

Draw

Fig. 172.

Upon a Given Side

to

Draw a Regtilar Undecagon.

the octagon. From C as center, and with C B as radius, Set the dividers to the strike the circle, as shown.

radius, strike the arc

H G in
D
dicular

the point G.

F G, cutting the perpendicular From G as center, and with G

space
arcs

AB

and step

off the

the points L,

A

K, M, L K, K M, L,

circumference, obtaining and N. Draw the connecting

as radius, strike the arc

D

HG
as

0, cutting the perpen-

in the point 0.

From D

as

center,

and

M

0,

ON

and

N" F,

thus com-

pleting the required figure. 41. Upon a Given Side to

Draw a Regular Nonagon.
it is

K, cutting the semicircle in the point K. Draw the line D, which bisect with the line B L, cutting the semicircle in the

with

D

radius, strike the arc

K

any given side upon which Produce A required to draw a regular nonagon.
In Fig. 170,
is

AB

point E.

Then E B
the

B in-

gon.

Upon

be another side of the decamiddle points, F and M, of the
will

as center, From of D. definitely in the direction F D. as radius, strike the semicircle and with

B

B A

A

the point B B, cutting Draw the chord F D, the semicircle in the point F. which bisect., obtaining the point G. From D as center, and with D <! as radius, cut the semicircle in the

At

erect a perpendicular to

A

two sides now obtained erect perpendiculars, which produce until they intersect at the point C. Then C is the center of the circle which will circumscribe the

From G as center, and with C B required decagon. ;is strike the circle, as shown. Set the dividers radius, to the space B and step off the circle, obtaining the

A

Draw K B, which will be another side of the point E. From the middle points of the two required figure. sides now obtained, as H and K, erect perpendiculars,

several points,

I,

N,

S,

connecting

lines,

A

I, I

V, R, T and P. Draw the N, N S, S V, V R, B T, T

P and P

E, thus completing the figure.

New
43.

M'-tnl

1

1

\,rker

Pattern Jlook.

Upon a Given
Kig. '6-

Side to
-V
13

Draw a Regular Undec-

points of the two sides

now obtained,
'jutting

as

G

and

II, erect

agon.

In

IT-,

represents the

perpendiculars,

as

shown,

each other at the

upon which a regular undecan-on is to Produce A 13 indefinitely in the direction of D. From 13 as center, and with B A as radius, draw the semiB. Through the point B, perpendicular draw the line II D indefinitely. From 13 as B, center, and with B F as radius, strike the arc F G,
circle

AM

to

A

This point of intersectr:n, (J. then is the point C. center of the circle which will circumscribe the required From C as center, and with C 15 as radius, dodecagon. strike the circle, as shown. Set the dividers to the
distance

A

13

and space

oil'

the

cutting the perpendicular II

G G

in the point G. in the point

From
1)
1

G
D

as

center, and

GD

taining the points L, P. Draw the connecting lines
li

M,

circumference, thus obS, N, K. O, K and 1.

as radius, strike the arc

1

,

0,

K,

K

I

and

cutting the perpendicular II
as center,

H.

With

P, P M, S, S N, E. I E, thus completing the figure.

L

M

N

and

DH

45. General Rule by which to

as radius, strike the arc

which

cutting the semicircle in the point M. bisect, obtaining the point K, through which, from B, draw the line B K, and produce it until it

H M, Draw M D,
will

Polygon, the Length of a Side Being Given. radius equal to the given side describe a

Draw any Regular With a
semicircle, the

circumference of which divide into as
as the figure

cuts the semicircle in the point E. another side of the required figure.
sides

Then B E

be

is to have sides. which the semicircle was struck draw

many equal parts From the center bv
a line to the

Bisect the two

now

obtained and erect perpendicular lines, pro-

N^
Fig. 173.

Upon a Given Side

to

Draw a Regular Dodecagon.
Fig. 174.

dueing them until they intersect, as shown bv F C and L C. Then C, the point of is the
intersection,

Upon a Given Side

to Construct a Regular Polygon of Thirteen Sides by the General Rule.

center of the circle which circumscribes the undec-

agon.

From G

as

center,

and with C

A

as

radius,

shown. Set the dividers to the B and step off the circumference, obtaining space the points O, V, T, E, P, S, and I. Draw the chords O V, V T, T E, E P, P S, S N, O, I and I E, thus complcuing the figure.

strike the circle, as

A

N

second division in the circumference. This line will be one side of the required figure, and one-half of tindiameter of the semicircle will be another, and the two will be in proper relationship to each other. There-

A

N

and through their centers erect perwhich produce until they intersect. The pendiculars,
fore, bisect each,

44.

Upon a Given Side
let

to

In Fig. 173,

A
A

Draw a Regular Dodecagon.
tin;
is

B

represent
to

which a regular dodecagon

AB

given side upon be drawn. Produce

point of intersection will be 'the center of the circle which will circumscribe the polygon. Draw the circle, and setting the dividers to the length of one of the
sides already found, step off the circumference, thus obtaining points by which to draw the remaining sides
of the figure.

indefinitely in the direction of D.

From

13

as

center,

and with

B

A

as radius, describe the semicircle

F

D.

From D

as center,
13

and with

D B

as radius,

describe the -arc

K,
I),

point F.

Draw F

cutting the semicircle in the which bisect by the line V 1!,

cutting the semicircle in the point E. another side of the dodecagon. From

Then E
the

15

is

46. To Construct a Regular Polygon of Thirteen Sides by the General Rule, the Length of a Side being Given. With 13 as In Fig. 174, let A 13 be the given side. center, and with 13 A as radius, describe the semicircle

middle

A

F

G.

Divide the circumference of the semicircle

Geometrical

Problems.

into
1,

tliirtec'ii

equal puns, as

2, 3,

4,

etc.

division in the

shown by the small figures, From B draw a line to the second circumference, as shown by B 2. Then
two of the
sides of the required figure,

A

line at

00 54

for

polygons having

6 sides.

5

45
figures on the inscribed circle

4

" "
radius of
distance

A B and
and are

B
in

'2

are

The

B

Bisect correct relationship to each other. B and B 2, as shown, and draw D C and E C through their central points, prolonging them until they inter-

will designate the

A

measured from O.

The

from

B on any

horizontal line to the oblique line de-

sect at the point C.

Then C

is

the center of the circle
Strike

which

will circumscribe the required polygon.

Set the dividers to the space the circle, B, and step off corresponding spaces in the circumference of the circle, as shown, and connect the several

as shown.

A

the figure. points so obtained by lines, thus completing 47. Within a Given Square to Draw a Regular Octagon.

D B E be any given square In Fig. 175, let within which it is required to draw an octagon. Draw the diagonals D E and B, intersecting at the point

A

A

C.

From A, D, B and E

as centers,

and with radius

C, strike equal to one-half of one of the diagonals, as I and L O, cutting the the several arcs N, K, Connect the sides of the square, as shown.

A

H

G

M

points thus obtained in the sides of the square by drawing L and the lines G O, I, N, thus completing

H

K

M

the figure.

For general use a very convenient scale may be constructed, as shown in Fig. 176, from which half the length of one side of a polygon of any number of sides and of any diameter in inches and fractions of

tfr.it.le. for Fig. 176 Constructing Polygons of any Number of Sides, the Diameter of the Inscribed Circle Being Given in Inches. Half Full Size.

noting the required polygon will be half the length of a side of the polygon of the diameter indicated by the
figure at the

7|B

distance from

end of the horizontal line assumed. O measured upon the oblique line

The
to the

H

assumed horizontal cumscribed circle.

line will be the radius of the cir-

In the engraving three polygons are drawn showing the application of the scale.

M

H.

BY THE USE OF THE T-SQUARE AND TRIANGLES OR SET-SQUARES.

N
Pig. 175.

E
Octagon.

Within a Oiven Square

to

Draw a Regular

In the chapter upon terms and definitions under the word degree (def. 68) and in some of those immediately following the dimensions of the circle are described and their use explained; and in the chapter upon Drawing Tools and Materials (on page 21) the triangles or set-squares in common use are described and
illustrated.

inches
line

OB

may

Draw the vertical readily be obtained. and divide it into inches and parts of an inch.
;

From

from the point

these points of division draw horizontal lines O draw the following lines and at the
:

following angles from the horizontal line O P A line at 75 for polygons having 12 sides. " " 72 10 " " " 8

regular polygons depend, for their construction, upon the equal division of the circle, some explanation of the application of the foregoing
all

As

will serve to fix a

few

facts in the

mind

of the student

and thus prepare him for the use of the set-square.

50

Tin-

\>'/r

Mi'lal

Worker Pattern Bwk.
of the 45-degree triangle, as

A well-known and easily demonstrated geometrical
principle
is

that the

sum

of the three interior angles of a

triangle is equal to two right angles, or in other words, as a right angle is one of 90 degrees, if the three angles

E, is placed against the blade of the T-square, and the vertical division of the circle is drawn along the other short side C E.
In Fig. 178 the vertical and horizontal divisions of the circle, B and C D, are drawn as before, after

A

of

any triangle be added together their sum will equal 180 degrees. Hence, if one of the angles of a setsquare be fixed at 90 degrees (which is done for con-

A

venience in drawing perpendicular lines) the sum of the two remaining angles must also be 90 degrees, and, if then the two other angles be made equal, each
will
If,

of the 45 -degree triangle the T-square, and the long or oblique placed against side E F is brought to the center of the circle and
is

which one of the shorter sides

be 45 degrees, which

is

the half of 90 degrees.

G I is drawn. By reversing the position of the triangle the last division II is drawn, thus dividing the circle into eight equal parts.
another division

K

however, one of the other angles is fixed at 30 (one-third of 90 degrees), the remaining angle must be 60 60 degrees, as 30 90.

C D

+

=

In Fig. 179, after drawing the divisions B and as before, the 30 X 60-degree triangle is placed in
its

A

the position shown at

By means, then, of the 45-degree and the 30 X 60-degree triangles, the draftsman has at his command

drawn along

F, and the division hypothenuse or oblique side.
still

AE

E N is Bv re-

versing the position of the triangle,

keeping the

Fig.

177. Circle Divided into Four Equal Parts by the Use of a Triangle

Fig.

178. Circle Divided into Eight Equal Parts by the Use of a 45-degree

Fig.

170.

Circle

Divided

into

Twelve,
60-

Equal Parts by the Use of a 80 x
degree Triangle.

or Set-Square.

Triangle.

the means of drawing lines at angles of 90, 60, 45 and

side

A
J

F

30 degrees, and by combination 75 degrees (45 -)- 30) and 15 degrees (90 With the 45-degree 75). he can bisect a right angle, and with the 30 and angle 60-degree angles he can trisect it.

sion

K

against the blade of the T-square, the divimay be drawn. Changing the position of the

triangle now so that its shortest side comes against the blade of the T-square, as shown dotted at F, the

GH

The pattern draftsman sometimes finds it convenient to have a set-square in which the sharpest angle is one of 22 degrees (one-half of 45) for use in
drawing the octagon in a certain position which be referred to later.
In Figs.
will

drawn, and again reversing its posistill keeping its shortest side against the T-square, tion, the last division I L may be drawn, thus dividing the
division
is

G

M

circle into

twelve equal parts. In Fig. 180 the circle is divided into eight equal

parts,

177, 178, 179 and 180 are illustrated

but differing from that shown above in this respect that, while in Fig. 178 two of the divisions lie
parallel with the sides of the drawing board, in the latter case none of the divisions are parallel with t lie-

the application of the foregoing, in which the circle is divided, by the use of the triangles above described,
into four, eight and twelve equal parts. In Fig. 177 the horizontal division B of the circle is drawn by

sides of the board or can be

A

means

of the T-square placed against the side of tindrawing board, after which one of the shorter sides

but if this method is shown dotted in Fig. 180, four of the sides of the octagon can be drawn with the T-square illR l tue other

drawn with the f-square; used in drawing an octagon, as

Geometrical

51
pendicular

four with the 45-degree triangle.

The

-2$

X

67-i-degree
is

triangle in
at

the circle

shown

A

15

(..'

drawing and I.)E C, while the posi-

tlie

position of the divisions of

C

I,

completing the division.

The

follow-

ing are a few of the problems to

which these principles

may be advantageously
Circle.
circle.

tion of the 45-degree

triangle in
is

sides of an octagon figure

drawing the oblique shown at F. It will thus
is

applied. 48. To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given

tiT^-degree triangle in drawing accurately the miter line for miters.

be seen that the 22

X

available

all

octagon
con-

In Fig. 183, let D be the center of the given Set the side E F of a 30-degree set-square the T-square, as shown, and move it along against

As
structed

a triangle in whatever form
is

it

may be

the blade of the T-^quare.

intended to be used by sliding it against, "11 the angles above men-

tioned are calculated with, reference to the lines drawn by the T-square. In practical use it will be found inconvenient in drawing such lines to actually bring the
point of a set-square to the center of a circle. better method, and one which makes use of the same
principles,
is

A

shown

in

Fig. 181.

The

blade of the
Fig. 181.

D

F

Proper Method of Using a 45-degree Triangle.

until the side

EG

touches D.

Mark

the point

B upon

the circumference of the circle.

Eeverse the set-square
to the right of the side

so that the point

E

will

come

F G and move it along in the the side E G again meets the
point C.

reversed position until point D, and mark the

Now move the T-square upward until it touches the point D, and mark the point A. Then B and C are points which divide the circle into three

A

equal parts.

The

triangle

may be
lines

easily

completed
B, B C but greater

from

this stage

by drawing

connecting
rule,

A

and C A, with any straight-edge or
accuracy
Fig.
ISO.

Circle

Use of

Divided into Eight Equal Parts by the a 1S&% x Vt^-degree Triangle,

obtained by the further use of the setPlace the side F G of the setsi [uare, as follows against the T-square, as shown in Fig. 184, square
is
:

T-square B. by

is

A

One

placed tangent to or near the circle, as shown side of a 45-degree triangle is placed

against it, as shown, its side C F being brought against the center. The line C F is then drawn. By reversing

the trrangle, as

D

is

drawn

at right

shown by the dotted lines, the line E angles to C F, thus dividing the

circle into quarters.

A
shown

similar use of the 30
in Fig. 182,

X

by which

a circle

60-degree triangle is is divided into
Fig. 182

six equal parts. Bring the blade of the T-square B. Then tangent to or near the circle, as shown by

Method of Using a 30
Dividing the

x 60-degree Triangle in
Circle.

A

place the set-square as shown by G B M, bringing the side G B against the center of the circle, drawing the
line

and move it along until the side E G touches the points A and C, as shown. Draw A C, which will be one
side of the required triangle.

D

L.

Then

place

it

as

bringing the side line F E. Then,
the side

G

M

against the center, scribing the by reversing the set-square, placing against 'the straight-edge, erect the per-

AH

shown by the dotted

lines,

Set the side

E F

of the

until set-square against the T-square, and move it along Then the side F G coincides with the points C and B. draw C B, which will be the second side of the triangle.

52
Place the side

The

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.
coincides with the points B and H, and draw B H. In a similar manner draw C A, thus completing the figure.
50. To Inscribe a

FG

of the set-square against the T-

square, with the side

E F

to the

right,

and move

it

along until the side and B. Then draw

E G

A

coincides with the points B, thus completing the figure.

A

Hexagon within a Given

Circle.
circle.

The same
by
first

results

may be accomplished

with less work

In Fig. 187, let Place the side E

be the center of the given

F

of a 30-degree set-square against

the point by bringing the the center, and then using the setT-square against The different methods square, as shown in Fig. 184.
establishing

A

Move the set-square along the T-square, as shown. until the side E G meets the point 0. Mark the points and B. Reverse the set-squaiv, and in like manner

A

are here given in order to use of the tools employed.

more

clearly illustrate the

mark

the points

C and

D.
1

With
-square,

the side

F G

of the

set-square against the

move

it

along until

Fig. 183.

Fig. 185.

Fig. 184.

Fig. 186.

To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a
Given
Circle.

To Inscribe a Square within a Given

Circle.

49. To Inscribe a Square within a Given Circle Let D, in Fig. 185, be the center of the given circle. Place the side E F of a 45-degree set-square against the T-square, as shown, and move it along until the side E G meets the point D. Mark the points and

the side

E F

Then A, H, D, B,
proposed hexagon.

meets the point 0, and mark I and H. I and C represent the angles of the

A

B.

Eeverse the set-square, and in a similar manner mark the points C and H. The points A, H, B and

From this stage the figure may be finished by drawing the sides by means of these readily a simple straight-edge; but greater acpoints, using is attained in completing the figure by the curacy
further use of the set-square, as shown in Fig. 188. With the side E F of the set-square against the f -square, as shown, draw the line II D, and by moving the T-square upward draw the side C I. Reversing the set-square so that the point F is to the left of the H, and also, by shifting the point E, draw the side

C

are corners of the required square. Move the Juntil it coincides with the and square upward points and draw H, as shown in Fig. 186. In like man-

A

H

A

ner draw
against

With the side E F of the set-square the T-square, move it along until the side G F

C

B.

A

Geometrical

Problems.

53

With the edge T-square, the side I B. the T-square, move it set-square against
side

E F
up

of the

B

until the

ners of the octagon.

and D, and draw like manner draw A C, thus comIn the side B D. In this figure, as with the triangle, pleting the figure. the same results may be reached by establishing the points H and I, by means of a diameter drawn at right
coincides with the points

GF

B

Then A, H, G, F, E, D, C and B are corThe figure may now be readily completed by drawing the sides, by means of these
and F.

points, using

any rule or straight-edge for the purpose,

angles to the T-square, as shown in the engravings, and, using it as a base, employing the set-square, as

shown

in Fig. 188.

The

first

method shown

is,

how-

Fig. 189.

To Inscribe a Regular Octagon within a
Given Circle.

all

as

and

B A,

shown by A H, H G, G F, F E, E D, D C, C B or by means of a 22 X 67^-degree set-

Fig. 18?.

Draw an Equilateral Triangle upon a Given In Fig. 190, let B be the given side. First B at right angles to the blade of the bring the line Then set the edge C B of a 30-degree setT-square.
Side.

square. 52. To

A

A

square against the T-square, and move it along until the edge B D meets the point B, and draw the line B F. Reverse the set-square, still keeping the side

C B

against the T-square, and

move

it

along until the

Fig. 188.

To Inscribe a Regular Hexagon within a Given
ever, to be preferred in
its

Circle.

many

instances,

on account of

great accuracy. 51. To Inscribe an Octagon within a Given Circle.

In Fig. 189, let be the center of the given circle. Place a 45-degree set-square as shown in the engraving, bringing its long side in contact with the center, and

K

mark the points E and A.
sition,

Keeping
its

it

in the

same poside

Fig. 190.

To Draw an Equilateral Triangle upon a Given Side.

move

it

along until

vertical side is in contact

and mark the points D and II. Reverse the set-square from the position shown in the engraving, and mark the points C and G. Move the T-square upward until it touches the point K, and mark the points
with

K

B D meets the point A, and draw the line F, thus completing the figure. 53. To Draw a Square upon a Given Side. In Fig.
191, let

A

AB

be the given side drawn at right angles

54
to the blade of the T-square.

Tin

\'

:

/C

M'lttl

II

//''/

Pntt'-ni

ttouk.

Set the edge

E F

of a

as shown, 45-degree set-square against the T-square, and move it along until the side E G meets the point

Still keeping the the center of the required figure. G of the set-square against the T-square, move edge it along until the perpendicular edge I II meets the

H

B, and draw

B

I indefinitely.

Reverse the set-square,

and, bringing the side

EG

against the point

A, draw

A

With point O, and through O draw F C indefinitely. the set-square in the position shown in the engraving slide it along until the edge I G meets the point
B, and draw

B

F C

in the

C, producing it until Reverse the point C.

it

meets the line
still

set-square,

keeping the edge G H against the T-square, and draw the line C D, producing it until it meets the line A D in the point D. Slide the set-square along until the side I meets the point D, and draw the line D E,

H

meeting the line

BE

in the point E.

Move

the set-

meets the point A, and square along until the edge I the line C F in the point draw the line F, meeting

G

A

F.

Now

bring the set-square to

its first

position and

Fig. 191.

To Draw a Square -upon a Given

Side.

F indefinitely. Bring the T-square against the point B and draw B F, producing it until ,it meets the line A F in the point F. In like manner draw A I, meeting the line
I in the point I. Then, with the setsquare placed as shown in the engraving, connect I

B

and F, thus completing the required figure. 54. To Draw a Regular Hexagon upon a Given Side. In Fig. 192, let A B be the given side in a vertical
position.

of a 30-degree set-square Set the edge G the T-square, as shown, and move it along against
Fig. 193.

H

To

Draw a Regular Octagon upon a

Given Side.

slide it along until the

edge I G meets the points F and thus completing the required figure. E, E, 55. To Draw a Regular Octagon upon a Given Side. In Fig. 193, let C D be the given side, drawn perpen-

and draw F

Place one of the dicular to the blade of the T-square. of a 45-degree set-square against the short sides
T-square, as

shown

in the engraving.

Move

the set-

square along until its long side coincides with the Draw the line C B, and make it in length point C.
the T-square draw the line B, Reverse the set-square, also in length equal to C D. II and bring the edge against the point A. Draw Still keeping a short side in length the same as C D.

equal to

C

D.

With

A

Fig. 192.

To

Draw a Regular Hexagon upon a

Given Side.

A

until the edge I

G

coincides with the point
indefinitely.

A, and
set-

draw

the line
still

A D
keeping

Reverse the

of the set-square against the T-square, slide it along until the other short side meets the point H, and draw

square,

T-square, and move

it

against the until the side I coinalong

the

edge

G H

H

G

side

G, also of the same length. of the set-square, draw

Then, using the long

G F
E

of

corresponding

cides with the point B, and draw B E indefinitely. These lines will intersect in the point 0, which will be

length.

By means

of the T-square

draw F E, and by

reversing the set-square draw

D, both in length

Geometrical

equal to the original side, C D, joining it in D, thus completing the required octagon.
56.
Circle.
circle.

tin;

point

To Draw an Equilateral Triangle about a Given
In Fig. 194, let Place the edge
() lie

the other end being indefinite. Then, placing the edge F E of the set-square against the T-square, bring its edge E G against the circle in the point C, and draw

the center of the given
of a 30-dcgree set-square

E F

against the T-square, !IS shown, and move it along until the edge F G meets the center O, and mark the upon the circumference of the circle. Reverse point

D in the point L and I in the The first part of thus completing the figure. point K, tins operation is not really necessary. The sides of the
L K,
intersecting I

K

A

set-square simply can be brought tangent to the circle, as in Fig. 195.
57.

the set-square,

still

keeping the edge

E F

against the

T-sqnare, and

in

like

manner mark

tin-

point B.

Move

Fig.

1

96, let

To Draw a Hexagon about a Given Circle. In be the center of the given circle. Place

Fig. 191.

Fig. 196.

Fig. 195.

Fig. 197.

To

Draw an

E<iuilateral Triangle about

a Given

Circle.

To

Draw a Hexagon about a Givtn
of a 30-degree

Circle.

the T-square upward until it meets the point O, and mark the point C. The required figure will be described by drawing lines tangent to the circle at the points A, B and C, which may be done in the manner

the edge

E F

set-square

against the

J-square, and slide it along until the edge F G meets the point 0, and mark the points B and A. Reverse the set-

square,

still

keeping the edge

EF

against the T-square,

Place the edge following, as indicated in Fig. 195 E of the set-square against the T-square, and slide it

G

along until the edge F G touches the circle in the point B. Draw I Reverse the set-square, indefinitely.

manner mark the points C and D. Bring the edge of the T-square against O, and mark the points Then C, A, K, D, B and I are six points in and K.
and
in like
1

K

keeping the same edge against the T- S(luare, and move it along until its edge F G touches the circle in the
point A, and draw
I L, intersecting I

the circumference of the circle, corresponding to the six sides of the required figure. The hexagon is com-

pleted

by drawing

a side tangent to the circle at each

K

in the point

I,

of these several points,

which may be done by using

56

Tin'

\*

//'

Worker Pattern Book.
In this problem, as in the previous one, if care be taken the first part of the operation can be dispensed with bv

the set-square as follows, and as shown in Fig. 197. With the edge E G of the set-square against the T-square, bring the edge F G against the circle at the

Reindefinitely. point C, as shown, and draw L verse the set-square, and in like manner bring it against the circle at the point A, and draw N, cutting L

M

simply placing the triangle in proper position and drawing the sides of the figure tangent to the circle, as

shown

M

M

in Fig. 197. 58. To Draw an Octagon about a Given Circle.
let

In

in the point M, and extending indefinitely in the direcSlide the set-square along until the edge tion of N. E F meets the circle in the point K, and draw N P, N in the point N, and extending in the intersecting

Fig. 198, the edge

O

E F

be the center of the given circle. With of a 45-degree set-square against the T-

M

square, as shown, move it along until the side E G meets the point O, and mark the points and B. Reverse the set-square, and in like manner mark the

A

points

C and D.

vertical side

G

Slide the set-square along until the F meets the point 0, and mark the

and I. points the point 0, and
I,

H

Move

the T-square
points

mark the

K

up

until

it

meets

and L.

are points in the circumferD, L, B, H, C and ence of the given circle corresponding to the sides of

K

Then A,

Fig. 198.

Fig.

00.

To

Draw a Square

about a Given Circle.

the required figure.

The octagon

is

then to be com-

pleted by drawing lines tangent to the circle at these several points, as shown in Fig. 199, which may be

Fig. 199.

To Draw an Octagon about a Given

Circle.

direction of
its

P

indefinitely.
slide
it

With the

first

position

along until

set-square in the edge F G

D, and draw R P, cutP in the point P, but being indefinite in ting the direction of R. Reverse the set-square, and in

meets the

circle in the point

N

like

manner draw

R S

tangent to the

circle

in the

done by the use of the set-square, as follows With the edge E F of the set-square against the T-square, as shown, bring the edge E G against the circle in the point D, and draw M N indefinitely. Sliding the setuntil the vertical edge F G meets the square along circle in the point L, draw N P, cutting M N in the point N, and extending in the opposite direction inReverse the set-square, and bringing the definitely. E G against the circle in the point B, draw P R, edge cutting N P in the point P, and extending indefinitely
:

in point B, cutting of S indefinitely. the direction Slide the set-square along until its edge E F meets the circle in the point R S in the point S and L I, and draw S L, cutting

PR

in the point R,

and extending

in the direction of R.
til it

meets the

circle

S R, meeting P

R

in

upward unin the point H, and draw the line the point R, and extending inthe T-square

Move

M

in the point L, thus completing the required figure.

Then, with the definitely in the opposite direction. as shown in the engraving, move it set-square placed

Problems.

until its edge

E

(f

meets the circle in the point C, and

draw S T, meeting

S R

in the

point S,

and continuing

Place one of the shorter side of the drawing board. of a 45-degree set-square against the T-square, as edges
placed for drawing the given side, and slide it along until the long edge touches the point A, and draw the
diagonal line
that
as
its

the set-square indefinitely in the direction of T. With in the same position, move it along until its edge G F

meets the

K, and draw T U, cutting and extending in the opposite diS T Reverse the set-square, and bringrection indefinitely. the circle in the point A, draw ing its long side against
circle in the point

A

C

indefinitely.

in the point T,

head comes against the

left side of

Place the T-square so the board,

shown by the dotted

lines in the engraving, and,

U

V, cutting

T U

in the point

U, and continuing

in-

direction. definitely in the opposite the circle in the point I, against

square

connecting

UV

and

MN

in

Bring the T-and draw V M, the points V and M re-

D inbringing the blade against the point A, draw Then bringing the blade against the point definitely. draw B C, stopping this line at the point of interB,
section with the line

A

A

C, as

shown

at C.

T-square back
line

to the original position

Bring the and draw the

the figure. The above rule spectively, thus completing will be found very convenient for use, although, as the student may discover, the first part of the operation
is

C

D, thus completing the figure.

In the case of

a large drawing board, unless the figure is to be located very near one corner of it, or in the case of a drawing

not absolutely necessary. 59. To Draw a Square about a Given Circle.

In

board of which the adjacent sides are not at right angles, it will be desirable to use the right angle of the
set-square, instead of changing the T-square from one side to the other, as above described. The object of the diagonal line C is to determine the drawing

Fig. 200, let

be the center of the given

circle.

Place

A

This also may be done by the length of the side C B. use of the compasses instead of the set-square, as follows
:

From B

as center, with

B

A

as radius, describe

the arc

AO

C.

Place the T-square as shown by the
it

dotted lines, and, bringing

C, producing The remaining steps are then to be taken the point C. in the manner above described.
ffl.

B

until

it

against the point B, draw O C in intercepts the arc
it

A

BY MEANS OF THE PROTRACTOR.

Fig. SOL

To

Draw a Square upon a

Given Side.

the blade of the T-square against the point 0, and draw the line O B. With one of the shorter sides

and

protractor, which has been already described illustrated (see Fig. 116, Chapter II), is an instru-

The

A

ment

E

F, of a 45-degree set-square against the T- sc[ uare

?

The usual form of this for measuring angles. instrument is a semicircle with a graduated edge, the
divisions being

and with the other short side against the point 0, draw Move the T-square upward until it the line DOC. Move strikes the point C, and draw the line II C I. draw the line it down until it strikes the point D, and

more or

less

numerous, according to

its

In instruments of ordinary size the divisions are size. 5s or by 10s, while in single degrees, numbered by sizes the divisions are made to fractions of larger
degrees.

ED

K. With the side E F of the set-square against the T-square, as shown in the engraving, bring the side In like II. E G against the point A, and draw E

Since the protractor by

its

construction affords the

A

B I, against the point B, and draw It is to be observed that thus completing the figure.
manner bring
it

K

means of measuring or of setting off any angle whatsoever, it is especially useful in circumscribing or inor of erecting them upon a given
scribing polygons,
side.

the several lines composing the sides of the square are C B and D retangent to the circle in the points

A

spectively.

diameters

A

The only object served by drawing the B and C D is that of obtaining greater

of infrequent occurrence among a few problems in inscribing pattern draftsmen, only will be sufficient to enable the will be given, which it in other cases that may arise. reader to

As

its

use

is

apply

accuracy in locating the points of tangency. B 60. To Draw a Square upon a Given Side. Let be the given side placed parallel to one o.f Fig. 201

61. To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given
;

A

Circle.
circle.

In Fig. 202,

let

be the center of the given
as

Through

draw a diameter,

shown by

58

T/ie

New

Metal

ll'w/r/-

I '(/<;

COD.

Place the protractor so that

its

center point

II.

Then E, G, F and
which
is

II are the angles of

the required

shall coincide with O,

and turn

it

until the point

mark-

Then mark I). ing 60 degrees falls upon the line C points in the circumference of the circle corresponding
to
(zero)

be completed by drawing the sides figure, E G, G F, F and II E. Since the circle is composed of 360 degrees, one side of an inscribed square must
to

H

and 120 degrees of the protractor, as shown

represent one-fourth part of 360 degrees, or 90 degrees.

by B and E respectively. Draw the lines C E, E B and B C, thus completing the required figure. The
reasons for these several steps are quite evident.
circle consists of

The

360 degrees. Then each side of an equilateral triangle must represent one-third of 360 Assume the point C for one degrees, or 120 degrees. of the angles, and draw the line COD. Then, by the nature of the figure to be drawn, D must, fall opposite the center of one side. Therefore, since 60 is the half of 120 (the length of one side in degrees), place 60 opposite the point D, and mark and 120 for the other
angles, then complete the figure

Hence, in setting the protractor, the point representing 45 degrees was placed opposite the point in which it is desired the center of one of the .sides shall fall, or, in other words,
is

The

half of 90 degrees

45 degrees.

upon the line COD. Then, having marked points 90 degrees removed from each other, or, as explained
above, opposite the points
tractor, as
0,

90 and 180 of the pro-

shown by F, G and E, the fourth point was It is evident that II obtained by the diagonal line. must fall opposite G, upon a line drawn through the Or the protractor might have been mo veil center.
around, and a space of 90 degrees measured from either

by drawing

the lines

Fig. 202.

To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given Circle.

Fig. SOS.

To Inscribe a Square within a Oiven

Circle.

shown. Since in many cases the protractor is much smaller than the circle in which the figure is to be constructed, it becomes necessary to mark the points at
as

or E, which, as will be clearly seen, given the same point, H.

F

would have

63. To Inscribe an Octagon within a Given Circle.

the edge of the instrument, and carry them to the circumference by drawing lines from the center of the
circle

Through the center
draw a diameter,
one side
that
its
is

A

of the given circle, Fig. 204, which the center of B,

upon

through the points, producing circle is reached.
62.

them

until

the

Place the protractor so required to fall. shall coincide with the center O, center point
it

To Inscribe a Square within a Given Circle. In be the center of the given circle. Fig. 203, let draw a diameter, as shown by Through

and turn

so that the point representing 22 degrees O B. Then mark points in shall fall on the line

A

COD.

Place the protractor so that its center point coincides with 0, and turn it until the point marking 45 degrees Mark points in the circumfalls upon the line COD.
ference of the circle corresponding to 0, 90 and 180 degrees of the protractor, as shown by F, G and E respectively.

the circumference of the circle corresponding to 0, 45, as shown 90, 135 and 180 degrees of the protractor,

by E, G, H, I and like manner mark
points

F.

Reverse the protractor, and

in

the points

M, Land K; or
lines

these
I, II

may

be obtained by drawing

from

and

G

center O, cutting the respectively through the

H,

the center 0, draw G O cutting the circumference of the circle in the point

From G, through

circumference in M,

L and K.

The

figure is to be
I

completed by drawing the sides

F

I,

H,

II

G,

G

E,

Geometrical

Problems.

no

E M,

M L,

L

K

and

K

F.

Since the circle consists

of 360 degree's, one side of an octagon must represent The half of 45 is 45 degrees, or oiie-eiglit.li of 360.
!!-}>.

the circumference in the points M, N, P, R and S, which are the remaining angles. The figure is now to be completed by drawing the sides, as shown. In a do-

Hence, the point of the protractor representing
degrees was placed upon the
line

22

A

B, which

decagon, or twelve-sided figure, each side must occupy a space represented by one-twelfth of 360 degrees, or

center of one side of the required figure. represents the thus established the position of one side, the Having other sides of the figure are located by marking points
in the

30 degrees of the protractor. As the side F E was required to be located in equal parts upon opposite sides of A B, the middle of one division of the protractor
representing a side (that
is, 15 degrees, or one-half of 30 degrees) was placed upon the line A O B. Having thus established the position of one side, the others

circumference of the circle opposite points in the

at regular intervals of protractor

45 degrees.

To Inscribe a Dodecagon within a Given Circle. In Fig. 205, let O be the center of the given circle.
64.

are

measured

off in

manner above described.

p

R
Circle.

Fig.

04.

To Inscribe an Octagon within a Given

Circle.

Fig. t05.

To Inscribe a Dodecagon within a Given

draw the diameter A O B, at right angles Through one of the sides of the polygon is required to to which
be.

Set the protractor so that the center point of it coincides with the center O, and revolve it until the

In making use of the protractor to erect a regular polygon upon a given side, the exterior angle, or angle formed by an adjacent side with the given side exin Figs. 168, 170 and 171, is found 360 degrees by the number of sides by dividing while the interior angle, or in the required polygon two adjacent sides on the inside of angle between any

tended, as

E B D

line B. point marking 15 degrees falls upon the the protractor in this position, mark points in With

A

;

the circumference of the circle opposite the points in the protractor representing 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and and L. 180 degrees, as shown by E, F, G, H, I, Then these points will represent angles of the required

K

the polygon, as

E B A

in the

same diagrams,

is

the

The remaining angles may be obtained by polygon. in like position in the opposite placing the protractor half of the semicircle, or they may be determined by
lines from the points F,. G, H, I and the center O, producing them until they cut through

supplement of that angle, or, in other words, is found by subtracting the exterior angle from 180 degrees. Thus to find the exterior angle by means of which to
construct a regular decagon, divide 360 degrees by 10, which gives 36 degrees; while the interior angle is

drawing

K

equal to 180 degrees less 36 degrees, which
grees.

is

144 de-

THE
to

ELLIPSE.
If,

For a definition of the ellipse the reader is referred It may also be Chapter I, definitions 78 and 113. described as a curve drawn with a constantly increasor as similar to a circle, but ing or diminishing radius,
having one diameter longer than another, the diameters referred to being at right angles to each other.

upon one

of

two

lines intersecting each

other

at right angles, half of the long

diameter be set off each

way from their intersection (A A, Fig. 206) and upon the other line half of the sh'ort diameter be set off each

way from

the intersection (B B, Fig. 206), four principal points in the circumference of the ellipse will thus

60

T/ie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
line, their

be established; and through these four points only one perfect ellipse can be drawn, one-quarter of which
is

sums

will

the sums of

P F and P

be found equal. G, A F and

A

shown by the

solid line

from

A

For example, G, C F and
is

to

B

in the illustra-

C G, B F and B G,
this

are all the same.

It is true that other curves having the appearance of an ellipse can be drawn through these points, as shown by the dotted lines, but, as stated above, there is only one curved line existing between those

tion.

an ellipse. points which can be correctly termed There are several methods of producing a correct

on account of the stretchof the string. The same result can be obtained ing by means of a trammel constructed for the purpose, which is shown in Fig. 208. E is a section through
liable to error

Although method is

correct so far as theory

concerned,

and pencil, by a trammel conellipse, as by a string the purpose and by projection from an structed for
oblique section of

the arms, showing the groove in which the heads of the bolts move. and G are the bolts or pins by which

H

the

movement

is

controlled

and regulated.

In the

which

will

be

a cylinder or of considered in turn.

a cone, each of

engraving the bar
tances, through

K

is

shown with holes

at fixed dis-

The

ellipse

is

its major properly generated from two points upon the foci, and its circumference is so drawn axis, called that if from any point therein two lines be drawn to

An

which the governing pins are passed. improvement upon this plan of construction cona device that will clamp the pins firmly to the

sists of

the two foci, their

sum

shall

be equal to the

sum

of

bar at any point, thus providing for an adjustment of the most minute variations.

Fig. 206.

Defining an Ellipse.

Fig. SOT.

To

Draw an

Ellipse by

Means of a String and

Pencil.

two

lines

drawn from any other point
to

in the circum-

66. To

Draw an

Ellipse to Given

Dimensions by Means

ference to the foci.
65.

To Draw an Ellipse

Specified Dimensions

with a String and Pencil. In Fig. 207, let it be required to draw an ellipse, the length of which shall be B, and the width of which shall equal to the line

A
B

In Fig. 208, let it be required to describe an ellipse, the length of which shall be equal to B and the breadth of which shall be C D. Draw
of a Trammel.

A

and C

D

A

be equal to the

line

D

C.

Lay

off

AB

and

DC

at

dle points. of the arms shall graving, so that the center

at right angles, intersecting at their midPlace the trammel, as shown in the en-

come

right angles to each other,, intersecting at their middle Set the compasses to onepoints, as shown at E.
half the length of the required figure, as E, and from either D or C as center, strike an arc, cutting B in the points F and G. These points, F and

A

First place the rod along the directly over the lines. so that the pencil or point I shall coincide line B, or B. Then place the pin G directly with either B and C D. Next place over the intersection of

A

A

A

A

G,

the rod along the line
point I to either
intersection of

C D,

then are the two

foci, into

which drive

pins, as shown.

C

or D, and put the pin

bringing the pencil or over the

H

Drive a third pin at C. Then pass the string around the three points F, G and C and tie it. Eemove the
substituting for it a pencil, pass the same pin as shown at P, keeping the string taut. If around,

AB

and C D.

The instrument

is

then

C and

ready for use, and the curve is described by I moved by the hand, and controlled by the pins working in the grooves. When a trammel
substitute
is
is

the pencil

the combined lengths from F and G to the several points in the boundary line be set off upon a straight

not convenient, a very fair afforded by the use of a common steel

Geometrical

Problems.

Gl

method

This square and a thin strip of wood, like a lath. of drawing an ellipse is useful under ordinary

circumstances

when only

a part of the figure

is

re-

placed upon a board, and a line drawn around it, the resulting figure will be a circle. If now the pipe be cut obliquely, as in making an elbow at any angle, and the

quired, as in the shape of the top of a window frame to which a cap is to be fitted, in which half of the

would be employed, or in the shaping of a of a molding in which a quarter, or less than a quarter, of the figure would .be used. 67. To Draw an Ellipse of Given Dimensions by Means of a Square and a Strip of Wood. In Fig. 209, set off the length of the figure, and at right angles to draw a line representing it, through its middle point, Place a square, as shown by the width of the figure.
figure

end thus cut be placed upon a board and a line drawn around it, as mentioned in the first case, the figure drawn will be an ellipse. What has thus been roughly

member

done by mechanical means may be also accomplished upon the drawing board in a very simple and exThe demonstration which follows peditious manner.
of especial interest to the pattern cutter, because the principles involved in it lie at the root of many
is

AEG,

its

inner edge corresponding to the lines.

Lay

which he is called upon to perform. For example, the shape to cut a piece to stop up the end of a pipe or'tube which is not cut square across,
practical operations

the strip of wood as shown by F E, putting a pencil at the point F, corresponding to one end of the figure,

the shape to cut a flange to fit a pipe passing through the slope of a roof, and other similar requirements of

Fig.

SOS.

To Draw an Ellipse by Means of a Trammel.

Fig. 209.

Fig. 210.

To Draw an Ellipse by Means of a Square and a Strip of Wood.

and a pin

at

E, corresponding to the inner angle of the

Then place the stick across the figure, as square. shown in Fig. 210, making the pencil, F, correspond with one side of the figure, and put a pin at G, corre-

almost daily occurrence, principles here explained.
68.
Secti

depend entirely upon the

Now the square. sponding with the inner angle of one position to the other, letting move the stick from the points E and G slide, one against the tongue and
the other against the blade of the square. curve. point will then describe the required

The

pencil

To Describe the Form or Shape of an Oblique to Draw an Ellipse as the Oblique Projection of a Circle. The two propositions which are stated above are virtually one and the same so far as concers the pattern cutter, and they may be made quite the same so far as a demonstration is conn
of a Cylinder, or

In draw-

cerned.

The

explanation of the engraving

is

confined

be changed in position ing the figure the square must As shown in the enthe curve. for each quarter of
gravings, resented
correct for the quarter of the curve repby F D, Fig. 209. It must be changed for each of the other sections, its inner edge being brought
it is

to the idea of the cylinder, believing it in that shape to be of more practical service to the readers of this

as shown. against the lines each time,

One

definition of an ellipse is

by

a regular curve, which section of a cylinder."

a figure bounded corresponds to an oblique

"

This can be practically illustrated by assuming a
tlie representative of the cylinpiece of stove pipe as If the piece of pipe is cut square across, the end der.

any other. In Fig. 211, let G E F H represent any cylinder, and A B C D the plan of the Let I K represent the plane of any oblique cut same. It is required to to be made through the cylinder. draw the shape of the section as it would appear if the cylinder were cut in two by the plane I K, and either piece placed with the end I K flat upon paper and a line scribed around it. Divide one-half of

book than

in

the plan
parts, as

ABC into any convenient
shown by the

number

of equal

figures 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.

Through

Tin'

\t:ir

Metal

\Vbr/,-i.

r

litjok.

these points and

tit

right angles

to the diameter

A

UK- lino

1
'J'

K

C draw

lines

the circle.

shown, cutting the opposite side of Also continue these lines upward until
as

tance

1'

shall

be drawn at such an angle that the disbe equal to its long diameter.

they cut the oblique line I K, as
etc.

shown by

1

I

,

2', 3',

Draw

I'

K',

making

it

parallel to I

K

Another definition of the ellipse is that "it is a liinire bounded by a regular curve, corresponding to
an oblique section of a cone through
It is this definition of
its opposite sides." the ellipse that classes it among what are known as conic sections. It is generally a matter of surprise to students to find that an oblique

for con-

venience in transferring spaces.
set at right angles to I against the points in it,

With

the J-square
1

K, and brought successively draw lines through I' K
,

as

stown by

1", 2",

3

a
,

etc.

the distance across the

With the dividers take plan A B C 1) on each of

section of a cylinder,
its

and an oblique section of a cone through opposite sides, produce the same figure, but such is the case. The method of drawing an
ellipse

upon

this definition of

it is

given in the follow-

H

H

Fig.

tlS.The

Ellipse as

an Oblique

Section of

a Cone.

Fig. 211.

The Ellipse as on Oblique Section of a Cylinder.

ing demonstration.
rule
is

The

principles

upon which

this
last

based, no

less

than those referred to in the

the several lines drawn through it, and set the same distance off on corresponding lines drawn through
1

I

K

1

.

measurement measurement

In other words, taking C as the base for in the one case and I as the base of
1

A

demonstration, are of especial interest to the pattern cutter, because so many of the shapes with which he

has to deal

K

1

owe their origin to the cone. 69. To Describe the Shape of an Oblique Section of a
its

in the other, set off

from the

latter,

on

Cone through
a

Opposite Sides, or to

each side, the same length as the several lines measure on each side of A C. Make 2" equal to 2, and 3"
equal to 3, and so on. Through the points thus obtained trace a line, as shown by I' and the opposite side, thus completing the figure.

M K

1

represent the plan at the base. Let I represent any oblique cut through its opposite Then it is required to draw the shape of tinsides.
cone, of which

a Section of a Cone.

In Fig.

Draw an 212, let B A C

Ellipse as

E D G F

is

H

section represented

l>v II I,

which

will be

an

ellipse.

To make

this

problem of practical use

it is

neces-

At any

sary that the diameter of the cylinder shall be equal to the short diameter of the required ellipse, and that

convenient place outside of the figure draw a duplicate of IF I parallel to it, upon which to construct
1

the figure sought, as

II' I

.

Divide one-half of

the;

Geometrica /
plan, as E D G, into any convenient number of equal From the center parts, as shown by 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. of the plan draw radial lines to these points. From

each of the several cross lines 2

measurement, with the dividers take the distance on s J 3 3 , 4 5 etc., from
s
, ,

,

M

each of the points also erect a perpendicular line, which produce until it cuts the base line B C of the cone.

one side of the plan of the obi:'que cut just described, and set off the same distance on each side of
to
1

E G

II'

I

on the corresponding

lines.

A

line

traced

From
lines

the base lino of the cone continue each of these

through the points thus obtained will be an ellipse.

toward the apex A, cutting the oblique line H I. Through the points thus obtained in H I, and at right
angles to the axis

A.D

'/7r XV" 5 , '

.

-

of the cone,

draw

lines, as

shown by
angles to

1', 2', 3', 4', etc.,

cutting the opposite sides

V^-" \ Vs
-

of the cone.

From
draw

the same points in
1

H
as

\Ax
^

7~~

\s'^-..

I,

at right

it, cutting = a 4 etc., thus transferring to r, 2", 3 divisions as have been given to other parts of the figAfter having obtained these several sets of lines, ure.
, , ,

lines

II' I

shown by it the same
Fig. 214.

To

Draw an

Ellipse within

a Oiven Rectangle by

Means of

Intersecting Lines.

the

first

step

is

to obtain a plan

view of the oblique
:

With the diwhich proceed as follows cut, take -the distance from the axial line A D to viders one side of the cone, on each of the lines I 2 3', 4', etc., and set off like distance from the center of the
for
1 1

70. To Construct an Ellipse to Given Dimensions

the Use of

Two

,

,

213, let

it

by and Intersecting Lines. In Fig. be required to construct an ellipse, the
Circles

length of

which

shall equal

plan
etc.

M on the corresponding radial lines 1, 2, 3, 4, A line traced through the points thus obtained
shown by
This result

which

shall equal

H

F.

Draw

A B and the width of A B and H F at right
From

will give the plan view of the oblique cut, as the inner line in the plan.

angles, intersecting at their middle points, K. as center, and with one-half of the length

K

radius,

describe the circle

A

C B

D.
II

From

AB K

as as

may

be verified by dropping lines

center, and with one-half of the width

F

as radius,

from the points in H I across the plan, intersecting them with the radial lines in the plan of Thus a line dropped from corresponding number.
vertically

describe the circle
into

E F G

II.

Divide the larger circle

any convenient number of equal parts, as shown bv the small figures 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. Divide the smaller

point 4 on

H

I

should intersect the radial line

M

4 at

same number of equal and correspondshown by figures. By means of the from the points in the outer circle draw T-square, vertical lines, and from points in the inner circle draw horizontal lines, as shown, producing them until they
circle into the

ing parts, as also

intersect the lines first drawn.

A

line traced

through

K

-s-G

-sB

these points of intersection will be an ellipse. 11. To Draw an Ellipse within a Given Rectangle by Means of Intersecting Lines. In Fig. 214, let E D B

A

struct an ellipse.

be any rectangle within which it is required to conBisect the end A E, obtaining the

Fig. SIS.-

To Construct an Ellipse from Two Circles by
Intersecting Lines.

from which erect the perpendicular F G, the rectangle horizontally into two equal pordividing Bisect the side tions. B, obtaining the point H, and draw the perpendicular II I, dividing the rectangle
point F,

A

the same point (4 ) established the distance upon line 4' from

by measuring A D to B. Having thus obtained the shape of the oblique cut as it would is to set off upon the appear in plan, the next step drawn through II' I' the width of the lines previously upon
it

s

A

The lines F and vertically into two equal portions. F represents II I are then the axes of the ellipse.

G

G

the major axis, and II

I

the minor axis.
into

Divide the

spaces

F

E,

F A, G D and G B

any convenient

oblique cut

sponding

lines of correplan as measured upon G as a basis of number. Therefore, with E
in

j

number of equal parts, as shown by the figures 1, 2, 3. From these points in V K and G 1) draw lines to I, and from the points in F A and G B draw lines to the

11,

>

New M<

/>//.

\Vn,-ki'r

I'lttfcnt

Book.

point H.

Divide

F C and G C

also into

the same

ellipse,

and with four or

five centers to

each quarter,

number
from

of equal parts, as

shown by the

figures,

and

and I through each of these points draw lines, continuing them till they intersect lines of correspond-

H

the curve thus produced can scarcely be distinguished from the perfect ellipse.
72.

To Draw an Approximate Ellipse with the Comto

ing traced through the several points of intersection between the two sets of lines, as shown in the engraving,
will

number

in the other set, as

indicated.

A

line

passes, the Length only being Given.

A

be any lepgth
figure.

which

it

is

In Fig. 215, let desired to draw an

elliptical

Divide
as

be an

ellipse.

From

3 as center, and

into four equal parts. with 3 1 as radius, strike the arc
center,

A

C

Besides the above methods for drawing correct ellipses there are several methods for drawing figures

BID,

and from

1

and the same radius,

approximating ellipses more or

less closely,

but com-

B 3 D, intersecting the arc first struck in the points B and D. From B, through the points 1 and 3, draw the lines B E and B F indefinitely, and
strike the arc

from D,

in like

manner, draw the

lines

DG

and

D

II.

the point 1 as center, and with 1 as radius, strike the arc E G, and from 3 as center, with the same
radius,

From

A

or

its

equivalent,

3 C,

strike the arc strike the arc

II

F.

From D as
and from

center, with radius

D G,
E

G II,

B as center, equivalent, B E, strike

with the
the arc

same

radius, or its

F, thus completing

the figure.
figure of different proportions may be drawn in the same general manner as follows Divide the length C into four equal parts, as indicated in Fig. 216.
:

A

A
Fig. 215.-Firat Method.

From
line

circle 1

2 as center, and with 2 1 as radius, strike the E 3 F. Bisect the given length C by the

A

B

D, as

and F.
lines

shown, cutting the circle in the points E From E, through the points 1 and 3, draw the

E G
1 as

and

E

H

indefinitely,

the same points, draw similar lines,

and from F, through F I and F K.
as radius, strike the

From

center,

and with

1

A

arc I G, and from 3 as center, with equal radius, From E as center, and with strike the arc K C H. radius E G, strike the arc G D H, and from F as center,

A

with corresponding radius, strike the arc I
Fig. 216.-Second Method.

B K,

thus

completing the
73.

figure.

To Draw an Approximate
In Fig.
217, let

Ellipse with the

Com-

To

Draw an Apprcximate

Ellipse with, the Campasteg, the Length only Being Given.

passes to Given Dimensions, Using
First Method.

Two

Sets of Centers.

A B

represent the

posed of arcs of

circles,

which

it is

sometimes necessary

to substitute for true ellipses for constructive reasons.

The

ellipse has

been described above as a curve drawn

length of the required figure and D E its width. Draw A B and D E at right angles to each other, and At the point A intersecting at their middle points. the perpendicular A F, and in length make it erect

with a constantly changing radius. If, instead of using an infinite number of radii, some finite number

equal to

C

D.

Bisect

A

be assumed, it will appear that the greater the number assumed the more nearly will it approach a perfect Thus, a curve very much like an ellipse can ellipse. be drawn, each quarter of which is composed of arcs

N D. From F draw N D in the point G. Bisect the line G D by ting line H I, perpendicular to G D and meeting D E in
Draw
point
ino'
I.

F, obtaining the point N. a line to E, as shown, cut-

the the

In the same
I,

to

G

as

manner draw lines correspondshown by L I, M O and li 0. From I

drawn from two

centers.

If the

number

of centers be

and
arcs

as centers,

increased to three, the curve

comes much nearer a true

GD L

and

M

and with I G as radius, strike the E R, and from K and P as centers,

Problems,

65

with

K
74.

(!

as radius, strike tin- arcs

<i

A M

ami L

1>

R,

(enter, with

F L

as radius, describe a circle, as

shown,

thus completing the liguiv.

To Draw an Approximate

Ellipse with the

Com-

thus establishing the points M, and O, which, with are the centers from which the ellipse is to be struck. L,

N

passes to

Given Dimensions, Using; two Sets of Centers. Second Method. In Fig. 21s, lot C D represent the length of a ro<|iiiro<l ellipse and A P> the width. Lay
these two dimensions
at

From M, draw
a similar

L Q and M manner () L P and

M

N S indefinitely, and in N R. With as center,
arc P D R, cutting O P similar manner, and with

oil'

right angles to (>aeh other,
ei|iial

and and
the

O D as radius, strike the O R, as shown. In a
same radius

as

shown.

On C D

lay off a space

to the

width

of the required figure, as remainder of I) C, or the
parts, as

shown by
V.

1)

E.

Divide the

(', space With a radius equal to the cut. t\vo of these parts, and from \\ as center, strike the Then with V and G as centers, and V circle G S F T.

into three equal

(or which is the same, with M E as and as center, describe the arc Q E S. radius) With L and N as centers, and with L 15 or N C as

M

shown

in

radius, strike the arcs pleting the figure.

Q B P
of

and

RC

S, thus

comel-

G

The above methods

drawing approximate
attempt

as radius, strike the arcs,

as

shown, intersecting upon

A

1?

prolonged at

()

and P.

points

G ami

F, draw

OL

and

From 0, through the M, and likewise from

lipses are only available within certain limits of prois made portion, as will be discovered if an

to

draw them very much donga-ted, the

limit being

e~
Fig. 217. -First Method.
Fig. 218.

f
Second Method.
Fig. 219.

E

Third Method.

To

Draw an Approximate

Ellipse with the Compasses, Using

Two

Sets of Centers.

P, through the same points,

draw

P

K

and P N.

as radius, strike the arc From O as center, with O L M, and with the same radius, and P as center, strike N. From F and G as centers, and with F the arc

A

when the long diameter is about equal to two times the shorter diameter. Beyond this limit in the
reached
if the final arc be drawn with the 217 and 218), it will not reach the end of the long diameter, but will strike it at a point

first

two methods,

K

radius

G

K

(Figs.

D

and

GC

as radii,

strike

the arcs

NM

and

KL

re-

the figure. spectively, thus completing Draw an Approximate Ellipse with the Com15. To passes to Given Dimensions, Using Two Sets of Centers. Third Method. In Fig. 219, let B C represent the length
of the required figure and

inside of

DE

its

width.

BC

and

DE

the long about 2f times the shorter, the point L (Fig. 219) will fall at the extreme limit of the long diameter (B), thus completely cutting
if

A

or C.

By

the third method,
it

diameter be increased until

is

out the small arc

P

Q.

are

at right angles to each other, intersecting at The next step in describing their middle points at F.

drawn

cases be left to the

must, therefore, in extreme judgment of the draftsman to
It

the figure is to obtain the di (Terence in length between the axes F D and F B, which can be done as indicated

adjust or vary the lengths of the radii of the two arcs so as to produce the result which will look the best.
76.

To Draw an Approximate

Ellipse with the

Com-

by the
(

arc

D

G.

'rom the center
J, then

F
II

F.

draw

This difference, G B, is to be set off on F B and F D, as shown by F H, J and set off half of J to L, as

H

passes to Given Dimensions, Using: Three Sets of Centers. In Fig. 220, let B represent the length of the reand D E the width. Draw B and D quired figure

A

A

L. The object of the operation by the arc to secure the point L. From F as so far has been

indicated

K

E

at right angles

to

each other, intersecting at their
at C.

middle points, as shown

From

the point

A

draw

66

The Xew Metal Worker Pattern

to B, and in length equal to C Divide F the points F and D, as shown. Join D. into three equal parts, thus obtaining the points Z and and I D. Divide C into I, and draw the lines Z

A

F v perpendicular

A

of
to

A

X K

(),

draw P

R, perpendicular to

X O and

parallel

M.
78.

Then

N

(.)

and

P K

are tho axes of the

ellipse.

D

A

In a Given Ellipse, to Find Centers by which an

three equal parts, as

G

and E Z D and
Bisect

shown by Y and G, and draw E Y, prolonging them until they intersect with
I

Approximate Figure may be Constructed E B D be any ellipse, in which it let

In Fig.
is

-2-2-2,

A

required to

D

respectively,

in

the points J and

II.

J D, and draw

KL
H

point, intersecting

DE

J L and

H

J.

dicular to

its

and draw M N perpenDraw central point, meeting J L in N.
Bisect
J,

perpendicular to its central prolonged in the point L. Draw

find centers by which an approximate Jigure may be drawn with the compasses. Draw the axes A B and E D. From the point A draw A F, perpendicular to A B, and make it equal to C E. Join F and E.

Divide
to

A F
four.

into as

many

equal parts as

it is

desired
in-

N

II, cutting center of the arc J

A B
D

in the point 0.

L
K.

then

is

the

have

sets of

centers

for the figure.

In this
Divide

J,

and

is

P, the center of the arc
to

N

is

the center of the arc II

stance

Therefore,

A

F

is

divided
(i.

into four

HA

The

points
to

equal parts, as shown
into

by P<) and

A

('

S and U, corresponding

N

and 0, from which

the same

number

of equal parts, as

shown by R

BP

Fig.

220.

To

Draw

an

Approximate

Fiij. %%1.

Ellipse with the Compasses, Using Three Sets of Centers.

To Find the True Axes of a Given Ellipse.

Fit/.

222.

In

a Given

Ellipse,

to

Find

Centers by which mi Approximate Fiyure may be Constructed.

upper part of the figure, Havbe obtained by measurement, as indicated. may drawn so much of the figure as can be struck from ing
strike the remainder of the

S T.
to E.

From the points of division in A F draw From D draw lines passing through the

lines

divi-

sions in
lines

A

C, prolonging

them

until they intersect the

these centers, set the dividers to the distance
J, will be

L P

or

L

drawn from

and placing one point at E, the remaining center found at the other point of the dividers, in the line E D prolonged, as shown by X.
11. To Find the True Axes of a. Given Ellipse.

and D W. and from the center of each erect which prolong until they intersect
line perpendicular to

shown by D U, Draw the chords U V, V and

A

F

to E, as

W

W E,

DV

a

perpendicular,
:

as follows

In

P Fig. 221, let to find the quired
any
lines,

N

R

be any

ellipse, of

which

it is re-

E D

in

the point

AB

these two lines

two axes. Through the ellipse draw and D E, parallel to each other. Bisect and draw F G, prolonging it until it
ellipse in the points II

the perpendicular to

WE D. Now V W W

The

intersects the

center line

draw
it

D

W and
D

till

intersects

W
C

prolong
in

K,

and draw
till it

cuts

K V. Prolong the perpendicular K V in L and draw L I', cutting A
U

to

U V
in the

meets the sides of the
Bisect the line

and

I.

H K

I,

obtaining the point C.

From C

as

center, with any convenient radius, describe the arc

Then D is the center of the arc E W, K is point S. the center of the arc V, L is the center of the an; and S is the center of the arc N. By these

VU
(A

K

L M,

and M.
Bisect

cutting the sides of the ellipse at the points K and Join by a straight line, as shown.

centers
to

it

will

lie

M

E)

may

0, perpendicular to it. by which will also be found to be the center Through C,

M K

seen that one-quarter of the figure be struck. By measurement, corre-

the line

N

sponding points
the figure.

may

be located

in

other portions of

If correctly

done the points U, V and

W

dreamt /na.tl Problems.

67

will

be found to

the arcs

fall upon the ellipse. consequently drawn between those points from the centers

obtained cannot deviate
79.

To Draw

the correct ellipse. Lines of an Elliptical Arch. the Joint

much from

First Method.

In a circular arch the lines representing the joints between the stones forming the arch, or the voussoirs as they are properly called, are drawn
radially from the center of the semicircle of the arch.
In

Draw A I) parallel to C B, and D B parallel to and draw the diagonals B and C D. From C, each of the points 1, 2, 3, etc., representing the joints, From their interdrop lines vertically, cutting C D. sections with C D carry them at right angles to B,
line.

A

A

A

cutting the springing line
figures
1",

2",

3%

etc.

C B, as shown by the small From the points in C B draw

an' elliptical

dillicuit,

arch this operation is somewhat more as the true ellipse possesses no such single

B

C
Fig 223. First Method. the Joint Lines of an Elliptical Arch.

To

Draw

as has been explained. course must be pursued Therefore, following From any point upon the ellipse at which it is desired to locate a joint, as A, Fig. 223, draw a line to each of the foci, as A B and A C. Risect the angle

point, but, instead,

two

foci,

the

:

3'

4"

5'

B

Fig. 224,-Second Method.

To

Draw

the Joint Lines of

an

Elliptical Arch.

BAG

lines

(Prob. 12 in this chapter), as shown at D, and extend outside the ellipse, which will be the joint the line D

as 1' 1,

through corresponding points in the arch A B, 2" 2, 3' 3, etc., and continue them through

A

the face of the arch which will be the joint lines

line required.

80. To

Second

the Joint Lines of an Elliptical Arch. R is one-half the curve Method. In Fig. 224,

Draw

A

sought. In the case of an elliptical curve made up of arcs of circles, the joint lines would be drawn radially from
the centers of the arcs in which they occur.

of the arch,

A

C

its

center line and

C B

its

springing

THE VOLUTE.
metrical nature based

an architectural figure of a geoupon the spiral, and is of quite in one form or another, consefrequent occurrence different methods of quently some remarks upon the

The volute

is

ducing
it

it

From 4 draw
until
it

it cuts the line 2 4 in the point 4. a line perpendicular to 3 4, producing In like meets the line 1 3 in the point 5.

until

manner draw
etc.,

5 6

and 6

7.

The

points 1, 2, 3, 4,

be out of place. drawing Let D A, in Fig. 81. To Draw a Simple Volute. be the width of a scroll or other member for 225,
it

will not

thus obtained are the centers by which the curve of the volute is struck. From 1 as center, and with 1

D

as radius,

which

it

is

desired to

draw a volute termination.
to three times

from 2

as center,

Then describe the quarter circle D C. and 2 C as radius, describe the

Draw the line D 1, in length equal A, as shown by D A, A R and B 1.
1

D

quarter circle

C

F, and so continue using the centers

From
that
line

the point
to two-

in their numerical order until the curve intersects with

draw

1 2 at right angles to

D

1,

and

in length equal
is,

to two-thirds the

width of the

scroll

and struck from the the other curve beginning at same centers, thus completing the figure, as shown.
82.

A

thirds of

D

A.

From
and

2

draw the

2 3 perpen2

To Draw an Ionic Volute.

Draw

the line

A

dicular to 1 2,
1
2.

in length equal to three-quarters of

Draw

line perpendicular by 2 4, indefiFrom 3 draw a line perpendicular to 2 3, pronitely.

the diagonal line 1 3. to 1 3, as shown

From

draw a

B, Fig. 226, equal to the hight of the required volute, and divide it into seven equal parts. From the third
division
line at

and from a point on this any convenient distance from A B describe

draw the

line 3

C,

:i

68

The Xcw Mdal Worker

I'allcnt

Book.

the diameter of which shall equal one of the This circle forms B. seven divisions of the line In order to show its dimenthe eye of the volute.
circle,

the circle

first

drawn.
the

To

obtain the centers
is

by which
its
c,

A

the

inner

line of

volute

struck, and which

sions, etc.,

it

is

enlarged in Fig.

227.

A

square,

D

gradually approaches the outer line throughout Produce the line 3 course, proceed as follows
:

E F G, is constructed, and the diagonals G E and F D are drawn. F E is bisected at the point 1, and the
line 1 2 is

Fig. 227, until

it

intersects

1

2 in the point I

1

,

which

drawn

parallel to

G

E.

The

line 2 3 is

then 'drawn indefinitely from 2 parallel to F D, cutto the The distance from ting G E in the point II.

H

center of
parts, as

the circle

shown by

H

divided into three equal 1 is The triangle 2 a b O.
is

formed.

On

the line

H H

set off a point, as

c,

at a

distance from

equal to

one-half of one of the three

From has been divided. equal parts into which to 1 O, producing it until c draw the line c 3 parallel From 3 draw the line 3 4 it cuts 2 3 in the point 3.

E indefinitely. From the point c draw a parallel to line c 4 parallel to 2 0, cutting the line 3 4 -in the
point 4, completing the triangle c 3 4. the line 4 5 parallel to F D, meeting 1
5.

G

From 4 draw
in the point

From

5

draw the

line 5 6 parallel to

G

E, meeting
line,

the line 2

in the point 6.

From

6 draw the
c 3 in

6

7 parallel to

F

D, meeting the line

the point 7.

Fig.

S26.To Draw an

Ionic Volute.

mark. This operation gives also the points ',)' and 5* of intersection with the lines parallel to 1 2, whidi also mark. In like manner produce 4 c, 1 O and 2
O, as
points

shown by the dotted
of intersection
1

lines,

and mark the several
lines.

formed with the cross

Then

the points I , 2', 3', 4', etc., thus obtained are the centers for the inner line of the volute, which

use in the same manner as described for producing the outer line.
83.

To Draw a
the

Spiral from Centers with Compasses.

Divide
Fig. 225.

circumference of

the primary

some-

To

Draw a Simple

Volute.

times called the eye of the spiral into any number of equal parts; the larger the number of parts the

Proceed

in this

8, 9, 10, 11

manner, obtaining the remaining points, and 12. These points form the centers

more regular

will

be the

spiral.

Fig. 228

shows the
is

primary divided into six equal parts.
enlarged view of
this portion of the

Fig. 22!

an

by which the outer line of the volute proper is drawn. From 1 as center, and with radius 1 F, Fig. 226, deThen from 2 as center, scribe the quarter circle F G.
and with radius 2 G describe the quarter circle G D, and so continue striking a quarter circle from each of the centers above described until the last arc meets

preceding figure. Construct the polygon by drawing the lines 1 2, 2 3,
3 4, etc.. producing

shown by A, B, D,
with 2
center,
1 as radius,

F,

them outside and E.

of the primary, as From 2 as center,

describe the arc

A

B.

From

3 as

and 3

B

as radius,

describe the arc

B D;

and

(li'iinn

C,!)

with 4 as center, witli radius 4 D, describe the arc D F. In this manner the spiral may be continued iiv
;(

toj),

K A

at

the bottom and

A B A

at the side, the

length of
scroll,

A

B,

which determines the width

of the

nuiuber of

revolutions.

Jn

the resulting ligure the

various revolutions will be parallel. 84. To Draw a Spiral by Means of a Spool and Set the spool as shown bv Thread. D B in Fig.

A

Bisect being given. B, obtaining the C. Let the distance between the beginning point and ending of the first revolution of the scroll, shown by a c. l)o established at pleasure. Having determined

Fig. 231.

To

Draw a Scroll

to

a

Specified Width.

Fig. 233. The Center SSI Enlarged.

of Fig.

this
Fig. 227.
Eye.

distance, take one-eighth of

it

and

set it off up-

of the Volute

in Fig.

226 Enlarged.

230 and wind a thread around it. Make a loop, E, in the end of the thread, in which plaee a pencil, as Hold the spool firmly and move the pencil shown.
around
it,

ward from C on the line A B, thus obtaining the point From draw a horizontal line of any convenient b. With one point of the comlength, as shown by b h.
l>

unwinding the thread.

A

curve will be deof the figure

as radius, describe an arc passes set at b, and with b In like manner, the line b h in the point 1. cutting from the same center, with radius b B, describe an arc

A

scribed, as
ing.

shown

in the dotted

lines of the engrav-

It is evident that the proportions

erect a square, as

cutting the line b h in the point 2. shown by 1 2 3 4.

Upon

1 2 as a

base
1 as

Then from

Fig. 228.

To

Draw a

Spiral

from

Centers.

Fig. 129.

Enlarged View of the Eye of the Spiral in
Fig. 228.

Fig.

SSO.To Draw a

Spiral

by

Means of a Spool and Thread.

Hence a determined by the size of the spool. is to be used, as circumstances larger or smaller spool
are
require.

center,

with 1 a as radius, describe an arc,
as center, with 2 b as radius,

ab; and

from 2
b
c.

describe the arc

85. To

Draw a

Scroll to a Specified Width, as for a

arc c

From 3 as center, with radius 3 e, describe the From 4 as center, with radius 4 d, describe d.
e.

Bracket or Modillion.

In Fig. 231, let it be required to construct a scroll which shall touch the line D B at the

the arc d

If

the curve were continued from
it

e,

being

struck from the same centers,

would run

parallel to

70

Tin' \rir

MI

ti/l

\Vnrl-fl-

1'iilli'i'n

linn/.-.

but as the inner line of the scroll runs parallel to the outer line, its width may be set off at pleasure, as shown by a a', and the inner line may be drawn by the same centers as already used for the outer, and conitself;

equal to one-half of the space from 4 to 1, making 4 to 8 equal the distance of 5 to 1. Make 5 to 6 equal the distance from 8 to 5. After obtaining the points
5, (!, 7, etc., in this manner, so many of them arc i<> be used as are necessary to make the outer curve inter1

tinued until
find

by the centers from which

it is

intersected

the outer curve.

To

to complete the outer

sect the inner one, as

shown

at

<j.

Thus

5

is

used as

curve, construct upon the line of the last radius above used (4 e) a smaller square within the larger one, as

a center for the arc e/, and (i as a center for the are f g. If the distance a a' were taken less than here given, it is easy to see that more of the centers upon the small square would require to be used to arrive at

shown by

5678.

Thi?

is

better illustrated

by the

larger diagram, Fig. 232, in

which

sent the same points.

Make

like figures reprethe distance from 5 to 8

the intersectiou.

p
x_/

CHAPTER

V.

To any one wishing

a profession it is to solve a large number of intricate problems, but that he understand thoroughly the principles which underlie

to pursue pattern cutting as essential not only that lie know how

I.

The

first

of these embraces moldings,

pipes

and

r/'ijnhu-

continuous forms, and

may

be called forms

of parallel lines, or as a shorter name to use, parallel forms.
II.

and more convenient

such operations.

It is, therefore, appropriate, be-

The second, which

will

fore introducing pattern problems, that some attention should be given t<> the? explanation of such principles

ing forms, comprehends all or pyramids, or from solids

be called regular tapershapes derived from cones having any of the regular

order that the reasons for the steps taken in the demonstrations following mav be readily understood.
in

geometric figures as a base and which terminate in an
apex.
III.

Underlying the entire range of problems peculiar to sheet metal work are certain fundamental principles,
which, when thoroughly understood, make plain and simple that which otherwise would appear arbitrary,
if

The

third class will be called irregular forms,

and

will include everything not classified

under either

of the

two previous heads.

Many

of

these might be

not actually mysterious.
is

ing

risked in

So true is this that noththat any one who thoroughly asserting
the steps in connection with cutting is able to cut any miter what-

that is, pieces which properly called transition pieces have figures of various outlines placed at various

comprehends

all

angles as their bases, and have figures with differing outlines variously placed, as their upper terminations,

a simple square miter Since almost soever.

any one can cut a square miter, the question at once arises, in view of this statement, why is it that he cannot cut a raking miter, or a pin-

thus forming transitions, or connecting pieces between the form which lies next them at one end and the
adjacent form on the other end. While pieces of metal of any shape necessary to form the covering of a solid of any shape may properly be called patterns, the shapes of pieces necessary
to

The nacle miter, or any other equally difficult form? answer is, because he does not understand how he cuts

He may perform the operation square miter. as he has been taught, and produce results entirely just satisfactory from a mechanical standpoint, without bethe

form the

joints

angle are

known

between moldings meeting at an This name distinctively as miters.

He does ing intelligent as to all that he has done. not -comprehend the w\\y and wherefore of the steps Hence it is that when he undertakes some taken.
other miter he finds himself deficient.

applies equally well in sheet metal work if the two arms of the moldiag are not of the same profile, or to
face.

There

is

a wide difference between the skill that

arm coming against any plain or irregular surThese forms comprise the first class referred to above and, so far as principle is concerned, come under the same general rules, which will be subsequently
a single
given. Conical

produces a pattern memorv and that
steps.

by

rote

by a mere

effort of the

One
its

is

which reasons out the successive worth but very little, while the other

renders

It is with a desire possessor independent. to put the student in possession of this latter kind of as to every operation skill, to render him intelligent to be performed, that the present chapter is written.

forms, with very little taper, coming other forms are also said to miter with them. against In fact, the word miter has come into such general use
often applied to any joint between pieces of metal ; but the term can scarcely be considered as correct when the forms have very much taper. The
that
it is

the pattern cutter has to for convenience of deseription, deal may be divided, into three general classes
:

The forms with which

principle involved in the development of such patterns, however, is the same as that applied to the develop-

ment

of the surfaces of

all

other regular tapering forms,

Tin:

.\i-n-

Mitnl

\\'i>/-/,-rr

I'atl'fii

I in, I,.

referred to above as the second class,
istics will

whose character-

This
ter

is

one of the instances

in

which the pattern cut-

be considered in their proper chapter.
for developing the patterns
triinii/nlii-

The method employed
tion,

required to be draftsman, and to this
is

something of an architectural end a chapter ofi Linear Draw-

for forms of the third class has been termed

and is adopted on account of its simplicity, as it does away with the reduction or subdivision of an irregular form into a number of smaller regular forms, each one of which would have to be treated separately

ing (Chap. Ill) has been introduced, in which attention is given to this phase of the work, and to which the student
is

referred.

The arrangement

of the

problems

in each of the

and perhaps by a different method. In fact, there are some shapes which have arisen from force of circumstances which it would be impossible to separate into regular parts, and even if they could be so separated such a course would result in tedious and complicated
operations.

sections of the succeeding chapter will be made with reference to these two conditions, the simpler ones

being placed before those in which preliminary drawing
is

required.

Parallel

Forms.

After principles have been thoroughly explained
the problems in this work will follow in three sections or departments of the final chapter, arranged according to the above classification.

(MITER CUTTING.)
Since in sheet metal work a molding is made by bending the sheet until it fits a given stay, a molding may be defined mechanically as a succession of paral-

Fig. 23S.

Profile

of a Molding.

Fig.

XS4.A

Stay.

Fig. 235.

A

Reverse Stay.

Two

conditions exist in regard to
all

the work of

lei

developing patterns of
of the three classes
yifxt

forms, no matter to which

above defined they

may belong

:

many cases a simple elevation or plan of the intersecting parts, together with their profiles, is all that is necessary to begin the work of developing
In very
the pattern

forms or bends to a given stay, and, so far as the mechanic is concerned, any continuous form or arrangement of parallel continuous forms, made for any purpose whatever, may be considered a molding and treated under the same rules in all the operations of
pattern cutting.
lel

Keeping

this fact in

mind

all

paral-

may

be,

the plan or elevation, as the case shows the line (either straight or curved)
that
is,

forms will be considered as moldings and that word will be used in the demonstrations, remembering
that a difference in
profile,

which represents the surface against which another in other words, the much sought part is to be fitted for " miter line."
;

In numerous other instances, however, no view can be drawn either in elevation, oblique or otherwise, or in plan, in which the miter or junction
X'miul
of the parts will appear as a simple straight or curved In such line against which the points can be dropped.

molding may be defined theoretically as a form or surface generated by a profile passed in a straight or curved line from one point to another, this profile at being the shape that would be seen when
its

A

name simply means a difference of but not a difference in treatment or principle.

looking the molding were cut off square. practical illustration of this may be given as follows: In

end

if

A

cases

it

becomes necessary

to

do some preliminary
to the actual

Fig. 233, let the form

shown be the

profile of
tin

some

in order to prepare the of laying out the pattern.

work

way

A

view of

be developed by means of intersections will show it as it appears in connection with the
tion or plan to be used in developing the

work the joint must of lines which
elevapattern.

molding.

If

this

shape be cut out of

sheet iron, as shown in Fig. 234, it is For the purpose of this illustration, as will appear further on, a stay, the reverse of the one shown in Fig.

plate or called a stay.

234, or, in other words, the piece cut from the face or

i

if Pull, -i-il

Cull! inf.

outside of the shape represented

in

that

figure,

as

shown in Fig. !''>>, Having made
as
it

will
a

required. reverse stav, or
:>:>;>,

!>

To cut such a pattern by means of a straight line drawn from a point corresponding to the end of the
longer side of the mold, to a point corresponding to the end of the shorter side of it, would not be right,
evidently, because certain parts of the covering, when formed up, fold down into the angles of the molding, and therefore would require to be either longer or
shorter, as the case

" outside
take

stay,
plastic

is

sometimes

called, Fig.

some

material

smooth

as potters' day and, placing it against any as of a hoard, place the stay against surface,
in

the board near one end
tical lines

such a position that

its

ver-

move

are parallel with the ends of the board, and this reverse stav in a straight line along the faee
a

might be, than
then, that

if

cut as above de-

scribed.

It is plain,

some plan must be

of the board until

continuous form
to

is

obtained in the
all

dav corresponding
illustrated
in

the profile of the stay,

as

devised by which measurements can be taken in all these angles or bends, and at as many intermediate
points as

Fig.

-!'!<>.

Bv

this operation will

be

may be
all

produced a molding in accordance with the second The purpose in introducing definition above given. this illustration is to show more dearly than is otherwise possible the principles upon which the different

length at

necessary, in order to obtain the right This can points throughout its width.
:

be done quite simply as follows Divide the curved parts of the stay into any convenient number of equal parts, and at each division
cut a notch, or affix a point to it. Replace the stay in the position it occupied in producing the

molding shown in Fig. 236 and
pass
it

again
to

over

the

entire

length of the model.
fastened
leave

points the stay will then tracks or lines upon the

The

surface of the

molding.

Now,

by means

of

measurement upon

the different lines thus produced, the length of the molding at all of
Firj. 236.

Generating a Molding in Plastic Material by Means of a Reverse Stay

the several points established in the stay may be obtained. All
this is clearly illustrated in Fig.

parts of a molding tern cutting.

are

measured

in

the process of pat-

In the upper right hand corner of the illustration is shown the stay prepared with points, by
237.

Suppose that the form produced as illustrated in be completed, and that both ends of the Fig. 23 It is evident, upon inbe cut off square. molding
(5

moving which

as

above described

lines are left

upon

the face of the molding, as shown to the left Now, upon a sheet of paper fastened to a draw-

spection,

that the length of a piece of sheet metal will be necessary to form a covering to this molding the length of the molding itself, and that the width of the piece will be equal to the distance obtained Inaround the outline of the stay which was

B in ing board, draw a vertical line, as shown by and upon that line set off with the dividers Fig. 237,
the width of each space or part of the profile or stay that is, make the space 1 2 in the line B equal to

A

A

measuring used in giving shape to the molding.
thin-bladed knife, or

Now

with a

the space 1 2 in the stay, and 2 3 in the line B to 2 3 of the stay, and so continue until all the equal

A

by means

of a piece of fine wire

stretched tight, let one end of the clay molding just constructed be cut off at any angle. By inspection of when thus cut, as clearly shown in the upper the form
it is evident that the end of a pattern part of Fig. 237, to form a covering' of this model must have such a

and from the points thus obspaces are transferred B draw lines at right angles to it indefitained in

A

nitely, as

shown to the

left.

The

lines an dspaces

upon

the paper will then correspond to the lines and spaces upon the clay molding made by the points fastened to

shape as will
oblique end

make

it

when formed up conform

to

the

the stay. Next, measure with the dividers the length of the molding upon each of the lines drawn upon it,

of the

molding or model.

and

set off the

same lengths upon the corresponding

T/IC

l

\\'<n-l,-rr

J'iitti'i-il

lines

drawn upon the paper.
a.

This gives
lie

:i

scries of

line,

points through which

line

may

traced which will

required

which represents the surface against which it is to' miter, the same results can. he accom-

shape to the oblique end of the molding. B on the line on the paper the Thus, set off from length of the molding, measured from its straight end
correspond
in

A

1

plished, care only being necessary that the relative positions of the parts lie correctly maintained.
is illustrated in Fig. 23s, which is to be with Fig. 237, and shows First, that the compared is drawn in correct Next, that profile position.
:

This

upon the line produced by point 1 of the stav upon its face: and upon each of the other lines on the paper set off the length of the molding on
to its oblique end,

A

from

it

the elevation

F C D G

of the

molding

is

pro-

the corresponding line on its face, measuring from the square end each time,

which

is

represented by the line

A B

of

the drawing. By this means are obtained points through which, if a line be traced, as shown by C D, the pattern of the covering will be described.

The

line

A B,

containing measurements from the profile, is called the "stretchout line,"

and the lines drawn through the points in it and at right angles to it arc mathematically known as ordinates, but will in
this

work be called " measuring lines." Now, what has been done in Fig. 237 illustrates what is called " miter cutting," which in other words consists in
describing upon a flat surface the shape of a given form or envelope, so that when the envelope is cut out of the flat surface and
its

formed up
will
fit

to the stay

from which

stretchout was

molding

derived, the finished against 'a given surface at

a given angle previously specified. The pattern shown in the lower part
of Fig. 237, which has been obtained by means of a clay model, and measurements
for which were obtained from the lines drawn on the surface of the clay model mav be obtained just as well from a drawing.

Fig.

SS7.The Use of Lines

in Obtaining the Envelope of a Molding from a Model

The question then
results be obtained

is,

how

can the
jected,

of the Same.

same

surface as were obtained

by lines drawn upon a flat by measurements on lines

as follows:

I'se in

position

shown by B

the T-square in the general the engraving, bringing it

drawn along the surface of a molding? In moving the stay along the clay molding, certain lines were made by means of the -points affixed. If the reader will carefully examine Fig. 237 he will
notice that the lines

against the several points in A. in order to draw the Draw a line for each of the angles in the profile lines.
also one corresponding to each of the intermediate points in the curved parts of the stay. Draw line F G, representing the oblique cut, and the the

A, and

upon the molding made by this means corresponded in number and position with the points in the profile when it is laid flat on its side, in a

C D, representing the straight end. Then it will be seen that F C D G of Fig. 238, so far as lines are
line

position exactly opposite the end of the modef, as shown. Hence, if the profile be drawn upon paper and in
line

concerned,
of clay,

is

shown

exactly the same as the molding made in Fig. 237. The line F G, bv the
a miter.,
is

with

it,

the elevation terminated

by the oblique

definition of

the

"miter line"

of

this

Principles nf

molding.
stretchout
scribed
II
in

It represents
is

the surface against which the
to
lit.
a,

in the position

shown by the dotted

end of the molding

Next lay oil' supposed in the same manner as deof the profile A, eiiiiiieetion which Fig. 'I'M, all as shown hy

Therefore,
follows
:

instead of

lines in Fig. 238. the dividers proceed as using

Place the T-square as shown at E, and,
it

bringing

successively against the points in

F

G, cut

Fig. 23s, through the points in which draw measuring lines at right angles to it, or, what is the
in

K

measuring

lines of corresponding

a dot or short dash placed across

number by means of the line. Then a line

Now, same, parallel make each of these lines equal in length to the line of
to the lines

of the moldings.

traced as before through the points of intersection thus obtained, as shown from L to M, will be the shape of the
pattern necessary to make it fit against a surface placed at the angle represented by the miter line F G. By this illustration

may
all

that the T- sc uare be used with great advantage in
it

is

shown

l

transferring measurements under almost

circumstances.
is

Since

now

the T-

square

to

be used instead of the

dividers to locate the points in the patterns, the stretchout line is not needed
as a starting point

from which

to

meas-

ure lengths and located at will.

may, therefore, be For convenience, it

should be placed as near to the miter line as possible. Hence, in practical

work, supposing that the molding represented

by F C

D G

is

not a very

short piece, the stretchout line, instead of being opposite the end C D, would

be placed somewhere near the

line of the

blade of the T-square when in its posiShould the arm required be tion at E.
short, a line

drawn opposite the square
double purpose of a and of the outline of

end

will serve the

stretch-out line

Fig. 23S.

Obtaining the Envelope of a Molding from a Drawing of the Same by the Use of the

the square end of the pattern. By further inspection of Fig. 238, it will be seen that, instead of drawing

corresponding number drawn across the elevation from C D to F G.
that If, as suggested in the previous illustration of dividers to measure the length of bv using a pair

A
all

the lines from the points in the profile the entire length of the molding, as there shown, that is necessary to the operation is a short line
the profile, The use of

is,

corresponding to each of the points of extending only across the miter line F G.

the molding from C D to F G on the several lines these lengths be set off on corresponding lines drawn from the stretchout line II K, a pattern will be obtained in
all

these lines, it is evident, is only to locate intersections upon the mitfcr line. In other words, all that is needed
the points in the profile transferred to the miter F G. The operation of transferring these points by short lines, as above described, is termed dropfrom the profile to the miter line. ping the points
is

A

respects

corresponding

to

the

pattern

line

shown

in Fig. 237, already referred to.

By

' '

of the result thus obtained,

however, it that each point in L M is directly under the point of that the same corresponding number in line F G, and be accomplished by using the T-square placed thing may

inspection will be seen

' '

If,

irAtead of the molding terminating against a

plane surface, as shown by F quired to develop a pattern to

G

in Fig. 238,

it

be

re-

fit

against an irregular

76
surface, the

The New Mckd

II

Hook.

method

of procedure

same, simply substituting for the straight

would be exactly the Hue F G a

would be
problems.

difficult

New

to compile a complete list of miter combinations of shapes and new con-

From this it will Inrepresentation of that surface. seen that all that is required to develop the pattern of any miter is that a correct representation (elevation or
plan) of the molding be made, showing the angle of the miter, and that a profile be so drawn that it shall

ditions are continually arising. The best that can be done, therefore, in a book of this character, is to present a selection of problems calculated to show the

most common application

of principles

fully studied, will so familiarize the student

which, carewith them

be in

line with the elevation of the

molding

its

face

that he will have no difficulty afterward in working

out the patterns for whatever shapes may come up in his practice, whether they be of those specifically illustrated or not.

foregoing the following summary of requirements, together with a general rule for cutting all miters whatsoever, are derived
:

From

the

fig. 239.

Comparison Between a Butt Miter and a Miter Between Two Moldings at Any Angle.

Requirements. There must be a plan, elevation or other view of the shape, showing the line of the joint or surface against which it miters, in line with

being so placed as to agree with the face of the molding and that points from the subdivisions of the pro-

which must be drawn a profile or sectional view of same, and this profile must be prepared for use bv having all its curved portions divided into such a

be carried parallel to the molding, their intersections with the miter line being marked by short lines.
file

In order to more clearly indicate the point desired
this summary of requirements, suppose that upon each of two pieces of molding made of wood, miters at the same angle be cut (right and left) by means of a

by

in Fig. 239.

saw, and that they be then placed together, as shown Now, if a piece of sheet iron, for ex-

ample, be slipped into the joint, as shown by A, and then one arm of the miter be removed what is left will

be exactly what is shown in Fig. 238. In other words, a miter between two straight pieces of molding of the same profile is exactly the same as a miter of the same

mold against
cutting

a plane, and, hence, the operation of the pattern in such a case as shown in Fig.

239
238.

is

identical with that described in Figs.

237 and

From this it is plain to be seen that the central idea in miter cutting is to bring the points from the profile against the miter line, no matter what may be
shape or position, and from the miter line into a Inasmuch as all stretch-out prepared to receive them.
its
Fig. 24D.

Usual Method of Cutting a Square Return Miter.
is

moldings,

if

they do not

cates of themselves,

against

some

or miter with duplieither terminate square or dissimilar profile, it follows that the two

member

number
It

must

of spaces as convenience.

consistent with accuracy and

may be remarked

here that the division of the

illustrations given cover in principle the entire cata-

profile into spaces is

only an approximate method of

logue of miters.

The principles here explained are the fundamental principles in the art of pattern cutting, and It their application is universal in sheet metal work.

As theoretically the straight obtaining a stretch-out. distance from one of the assumed points to another
upon a curved line is less than the distance measured around the curve, and the shorter the radius of the

Principles of Pattern

Cutting.

77

curve the greater
the arc which
it

is

this difference (a

chord

is le.s.s

than

subtends,) hence the greater the number of points assumed the greater will be the accuracy, and a curve of short radius should be divided more

does not employ a miter line, Yet it and, therefore, appears to be an exception. has been remarked that a thorough understanding of
building, for example

how

The profile thus closely than one of longer radius. a succession of plane surfaces. represents practically Rule. 1. Place a stretch-out of the profile on a
line at right angles to the direction of the molding, as

a square miter is cut comprehends within itself the science of miter cutting. The square return miter for such is the distinctive name applied to the kind
of square miter in question is an exception to the rule only in the sense that it admits of an general

shown
1

in the

plan, elevation or other view, through the points in which draw
L

abbreviated method.
usually the
first

i
t

The short rule for cutting it is thing a pattern cutter learns, and the

measuring

lines parallel to
2.

|N
I

\ii

nor,CM p PROFILE

the molding.

Drop

lines

from the points

in the profile

operation is very generally explained to him without any reason being given for the several steps taken. In many cases it would bother him to cut the pattern

to the miter line or line of
joint, carrying them in the direction of the molding till

by any other than
is

the short method, even after he had

obtained considerable proficiency in his
that, to all

art. Hence it who have any previous knowledge of

they intersect said

line.

3.

Drop

lines

from the

inter-

pattern ciitting the rules above set forth seem inadequate, or, to put it otherwise, are a formula to which.
there are exceptions. To clear up these doubts in the

sections thus obtained with

the miter or joint line on to the measuring lines of the
stretch-out, at right angles to the direction of the molding.

mind

of the stu-

dent an illustration of the short method of cutting a square miter is here introduced, and afterward the long

method, or the plan which is in strict accordance with the rule above given, will be presented, combined with
the short method, thus showing the relationship and correspondence between the two.

In making the application of this rule the student

must not forget that the word profile covers a vast

2iO shows the usual method of developing a square return miter, being that in which no plan lino
Fig.
is

into

B is divided employed. The profile convenient number of spaces, as any
by the small figures in the enThe stretch-out E Fis laid off at

A

indicated

graving.

PA

right angles to the lines of the moldings, and, through the points in it, measuring lines are drawn parallel to the lines of

From the points established in moldings. the profile lines are dropped cutting corresponding measuring lines. Then the pattern
Fvj. ^41.

Comparison Between

Short or Usual Method of Cutting a Square Miter and the Method Prescribed by the Rule.
the.

or miter cut
line

II is obtained by tracing a these -points of intersection. through In this operation it will be noticed that

G

line range of outlines, varying from a simple straight to an entire section of a roof or even more, where large

the stipulations of the
fully complied with

part of the rule have been that is, the stretch-out line has
first

curved surfaces are to be treated, and that a rule that to the others equally applies to one can be applied
well.

gives careful attention to these rules will at once 'remark that the operation of cutting that is, a miter between the a common square miter

The student who

been drawn at right angles to the lines of the molding, and measuring lines have been drawn parallel to those lines, but it would seem that the second and third parts of the rule as given are not applicable. Apparently no miter line has been employed, but the points have been dropped directly from the profile into the measuring lines.

moldings running across two adjacent sides of a square

78

Sete M'-tai

H "(,//(/

Pattern

in order to make this clear Fig. 24-1 is hero introduced in which the proper relation of parts is shown

as given,

is

that of getting the miter line in a
profile.

wrong

which the pattern is developed according to and in which is also shown the short method and rule, how it is derived from the long method.
in

and

For example, instead of drawing a complete plan, as shown bv L II F K M in Fig. i>41, by which the miter line is located to a certainty, and in connection with which it is a
simple matter to correctly place the profile,
it

position with reference to the

As the angle of a return miter can only be shown a plan, the plan becomes the first necessity accordby F M ing to the rule and is shown in the cut by

is

not

H

K

L, F G showing the lino upon which the two anus of the molding meet that is, the miter line. The B appears duly in line with one arm of the profile

G

attempt the operation by drawing the miter line only, placing it either above, below or at one side of the profile. The mistake is made bv havto

uncommon

A

F G L. This arm, then, is the part of which plan the pattern is about to be developed accordingly the stretch-out line is then drawn at right angles to this
;

H

ing the line at the side of the profile when it should be either above or below it, and vice versa. Fig. -24-2 illustrates a ease in point. The engraving was made
L

.

B
,

arm, as

shown

at C'

I)',

and the measuring

lines

drawn

parallel to the arm.

The second
that
is,

lines are

AB

part of the rule is now carried out; dropped from the points in the profile

to the

miter line
II into the

F G and from
measuring
lines,

angles to

F

thence at right thus obtaining

the pattern C' F/. In the upper part of this figure another stretch-out, C D, is introduced into which lines have been dropped
directly from the points in the profile, thus producing the pattern at C E, making this part of the figure a

reduplication of the
figure.

method employed

in the previous

By comparison it will be E and C' E' are identical.

seen that the two patterns Since the two arms of

the miter are identical and at right angles to each other, the miter line must bisect the angle II F and be at

K

an angle of

4-5

and

F K.

From

degrees to either of the two faces II F this it appears at once that the pro-

jection of any and all points upon L toward II is exactly the line

F G from

G

the plan same as from the

and that the relationship between C E and the miter line, and C' E' and the miter line, is, therefore, the same. Dropping points from a profile against a line inclined 45 degrees, as F G, and thence on to a stretch-out, gives the same result as dropping them on the stretch-out in the first place. Hence it is that the portion of the operation shown in the lower part of the engraving may be dispensed with. This relationship could never occur were the angle of
plan line
the miter anything else than a right angle.
is

G

M toward K

Fig. 24%-

A.

Squure Face Miter Produced Where a Square Return Miter ivas Intended,

from the drawing of a person who attempted to cut a square return miter by the rule, using a miter line
only. By placing the miter line E F at the side instead of below the profile, a square face miter such

molding running around a panel or a picture frame was produced in place of what was desired.
as

would be used

in the

In order to avoid such errors the reader
this
1

is

recom-

Another and perhaps simpler explanation of given in connection with Problem 3, in Section

of

Chapter VI.

pei'usal of the chapter on Linear Drawing (Chapter III), where the relation existing between plans, elevations and sections or profiles is thor-

mended

to a careful

A

very
to

common mistake made by

attempting

beginners in the general rule for cutting miters apply

ough- explained.
as :-hown

It is better to
24-1,

draw a complete plan.

in Fig.

thus demonstrating to a eer-

Principles uf Pattern

Cuttinij.

tainty the

save

a little

correct relationship of the parts, than labor and run the risk of error.

to

Whereas
various [mints
line

in

parallel

forms the -distances of the
a straight the miter for that near

in a

miter are measured from

As remarked in the earlier part of this chapter, some labor is often neeessarv before the requirements
mentioned above
fulfilled.

drawn through the mold
as

purpose,

C

D, Fig.

23.8,

the

distances

of

all

in

connection with the rule can be

Sometimes a miter line must first be developed, and sometimes the profile of a molding must undergo a change of profile known as raking. It is
believed that the principles underlying these operations arc made sufficiently dear in connection with the

points the intersection of

in the surfaces of

tapering solids

some other surface
lines

from the apex upon

produced by measured therefrom and radiating
are
;

problems
pecial

in

which they are involved not

to

need

es-

say

that, in

Suffice it to explanation in this connection. many instances, half the work is done in

the getting ready.

(FLARING WORK.)
This subject embraces" a large variety of forms of frequent occurrence in sheet metal work, and the development of their surfaces comes under an altogether
different set of

rules

than those applied to parallel

forms.

it

will

Before entering into the details of these methods be best to first define accurately what is here

Fig. 244.

A Bight Cone with Thread Fastened at the Apex to which are Attached Points Marking the Upper and Lower Bases of a
Frustum.

These forms include included by the use of the term. such solid figures as have for a base the circle or only

any

of the regular polygons,

as the square, triangle,

whereas the distance across parallel forms (the stretchout) is measured upon the profile, the distance across
tapering forms
base.
is

measured upon the perimeter

of the

Patterns are more frequently required for portions of frustums of these figures than for the complete figures themselves and the methods of obtaining the pattern of coverings of said frustums is simply to develop the surface of the entire cone or pyramid and by a system of measurements take out such parts as

are required.

As
Fig.
.

A

Right Cone Generated by the Revolution of a RightAngled Triangle about its Perpendicular.

ular line erected

the apex of a cone is situated in a perpendicupon the center of its base, it must

also figures though of unequal sides hexagon, etc. that can be inscribed within a circle, and all of which terminate in an apex located directly over the center
;

of necessity be equidistant from all points in the circumference of the base.

In works upon solid geometry the cone
scribed as a solid generated

is

de-

by

the revolution of

a

of the base.

While the treatment

of these forms has

been said

to be altogether different from that of parallel forms there are some points of similarity to which the student's attention is called that may serve to fix the

right-angle triangle about >ts vertical side as an axis. This operation is illustrated in Fig. 243, in which it will be seen that the base E 1) of the triangle C K 1)
is

the radius which generates the circle forming the base of the cone, and that the hypothenuse C D in
like

methods

of

work

in his

memory.

manner generates

its

covering or envelope.

80

The Xcw Metal Wurkvr

I'aW_/-n Book.

If a plane bo passed through u 00110 parallel to the base and at some distance above it, the line which

the pin as a center Fig. 24(5,

upon a sheet of paper, as shown in the thread be carried around the pin, keep-

produces by cutting the surface of the cone must also be a circle, because it, like the base, is perpenit

The portion cut away is simply another perfect cone of less dimensions than the first.
dicular to the axis.

ing it stretched all the time, the track of the points fastened to the thread will describe upon the paper the shape of the envelope of the frustum, as shown by
(J

D E

F.

By
two
will

omitting the line produced bv the
points, the envelope of the

upper of the
cone
<i
!'

GC F

complete

be described.

described by the point A may be determined by measuring the circumference of the base of the cone by any means most available.

length of the arc attached to the thread

The

The

usual method is to take between the points of the dividers a small space and step around the circumference of the circle of the base and set olf upon the circle
of the pattern the

same number

of spaces.

Fig. S45.

Frustum of a Right Cone, the Dotted Lines Showing the Portion of the Cone Removed to Produce the Frustum.

while the portion remaining is called a frustum of a cone. Fig. 244, is a cone, and B D E C, Fig. The line B E, Fig. 244, shows 245, is a frustum.

AFC,

where the cone

is

cut to produce the frustum.

If, having a solid cone of any convenient material, as wood, a pin be fastened at tlie apex C of the same,

as

shown

in Fig.

244, and a piece of thread be tied

Fig. 2y/.

Unfolding the Envelope of a Right Cone.

The development

of the envelope of a cone

may

be further illustrated by supposing that, in the case of the wooden model, it be laid upon its side upon a sheet of paper and rolled along until it has made one
complete revolution; a point having been previously

marked upon the line of its base by which to determine the same. The base B, Fig. 247, thus becomes
Fig. 246.

Envelope of the Cone and Frustum, Described by the Pin

and Thread
thereto, to

in Fig. 244.

it were, describing the line C D upon while the apex A, having no cireumferthe paper, The lines ference, remains stationary at the point A'.

stretched out as

which are fastened points B and A, correin distance from the apex to the upper and sponding lower bases of the frustum, and the thread, being drawn straight, be passed around the cone close to its surface,
the points upon the thread will follow the lines of the If then. liases of the frustum throughout its course.

C A' and
tion.

DA

1

cone at the beginning and at the

represent the contact of the side of the finish of one revolu

As
forms,
in

in

the case of dividing the prolilc in parallel

-this

method

is,

taking the thread and pin from the cone, and fastening

accuracy, but the difference that it is not worth considering.

theoretically, only approximate is so slight practically

Of course, the shorter

Principles

<</"

Pattern

O/////y.

81
of points

the

spaces

are

the

greater

is

the

accuracy.

This

the same

lias, however, another significance which will bo pointed out later on, which will help to simplify

method

of the base of the

and spaces upon the edge wooden cone, and from each of these points draw upon the sides of the wooden cone straight
lines

number

the solution of

all

tapering forms.

running to

its

apex.

A

correct elevation of these lines

upon the draw-

ing may be obtained by carrying lines from the divisions or points in the plan of the base vertically till they strike the line of the base B C in the elevation, as shown
in Fig.

250, thence to the apex A, cutting the line

G

H.

Fig. 24$.

A

Cone Truncated Obliquely.

Now, if by means of a saw the upper part of the wooden cone be removed, being cut to the required angle as shown by the oblique line G H in the drawing,

required that the cone should be truncated obliquely, as shown in Fig. 248, it will be seen that all the points in the upper line of the .frustum are at
If
it is

an opportunity

is

given,

by

the lines

upon the

different distances

from the base,

or,

what amounts

to

the same thing, from the apex of the original cone, hence some method of measuring these distances must

be devised.

To

explain

the

principles

here involved more

H

Fig. 250.

Method of Obtaining

the Lines

upon

the Elevation.

part of the cone cut away, of measuring accurately the distance of each point of the curve thus produced from the apex.

Then
-r

if

as all points in the base
to lay

B C

are equidistant

from the apex A,
first

out the pattern of this frustum, describe an arc of a circle whose radius is equal to

Fig. 249.

Plan and Elevation from which to Construct a Wooden Cone for Purposes of Illustration.

the length of the side (or slant hight) of the cone B, Make this arc in length equal to the cirFig. 250.

A

cumference of the base

B C

of the cone

by means

of

suppose that a cone be cut from a solid block of wood and of a hight and width to agree with some particular drawing, as, for instance, the one shown in Fig.
clearly,
24-9.

To avoid conthe points, as previously described. fusion number these points 1, 2, 3, etc., from the starting point B, and from each of these points draw lines
to the center of the arc, all as

Divide the

circle of the base

E F upon

the drawing

into a convenient

number

of parts or spaces

and mark

shown in Fig. 251. replacing that portion of the cone which was cut away so as to identify the lines upon its siites

Now,

82

T/ie Xeic Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

;

by the numbers at the base, the length of each line from the apex down to the cut can be measured by the dividers and transferred to the lines of the same numbers in the diagram, Fig. 251, as shown between G and H. All this no doubt is quite simple when the model It is at hand upon which to make the measurements. is quite evident that it will not do to measure the disto tance upon the drawing, Fig. 250, from the apex because the the points of intersection on the line G

This

which
is

is

operation is fully shown in Fig. 252, to added the development of the pattern, which

exactly the same as that shown in Fig. 251, the distances of the points between G and II from being obtained in this case from the points upon the line

A

A
on

B, instead of from the model, as before. The points B are transferred to lines of corresponding num-

A

ber in

the

A

pattern by means of
a

the

compasses, as
is

shown.

H

Should the frustum of which

pattern

required

sides of the cone having an equal slant of flare all around, the lines upon the drawing do not represent

the real distances except in the case of the two outside lines; the slant hight of a cone or any part of a cone being greater than the vertical hight of same part.

But

as these

two outside

lines

do represent the correct

G

B

9

Fig. Sol.

Method of Deriving

the Pattern

of a Frustum from the

Wooden Model.
slant of the cone

on

all sides, either

one of them

may

be taken as a correct line upon which to measure these distances that is, as a vertical section through the cone upon any or all of the lines drawn upon its sides. To make it a perfect section upon any one of
;

these lines, say line 5, it is simply required that the position of the point of intersection of line 5 with the
line

Fig. %52.

Method of Deriving

the Pattern

from

>/ic

Dm winy.

G

H

be shown, which
till

is
it

done by carrying

this

point horizontally across

strikes the side of the

cone
as

AB

at 5, as illustrated in Fig. 250.

The

result
is

of repeating this operation

upon

all

the other lines

though a thread or wire were stretched from the apex down along the side of the cone to the point B in the base and the cone were turned upon its axis, and as each line upon the side passes under the thread,
the point where
inft)
it

upper and lower faces oblique to the assumed at a convenient distance below the lower face of the frustum from which the circumference can lie obtained and then both the upper and lower faces of the frus-

have both

its

axis of the cone a level base can be

tum can be developed by

the

method
elliptical

just described.

A
in

right cone having an

base might seem

to belong in the

same

class with regular tapering forms,

cuts the intersecting
all

where marked thereon, thus collecting
one section as
it

plane <! II the points

but as the distance from

were.

its apex to the various points the perimeter of its base is constantly varying, it is therefore placed in the class with irregular forms in

Principles
tin-

<y

Pattern

83

following section of this chapter, where
diseiisseil.

it

will

be

duly

tapering articles of elliptical shape are of frequent occurrence, and as the circle is much easier made use of than the ellipse, such articles

But

as

it

the dimensions, then, of such cones necessary to construct a diagram such as that shown in Fig. 254, which is in reality a section upon the line E D of the plan, in which P and P E
is

To determine

are

usually designed with approximate ellipses comThis method is in inanv cases posed ul arc-sol circles.
especially
desiralile,
ol

are respectively

At
to

as articles so

designed have an

equal
cones.
I

amount
It will
is

Hare,
if

or

would not he the case
hat

taper on all sides, which they were cut from elliptical
article,-

equal to E D and E F of the plan. and R, Fig. 254, erect perpendicular lines J and K Z indefinitely. Upon O J set off OS equal the straight hight O K of the frustum, Fig. 253, and
points

thns he seen that an

designed

in

manner

the envelope of a solid

composed

of as

portions of frustums of right cones as there were arcs of circles used in drawing its plan.

many

In Fig. 2.~>:> is shown the usual method of drawthe plan and elevation of an elliptical flaring aring C B D being the ticle, the outer curve of the plan at of the elevation, while the inner curve shape

A

MN
is

I

the plan at the top L. As many he employed in drawing the curves of the plan of such an article as desired, all of which is explained in the chapter on Geometrical Problems (Chap.
A'

G

J

K

centers

may

V. ), Problems 73, 70 and 78. To simplify matters only two sets of centers have been employed in the present drawing, all as indicated by the dotted lines drawn from
I

the various centers and separating the different arcs of circles. Keference to the plan now shows that that
portion of the article included between the points

E

Fiy.

2J4.Diayram Constructed

to

Determine the Dimensions of the
to

Cones, Portions of which are Shown in Fig. 253.

Combined

Make up

the Article

draw S U to D H.
will then as
it

P, which make equal in length parallel to line drawn through the points P and represent the slant or taper of the frustum,

O

A

U

shown

at

M K of
J.

the elevation, and

if

continued

till

intersects with the perpendiculars from O and P will determine the respective hights of the two cones, as

shown by Z and
if

Then P
its

JO

is

the triangle which,

revolved about

vertical side

J 0,
is

will generate
is

the cone from which so

much

of the figure as

struck

from the centers
Fi'j. 253.

C and D

in Fig.

253

cut

;

and

PZR

Usual Method of Drawing an Elliptical Flaring Article.
is

is

Z C
a position of the envelope of a cone the radius of whose base is 1) C and whose apex is
located at a point somewhere above D and likewise that that portion included between the points B II I J is part of a cone the radius of whose base is
;

W V G II

the triangle which if revolved about its vertical side R will generate the cone from which the end pieces

XA

To present this before the reader in a more forcible manner, several pictorial illustrations are here introduced in which the foregoing
of the article are taken.

F and whose apex is somewhere upon a line erected Thus four sectors cut from cones of two differat F.
ent sizes go to
Article

A

In Fig. 255 is operations are more clearly shown. shown a view of the plan of the base C B D of Fig. 253 in perspective, in which the reference letters are

A

the same as at corresponding parts of that plan, and

make up
253

the entire solid of which the
is

upon which

is

represented, in

shown

in Fig.

a frustum.

sector of the larger cone

correct position, a from which the side portions
its

The Xvw Mini
of the frustum are taken. faces.

\Vnrkcr Pattern Buok.

the triangular sursections of the cone AV, being through its axis, correspond to the triangle J () P of In Fig. 256 two additional the diagram, Fig. 254.

Tims

F D E and F D

which stands over the space F Such a B, Fig. 256. cut might be begun upon the line F H, and passing would finish vertically through the points L and

H

M

sectors from

the smaller cone previously referred to

through the curved surface of the further or curved side of the sector. The cut thus made between the
points
bola.

are represented as standing upon the adjacent portions of the plan from which their dimensions were derived.

L and

M
is

is

shown

Fig. 257, and

by

at D C in the other view, virtue of the conditions a hyper

Thus C F and

II

D, the center lines of their bases,

correspond respectively to
Fig. 253, and the triangles

A

F and

Y

B

of the plan,

L F G and

MH

K,

being-

The piece necessary (See Def. 113, Chap. I.) to complete the solid would then be a duplicate of the shape remaining after making the above described cut,
the outer surface of which
Fig. 257.
is shown by A B C D of The complete solid would then have the appearance shown in Fig. 258.

radial sections of the cones,

correspond with the triIn Fig. 257 is presented angle Z R P of the diagram. the opposite view of the combination seen in Fig. 250,

Fig. 255.

Perspective View of the Plan in Fig. 253, with the Larger Cone in Position,

a Sector of

Fig. 256.

The Same Plan Showimj Two Sectors of the Smaller Cone in Position Joining the Larger One.

showing

at

C B and D

A

the joining of their outer

surfaces or envelopes.

As previously remarked, two sets of centers only were employed in constructing the plan, Fig. 253, for
the sake of simplicity.

thus resolving the solid from which the ordinary elliptical flaring article is cut into its component elements the process of developing its pattern may be

By

Had

a third set of centers

been made use of the arrangement of sectors of cones shown in Figs. 256 and 257 would have been supplemented by a pair of sectors, cut from a cone of intermediate
size,

more readily understood. This process may now lie easily explained by returning to the string and pin method which was made use of in connection with the
simple cone in the earlier part of this section. In Fig. 257 is shown a line some distance above
the base representing the top of the frustum shown by L in the original elevation, Fig. 253. It also

side of the large sector

ones,

all

which would have been placed on either between it and the smaller being joined together upon the same general
Reference to Fig.
22<)

K

principle as before explained. in the chapter on Geometrical

P,

P S

W and AV

IT

Y

Problems shows at .1 L what the relative position of

shows a pin fastened at the apex of the middle conical sector to which is attached a thread carrying points G and II representing the upper and lower surfaces of the frustum. Now, if the siring be drawn tight and
passed along the side of the larger sector of the cone

their bases
solid,

would be. If it be desired to complete the which has been begun in Fig. 256, it will first be

from

.necessary to cut

away

that portion

of the middle sector

the points will lower bases of the frustum.
to

A

B

follow the upper AVhen the point

and

B

is

Principles

/'

/'"//</'/'

Cull! HI/.

85
of

reached,

if

the finger be placed

upon the thread
at

at

the

scribed,

making the length

the

additional

arcs

apex

of the lesser emie,

shown

C, and the progress

equal to those of

their corresponding arcs

H

I

J and

of the thread be

eontinued, the points will still follow If the pin and the lines of the bases, of the frustum.

K

A X
As

of the original plan. the lengths of the sides of

the larger and

Fig. 259.

The Pin and Thread taken from Fig. 257 and
Describing the Envelope.

Used in

Fly. S7.

Opposite View of Parts
to

Attached

a Pin

(it

the

Shown Apex of

in

the

Larger

Fig. 256, with String Sector.

smaller cones above

made use

of are

by construction

thread be taken from the cone and transferred to a sheet of paper, as shown in Fig. 250, the pin A being

equal to
angles,

J

P and Z

used as a center and the thread as a radius, the points
will describe the envelope of

the frustum.

First, the

Fig. 254, be taken at generated, those distances may therefore the compasses once from that diagram by means of

P, the hypothenuses of the triby whose revolution they were

radius
arcs

is

used

full

length, as
are

shown by

A

L K, and

and used as shown

in Fig. 259.

L

M

and

K H

drawn

Reference has been

made above

to the difference

in lengtlTrespectively

between the circumference of the circle of the base
obtained by means of the points and spaces (which method becomes a necessity to the pattern cutter) and

Fig. 260.

An Arc Compared with

its

Chord.

the real circumference.

ence wilt lead to the
figures
Fii/.
:

An explanation of this differnext class of regular tapering

258.

The Completed Solid of which the Ordinary Elliptical Flaring Article in a Pnrt.
II

viz. pyramids. In the accompanying diagram, Fig. 2t'.(), of a circle of which the straight line represents the arc

ABC

equal to their representatives the original plan, Fig. 253.

and E C \\ Then a second pin
(T

V

of
is

A

put through the

string, as

shown

at B, thus

reducing

the radius to the length of the side of the lesser cone,^ and ares are struck in continuation of those first de-

C is the chord, being the shortest distance between and C. Therefore, when dividing the two points means of points for purposes of measurea circle by a number ment, the pattern cutter is in reality using subtend. of chords instead of the arcs which they

A

Tin'

New

Metal

1

1

War

Pattern

Boole.

In the practice of obtaining the circumference or stretch-out of a circle the space assumed as the unit of

article,

while

in

conical shapes
a

all

lines

running with
s<>

the form tend toward

common

center or vertex,

measure should be so small that there is no perceptible curve between the points and, of course, no practical
difference between the length of the chord and length of the arc.

that the distances between such lines at one end of the
article' (provided it does not reach to the vertex) bear a regular proportion to the distances between them at the other end. Hence, in the development of the

the

It will thus be seen that the circle representing the base of a cone has in reality become in the hands of the pattern cutter a many sided polygon and that

pattern of an irregular form

drop ceed

all

it becomes necessary to described systems and simply propreviously

to

measure up

its

sided pyramid. As one of the conditions in describing a regular polygon is that the cone
is

to

him

a

many

adding one portion to another has been covered.

surfaces, portion by portion, till the entire surface

its

angles shall all lie in the same circle, so the angles or hips of a pyramid must lie in the surface of the cone whose base circumscribes the base of the pyramid and

To accomplish

this

of all geometrical problems is made use of, to the reader is referred (Chap. IV., Problem 36)

end one of the most simple which
viz.
:

whose apex coincides with the apex of the pyramid. Viewed in this light then, the lines which were drawn upon the outside of the wooden cone for the purpose of measurement in the illustration used above become the angles or hips of a pyramid and may be used for that purpose in exactly the same manner.
In developing the pattern of a frustum of a cone the line connecting the points between G and II, Fig.
251,
is

To construct a
given.

triangle, the

lengtlts

of

the three sides

//</'//</

As from any

three given

dimensions only one

triangle can be constructed, this furnishes a correct means of measurement; and the solution of this prob-

lem

in connection with a regular order

and method

of

obtaining the lengths of the sides of the necessary triTo carry out angles constitutes the entire system.

supposed, of course, to be a curved

line,

while

pyramid (the points or angles of the pyramid being further apart and the sides of a pyramid being flat instead of curved) the lines of the pattern
connecting the points would be straight from point to
point.

in the case of a

system it simply becomes necessary to divide the surface of any irregular object into triangles, ascertain the lengths of their sides from the drawing, and rethis

produce them in regular order in the pattern, and hence the term TRIANGULATIOX is most fittingly applied to

Irregular

Forms.

(TRIANGULATION.)
In some classes of sheet metal work certain forms

development of surfaces. In all articles whose sides lie in a vertical plane, distances can be measured in any direction across their sides upon an elevation of the article, but when the
this

method

of

sides
line

become rounded and
upon the elevation

slanting

the length of a

running parallel with the form cannot be measured
or the plan.

which patterns are required, but which cannot be classified under either of the two previous subTheir surfaces do not seem to be generated divisions. by any regular method. They are so formed that although perfectly straight lines can be drawn upon them (that is, lines running parallel with the form), such straight lines when drawn would not be parallel with each other neither would they slant toward each
arise for
;

either

The

elevation

gives the distance from one end of the line to the other vertically or as it appears to slant to the right or left, but the distance of one end of the lino forward or back
of the other can only be obtained from the plan which while supplying this dimension does not give the hight. Consequently the true length of any straight line lying
in the surface of

other with any degree of regularity. While in the systems described in the two previous portions of this chapter distances between lines fanning

tained

by whose base

any irregular form can only be ascerthe construction of a right-angle triangle

with the form measured at one end of an

article

govern

is equal to the horizontal distance between the required points, and whose altitude is equal to the vertical distance of one point above the other, the

those at the other end, in the forms considered in this department these distances are continually varying and

hypothenuse giving the true distance between the
points, or, in other words, the required length of the
line.

bear no such relation to each other.

Thus

forms (moldings) the distance between running with the form is the same at both ends of the

in parallel any two lines

For
|

illustration, Fig.

261 shows an article which

may

be called a transition piece, the base of which,

l'ril<l-!l>ll:-i

I!/'

I'l/llri-ll

Cl/tlilll/.

87

A

15 ('

D

of

the

plan,
II

is
(
t

a

perfect

circle
Its
is

lying

in

a

horizontal plane. K face, however. N

lie eli!\

ation.

<>

I'

<^

of the plan,

upper surelliptical in
1

perimeter at the top. top, is greater than
plan), the

As F

(!.

the distance across the

shape and besides being placed at one side of the <1 center is also in an inclined position, as shown by
I'

(its apparent width in the evidently does not give the correct distance around the top, and therefore a correct view of the top must btained. The method of

X P
P

curve X

(

)

Q
1

of tlin elevation.
tin-

T<> the right of this plan

is

another

accomplishing

this

docs not
in

dill'er

from

manv

similar

same, A' IV C' I)', turned one-quarter drawing of around from which, and the elevation, is projected another view, J' K' L M, whieh may be called the

operations described

connection with parallel forms

and N <)

is
I*

<i

clearly shown in the drawing. Considering as a correct plan or horizontal projection of

,ft .i !

ML
/ /
/

/$
1

fin"

/

1

t

,

1

2

:i

4

5

for

10 8

DIAGRAM OF

DOTTED

LINES

B
Fig. 382.
Fi(r. 261.

Plans, Elevations,

etc.,

of an Irregular Shaped Article, Ittustratinij the Principles of Triangulati on

.

front

and which

will assist in obtaining a
article.

more perfect
comparison

the top, one-quarter of

it,

as

O N, may

be divided by

conception of the shape of the
of the three views

A

shows that the slant of the sides is different at every point, and that the only dimensions of the article which can be measured directly upon the drawing arc the circumference of the base and the slant hight, as given at E F, H G and L M.
will

any convenient number of points and their distances P set off upon the parallel lines drawn from from

N

N"

P", thus obtaining
It is

O" N",

one-quarter of the cor-

likely, however, that the correct shape of the top N"" O" P" would be given, from which it would be necessary to obtain its correct

rect curve.

more

Before a pattern of its side can be developed it be necessary to ascertain its width (or distance
to

appearance in the plan, which would be accomplished by drawing the normal curve in its correct relation to
the line

from base

top)

at frequent intervals

and also

its

F

G, as shown by

N" O" P", when

the raking

88
could be reversed,

M<tl
thereby developing
the

process

curve

one-half of the plan of top. Preparatory to obtaining the varying width of the

ON P

pattern of the side, a number of points must upon in the curves of both top and bottom from which

be fixed

Thus, in the space bounded by the lines 4 4' and 5 5', it is plainly to be seen that there would be greater advantage and less liability of error in connecting of the bottom curve with 4' of the top than in crossing the
.">

line
I ;

from

-i

of the

bottom

to 5' of the top, for the rea-

to take the measurements.
is

As

one-quarter of the top

son that

in

the former

case

the

triangles

produced

P, already divided into spaces, another quarter, may be divided into the same number of spaces (also If dividing 0" P" into the same space as 0" N").
is the normal curve of the top it would very be divided into equal spaces by the dividers, naturally as is usual in such cases, while the spacing in N O P

would be

less scalene or acute.

The next step is to devise a means of determining the true lengths which these lines represent or, in other
full size

N"

O''

P"

words, their real length as they could be measured if a. model of the article were cut from a block of

would be the result of the operation of raking. It advisable to have the spaces in N"0"P" all equal

is

to

wood or clay upon which these lines had been marked, as shown upon the drawing. The lines upon the plan, of course, "only show the
horizontal distances between the points which they connect. The vertical hight above the base of any of

each other, as it is from this curve that the stretch-out of the top of the pattern is to be derived, the convenience of which will
is

become apparent when the pattern
is

developed.

the points in the upper curve can easily be found by measuring from its position upon the line F G of the
elevation perpendicularly to the base E H. Therefore, having both the vertical and the horizontal distance

The quarter O P
ter

used

in

connection with the quarof

O

N, because these two combined constitute a half

C of the top curve lying on one side of the line the plan which divides the article into symmetrical
being only necessary, when the shape of an article permits, to obtain the pattern of one-half and
halves,
it

A

given between any two points, it is only necessary to construct with these dimensions a right angle triangle,

and the hypothenuse will give their true distance apart. Thus in Fig. 262 a b is equal to the line 4 4' of the
plan, while a c is
c b

then to duplicate other half.

by any convenient means

to obtain the

made equal

to 4 4' of the elevation.

The corresponding

therefore, ABC, must number of equal spaces as were used at the top, all as shown in the drawing, and both sets of points should be numbered alike, beginning at the same side.

half of the plan of the base, also be divided into the same

Consequently represents the true distance between the points 4' of the top and 4 of the base. Therefore, to obtain all of these hypothenuses in the simplest
possible manner, it will be necessary to construct one or two diagrams of triangles. To avoid confusion it
is

better to

make two

;

Having thus fixed the points from which measurements across the pattern of the side are to be taken, next draw lines across the plan connecting points of
like

represented by the full plan and the other for those of the dotted lines.

one for obtaining the distances or solid lines drawn across the

To

do

this

extend the base line
at the left, at

E

II of

the elevation, as

number, as shown by the

This

lines in the plan. divides the entire side of the article into a numfull

ber of four-sided figures; but as it is necessary, as shown above, to have it divided into triangles, each
four-sided figure

any convenient points, in which, as R and S, erect two perpendicular lines. Project lines horizontally from all the points in F G, cutting these two lines as shown, and number the points of
intersection.

shown

through

its

triangles.

redivided by a line drawn opposite angles, thus cutting it into two In other words, each point in the base

may now be

(Some
equal

of the figures are omitted in the

drawing for lack of space.)
line

From
the

R

set off

on the base
the
solid

distances

to

lengths

of

should bo connected with a point of the next lower number (or higher, according to circumstances) in the
curve of the top, and these lines should be dotted instead of full lines for the sake of distinction and to

lines of the plan 1 1', 2 2', 3 3', etc., numbering the points!, 2, 3, etc., as shown, and connect points of

number upon the base with those upon From S set off on the base line perpendicular.
similar

the
dis-

Thus
0' of

avoid confusion in subsequent parts of the work. 1 of the base is connected by a dotted line with
the top, 2 of the base with
1'

tances equal to the lengths of the dotted lines of the plan 1 0', 2 1', 3 2', etc., and number them to corre-

of the top, etc.

spond with figure upon the

line of the base

ABC.

In respect to which is the best way to run the dotted lines, common sense will be the best guide.

Thus make
2 1' of

S equal to 1 0' the plan, 3 S equal
1

of the plan, 2 S equal to to 3 2', etc., and connect

Pri.

of Puiii

m

< 'nit!

in/.

eacli point in tlie

number upon the perpendicular by
<>n

base with the point of next lower dotted line, ;is
;i 1

etc.,

can

now be

tin-

base with

ii

nu the perpendicular, 2 with

1,

3

representing the bottom, each with solid line which it represents, at the
of each to the corresponding

cut out and placed upon the portion its base upon the

with

2, etc.

The

entire surface of the piece for

which

apex These can be fastened in place by bits of sealing wax, or if cut from metal the whole can be soldered
together.

same bringing the number on the top.

The hypothenuses of the various triangles will thus represent the true distances across the pattern upon the solid lines of the plan, while the distances
lines can be represented by pieces of thread or wire, placed so that each will reach from the point at the base of one of the triangles to the point at

upon the dotted

the top of the one next

it.

If

constructed of metal

two or three

model and the remaining points can be connected by pieces of wire, using a different kind of wire to represent the distances on the dotted lines.
triangles will suffice to give the
sufficient rigidity,

In Fig. 264,
a
63.

is

shown
as

a pictorial representation of

model constructed,

above described, from the draw-

Fig.

Top,

Back and Bottom for a Model of One-half Article Shown in Fig. 201.

ings
the

shown

angles 2,

in Fig. 261. In the illustration the tri5 and 8 only are shown in position, their

a pattern

is

of triangles,
line

required has thus been cut up into two sets one set having the spaces upon the base

hypothenuses connecting points of similar number in the upper and lower bases. The other points are represented as being connected by wires or threads representing both the solid and the dotted hypothenuses in the diagrams of triangles in Fig. 261. Such a model if constructed will give a general idea of the shape of the entire covering, and at the same time >f the small
pieces, or triangles, of

equal, for their bases, and the other set having the spaces in the curve N" 0" P" of the top, also equal to each other, as their bases, and

ABC,

which arc

all

each separate triangle having one solid line and one dotted line as its sides.
the student's powers of mental The shape of the surconception are called into play. face, which is yet to be developed, has been spoken of

which the covering

is

composed,
the spaces
filled in

In

all

of this

work

with

all

the dimensions of each.

If all of

formed upon

this skeleton surface could

be

as

if it

really existed

in fact, it

must

exist in the

or imagination of the operator in order to

mind make him

If this fails him, intelligent as to what he is doing. can easily be conhe can resort to a model which structed (full size or to scale, according to convenience)

as follows

:

Describe upon a piece of

cardboard or

metal the shape E F G II, Fig. 261, to which add on its lower side, E H, one-half of the plan of the bottom, P and the solid lines conwith the curve

ABC,
add on

N

Fig. 264.

necting

it

with the outside curve traced thereon.

Also

Perspective View of Cardboard Model of One-half the Article Shown in Fig. 261.

upper side, F G, one-half the shape of top, P", marking the points 1, 2, 3, etc., upon its Now cut out the entire shape in one piece, as edge. shown in Fig. 263, and bend the same at right angles, on the lines F G and E H. Small triangles of the in the shape and size of each of the triangles shown
its

N" 0"

Avith pieces of

cardboard or metal just the size of each

and the whole removed together and flattened out (each
piece being fastened to its neighbor at the sides), it would constitute the required pattern, the same as will

diagram

of solid lines, Fig. 261, as

K,

1 1

K, 2 2 E,

be subsequently obtained by measurements taken from the drawing, and as shown in Fig. 265.

90

Tlir Xrtr

Mi-tal

HW.vr

1'ntln-n

Ifovl:

Having by means

Fig. 261 obtained the lengths of
to construct

of the diagrams of triangles in all the sides it is now

a stretch-out, while

if

the spaces were too small error in

successively eaeh triangle only necessary in the manner described in Chapter IV. Problem 36,

transferring their lengths might result, which would be increased as many times as there were spaces.
I nder the head of transition pieces may be included a large number of forms having various shaped polygonal or curved figures as their upper and lower

remembering that the last long side of each triangle used is also the first long side of the next one to be
constructed.

Therefore, at any convenient place draw
line,

any straight

AN

of Fig. 265,

to the real distance

from

A to

which make equal N, Fig. 261, which has

surfaces, placed at various angles to each other, sometimes centrally located as they appear upon the

plan

and sometimes otherwise.
surface or termination

It often

happens that one

of the diagram of been found to be the distance To conduct this operation with the greatsolid lines. est economy and ease it is necessary to have two pairs of dividers,

is entirely outside the other in that view, forming an offset between pipes of differing

which

shall

remain

upon the plan of the base ABC, spaces upon ~S" O" P", and a third

set, one to the spaces and the other to tin-

and shapes. Sometimes such an offset takes a curved form, constituting a curved elbow of varying section throughout its length, in which case it consists
sixes

pair for use in

of a

number

From of Fig. 265 taking varying measurements. 1 of the plan, Fig. with a radius equal to as a center, as a center, with 261, describe a small arc, and from

A

either end.

of pieces, each with a different shape at With such forms may be classed the ship

N

a radius equal to the true distance from

N

to 1 of the

found plan, which has been
of dotted lines,

to be

1 of the

diagram

one as shown

describe another arc, cutting the first The triangle at the point 1, Fig. 265.

thus constructed represents the true dimensions of one Next from indicated by the same figures of the plan. as a center, with a radius equal to N of the pattern

N"
arc,

1 of true profile of top, Fig. 261, describe a small which cut with one struck from point 1 of pat-

tern as a center, with a radius equal to 1 1 of the diagram of solid lines, thus locating point 1' of pattern.

This triangle is, in turn, succeeded by another whose sides are next in numerical order, that is 1 2 of the base

and 1 2

of the
is

diagram of dotted

lines.

Thus the
Fig. 265.

continued, always letting the spaces of the operation circumference of base succeed one another at one side

One-half Pattern of Side of Article Shmvn in Fig.

261.

and the spaces upon the true'profile of succeed one another at the other side of the pattop have been laid out as tern, until all the triangles
of the pattern,

ventilator,

zontal and

whose lower end whose upper end

is
is

usually round and hori-

and stands

in a vertical position, the

enlarged and elliptical whole being com-:

shown by

A N

P

C, Fig.

265, which will complete
all

one-half the entire pattern. It is not necessary to draw

In such cases, when the posed of five or six pieces. shape and position of the two terminating surfaces onlv
are given,

of the dotted or

solid lines across the pattern, as the points where the small arcs intersect are all that are really needed in
it is often obtaining the outlines of the pattern, but to draw them as well as to number each new advisable order to avoid confusion and point as obtained, in insure the order of succession.

many

it becomes necessary to assume or draw as intermediate surfaces as there are joints required,

each of such a shape that the whole series will form a
suitable transition between two extreme shapes. It, be remarked, that what have been spoken of may

here as "surfaces" do not necessarily mean surfaces of metal forming solid ends to the pieces describe) I.

In dividing the curves of top and bottom into of points should be taken as spaces, such a number
will

but simply outlines upon paper to work often the "surface" is really an opening.
Still

to,

as

more

insure the greatest accuracy, as in the case of Thus too few would give too short dividing a profile.

another class of forms demanding treatment by triangulation result, from the construction of arches

Princijlles of Pntli-rn

Cnttinrj.

91

cut through ciirvwd walls, as when an arch of either round or elliptical form, as a door or window head, is
placed
in a

subject in hand admits of treatment

by any regular

method without
is

circular wall in such a manlier

1

hut

its

sides

Triangulation not introduced as an alternate method, but as a last

too

much

subdivision.

or jambs are radial, or tend toward the center of the It will l>e seen that the sofht of curve of the wall.

such an arch
tion piece,

similar in shape to the sides of a transihaving what might be called its upper and
is

when nothing else will do. Besides the various forms of transition pieces, another class of forms is to be treated under this head,
resort,

which might almost be considered
articles.

as regular tapering

lower surfaces curved and placed vertically. In such cases it. is best to consider the horizontal plain; passing through the springing, line of the arch as the base from

They include shapes, or frustums cut from shapes, which terminate in an apex, but whose bases cannot be inscribed in a circle, as irregular polygons,
figures

which

to measure the hights of the outer and inner curves.

all

points assumed in

composed

fect ellipse.

A

of irregular curves as well as the persolid whose base is a perfect ellipse

It is believed that a sufficient

number

of this gen-

and whose apex
its

is

located directly over the center of

base (in other words, an elliptical cone) is perhaps the best typical representative of this class of figures. If the base of such a cone be divided into quarters by
its all

major and minor axes,

it

will

be seen at once that

of the points in the perimeter of any one quarter will be at different distances from the apex of the cone,

because they are at different distances from the center of base or the intersection of the two axes. This is
clearly shown in Fig. 266, in which are shown the two elevations and the plan of an elliptical cone. The side

K E to be the distance of the apex from the point P in the plan of the base, while the end elevation shows K' D to be the distance of the apex from the point D of the base, or the true distance repelevation shows
of the plan. If one-quarter of the plan of the base, as P, be divided into any convenient number of equal spaces and lines be drawn to the center X, as shown, each line

resented

by

XD

D

will represent the horizontal distance of a point in the

perimeter from the apex ; and if a section of the cone be constructed upon any one of these lines, as, for inFig. S66.

Elevations

and Plan of an

Elliptical Cone.

stance, line 4

X,

or,

in other words,

if

a right angle

triangle be drawn, of which 4

X

is

the base and

EK

be found in the third section problems of the chapter on Pattern Problems to enable the careeral class of

will

ful student to

apply the principles here explained to that might present themselves for his consideration, remembering that any form may be so turned as to bring any desired side into a horizontal

the altitude, the hypothenuse will be the true distance of the point 4 from the apex. Therefore, to ascertain the distances from the apex to the various points in the
of triangles, as

any new forms

circumference of the base construct a simple diagram shown in Fig. 2G7, viz. Erect any
:

perpendicular line,
of the elevation;

as

X

M,

position to be used as a base, or that an upper horizontal surface can be used as a base as well as a lower.

from X, on

equal in hight to a horizontal line P, as

E K

X

a base, set off the various distances of the plan,

X

1,

operations of triangulation undoubtedly remore care for the sake of accuracy than those of quire any other method of pattern cutting, for the reason that
there
stretchout, at once,

The

X

numbering each point, and from each draw a line to M. These hypothenuses will then point
2,
3, etc.,

X

no opportunity of stepping upon any line, either straight or It is therefore not to be recommended if the curved.
is

off

a continuous

represent the distances of the various points in the perimeter of the base from the apex of the cone; or, in other words, the sides of a number of triangles forming

the envelope of the cone, the bases of which triangles

92
will

Tlic \i'n-

f'ufti-rn

Book.

be the spaces
these

1 2, 2 3, etc.,

upon the

of

triangles instead of laying out each one separately to form a pattern, as in the case of an article of the type

terminate at a

As plan. common apex

all

or

at the base of the envelope, and envelope of one-quarter of the cone.

A P M

will

be the

center,

In Fig. 26S
face

is

shown
in

a
in

frustum of the cone shown*

shown

in Fig. 261, the simplest

method

is

as follows

:

A B
N
O.

perspective view of the Fig. 26f>, the upper sur-

being shown
If

Fig.

266 by the

lines

G

II

and

the envelope of such a frustum is desired the cut which its upper surface would make through the envelope of the entire cone could lie obtained in exactly the same manner as that of its lower base, because the upper surface of the frustum is in reality the

base of the cone, which remains above after the lower But as part of the operation part has been cut away. has already been performed in obtaining the cut at the
base,
it is

most

easily accomplished as follows

:

First

draw

radial lines

from the point

M

of the diagram of

Fig. S67.
/'('</.

260, to

Diagram of Sections on the Radio] Lines of the Plan in which in Added the Pattern of One-quarter of the

Envelope.

From M,

267, as a center, with radii correto points on P X, as the distances from sponding to 3, etc., describe arcs indefinitely, as 2, 1,
of Fig.

M

M

M

M

then taking the space used in stepbetween the points of the dividers, plan ping place one foot upon the arc drawn from point 8, as at D, and swing the other foot around till it cuts the arc drawn from point 7; from this intersection as a center swing it around again, cutting the arc from 6; or in

shown

to the left;

off the

other words, step from one arc to the next till onequarter of the circumference has been completed. As the spaces in the base are equal, it is clearly a

Fig. S6S.

Elevation of the Frustum of an Elliptical Cone.

matter of convenience whether this

last

operation

is

triangles, Fig. 267, to each of the points previously obtained in the cut at the bottom of the envelope,

between

A

and D;

also

draw a horizontal
equal to

line at a

hight above the base ting the hypothennses

XP

R

G

M 1, M 2, etc., as shown by H. Now place one foot of the dividers at the point M, and bringing the other foot successively to the
various points of intersection of the liiie G II with the various hypothenuses, describe arcs cutting the radial lines in the envelope of corresponding number. line

L, Fig. 266, cut-

Fig. 268.

Frustum of an

Elliptical Cone.

A

begun upon

arc 8, stepping first to arc 7, then to arc or whether it is begun upon arc 1, stepping 6, etc., line first to arc 2, then to 3, etc., till complete.

traced through the points of intersection, as B C, will give the cut at the top of the envelope of the frustum,
of

which
If

AD

is

the bottom cut.
is

A

the cut at the top of the frustum

to

be oblique
for

traced through

these points, as

A

D,

will give the cut

instead of horizontal, a

means must be devised

of Pattern Cutting.

measuring the distance from the apex

at

which the

diagram they
of the
ing.
If the

may

be transferred to the various radial
from M' as a center, by the use

oblique plane cuts each of the hypothennses, or in otlier words, eacli of the lines drawn from the apex of the

lines in the envelope,

compasses

as before, all as

shown

in the draw-

cone to the various points

in its liase.

In Fig. 269,
is

K ST F

is

the elevation of an oblique frustum of an

apex of the cone were not located directly

elliptical cone,

whose apex
266.

is

at
in

K, and whose base
the

the same and
that

lias

been divided

same manner

as

over the crossing of the two axes of the ellipse that is, if the cone were scalene or oblique instead of right

shown

in Fiji.

Erect lines from each of the points iu the curve of one-half the plan P 1) to the base line K F of the

A

method of obtaining its "envelope, or parts of the Lines same, would not differ from the foregoing. drawn from the points of division in the circumference
the
of the base to the point representing the position of the apex in the plan will lie the horizontal distances

elevation, thence carrv
;

them toward the apex K,

cut-

ting the line S T the vertical liight of the points upon S T can then most easilv lie measured 1>\- carrying them
horizontally, cutting the center line

used

in constructing a

diagram of triangles, which
connection with
the

dis-

R K

of the cone,

tances can be used

in

vertical

where

to

avoid confusion they should be numbered to

hight of the cone, as before, in obtaining the various If the apex of a scalene cone be hypothenuses.
located over the line of either axis of the ellipse, either within the perimeter of the base or upon one of those

continued outside the base, one-half the pattern of the entire envelope will have to be obtained at one
lines

operation but if the apex of those lines in the plan,
;

is

not located upon either

then the entire envelope

one operation, as no two quarters or halves of the cone will be exactly alike.
at

must be obtained

The method of obtaining the envelope of any scalene cone, even though its base be a perfect circle, is governed by the same principles as those employed in the above dernonsti-ations.
be well to remember that any horizontal section of a scalene cone is the same shape as its base, which fact can be used to ad vantage in determining the
It will

Fig. 270.

Diagram of

Sections on the Radial Lines of the

Plan in

Fig. 269, with the Pattern of One-half the Envelope.

best
of

correspond with the points of the plan from which each

These points may now be transferred in body by any convenient means to the vertical line X' M' of the diagram of triangles, Fig. 270, seeing that each point is placed at the same distance from M' that
was derived.
a
it is

be employed in obtaining the envelope any irregular flaring surface that may be presented. the plan of any article, whose upper If, for instance, and lower surfaces are horizontal, shows each to conto
sist of

method

two

circles or parts of circles of different

diame-

ters not concentric, it is evident that the portion of the envelope indicated by the circles of the plan is part of

of Fig. 269. A horizontal line from the point from any one of the points on the line X' M' extended to the hvpothenuse of corresponding number will then give the correct distance of that point from the apex

K

the envelope of a scalene cone.
is

An illustration

of this

given in Fig. 271, which shows a portion of an

article

cf the cone.

The diagram M' X'
and

MX

P

of Fig. 267,

a duplicate of the lower outline of the enI)' is

having rounded corners and flaring sides and but with more flare at the end than at the side. ends, The plan shows the curve of the bottom corner A B to

It will velope is the same as that shown in Fig. 267. be noted, however, that half the stretchout of the base is iiecessarv in this case to give all the essentials of the

be a quarter circle with its center at X, and that of the top C D to be a quarter circle with its center at Y.

The rounded

pattern of the envelope, while one-quarter was suiiicient When all the points in for the previous operations. the uppei line of the frustum have been obtained in the

cornet A B I) C is then a portion of the envelope of a frustrum of a scalene cone, and the method of finding the dimensions of the complete cone
is

Z

First draw a line, quite simple and is as follows: N, through the centers of the two circles in the plan,

T/ie

Xew

Metal Worker Pattern Book.
of irregular shaped figures

which project an oblique elevation, as shown below, making the distance between the two lines E F and G H equal to the hight of the article. Lines from X arid M of the plan of the bottom fall upon G H, locating the points X' and H, while lines from Y and N of the top locate the points Y' and F in the upper line of the oblique elevation. A line drawn through Y' and X', the centers of the circles, will then represent the axis of the cone in elevation, which can be continued to meet a line drawn through the points F and H, representing the side of the cone, thus locatat right angles to

is

sufficiently clear to

make

the demonstrations of this class of problems, given in Chap. VI, Section 3, easily understood by the student,
as well as to enable
!

forms that

to apply them to any new themselves for solution. may present This chapter is intended to present, under its three

him

different heads, all

the principles neccssarv to guide the student in the solution of any problem that may

The point Z' can ing the apex Z' of the scalene cone. then be carried back to the plan, as shown at Z, thus

As the line Z replocating the apex in that view. resents the horizontal distance between the point F and
the apex Z' of the cone, so lines drawn from Z to any number of points assumed in the curve of the base

N

CD

will give the horizontal distances between those points and the apex, to be used as the bases in a dia-

gram gram

of triangles similar to that shown in Fig. 267, while Z' gives their hight. Having drawn a dia-

V

of triangles the pattern follows in the

manner

there shown.

For greater accuracy in the case of a very tapering cone, the circles of the. plan can be completed, as shown dotted, and their points of intersections with the line Z N can be dropped into oblique elevation, as seen at S arid T, through which a line can be drawn to meet a line through F and H with greater accuracy than one through Y' and X', as the angle in the former
case
is

twice as great.

In the above methods of obtaining the envelopes of what may be termed irregular conical forms, it will

be clearly seen that the operation of dividing the curve of the base into a great number of spaces really re
solves the conical figure into a many sided pyramid, and that the lines connecting the apex with the points in the base, which have been referred to as hypothen uses, are
It
is

really the angles or hips of the pyramid. therefore self evident that any method of de-

Fi(j. ~'71.

Elevations
is

and Plan of an Article the Corner of which a Portion of a Scalene Cone.

velopment which is applicable to a many sided pyramid is equally applicable to one whose sides are fewer
in

number, with the only difference, however, that the lines representing the angles or hips in the case of a
pattern of the envelope, while in the case of the conical envelope the bends arc so slight as to mean only a con-

pyramidal figure mean angles or sharp bends in the

tinuous form or curve.
believed that the foregoing elucidation of the principles governing the development of the surfaces
It
is

Its aim is to teach principles rather than rules, and the student is to be cautioned against arbitrary rules and methods for which he cannot clearly understand the reason. His good sense must govern him in the employment of principles and in the choice of methods. There is hardly a pattern to be cut which Under cannot be obtained in more than one way. some conditions one method is best, and under other
arise.

conditions

another,

and careful thought before the

of Pattern

Outliu*/.

95

drawing
pose
in

is

begun

will

show which

is

best for the pur-

hand.
list of problems and demonstrations "in the which follows is believed to be so comprehen-

sive that therein will be found a parallel to almost anything that may be required of the pattern cutter, and
it is

The
rhaptt-r

them

believed that he will have no difficulty in applying to his wants.

CHAPTER

VI.

Every

effort has

been put forth

in the preceding

part of the

book without previous study

of the other

chapters of this book to prepare the student for the all important work which is to follow viz., the solution
of pattern problems. It is always advisable in the study of any subject to be well grounded in its funda-

chapters. Tn the demonstrations, onlv the scientific phase of the subject will be considered; consequently, all al-

lowances for seams,

joints, etc., as well as

determining

mental principles. For this reason a chapter on Linear has been prepared to meet the requirements of Drawing the student in pattern cutting, which is preceded by a
description of drawing materials and followed bv a solution of the geometrical problems of most frequent But the most important occurrence in his work.

chapter is the one immediately preceding this, in which the theory of pattern cutting is explained, and which,

where joints shall be made, arc at the discretion of In some of the problems it has been the workman. to assume a place for a joint, but if the joint necessary is required at a place other than where shown, the method of procedure would be slightly varied while the principle involved would remain the same. Each demonstration will be complete in itself. Although references to other problems, principles, etc., will be made where such references will be of.advnntage to the student.
the preceding chapter, the problems will be classed under three different heads according

thoroughly understood, will render easy the solution of any problem tlic student may chance to meet.
if

selection of problems here presented is made sufficiently large and varied in character to anticipate, so far as possible, the entire wants of the pattern cutter,

The

As

stated in

to

the

forms

which

thev

embodv

viz.

:

First,

and the problems are so arranged

as to be con-

Parallel

venient for reference by those

who make

use of this

Forms; Second. Regular Tapering Forms, and Third, Irregular Forms.
1.

SECTION

(MITER CUTTING).

The problems given

in this

section are such as

in

such a manner that no view can be drawn

in

which

occur in joining moldings, pipes and all regular continuous forms at. any angle and against any other form or surface, and in fact include everything that may
legitimately be termed Miter Cutting. In the problems of this class two conditions exist,

the miter line will appear as a simple straight line. Hence it becomes necessary to produce by the intersection of lines a correct elevation of the intersections
of the various

members
the

of the molding,

which when

done results

in

much sought

miter

line.

Or it may

which depend upon the nature
ing to
t\\e first,

of the work.

Accord-

a simple elevation or plan of the intersecting parts shows the miter line in connection with Uie profile, which is all that is necessary to begin at

once with the work of laving out the patterns. It frequently happens, however, that moldings are brought obliquely against sloping or curved surfaces

be necessary to develop a correct profile of some oblique member or molding in order to effect a perfect miter. Thus some preliminary drawing must be done before the work of laying out the miter patterns can be properly begun, which constitutes the wr</m/ condition above
referred to and forms the great reason

whv

the patten.

draftsman should understand the principles of projec-

Pattern Problems.

97
is

lion,

which have been simplified
III.

for his

benefit in

knowing the kind that
it

Chapter
fulfill

with

little difficulty.

It will also

wanted, will be able to find be to his advantage

In the arrangement of the problems those which the first condition will precede those of the

before reading any of the problems in this chapter to read carefully the Requirements and the general Rule

second, and
sible,

be

of a similar nature will, so far as posplaced near together, so that the reader,
all

governing

this class of

problems given in Chapter

V

on pages 76 and 77.
I.

PROBLEM
A
Let

Butt Miter Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Elevation.
A

B L in Fig. 272 be the elevation of a of a cornice, of which C is the portion profile and A B the angle or inclination of the surface against

A

K

D

which the cornice

is

required to miter.

Divide the

curved parts of the profile into spaces in the usual manner, and from all points in profile draw lines parallel
B. On any conK, cutting the miter line venient line, as E F, at right angles to the cornice, lay off a stretchout of the profile C D, space by space as
with

A

A

they occur, through the points in which draw the

measuring

lines,

all

as indicated

by

the small figures.

Placing the J-square at right angles to the lines of the cornice, or, what is the same, parallel to the stretchout
line,

bring

it

successively against the points in the

A B and cut measuring lines of correspondingnumber, as indicated by the dotted lines. A line traced through these points, as indicated by H G, will be
miter line
the pattern required.
Fig. 272.

A Butt Miter Against, a Plain Surface

Oblique in Elevation

PROBLEM
A

2.

Butt Miter Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Plan. R

Let

A

B L

K

in Fig.

273 be the

plan of the cornice which is required to miter against a vertical surface standill.

iliih

B

ing at any angle with the lines of the B. cornice, the angle being shown by

A

in position corresponding to the Draw the profile C lines of the cornice, all as indicated. Space the profile in

D

the usual manner, and through the points draw lines direction of the cornice, cutting the miter parallel to the
line

A
C

B.

On any

convenient line at right angles to the

lines of the cornice lay off the stretchout
file

E F of the

pro-

D, through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual manner. Placing the T-square at right to the cornice, or, what is the same, parallel to angles
the stretchout line

E

F, bring

it

successively against the

the corresponding measuring lines. points in A B and cut A line traced through the points of intersection thus obFig. 171.
A.

Butt Miter Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Plan.

tained,

shown by

H

G, will be the pattern required.

98

The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
A
Square Return Miter, or a Miter
at

3.

Right Angles, as in a Cornice at the Corner of a Building.

In Fig. 274, let B D C be the elevation of a cornice at the corner of the building for which a miter at right -angles is desired. As has been explained in the
chapter on the Principles of Pattern Cutting (page 77), the process of cutting a miter for a right angle admits of certain abbreviations not employed when other

A

through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual manner, parallel to the lines of the cornice, producing them far enough to intercept lines dropped Place the 7 -s( l U!llv :if vertical! v from points in A B.
-

right angles to the cornice, or, what
to the

is

the same, parallel

stretchout line, and, bringing it successively all the points in the profile A B, cut measuring against Then a line traced Hues of corresponding numbers.

through these points, as shown by
pattern the angle of this miter cannot- be

G
is

.11,

will

be

tin-

sought. The reason

for this

as follows:
in

As

view than a plan, the plan

is

any other the correct view from
as

shown

which

to derive the pattern;

having drawn which,

Fig.

75.

Plan of a Square Return Miter.

shown

iu ,Fig.

275,

pattern becomes exactly the same problem (Fig. 273). In Fig. 274,
Fig, 274.

the operation of developing the as in the previous

A

Square Return Miter, as in a Cornice at the Corner of a Building.

B represents B repthe elevation of a portion of a cornice, while resents the profile of the return or receding portion B D C is required to miter, against which the piece

A

DC

A

A

angles are required. duced is calculated to

The demonstration here introshow the method of obtaining

or, in

other words, the miter

line.

As

the profiles of

the pattern for a square miter with the least possible B into any convenient Divide the profile labor.

the face piece and of the return piece are of course the B becomes at once the profile and same, the outline

A

A

of parts, as shown by the small ligures. At to the lines of the molding, and in conright angles venient proximity to it, lay off the stretchout E F,

number

the miter line; therefore that portion of the rule which " drop the points from the profile on to the miter says,
line,"

must be omitted.

All that remains then

is

to

drop the points at once into the stretchout.

PROBLEM
A
Return Miter
at

4.

Other Than a Right Angle, as

in

a Cornice at the Corner of a Building.

In Fig. 276,

let

A

B C D

be the elevation of

a

the plan

by drawing the

lines

E F and F

L, inter-

portion of cornice, and

let G II K be the plan of any around which the cornice is to be carried, a pattern angle Complete being required for an arm of the miter.

secting at F, giving the correct projection of the moldand K, and then draw the miter line ing from G

H

H

between the points

H

and F.

It will

be observed that

Pattern Problems. the

99

arm

GHFE

has been projected directly from the profile B, thus

A

placing profile and plan in correct relation to each other.

Divide the profile

A

B

in the usual

man-

ner into any coiiven-

F

100

The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.

fig.

tfS.Thc

Patterns for a

Hip Finish in a Curved Hansard Roof,

the

Angle uf the Hip being a Right Angle.

Pattern Problems.

101

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a Hip Finish in a

6.

Curved Mansard Roof, the Plan of the Hip Being a Right Angle.

roofs,

problems concerning mansard and especially those in which the roof surface is curved, calls for much good judgment on the part of
solution of
all

The

the inside line of the fascia strip. ornamental corner piece from L

The
1

points in the
1

to

D

are

to

be

the pattern cutter, for the reason that the original designs that come into his hands are seldom drawn

obtained from the elevation, in case a correct elevation is furnished the pattern cutter, by measurement along
the lines
in

mathematically correct. dome, such as is shown in Fig.

The upper

part of a mansard
as
it

L

drawn horizontally through the several points D, which are transferred to the measuring
.

278,

curves

away from the

eye,

appearance that, if but an expert draftsman, create a false impression of the design intended hence the original drawing must often be taken for what it means rather than for what
;

becomes so much flattened in drawn correctly, it might, to any

corresponding number in the stretchout already referred to. Or the shape from L to D may be described arbitrarily upon the pattern at this stage of
lines of
1

1

the operation, according to the finish required upon the roof. The latter method is the preferable one. The

method by
the

of constructing the elevation,
is

by working back
clearly indicated

it

says.

from the outline thus established,
represents an elevation of a curved

The engraving

dotted

lines

in

the

is the hip molding occurring in a roof, of which E 3 The first step is a section. and M" vertical hight

D

several points in the profile

H K

From the engraving. horizontal lines are

K

to

be described

is

the

method

of obtaining the pattern

drawn, as shown, and from the intersections of the inside line of the pattern of the fascia piece with the
various measuring lines, as above described, lines are dropped, cutting these horizontal lines of corresponding numbers.

For this purpose is of the fascias of the hip molding. shown in the drawing such a representation of it as

would appear if the two fascias formed a close joint upon the angle of the roof, supposing that the hip molding or the bead is to be added afterward on the

Then a

line traced

The part to be dealt with may outside over this joint. be considered the same as though it were the section of a molding, instead of a section of a roof, and the
operations performed are identical with those employed into in cutting a square miter. Space the profile II

L, To cut the flange strip piece in elevation. bounding the fascia and corner piece, commonly called
fascia

shown from

M

to

will

through these points, be the inside line of the

K

the sink strip, an elevation of which is shown in the section from M" to D", the following method will be the simplest, and at the same time sufficiently accurate
for all

purposes

:

Draw

the line

G F

approximately

any convenient number of parts, introducing lines in the upper part in connection with the ornamental
corner piece,

parallel to the upper part of the section M" D', making it indefinite in length, which cut by lines drawn from

shown by L D,

at

such intervals as will
to

the several points in

M'

D

a
,

make required From this describe the shape of it in the pattern. means of the points just indicated, lay off a profile, by and through the points , stretchout, as shown by H'
it possible to

take measurements

shown.

From F G, upon

at right angles to it, as the several lines drawn at

right angles to it, set off spaces equal to the distance upon lines of corresponding number from D E to the
line

K

1

M L of the elevation.

draw the usual measuring
sponding lines
described.
as

lines.

in against the several points

H

Bring the T-square K, and cut the correthe

these points, as indicated
file

of this flange strip.
it,

Then a line traced through M* L', will constitute a proby In like manner set off in contin-

drawn

ing not along the measuring lines of the stretchout, as would be indicated by A' C. Then a line traced

will be the outside line of the For the inside line take the given width of the fascia. fascia and set it off from this line at intervals, measurat right angles to it, as indicated by A B', and
1

Then shown by H" K",

stretchout just a line traced through these points,

through

the lengths measured from points in the ornamental corner piece to D E, all as shown by L'D 1 F.

uation of

From

shown by M*
measuring

this profile lay off a stretchout parallel to F, as the points in which draw D', through
lines

G

in

the

usual

manner.

Place

the

J-square parallel to the stretchout line, and, bringing it successively against points in both the inner and the
outer lines of the elevation
of

the

flange

through these points, as

shown from M'

to L', will

be

shown from

M

strip,

as

3

D", cut the

measuring

lines of

corre-

102

The Sew Metal Worker Pattern Book.

spending number.
points of

Then lines traced through these intersection, as shown from M to D", will be
s

the pattern of the flange strip bounding the edge of the fascia.

PROBLEM
Miter Between

7.

Two Moldings

of Different Profiles.

To

construct a square miter between moldings of

profiles requires two distinct operations. The miter upon each piece is to be cut as it would apLet A B pear when intersected by the other molding. and A' B in Figs. 279 and 280 be the profiles of two moldings, between which a square miter is required. As, of course, the two arms of the miter are different, it will be necessary to draw an elevation of each showthe proper outline against which it is to miter. ing

dissimilar

1

against the F. For the other piece proceed in the same profile From its manner, reversing the order of the profiles. B' produce the elevation profile L, Fig. 280,
fit

through these points, as shown by F' E B to shape of the cut on the piece

1

,

will give the

A

E

A

1

K MN

completing same by means of the molding, A B, as shown by M N.
the usual manner.

profile of the first

Divide A' B'

m

B, project Beginning, therefore, with the profile from it an elevation, as shown by F C D E, Fig. 279, terminating such elevation by the profile of the other

A

N. ting stretchout
in

M

Through the points draw
to
1

lines cut-

At right angles O P of the profile

this piece lay off the

A B M

which draw measuring

lines,

through the points as shown. With the
,

1

molding,

A

1

B', as

shown by F E.

case of Problems 1 and 6, the line

Then, F E becomes the

as in the

or J-s uare at right angles to the line L, and the points in cut corresponding brought against N, line traced measuring lines drawn through O P.

KM

N

A

Fig. S79.

Fig. 280.

Miter between Two Moldings of Different

Profiles.

miter

line,

and the method of procedure

is

the

same

B into any convenient Divide as in those problems. in the usual manner, from which carry number of parts
right angles to the lines of the molding lay off a stretchout, Gr II, of the B, through the points in which draw the profile
lines horizontally against

A

through these points, as shown by M' N', will be the shape of the end of the piece required to fit against the
profile

M

N.

F

E.

At

A

spacing the profiles points in the profiles

In the event of the points obtained by B not meeting all the B and

A

A

1

1

F E and

MN

necessary to be

usual measuring lines. Bring the T-square against the points of intersection in the line E F, and cut the

marked in the pattern, then lines must be drawn backward from such points in profiles M N and E F, cutting the profile

A'

B

1

or

corresponding measuring

lines.

Then a

line traced

Corresponding points

are

B, as the case may be. then to be inserted in the

A

Pdttmt
stretchouts, through

Pro/items.

103

which measuring
ID
In-

linos

arc to
1>\-

In-

stretchout
ing line
is

O

P, also marked
in

6,

from which a measur-

drawn, which,

in

turn, ;nv

intersected

lines

dropped from the points. An illustration of this occurs in Fig. 280, where it will be seen that no point obtained by
the dividing of the profile A' B strikes the point of the miter line, which is absolutely to the necessary shape of the pattern. Therefore, after spacing the
1

X

the same manner as through the other points in the stretchout, upon which a point from is dropped, as shown by X'. In actual practice such

drawn

X

profile, a line is

drawn from

X back to A
is

expedients as this must be resorted to in almost every case, because usually there is less correspondence between the members of dissimilar profiles, between which
a miter
is

1

B', foring the

required, than in the illustration here
profiles,

given.
joined.

point

No. 6.

In turn this point

transferred to the

By

this

means

however unlike, can be

PROBLEM
A
Let

8.

Butt Miter Against an Irregular or Molded Surface.

B A in Fig. 281 be the profile of a cornice, which a molding of the profile, shown by G H, is against to miter, the latter meeting it at an inclination, as indi-

ner into any convenient number of parts, and through the points draw lines parallel to the lines of the inclined molding, cutting the profile B A, all as indicated by the dotted lines. At right angles to the lines of the molding, of which a pattern is sought, lay off a stretchout,

M N,

which

in the usual manner, through the points in draw measuring lines. Place the T-square at

right angles to the lines of the inclined molding, or, what is the same, parallel to the stretchout line, and,

bringing it against the points of intersection formed by the lines drawn from the profile G II across the profile B A, cut the corresponding measuring lines. In the

B

event of any angles or points occurring in the profile which are not met by lines drawn from the points

A
G

in

H, additional

lines

from these points must be

drawn, cutting the profile

G

H,

in order to establish

Thus the corresponding points in the stretchout. points 3 and 13 in the profile G II arc inserted after spacing the profile, as described in Problem 7, because
the points with which they correspond in the profile B E are angles which must be clearly indicated in the
Fig.
81-4

Butt Miter arjainst an Irregular or Molded Surface.

cated by

C D.
profile

molding, as

shown by C

Construct an elevation of the oblique D F E, in line with which

Having thus cut the measuring profile B A, draw a line through the points of intersection, as shown by O P. Then O P will be the shape of the pattern of
lines corresponding to the points in the

pattern to be cut.

draw the

G

II.

Divide

&H

in the usual

man-

the incline cornice to miter against the profile

A

B.

104

77;e

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a

9.

Rectangular Flaring: Article.

In Fig. 282, let

the article, of

C which F

A B E be the side elevation of I K M is the plan at the base
Let
it

The

points

F and G

are then dropped into their
I'

respective measuring lines, thus locating the points

and

G

II

L
1

N

the plan at the top.
1
1

be required

to produce the pattern in one piece, the top included. of L in all respects equal to II L Make

H

1

N G

NG
1

the plan.

Through the

center of

it

likewise draw

EP
LLE AT ON.
1

indefinitely, and through the center in the opposite S indefinitely. From the lines H L direction draw and S respectively, each in and G N set off T
1

1

W
1

length equal to the slant hight of the article, as shown or E B of the elevation. Through O and S by C

A
,

respectively draw

1

I

K

1

and F

M

1

,

parallel to

H L
1

1

and

G N
1

1

and

in length equal to the corresponding sides in

the plan I

K and F M, placing one-half that length and S. In like manner set from the points way off V P and U E, also equal to C A, and draw through E and P the lines F" I' and K'' M", parallel to the ends of the pattern of the top part as already drawn, and in length equal to I F and K M of the plan. Draw I' H K L K' L', M N M N', F G F 1 G and I' H In the same thus completing the pattern sought. general way the pattern may be described, including the bottom instead of the top, if it be required that
each
1

PATTERN.

,

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

,

,

,

,

way.
Considering this problem in the light of miter cut-

G F and F G may be regarded as ting proper, I C is the the plan of two similar moldings of which

H

NM

A

profile, I
is

H,
I
1

GF

and and

NM
H
1

being the miter lines.
at

the stretchout line,

drawn

right angles

to

T F
Fig. S82.

M, while
profile.

representing

L' are the measuring lines of the the points C and respectively

K

1

The Pattern of a Rectangular Flaring Article.

A

and H'

L

1

one end of the pattern, while points and N at the other end. are derived from
at

K

1

and

M

PROBLEM

10.

Patterns of the Face and Side of a Plain Tapering Keystone.

283 be the elevation of the and G E' F* K of Fig. 284 a secface of a keystone, tion of the same on its center line. Sometimes problems occur which are so simple
Let
in Fig.

ABD

C

so designated, will be sufficient excuse for a brief refThis problem is generally erence to first principles. " true face " of the referred to as finding the keystone,

not apparent that their solution is an exThat this, with others in emplification of any rule.
that
it

is

because, the face being inclined, the elevation D does not represent the true face " or " true dimensions of the face. To state the case, then, in con' ' ' '

ABC

which plain surfaces form the largest

factors,

may

be

formity with the rule,

A

B and C D

are the upper

and

Pattern Probkms.

105

lower lines of a molding, of which
the profile, and

AG

and

B D

F* of Fig. 284 is are the surfaces against

E

a

only one space, as shown by the points E' and F draw the hori; through zontal lines A' B' and C' D', which are none other than
in this case consists of

E' F'

1

the measuring- lines. Then, with the T-square placed parallel with the stretchout line, drop the points from the miter lines C and B D into lines of correspond-

A

ing

letter,

which connect, as shown by

A

1

C and B D
1

1

1

,

which completes the pattern.

F

3

K

In developing the pattern for the side, G and are the lines of the molding, B D of Fig. 283 its

W

profile

and E" F the miter
a

line.

Hence upon any
all

vertical line, as

L

K', lay off the stretchout of profile
as

B
L

D, locating the points M' and H*,

MH K
1

shown by

1

,

through which points draw the measuring

then, with the T-square placed parallel to L K', 1 J drop the points E and F into lines of corresponding 3 As the vertical lines at Grletter, as shown by E F'.
lines;

and

represent the position of surfaces against which the side is required to fit at the back, bring the T-square against each, thus locating them in the pattern at G
1

K

and K', as shown.
Fig. 284.

As the side must also fit over the molding of the arch
an opening must be cut in it corresponding in shape to the profile of the arch molding N, which is given in
the sectional view.
therefore only necessary to transfer this profile to the pattern, placing the top at and the bottom at the measuring the measuring line
It is

Patterns of the

Face and Side of a Plain Tapering Keystone.

Therefore, to lay miters, or the miter lines. out the pattern, draw any line, as E' F , at right angles

which
to

it

1

B for a stretchout line, upon which lay off the stretchout taken from the profile E' F', Fig. 284, which

A

M

line H', all as

shown

at

N

1

.

PROBLEM
Patterns for the Corner Piece
of

II.

a Mansard Roof, Embodying: the Principles Upon Which All Mansard
Finishes are Developed.

of the first steps in developing the patterns for trimming the angles of a mansard roof is to obtain

One

appear
In

if

swung

into a vertical position,
:

which may be

accomplished as follows

In other a representation of the true face of the roof. words, inasmuch as the surface of the roof has a slant
equal to that shown in the profile of the return, the length of the hip is other than is shown in the eleva-

mansard
profile
tion.

E F C be the elevation of a Fig. 285, let be the as ordinarily drawn, and let roof

A

A G
1

showing the pitch drawn in
1

line

with the eleva-

dimensions extends in a provarious parts formportionate degree to the lines of the Not only are the vertical and oblique ing the finish. dimensions different, but, as the result of this, the is different from that shown in a normal eleangle at
tion,

and

this difference in

A

1

Set the dividers to the length G, and from as center, strike the arc G G letting G' fall in a
,

A
1

1

vertical line

from

A

1

.

From

G' draw a line parallel to

the face of the elevation, as shown by the several points in the hip finish,

G C
as

1

,

and from

shown by
1 1

A

vation.
tain a

Hence, it is of the greatest importance to ob" true face " or elevation of the roof as it would

drop lines vertically, cutting G C in the C and K', as shown. From these points carry points lines to corresponding points in the upper line of the

C and K,
1

106
elevation, as

The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.

shown by

C'

A

represents the pattern of F E of the elevation. In cases where the whole hight of the roof cannot be put into the drawing for use, as

E

Then A C' F the surface shown by A C
and K'
1

h.

draw the horizontal line, as shown by B B 3 and from B drop a vertical line cutting this line, as shown,
B'
1

,

in the point

inspection of the engraving it will 3 be seen that the point B falls in the line C' obtained
.

B

s

By

A

Elevation

Fig. $85.

The Plain Surfaces of a Mansard Roof Devetoped.

above described, the same result may be accomplished by assuming any point as far from A as the size of the
drawing will permit, as B, and treating the part between A and B as though it were the whole. That is, from

in the

previous operation, thus demonstrating that the

by which to proportion the several parts results the same as the method first described, and therefore may be used when more
latter

method

of obtaining the angle

A,

in a vertical line, set off

AB

1

,

equal to

A

B.

From

convenient.

PROBLEM
A
Face Miter

12.
Molding Around a Panel.

at Right Angles, as in the

In Fig. 286, let A B D C represent any panel, around which a molding is to be carried of the profile The miters required in this case are of at E and E'. " face " to discalled
the nature

correct elevation of the be shown in a plan view. A B D C, with the lines of the molding carried panel

A

around the same, determines the miter

lines

A

commonly

miters,

G

C, which,

in connection with the profiles at

F and E and E'

tinguish them from other square

miters, which can only

are all that

is

necessary to the development of the pat-

Pattern

Problems.

107

tern.

The two

profiles are here
tin-

ing an entire section of

drawn, thus constitutpanel. Keeause it is usual,

for constructive reasons, to cut the

two moldings with

B lay off a pattern o[ tin- side corresponding to stretchout at right angles to it, as shown by II K, through which draw measuring lines in the usual manner.

A

the intervening panel in one piece where the width of

Place the T-square at right angles to
is

A

B,

or,

the same, parallel to the stretchout line K, and, bringing it successively against the several points in the miter line F, cut measuring lines of corre-

what

H

A

Then a line traced through these sponding number. as shown by L M, will be the pattern sought. points,
The other
pattern
is

developed

in like

manner.

It is

1 II and usual to draw the stretchout lines, across the lines of the moldings which they represent, beginning the stretchouts at the inner lines of the mold1

K

K H

ing, thus

:

Point 10 of profile
1

while point 10 of profde
is

E would be located at V, E would be at W. While this

V.-M+H
-X4-I-+

1

apt to produce some ^confusion of lines in actual practice, it gives the entire profile in one continuous
that of stretchout for the purpose alluded to above the entire width of the panel in one piece. cutting Should it be desired to make one of the moldings

separate from the rest, an additional point for the purpose of a lap is assumed at one of the moldings, as 11
of profile E'.

The

pattern for the end piece,

A

C,

may be derived without drawing an additional profile, as its profile and stretchout are necessarily the same as
that of the other

two arms

;

on

a line at right angles to

A C,

therefore reproduce as shown by

HK N O,

through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual manner, producing them sufficiently far in each direction to intercept lines dropped from the
Place the "["-square at points in the two miter lines. to C, and, bringing it successively right angles F and C G, cut measuring against points already in

A

A

Then lines traced of corresponding numbers. the intersections thus formed, as shown by through
lines

P R and S
end piece.
It

T, will be the shape of the pattern of the

Fig. 286.

A

Face Miter at Right Angles, us in the Molding Around a Panel.

noticed in the last operation that dropF, ping the points from either of the miter lines, as into the measuring lines is, in fact, only continuing in

may be

A

the same direction the lines previously drawn from the the line F; and that in reality the shape profile E to

A

Divide the two profiles in the metal will permit it. manner into the same number of parts, from the usual which points draw lines parallel to the lines of the For the as shown. molding, cutting the miter lines,

of the cut at

P R

of the miter line,

developed without the assistance thus giving another instance of the
is

fact that

any square miter can be cut by the short
relation of the parts
is

method when the

understood.

108

The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
of the Moldings Bounding;

13.

a Panel Triangular in Shape.

In Fig. 287,

let

D E F

be the elevation of a

triangular panel or other article, surrounding which is a Construct andG molding of the profile, shown at

of the three sides, at convenient points, draw stretchout lines, as shown by I and IP P, through I,

H

H

1

1

G

1

.

an elevation of the panel molds, as shown by ABC, and draw the miter lines A D, B E and C F. For the

the points in which draw the usual measuring lines. With the T-square parallel to each of the several stretchout lines, or, what is the same, at right angles
to the respective sides, bringing the blade successively against the points in the several miter lines, cut the

Draw patterns of the several sides proceed as follows a profile, Or, placing it in correct relative position to Divide it into any conthe side D F, as shown.
:

corresponding measuring

lines, all as indicated

by the

Fig.

tS7.The

Patterns of the Moldings Bounding a Triangular Panel.

venient

number

of

parts in

the usual manner,

and

through these points draw miter lines F C and D.

lines, as

shown, cutting the

A

In like manner place the

Then lines traced through the points of intersection thus obtained will describe the patterns A' C' F' will be the pattern for the side required.
dotted lines.

D

1

profile G' in a

side

E

F.

corresponding position relative to the Divide it into the same number of parts,

A D F C
F
3

of

the

is

the

pattern

E' elevation, and likewise C' B for the side described by similar
a

and draw
profile

lines intersecting those drawn from the first in the line F C, also cutting the line E B.

letters.

By

this operation

points

are

obtained in the three

D, E B, F C, from which to lay off the in the usual manner. At right angles to each patterns miter lines

A

Placing another profile in the molding A B D E would, if divided the same as the others, only result in another set of intersections at the points already
existing on- the lines

A D

and

B

E, as occurred on

Pattern Problems.

109
that

the line
case
is

F
all

C,

hence to save labor one
is

profile in this

carried around from

and dropped into the three

that

really

necessary, the points being

stretchouts respectively.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
of a Molding Mitering

14.

Around an Irregular Four-Sided Figure.
in these several stretchouts

In Fig. 288, let B C D be the elevation of an irregular four-sided figure, to which a molding is to be
the profile shown by K. Place a duplicate the side opposite, as shown, from which profile against
fitted of

A

draw measuring

lines in the

usual manner, producing them until they are equal in is length to the respective sides, the pattern of which to the to be cut. Placing the T-square at right angles

Fig.

tSS.The Patterns of a Molding Mitering Around an Irregular Four-Sided
lines of the several sides, or,

Figure.

to complete the elevation project the lines necessary the molding as it would appear when finished, all as of B F G H. Draw the several miter lines shown

what
it

to the stretchout lines, bring

the same, parallel against the points in
is

by

B F C

G,

DH

and

A

E.

Divide the two profiles into

the miter lines, cutting the corresponding measuring Then the lines. lines, all as indicated by the dotted

the same

of parts in the usual njanner, through the points in which draw lines parallel to the lines of the molding in which they occur, cutting the miter

number

right angles to each of the several sides lav off a stretchout from the profile, as shown by 3 3 L' M', L' M', L L Through the several points
lines, as

shown.

At

through these points of intersection will Thus E II' D' the several patterns required. give of the side E H I) A of the elevawill be the pattern 3 D" C G' will be the pattern ot the side tion;
lines traced
1

A

1

H

1

HD
A'

C G
3

;

G F
a

1

B' C' that of

F B C G

;

and F' B

J

M,

M

.

E

that of the remaining side.

110

The Xcir

\\'<>rkur

Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Patterns

15.

of Simple Gable Miters.

B be the angles and 15 In Fig. 289, let 'A B Draw of the miters at the foot and peak of a gable. in correct relation to profiles of the required molding
both the horizontal and inclined moldings, as shown

K

K

the profile through the points in which draw the Place the f-dqu&ro usual measuring lines, as shown.
1

H

,

parallel to

this stretchout line,

and, bringing

it

suc-

and H', through the angles of which draw the other parallel lines necessary to complete the eleTheir intersection at the base of the gable vation.
at

H

produces the miter line
the top of the gable sides of the gable,
pitch.
is

B

C,

while the miter line at

a vertical line, because the

K B
II
is

and

K

R,

are of the

two same

The
the

profile
at

sent

return

the

so placed as also to represide at its proper distance

from B. Divide the profile 11 in the usual manner into any convenient nuinPlace the T-square ber of equal parts. horizontal parellel to the lines in the

A

bringing it successively the points in the profile, cut the against At right miter line B C, as shown.

molding, and,

i

144.4
1

angles to the lines of the hori/.oiital cornice draw the stretchout E K, through the points in which draw the usual

measuring

lines,

as

shown.

Reveoe

the ^-square, letting the blade lie parallel to the stretchout line E F, and, bringing it against tile several points of the profile

H,

cut

the

corresponding

measuring

lines.

Then

a line traced through these

points of intersection, as shown from G to V, will be the pattern of the end of
the

horizontal

cornice inhering

with

the return.
in

In like manner, with the
Fig. 289.

the same position, bring it T-square the points in the miter line B C, against

The Patterns of Simple Gable Miters.

and cut corresponding measuring lines drawn tli rough Then a line traced through the the same stretchout. of intersection thus obtained, as shown by T U, points will be the pattern of the end of the horizontal cornice
inhering against the inclined cornice.
file

cessively against the points in

B C

and

K

L. cut the

corresponding measuring by the dotted lines. the points thus obtained trace Through
lines, all

as indicated

lines, as indicated

by

MN

and

O

P.

Then

MN

will

Divide the pro-

indicated

any convenient number of equal parts, all as by the small figures. Through these points draw lines cutting the miter line B C, and also the

H'

into

be the pattern for the bottom of the raking cornice inhering against the horizontal, and O P will be the

The pattern shown pattern for the top of the same. will also be the pattern for the return miterat G

V

miter line right angles to the top. lines of the raking cornice place a stretchout, E' F , of
at
1

K L

the

At

ing with to reverse

AD
it

of the elevation,

it

being necessary only

and

to .establish its length.

Pattern Problems.

ill

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a Pedestal of

16.

Which

the Plan

is

an Equilateral Triangle.

should be drawn so as to show one side in profile and the plan placed to correspond with it. Draw the miter
lines

E

and

G

0.

Divide the profile

B D into

spaces

of convenient size in the usual manner, and number them as shown in the diagram. From the points thus

obtained drop lines, cutting E and G O. as shown. P at right angles to the side Lay off the stretchout E G, and through the points in it draw measuring lines.

N

E G, and, bringthe points in the miter lines ing successively against E and G 0, cut the corresponding measuring lines. line traced through these points will be the pattern,
Place the T-square at right angles to
it

A
as

shown by H L M K. The principle involved
is

in this

and several follow-

exactlv the same as that of the preceding problems In this case and irregular shaped panels. ing regular the shape of the article is shown in plan instead of ele-

Fig. 290.

The Pattern for a Pedestal of which the Plan

is an.

Equilateral Triangle.

290 be the elevation of a or other article of which the plan is an equipedestal This elevation lateral triangle, as shown by F E G.
Let
in Fig.

A

BD C

and the profile is too large to permit of its being drawn within the plan, as were the profiles of the panel moldings in their elevations.
vation,

112

The Xew Metal Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a Pedestal

17.
Square
in Plan.

In Fig. 291, let A B D C be the elevation of a pedestal the four sides of which are alike, being in G F, Fig. 292. Since the plan plan as shown by E

H

a rectangular figure the miters involved are square miters, or miters forming a joint at 90 degrees.
is

A

square miter admits of certain abbreviations, the reasons for which are explained in Problem 3, as well as
in

Chapter V, under the head of Parallel Forms.
is

The

abbreviated method which
used.

The plan

of the article,

always introduced only to show the shape and is not employed directly in cutting
is

here illustrated

is

Fig.

S92.The Plan of Square

Pedestal.

the pattern.
tion

Space the

profiles,

shown

in the eleva-

by

A

C and B D,

in the usual

manner, numbering

the points as shown. Set off a stretchout line, L R, at right angles to the base line C D of the pedestal,

through the points in which draw measuring lines. Place the T-square parallel to the stretchout line, and,
successively against the points in the two profiles, cut the corresponding lines drawn through the line traced through these points, as stretchout.

bringing

it

shown by L

A M N

K,

will

be the pattern of a

side.

Fiy. 291.

The Pattern for a Pedestal, Square in Plan.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 293,
vase, the plan of
let

18.

for a Vase, the Plan of

Which

is

a Pentagon.

S C
is

K

T

be the elevation of a

ner that one of the sides will

be shown in

C

a

B

P.

The

a pentagon, as shown O C' elevation must be drawn in such a man-

which

the plan in line and in correspondence with it. Divide the profile into spaces of convenient size in the

Draw

Pattern Problems.

113

usual

manner and number them.
1

Draw

the

miter

lines C' II

the plan, and, bringing the T-square successively against the points in the profile, drop lines across these miter lines, as shown by the
in

and C* IF

ferent

the case of a complicated profile, or one of many difmembers, to drop all the points across one sec-

tion of the plan C' H'

IF C would
in

a

result in confusion.

Therefore

it

is

customary,

dotted lines in the engraving. Lay off the stretchout 1ST at right angles to the piece in the plan which

M

pattern in sections, pieces of which it is

practice, to treat the describing each of the several

composed independently

of the

Fig. 294.

Pattern for the Base.

Fig. 293.

Pattern for the

Upper

Part.

The Patterns for a

Vase, the Plan of which is

a Pentagon.

corresponds to the side shown in profile in the elevation. Through the points in it draw the usual measur-

others.

divided

In the illustration given the pattern has been at the point II, the upper portion being

Place the T-square parallel to the stretching lines. out line, and, bringing it against the several points in the miter lines which were dropped from the elevation

developed from the profile and plan, as above, while the lower part is redrawn in connection with a section
of the plan,
letters in

upon them, corresponding measuring drawn through the stretchout. A line traced through
the points thus obtained will describe the pattern.

cut the

lines

In

Kig. 294. Corresponding each of the views represent the same parts, so that the reader will have no trouble in perceiving Instead oi redrawing a povjust what has been done. as
in

shown

114

Worker Pattern
a

tion of the elevation and plan, as has been done in this case, sometimes it is considered best to work from one
to redraw a portion of it, as tha profile rather than results in more or less inaccuracy. Therefore, always after
1

piece of clean paper
this

ing

plan plan is drawn, from which the second section of (J reat care, the pattern is obtained. however, is necessary
in

and

pinned on the board, coverpattern, upon which a duplicate
is

using
as

the

plan

and describing a part of the

redrawing

portions

of

the

plan

to

insure

pattern,

shown

in the operation explained above.

accuracy.

PROBLEM
The Pattern

19.

for a Pedestal, the Plan of

Which

is

a Hexagon.

sides,

drawn so
it.

that one of the sides will

be shown

in

profile.

with
into

Place the plan below it and corresponding Divide the profile shown in the elevation

any convenient number of spaces in the usual manner, and, to facilitate reference to them, number them as shown. Bring the T-square against the points
in

the profile and drop lines across one section of the

shown bv II M. At right angles to this section of the plan layoff the stretchout line .N >. through the points in which draw the usual measplan, as
<

X

Place the T' sc uare parallel to the uring lines. stretchout line, and, bringing it successively against the points in the miter lines II X and X, cut the
l

M

corresponding measuring by the dotted lines. Then a line traced through the points
lines,

as

indicated

Fig. 205.

The Pattern for a Pedestal, the Plan of which

is

a Hexagon.

In Fig. 295, let C D F E be the elevation of a pedestal which it is desired to construct of six equal

P S T

thus obtained will be the required pattern, as shown by E.

Pattern

115

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for

20.
is

a Vase, the

Plan of Which
sides will be
plan, placing

a Heptagon.
in

shown
it

profile.
it

In line with

it

draw the

so that

shall

correspond with the
in the

elevation.

Spaee the profile
in it

L P

usual manner,

and from the points
as

drop

lines

crossing one secIt

tion of ihe plan, cutting the miter lines

S and

II

V,

shown.

Lay

oil'

a,

stretchout,

A

H, at riirht anules

to the side of the plan corresponding to the side of the

vase

shown
in it

in profile

in

the elevation.

Through

the,

usual measuring lines. Place the points to tins stretchout line, and, "|"-s(|iiare parallel bringing it successive] v against the points in the miter lines,
tin;

draw

line traced through

cut the corresponding measuring lines, as shown. these points, as shown by

A K O

Fig. 296.

The Pattern fur a Vase,

the

Plan nf which

is

a Heptagon.

In Fig. 296, let E L P G be the elevation of the vase, constructed in sneh a manner that one of its

W
;

U,

will

be the pattern of one of the sides of the

vase.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

21.

an Octagonal Pedestal.

Let II L in Fig. 21)7 be the elevation of a pedestal octagon in plan, of which the pattern of a section is required. This elevation should be drawn
in
profile.
it will appear iu Place the plan so as to correspond in all Divide the profile G W, from which respects with it.

K

G

W

draw the usual measuring
parallel to the stretchout

lines.
line,

Place the T-square and, bringing it -suc-

such a manner that one side of

cessively against the points dropped upon the miter lines from the elevation, cut the corresponding measur-

A line traced through the points thus ing lines. obtained will describe the pattern of one of the sides
of which the article
profile
is
is

the plan of the side desired is projected, in the usual manner, and from the points in it drop points upon in the plan. each of the miter lines F T. and P Lay

composed.

In eases

where the

U

and where
as

complicated, many members, it is verv long, confusion will arise if all

consisting of

off a stretchout,

B

E,

at right

angles to the side of the

plan corresponding to the side of the article shown in in it profile in the elevation, and through the points

the points are dropped across one section of the plan, above described. It is also quite desirable in many cases to construct the pattern in several pieces. In

116

The New Mdal Worker Pattern Book,
the pattern is cut 'by means of a part of the plan redrawn above the elevation, thus allowing the use
of the

such cases methods which are described in connection with Problem 18 may be used with advantage. case the pattern is constructed of two In the
present

!

same

profile for both.

The same

letters refer

t
Fig. 297.

The Patterns for an Octagonal Pedestal.
to similar parts, so that the reader will

pieces, being divided at the point 8 of the profile. The lower part of the pattern is cut from the plan drawn below the elevation, while the upper part of

culty in ferent views.

have no diffitracing out the relationship between the dif-

l'nttt'1-n

PnJ'li

nis.

it;

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 298,
tion of a
in

22.
of

for

a Newel Post, the Plan

Which

is

a Decagon.

let

\V

US
is

1
I

<>

H

T V

be the eleva-

newel post which

required to be constructed

the plan, as miter lines (i

ten parts.

shown.

The

Draw the plan below the elevation, as elevation must show one of the sections

C D

at right

shown by <i X II, and cutting the two X and II X. Lay oil' tin- stretchout line to G II, and through it draw the angles
lines.

Place the T-square parallel and, bringing it. against the several and points in the miter lines G X, cut the corre-

customary measuring
to the stretchout,

w

sponding measuring

lines.

X A

H

line traced

through the

points thus obtained will describe the pattern. In order to avoid confusion of lines, which would result from dropping points from the entire profile across onesection of the plan, a duplicate of the cap is drawn in

A

1

W

Fig.

299 in connection with a section of the plan, as shown

Fiy. 299.

Pattern of Cap.

Plan

Fig. 298.

The Patterns for a Newel

Post, the

Flan of which
1 1

is

a Decagon.

or sides in profile, and the plan must be placed to corSpace the molded parts of respond with the elevation. the profile in the usual manner, and from the points in

by G X' H which are employed in precisely the same manner as above described, thus completing the pattern in two pieces, the joint being formed at the point num,

them drop

lines crossing the corresponding section of

bered 11 of the profile and the stretchout.

118

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

23.
is

an Urn, the Plan of Which
the
several

a

Dodecagon.
in

urn to

In Fig. 300, let X A <! II l>e the elevation of an The elevation 1)0 constructed in twelve pieces. l>e drawn so as to sliow one side in Conmust profile. struct the plan, as shown, 1o correspond with it and

points

the

miter lines

X X and OX.

cut

A line measuring traced through the points thus obtained will describe
the

corresponding

lines.

ihe

pattern sought.

In

this

illustration

is

shown

a

method

sometimes

resorted to

by

pattern cutters to

avoid the confusion resulting from dropping all tinpoints across one section of the plan. The points from
1:5

to

The stretchout C

20 inclusive arc dropped upon the line OX. D is drawn in exactly the middle of

the pattern that is, it is drawn from X, the central of the plan. Points are transferred liv the Tpoint to the measuring lines on one side of s<{uare from ()

X

V

Plan

Fig.

SOO.T'he

I'ritlrrns

for an Urn, the Plan of

wltii-h is a

Dodecagon.

draw the miter

lines.

]>ivide the

prolile

A S

(!

into

the stretchout, the points on

spaces in the usual manner, and from the points thus obtained drop lines across one section, X 0, of the Lav off the stretchout C D at right angles to the plan.

tained
lines.

by duplicating

the other side being obdistances from C Don the several

X

The
side

points stretchout E F

The

1

to
is

13 are dropped on
laid
off

NX

only.
to the

side

NO

of the plan.

Place the T-square parallel
it

to

MNfrom
to

the stretchout, and, bringing

successively

against

parallel

E

right angles the point X, and, the J-^piare being set to the F, the points are transferred

at

119

measuring

lines on

one side of
off

E

F, while the distances
as de-

scribed

in

the
in

lirst

instance.

This plan will be found adprofiles.

on the opposite side are set

by measurement,

vaiitagcons

complicated and very extended

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a

24.
of a Bracket.

Drop Upon the Face

In Figs.

I'.ol

and

'.}o-2,
a.

methods

of obtaining tlie

II

K. as shown bv

O

P, and on
in

P

lay off a stretch-

return strip lifting around
tin
1

face of a

bracket

an,'

drop and mitering against Similar letters in shown.
I

out,

through

the

points

which draw the usual

the two liguivs represent similar parts, and the follow-

From the points in the profile F G measuring lines. carry lines in the direction of the molding that is,

The Pattern for a Drop upon

the

face of a hracket.

ing demonstration Let A 15 I) both.
face of the bracket,

may be
C
and
II

considered as applying to be the elevation of a part of the
Iv

parallel to

N
to

M.
the

intersecting the face of the bracket .Reverse the T- s quare, placing the blade parallel

KM

a portion of the side, the connection between the side strip of the showing E F (1 aiul the face of the bracket. To state the
dr.>p

L

case simply,

the miter the profile and 1ST the surface against is the outline of line, because which the side strip miters. Then, following the rule,

F

G

is

M

line O P, and, bringing it sucthe points in cessively against M, cut the coras indicated bv the responding measuring lines,

stretchout

N

dotted lines.
points
of

Then

a line traced through these several
as

NM

intersection,

shown by O
fitting

R

P,

will

be the pattern of the strip
the bracket face.

around

E F G

divide

F

G

into

usual manner, as

any convenient number of parts in the shown by the small figures. Produce

and mitering against the irregular surface

N M

of

120

The

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
Let
of a Boss
Fitting:

25.

Over a Miter in a Molding".
out line K' K", and, bringing it against the several points in N 0, cut corresponding measuring lines, as

AB
KG
E D

pediment, as
miter and
boss,

in Fig. 303 be the part elevation of a in a cornice or window cap, over the against the molding and fascia in which a

C

F

H,

is

required to be

fitted, all

as

shown
be con-

by N

of the side view.

The

outline

F

K G H

of the boss

is

to

sidered as the profile of a molding running in the direction shown by D E in the side view, and mitering E. against the surface of the cornice shown by

N

For the patterns proceed

as follows: Divide so

much

comes against the cornice, shown from K to F, into any convenient number of parts, and from these points draw lines that is, to the direction of the moldparallel to D E under consideration until they intersect the ing miter line N O E, which in this case is the profile of
of the profile of the boss
as

K

F

HG

the cornice molding. As the boss is so placed over the angle in the cornice molding that the distance from to F is the same as that from to G, the part of

K

K

the boss

K G will

may be

be an exact duplicate of duplicated from the pattern of

K

K F and F without

another side view drawn especially for it, which would have to be done if the boss was otherwise placed. Therefore, extend the line N D upon which to lay off
a stretchout of
into the spaces tion

K

F

H

G, dividing the portion
profile,

K

1

F

1

shown at K F of the. which draw the usual measuring lines.

through
por-

Pig. SOS.

The Pattern of a Boss Fitting Over a Miter in a Molding.

Make the

F G
1

1

equal in length to the part

FUG

and,

lastly, the portion

G

1

K"

a duplicate of

F K'
1

reversed,

Then lines traced through these points of tersection, as shown by K L M K will be the
shown.
1

inre-

s

,

as shown.

Place the T-square parallel to the stretch-

quired pattern.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 304,
let

26.

for

a Keystone Having: a Molded Face With Sink.

E

AB

F be

the front elevation

and from the points thus obtained carry

lines across

of a keystone, as for a window cap, of which L P is a sectional view, S the profile of the moldgiving

K

M

R

The P, over which it is required to fit. sink in the face extends throughout its entire length,
and
is

ing M N O

At right angles in the face of the keystone, as shown. the top of the keystone lay off a stretchout of R, as

K

shown by K"
measuring
lines.

R

1

,

through which draw
it

the

usual

shown by

GHD

Placing the T-square parallel to the

C,

its

the line

K

depth being shown by

T

of

the section.

thus become moldings, of
parallel lines,

E F which E

and
a
lines

K R
and

F, H, C D and the profile. Likewise

E

G

H G and A B D C A and F B are the A B the miter lines, C G H D becomes
D
are

stretchout line, and bringing the points in the lines C D and
strip,

AB

successively against bounding the face

Then a cut the corresponding measuring lines. line traced through these points, as shown by C" A" B"

D

1
,

molding,

of

which

G H

and C

the miter

K

will be the pattern for this part. In developing the pattern for the sink the usual
to

T

the profile.

pattern of the face pieces, divide the profile into any convenient number of face

Therefore, to obtain the of the
spaces,

method would be
carrying lines

divide

K

T

into

across

the face, and

equal spaces, thence into the

K R

stretchout; but since this

would

result in confusion of

Pattern Problems.

121

same points as were established in R have been used, which arc quite as convenient as the others mentioned, save that the points in K T must be obtained from the points in K R, bv oiirrviiig lines back to K T, as shown, and in laying off the stretchout each individual space must be measured bv the dividers.
lines, the
K*

K

For the pattern pattern of the required sink piece. of the piece forming the sides of the sink in the
keystone, K R T becomes the elevation molding running in the direction of R T, of which K R and K Tare the miter lines and C 1) the profile. Hence, at any convenient place above or below the
face of

the

of a

sectional view, lay off the stretchout of the line C D, as determined by the lines drawn across it, in the first
K

operation,

all

as

indicated

a by C

D".

Through the

points
ner.

lines

draw measuring lines in the usual manThe next operation, in course, would be to drop from the points in the profile to the miter lines;
in ('"

D"

but as
first

this has

already been done

by the

lines of the

operation, it is only necessary to place the T-square at right angles to the measuring lines, and bring it successively against the several points in the
lines

KR

and

ing lines, as

K T, and cut the corresponding measurshown. Then a line traced through these K
3

R' and points, as indicated by pattern of the piece required. For the side of the keystone,
the face of a molding, of which B R the miter line at one side, and

K

3

T', will

be the

KL
is

S

R

becomes

A

K

L

the profile and and P S the

M

miter lines at the other.

From

this point

forward the

problem is, in principle, the same as Problem 10. For convenience, and to avoid confusion, it is best to again make use of the same set of lines instituted in the
Therefore, lay off the part of the demonstration. stretchout A' B' equal to B, putting into it all the
first

A

points occurring in ing lines in the usual

A

B, through which draw measurmanner. Place the T-square at

right angles to these measuring lines, and, bringing it R, and successively against the points in the line

K

likewise against

L

M
1

and

PS

of the back, cut corre-

Then a line sponding measuring lines, as shown. traced through these points of intersection, as shown R2 S P' 0', will be the outline of the L by N' required pattern, with the exception of that part lying

M

1

1

K

4

S'

Fig. $04.

The Patterns for a Keystone Havinij a Molded Face
with Sink.

between N' and O', which make a duplicate of N O. By examination of the points in A B and the lines drawn through the same and making comparison with
1

1

At right angles to the line II D of the keystone lay off a stretchout of T, as shown by T', through the

K

K

1

the points in B, it will be seen that in order to locate the position of the profile of the window cap accurately

A

points in which draw the usual measuring lines. Place the T-square at right angles to the lines across the face of the keystone, and, bringing it successively against

the points in the lines G and C D, forming the sides of the sink, cut the corresponding measuring lines

H
1

molding M N O P, two additional points, as shown by a; and '/', have been introduced, corresponding to x and y, the points of intersection between the extreme lines of the cap molding itself and the side of the keystone
1

A

B, as shown in the elevation by the curved lines of

drawn through K'

T'.

Then

lines traced
1

through these
will

points, as indicated

by

G H

and

C" I)

1

,

form the

In practice it is frequently necessary to that molding. introduce extra points in operations of this character.

122

The New Mdul Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a

27.
Fit

Square Shaft

to

Against a Sphere.

In Fig. 305, let

HAA K
1

be the elevation of a

square shaft, one end of which is required to fit against the ball D F E. Draw the center line FL, upon which
locate the center of the ball G.

Continue the sides of

the shaft across the line of the circumference of the
ball indefinitely.

From
1

the points of intersection be-

tween the sides of the shaft and the circumference of

draw a line at right angles to the , sides of the shaft, across the ball, cutting the center B as radius, Set the dividers to line, as shown at B.
the ball,
or

A

A

G

and from

G

as center, describe the arc
1

the sides in the points C and C be the pattern of one side of
against the given ball.

.

C C Then II C C
1

,

cutting
1

K

will
fit

a square shaft to

Fi(j. SOS.

The Pattern of a Square Shaft

to Fit Aijainst

a Sphere.

PROBLEM
To Describe the Pattern
Let

28.

of an Octagon Shaft to Fit Against a Ball.

H

F

K in
this

Fig.

300 be the given

ball, of

which

G

is

the center.

Let D' C"
is

the octagon shaft which
ball.

represent a plan of required to fit against the
line

C D" E

3

Draw

plan

in

with the center of the

E. From the angles of tlte plan project lines upward, cutting the circle and conFrom the point stituting the elevation of the shaft. or where the side in profile cuts the circle, draw a
ball, as indicated

by F

A

A

1

,

line at right angles to the center line of the ball

F

E,

cutting it in the point B, as shown. Through B, from the center G by which the circle of the ball was
struck, describe an arc, from the inner angles C 2

C and C
side of
ball

1

.

;.a

H

F

will be the pattern of one shaft inhering against the given octagon K. If it be desired to complete the elevait

Then

M

cutting the two lines drawn C 3 of the plan, as shown at

C C

1

N

tion of the shaft meeting the ball,

may

be done by

carrying lines from C and C' horizontally until they meet the outer line of the shaft in the points I);md

D

1
.

Connect C and
1

D

1

,

also

C and D, by

a

curved

line, the lowest point in which shall touch the horizontal line drawn through B. Then the broken line

DCC D
1

1

will

be the miter

line

in

elevation

formed
Fig.

by the junction of the octagonal shaft with the ball.

S06.The

Pattern of

n.i (M.iij.-,

Shaft

to Fit

Against n Ball.

123

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 3<l~
shaft
is

29.
is

of
is

an Octagonal Shaft, the Profile of Which

Curved, Fitting over the Ridge of a Rool.
of

shown

tin-

elevation

:iinl

plan of the
:>(>S.

shaft of a finial of the design

shown
anil
if

in
it

Kig.

The
to

the plan, into any number of parts in the usual manner, and from these points carrv lines vertiI'

'i

K

octagon throughout,

were designed

cally crossing the miter lines

(!

K ami
to

<i

K.

From

the

stand upon a level surface, the method of obtaining its patterns would be the same in all respects as that de-

center
line

G

draw
oil'

K'

lay

a

right angles stretchout of the profile.

M'

at

K

F,
I

upon which

L, drawing measuring lines through the Plaee the {"-si" "' points.
1

parallel to the stretchout line,

and, bringing it successively against the points in G E and
(1

V, cut

corresponding meas-

-M 1

uring

as shown, and through the points thus oblines,

tained trace lines, all as indicated in the drawing. This

pattern for the sides of the shaft.
shaft

gives the general shape of the By inspection of the

plan and elevation together, it will be seen that to fit the over the roof some of the sections composing it
will require different cuts at their

lower extremities.
the

Two

of the

sections will be

cut

same

as
to

the the

pattern already side marked A 1> and

described.

They correspond
in

K

'

I

1

the plan.
1)

Two
will

others,

indicated
lit

in

the

plan by

C

and

II

1,

be cut to

over the ridge of the roof, as shown in the elevation /// The remaining four pieces, shown in plan a. by B 0, D E, F I and bv II, will be cut obliquely to fit
//

A

against the pitch For the sides elevation.

of

the roof, as

shown bv n

o in the

D
it

center of the elevation,

and II I, shown in the will be seen that the line

drawn from 4 touches the ridge in the point m, while the line drawn from:! corresponds to the point at which
pitch of the roof. Therefore, in the pattern draw a line from the center of it, on the measuring line 4, to the sides of it, on the

the side terminates

against

the

measuring
Pig.
3(17.

line

:>,

all

as

shown by m'

n'

and m'

n'.

Plan, Elevation and Patterns.
Octar/imtil Shaft,
nri'r
tt

Then
Curved
in Profile, Fitting

The Patterns of an

Rtdyp.

these are the lines of cut in the pattern correBy further sponding to in a and /// //of the elevation.
it will be seen that for the inspection of the' elevation, four sides it is necessary to make a cut in remaining

scribed in Problem

'1\

.

As shown by
is

the line

K

/

K,

however,

its

lower end

designed to

tit

over the ridge

of a roof or gable, to obtain the patterns of

which pro-

ceed as follows

:

the pattern from one side, in a point corresponding to the other, in a point corresponding :? of the profile, to all as shown by ////. to 1 of the profile, Taking corre-

Construct
tion, as

a

plan of the shaft at

shown bv

A B
lines,

I)

which draw miter

as

K shown by
.1

largest secfrom the center of K.
its
<1

sponding points, therefore,

in the
it,'

measuring

lines of

B'and

G

F.

Divide the profile of the shaft

L.

corresponding to

Then the the pattern, draw the lines o', as shown. modified by cutting upon these lines, original pattern, will constitute the pattern for the four octagon sides.

124

'ihe

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
To Construct a
Ball in

30.
Shape of Gores.
against
;lie

any Number

of Pieces, of the

Draw

a circle of

a size corresponding to the re-

quired ball, as shown in Fig. 309, which divide, by any of the usual methods employed in the construction of
polygons, into the number of parts of which desired to construct the ball, in this case twelve,
it is

bringing it miter lines

successively

points

in

the

R E

measuring

lines,

and R F, as shown.

cut the

corresponding
traced

A

line

through

all as

these points will give the pattern of a section. If, on out the plan of the ball, the polygon had been laying

shown by E,
radial lines,

F,

Gr,

H,

etc.

From

the center draw

drawn about the
in

circle, instead of inscribed,
it

as

shown

F, etc., representing the joints between the gores, or otherwise the miter lines. If the polygon is inscribed, as shown in the illustration, it will

RE

and

R

the engraving,

is

quite evident that a quarter of

be observed that the joint or miter lines will

lie in

the

surface of the sphere and that therefore the middle of will fall inside the pieces, as shown at W, C and ', the surface of the sphere a greater or less distance

according to the number of gores into which the. sphere has been divided, and that therefore it becomes
necessary to construct a section through the middle of one of the sides for use as a profile from which to

be well to distinguish here between absolute accuracy and something that
obtain
a stretchout.
It will will

do practically just as well and save
profile,
if

much

labor.

This

made complete, would have

for

its

width the distance

W

u\ while

its

hight or distance

through from R to a point opposite would be equal to the diameter of the circle, or twice the distance R U. As one-quarter of this section will answer every purpose, it may be constructed with sufficient accuracy as

Supposing R E F to be the piece under consideration, draw a line parallel to its center line R C
follows
:

conveniently near, as
points

A V
lines.

1

,

upon which

locate the
as

A

and

V

by projection from C and R,

shown by the dotted
the line

From

BV

perpendicular to

V

the point

V

erect

A, and make B

V

equal to the radius of the circle, or

R V

;

then an arc

will complete of a circle cutting the points B and This can be done by taking the radius the section. R between the points of the compasses and describ-

A

U

Fig. 309.

ing an arc from the point
is

V,

whose distance from

V
the circle

To Construct a Ball in any Number of Pieces, of the Shape of Gores.

To develop the patequal to the distance n' U. tern divide B into any convenient number of equal and from the divisions thus obtained carry parts,

A

would have answered the purpose

of a profile.

These points, with reference
observed
illustration

to the profile, are to be in determining the size of the ball. In the

lines across line

the

section
its

P]

R F

at

right angles to a

presented,
if

the ball produced

will corre-

drawn through lines, all as shown
center line

R

C, as

center, and cutting its miter in R E and R F. Prolong the shown by S T, and on it lay off

spond down, while
center of
its

in its miter lines to the diameter of the circle laid

sections

measured on lines drawn through the it will be smaller than the circle.

a stretchout obtained from
in

B A,

which draw measuring

lines in the usual

through the points manner.

The
having

patterns for a ball

made up
found

of zones or strips
in

parallel sides will be

Section

"2

of

Place the T-square parallel to the stretchout line, and,

this chapter (Regular

Tapering Forms).

Pattern Problems.

125

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a

31.

Round Pipe

to

Fit

Against a Roof of One Inclination.

126 measuring
lines, as indicated.
I.

Tin-

Ne

1'iiti'i-n

Ik HI/.-.

these points, as shown by l\ In the illustration pattern.
ellipse, or

A M

line

traced through

tin- sliurl

diameter

Q
lie

.

will lie ilie rei|iiirc(l

ilie prolile

should

crossing tin- roof. In such ca.-e turned sn that Q F is across the
I''

the

long diameter of the
the the
roof.

roof, or jiarallel
jeete.l

to

E

method

of

shown as crossing G, procedure would be exactly
is

The
if

from

it.

The pipe migbl with equal
the

D, and the elevation duly profacility be
lie

same
that

the

placed

that

long diameter should

at an

pipe were placed iu the opposite position

is.

with

oblique angle desired.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of

33.

an Octagon Shaft Fitting Over the Ridge of a Roof.
the roof,

G

I

In Fig. 312, let E the elevation

A B

C be

the section and
shaft

I)

II

G. representing

the

ridge of
lines.
all

cut the corre-

of an

octagon

mitering

sponding measuring

Then a line traced through
as

against a roof, represented by the lines F <i and (! K. Place the section in line with the elevation, as shown,

the points thus obtained,

shown by P

()

N"

M

L

and from the angles drop

lines,

W

giving

T V and
back on

I

of

the

elevation.

Drop

the point

G

to

the section, thus locating the points i) and 4. the end of the shaft, and at right angle's to stretchout line, as shown points iu
ner.
it

Opposite
it,

bv S
lines
right,

li,

draw measuring
it

in

draw a and through the the usual man-

Place the T-square at

and, bringing

angles to the shaft, successively against the points in the

Fig. 312.

The Pattern

f an

Ortar/nn Shaft Fitting Over the Kir/i/r of n Roof.

roof

line

formed by the intersection with

it

<>f

the
'

in the

engraving, will be the lower end of the pattern

angle lines in the elevation, and also against the point

required.

/'illti I'll

I'rnlil,

///.v.

127

PROBLEM
The Pattern
Let
1>

34
Over the Ridge
of a Roof.

of a

Round Pipe
1

to Fit

A
1']

I>

(J

iii

Kin'.

:i:;

lie
tin.'

\\

section of tin roof and

againsl

S

15

T

an elevation of

pipe.
111

the pipe
(j

1'raw a profile of hue, as shown hv !'

out of the
at
lie

of the roof, and lay off the stretchsame upon the stretchout line I K, drawn right angles to the lines of the pipe, which may

one slope

\\.

Since,
are.

both iiielinations
to the

duplicated

in a

reverse order for
lines

the other

half,

of the roof

same

angle,

as .shown.

Draw measuring
in the

through these points usual manner. Place the
of

T-square parallel to the sides
-\K

the pipe, and, bringing it against the points in the prolile, cut the roof
line, as

shown from

B to T.

Reverse

T-square, placing it at right angles to the lines of the pipe, and,
successively against the points dropped upon the roof line, cut the corresponding measuring

the

bringing

it

/Y,/.

Jl3.-The Pattern

../

.1

/.'..ii.irf

Pipe

t,,

Fit Oner the

J}i,(,,e ,./

.1

through the
l!,,of.

points,

as

halves of the pattern will be the same. Therefore space oil' the half of the which miters profile
I

Kit

I

i

P, will form the roof.

that

end of

shown by L M N O the pattern which meets

PROBLEM
An Octagon
Shaft Mitering

35
of a Roof.

Upon the Ridge and Hips

In Fig. :> 14 are shown the front and side elevations of a hipped roof, below which are placed plans, each turned so as to with the elevation above it.

Before the pattern of the shaft can be developed it will be necessary to obtain a correct elevation of its intersection with the roof.

correspond

Therefore, considering the plan

l

128

The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.
the elevations.

oblique sides cross the hips of the roof, as shown by The next step is to project the small figures 1 to 11. lines upward into the elevations from each of these

and

8,

and

8, 9,

Lines connecting these points (o, 6, 7 10 and 11) will complete the elevasides of the roof have the same pitch a regular octagon, all the angles of the and 11 will intersect the roof at the

tions.

In case
is
~2

all

them till they intersect the lines of points, continuing From the roof, as shown by the vertical dotted lines.
each of these intersections in either view lines can be
to the other view projected horizontally
till

and the shaft
shaft except

they in-

Thus the tersect with lines of corresponding number. 9 and 10 cut the line of the hip in the front elepoints vation at the point B, which, being carried across to
the side view and intersected with lines from points 9 and 10 from the plan below it, give the correct position of those points in the side view. the intersection of lines from points tj

In like manner

and 7 in the side

same hight, in which case it will only be necessary to draw the front view. But should the slope of the front of the roof be different from that of the sides, it will be to follow the course above described. To necessary the pattern, draw any horizontal line, as E F, develop upon which place the stretchout of the octagon shaft obtained from the plan, as shown bv the small figures, through which draw the usual measuring lines at right angles to it, and intersect the measuring lines with
lines

view, with the hip line at D, give the correct hight of Points 5 and 8, being those points in the front view. the hips, must appear in the elevations at points upon

of corresponding

numbers drawn

from the intersections

in the elevation.

A

horizontally line traced

where

the vertical lines

from them cut the hip

lines in

through these intersections, as shown by be the desired pattern.

XY

Z, will

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a Flange to Fit

36.
of a Roof.

Around a Pipe and Over the Ridge

In Fig. 315,

let

AB

C be

the section of the roof

against which the flange

is to fit,

and

let

OPS

B.

be

the elevation of the pipe required to pass through the Let the flange in size be required to extend flange.

from

A

to

C over

the ridge B.

Since both sides of the

pitch, both halves of the opening B will be the same. Therefore, for from the point convenience in obtaining both halves of the pattern at one operation, the line B C may be continued across the pipe toward A and used in place of B>A, the dis-

roof are of the

same

1

,

tance from

B

on either

line to the

side

same.

Under these conditions

it will

O li being the be seen that the

process of describing the pattern is identical with that Make B 1 equal to B A, in the previous problem.

A

and proceed in the manner described in the problem Divide the profile D E F G into any just referred to. number of equal parts in the usual manner, and from
the points so obtained carry lines vertically to the line

A' C, and thence, at right angles to it, indefinitely. Also carry lines in a similar manner from the points A' and C. Draw II L parallel to A' C. Make II I the width of the required flange, and draw I K parallel to H L. Through that part of the flange in which the center of the required opening is desired to be draw the line A* C', crossing the lines drawn from the proFrom each side of this line, on the several file.

Fig. SIS.

The Pattern of a Plunge to Fit Around a Pipe and Over the Ridge of a Roof.

Pattern Problems.
set oil the

measuring

lines,

same distance

as

shown

the

corresponding lines between D F and I) E F, as shown. A line traced through the points thus obtained, as shown by D' E F' G', will be

upon

the

center, across

required opening to fit the pipe. Through the the flange, draw the line M, which

N

1

represents the line of bend corresponding to the ridge B of the section of the roof.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of

37.

a Flange to

Fit

Around a Pipe and Against a Roof

of

One

Inclination.

Let
the
roof

L M,
and

Fig.

P R T S.an

316, be the inclination of elevation of the

N then represents pipe passing through it. the length of the opening which is to be cut
in the

flange, the

width of which will be the
Let

same

as

the diameter of the pipe.

A

B
it

D C
in

be the size of the flange desired, as

would appear
line

viewed in plan. with the pipe draw the
if it

Immediately
profile

GH

I

K, putting
flange

in the center of the plan of the

A B D

Divide one-half of

C, or otherwise, as required. the profile in the usual
to the line

manner, and carry lines vertically

L M,

representing the pitch of the roof, and

thence, at right angles to it, indefinitely. Carry and B. points in the same manner from

A
1

Draw
to

C'

A
1

equal or the width of the required flange, C,

D

1

parallel to
1
1

L M.

Make C

A

1

and draw

A B
be
1

B D
1

will
1

Then C parallel to C the pattern of the "required flange.
1
1

1

D

.

A

1

Draw E F through
to

it

E F

of the

plan,

at a point corresponding crossing the lines drawn
1

from the profile. From E F' set off on each lines crossing it, side, on each of the measuring width of opening, as measured on correthe
sponding lines of the plan, measuring from

E

Through the plan to the profile. thus obtained draw a line, which will points give the shape of the opening to be cut, all as
in

F

the

shown by
Fig. 316

G H
1

1

I

1

K

1

.

The Pattern of a Flange to Fit Around a Pipe and Against a Roof of One Inclination.

130

Tlie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for

38.

a Two-Piece Elbow.

In Fig. 317, let A C B D be the profile of the pipe which the elbow is to be made. Draw an elevation of the elbow with the two arms at right angles to each other, one of which is projected directly from the proin

line

shown by E G I H K F. Draw the diagonal K, which represents the joint to be made. Divide the profile into any convenient number of equal
file,

as

G

parts.

Place the T-square parallel to the lines of the

arm of the elbow, opposite the end of which the profile has been drawn, and, bringing the blade successively against the several pojnts in the profile, drop correG, as shown sponding points on the miter or joint line the end of the same the dotted lines. Opposite by arm, and at right angles to it, lay off a stretchout line,

K

N, divided in the usual manner, and through the Place the divisions draw measuring lines, as shown. blade of the T-square at right angles to the same arm of the elbow, or, what is the same, parallel to the
stretchout line, and, bringing it successively against the points in G, cut the corresponding measuring

M

K

lines, as

shown.

A
KP

as indicated

by

through these points, N, will form O, together with
line traced

M

the required pattern.

Fig. 317.

The Pattern for a Two-Piece Elbow,

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

39.

a Two-Piece Elbow

in

an

Elliptical

Pipe.

Two

Cases.

The only difference

to

be observed

in cutting the

patterns for elbows in elliptical pipes, as

compared with

the same operations in connection with round pipes, The section is to be lies with the profile or section.

positions of the profiles. Although the results in the two cases are different in consequence of the position of the profiles, the method of procedure is exactly the

same.

Similar parts in the two drawings have been

placed in the

same position as shown cutting elbows in round pipe, but it

in the rules for
is

to

be turned

given the same reference letters and figures, so that the following demonstrations will apply equally well to
either

broad or narrow side to the view, as the requirements In Figs. 318 and 319 are shown of the case may be.
elevations and
profiles of

Let A C E elbow and II G K
:

F D B be
I
its

the elevation of the

section.
i:;

Draw C D,

the

elbows in
of

elliptical pipes.

two right angled two-piece In Fig. 318 the broad side

miter line.
as of

Divide the

profile

the usual manner,

indicated

by

the

small

figures,

and by means

the ellipse is presented to view, while Fig. 319 shows the narrow side, as indicated by the respective

the T-square placed parallel lo the "arm, drop Opposite the, points upon the miter line, as shown.

Pattern

Problems.

131

end of the arm lay
tin-

oil'

points

in

it

a stretchout, M N, and through draw the usual measuring lines.

points in the miter line, cut the corresponding measline traced through these points, uring lines.

A

Fig. 318.

Fig. 319.

A

Two-Piece Elbow in Elliptical Pipe.

liVverse the T-square, the arm, and, bringing

placing it at right angles to it in contact with the several

as

shown by L P O,

will

constitute

the required

miter.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

40.

a Three-Piece Elbow.

In Fig. 320,
vation
of

let

E

M

L

I

HKN

F be

the eleof a

both.
.arms,

Make

its

diameter the same as that of the two
lines

a

three-piece

elbow.

The drawing

and draw the miter

MN

and

L K.

Draw

three-piece any angle whatever, should be so constructed that the middle section or portion bears

elbow, at

the profile
pattern

AB

C

in line

with the arm from which the

the same angle with reference to the two arms. Since the two arms in the present instance are at right

be taken, as shown, and divide it into any convenient number of equal parts. Place the blade
is to
it

angles (90 degrees) to

each other, the middle section must therefore be drawn at an angle of 45 degrees to

arm of the elbow, and, the points in the profile, drop coragainst bringing At right responding points upon the miter line L K.
of the T-square parallel to this

132

The

Xew

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

angles to L I draw a stretchout, as R S, through the divisions in which draw measuring lines in the usual

drop like divisions upon

M

X.

At

right

angles

1<>

1.

M

lay off a stretchout of

the profile
in

manner.
miter line

Placing the T-square at right angles to
it

L

I,

by P 0, through the points
lines in the usual

A 15 0, as shown which draw measuring

and bringing

L K,

successively against the points in the cut the corresponding measuring lines,

manner.
its

Reversing the position of

the set-square so that

long side shall come at right

Fig. 310.

A

Three-Plece Elbow.

as shown.

Then

the line

T

U V,

traced through the

points thus obtained, forms in connection with S the pattern of an end section.

R

L, or, what is the same, parallel to the angles to stretchout line, bringing it successively against the and L K, and several points in the miter lines

M

MN

Place the 45-degree set square against the blade
of the T-square so that its oblique or long side shall coincide with the lines of the middle section of the

Then lines cut the corresponding measuring lines. traced through these points, as shown by D X

Y

and

G

W

Z, will be the pattern of the middle

elbow, and, bringing

it

against the points in

L K,

section.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In constructing the elevation
elbow,
first

41.

for

a Four-Piece Elbow.
off the

of

a

four-piece

other arm of the elbow.

M

T.

X

T.

continuing
line

C, from profile one of the arras of the elbow, as shown ject

draw the

AB

which proby the lines

the lines of each until

they intersect.

Through the
a
d.

A

points

of

intersection

draw the diagonal

F and C

G, Fig. 321,

At

right angles to this lay

Establish the point a on this diagonal line at con-

Pattern

Problems.

133

venienee, and

from

right, angles to the

I and a draw the lines at two arms of the elbow respectively.
it.
<t
c.

From
are
l>

ii

as center, and with a

I*

as

radius, describe the

angles to /a, draw L K, meeting M L in the point L, and stopping on the line '/ at the point K. Through ', and at right angles to e a, draw a line, commenc</

f e r,

as shown,

parts, thus obtaining the points-

which divide into three equal /and e. Through /'

ing

in

the point

K and
(1.

meets the line

E

of the inner side of

G where it manner draw the lines the elbow, as shown by F H
terminating in
In

like

w

and H I. Draw the miter or joint lines F G, H K and L 1, as shown. For the patterns proceed as follows Divide the profile into any convenient number
:

of equal parts. Place the T-square parallel to E G, the blade against the points in the proand, bringing file, drop corresponding points upon the miter line F

G.

Change the T-square so that
it

its

blade shall be

parallel to the lines of the second section of the elbow,

and, bringing

against the points in
II

F G, cut

corre-

sponding points on

Opposite the end of and at right angles to the lower arm of the elbow, lay off the stretchout line O P, as shown, through the divisions in

K.

which draw the usual measuring

lines.

Place

the T-square at right angles to the arm of the elbow, and, bringing it successively against the points in the

miter line

G, cut the corresponding measuring lines. Then a line traced through the points thus obtained, as shown from R to T, will with O P constitute
the pattern of one of the arms. Produce a e, reprethe middle of the second section in the elbow, senting

F

shown by V "W, upon which lay off a stretchout, and through the points in the same draw measuring lines. Placing the T-square parallel to a e, or, what is
as
Fig. SSI.

A

Four-Piece Elbow.

the same, at right angles to the second section of the elbow, bring it against the several points in the miter
,

the center a, draw the lines f a and e which will represent the centers of the middle sec-

and

e,

to

tions of the elbow, at

of the

same

right angles to which the sides are to be drawn. Through/, and at right

and F G, and cut the corresponding measurThen lines traced through the points thus ing obtained, as shown from X to Z and Y to S, will give
lines II
lines.

K

the pattern.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a

42.

Five-Piece Elbow.

To
first

construct the elevation of a five-piece elbow,
profile, as

sired the
to the

draw the

ABC,

Fig. 322, from

which

elbow shall have, and from it, at right angles two arms of the elbow respectively, draw a b and

project one of
left

the arms of the elbow, as shown at the bv K S H 0, continuing its lines indefinitely. At

a

a as center, with ab as radius, describe the nrcbfedc, which divide into four equal parts, thus
c.

From

right angles to this lay off the other arm, continuing its lines till they intersect those of the horizontal arm, or their outer lines intersect, as at g. angle of 45 degrees to either arm, upon
till

obtaining the points d, e and/ and draw d a, c a and / a. Then these lines represent center lines of the several sections of

Draw g a

at an

the point a with reference to

which establish the curve which it is de-

angles to
It

which the elbow is composed, at right which their sides are to be drawn. may be here remarked that the number of

134:

The

\/-ii>

Mi'tnl

\Yoi-L-'' i-

I'altfrii

JSouk.

center lines
I c

made use of in dividing the quarter circle represents the number of pieces in the elbow.

Therefore, to draw an elevation of an elbow in any number of pieces, construct the quadrant ale as above
described, then divide b c into such a number of parts that the number of lines drawn to a (including a b and
shall equal the number of pieces required. Thus c) the five lines a 6, a/, a c, a d and a c are the center lines of the five pieces of which the elbow shown in

through the points in which draw the measuring lines usual manner. Placing the T-square at right, angles to S T, or, what is the same, parallel to the
in the

stretchout line, bring

it

against the several points in

a

Fig. 322 lines a b

is

constructed.

Although the two extreme
speaking, center lines,

and a

c are not, strictly

their relation to the adjacent miter lines is the same as that of the other lines radiating from a. Through/,

draw V S, joining the side arm E S in the point S, and joining a corresponding line drawn through e in the point V. In like manner draw the line T E, representing the inner side of the same section. The remaining sections are to be obtained in the same way. As but one section is
and
at right angles to fa,

of the

necessary for use in cutting the patterns, the others may or may not be drawn, all at the option of the

Draw the miter or joint lines S E, Divide the profile (or one-half of it) in the T, Place the T-square parallel to the lines usual manner.
pattern cutter.

V

etc.

of the arm, and, bringing the blade against the several

points in the profile, drop corresponding points upon Shift the T-square so that the the miter line S E.

S E T, and transblade shall be parallel to the part For the patfer the points in S E to T, as shown. tern of the arm, at right angles to it lay off a stretch-

V

V

out of

AB

which

C, as draw the

shown by F G, through the points
usual

in

measuring

lines.

Place the
Fig. SSS

T-square at right angles to the arm, and, bringing it S, cut the corresponding measagainst the points in

A

Five-Piece Elbow.

E

uring lines, as shown.

Then a

line traced

these points, as shown from For the pattern of the piece

H

through

the lines

E S

and

T V, and

to I, will be the pattern.

a/, as

shown by L

S V T E prolong the line which lay off a stretchout, K, upon

Then measuring lines. thus obtained, all as shown by
pattern sought.

cut the corresponding lines traced tli rough the points

NP

M,

will be the

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 323, let
pipe, of
for a

43.

Pipe Carried Around a Semicircle by Means of Cross Joints.

which a

F E D be the semicircle around which A C B is a section, is to be carried by means of any suitable number of cross
Divide the semicircle

shown by D, 0, P, E, S, E, etc., and draw lines from As there are to be ten joints there each point to Z. must necessarily be eleven pieces, therefore, according
to the directions given in the previous problem, the semicircle must be divided into such a number of

joints, in this instance ten.

FE

D
be

into the

same number

joints, which, as just stated,

of equal parts as there are to is to be ten, all as

equal parts that the

number

of lines radiating

from Z

Pntlvnt

135

shall

be eleven, all as shown, each line serving as the From L> toward the center Z center line <>f a piece. set off the diameter of the pipe A B. as shown l>v tlie From Z as eenter, with the radius Z A point A'.
1

corresponding to the

full

of the pipe. For the pattern of the ceed as follows Divide the profile
:

sections composing the body end section pro-

AC
1

B

in the usual

,

manner
at

into anv convenient

number

of equal parts,
lines

draw the dotted line representing the inner line of the pipe, and cutting the radial lines previously drawn in and 0' draw lines the points 0', P etc. Through Z and continue them in either at right angles to
1

and from the points thus obtained carry
right angles to

upward

Z D.

,

line

Z

profile

A

D. and upon it C B, perpendicular to which draw measurto

cutting T T. Prolong the place a stretchout from the

drawn P and P on the one side and through D and through Each pair of lines is to be drawn at A' on the other.
direction
till

they
1

intersect

with

the

lines

ing lines in the usual manner.

placed

parallel

With Z D, and brought

the T-square successively

against the points in T' T, cut the measuring lines of

Fig.

StS.A

Pipe Carried Around a Semicircle by Means of Cross Joints.

right angles to its respective radial or center line. Through the points of intersection draw the lines T T ,
1

U', etc., or miters.
It will

U

which

will represent the lines of the joints

Then a line traced through corresponding numbers. the points of intersection thus obtained, as shown by I L, will be the shape of the miter cut, and G I

K LH

K

will

is appear by inspection that the point from P and O, and that U' is also equidisequidistant tant from P' and 0', and that therefore the lines U', T T , etc., if continued inward must arrive at the

U

pieces. as

U

U', lay off a stretchout of center line extended, as shown by

UV

V

be the complete pattern for one of the end For the pattern of one of the large pieces,

A

C B upon

its

M

1

the points in
ner.
it

it

draw measuring

lines

N, and through, in the usual man-

center Z.

must

Thus the joint lines, like the center lines, radiate from the center of the semicircle.

Place the T-square parallel to and, bringing cut the line the points in V. Next , against

UV

UU

1

V

C B directly below the profile of the pipe end of the pipe, all as shown in and in line with one As may be seen by inspection of the the engraving. Draw
one corresponding diagram, two patterns are required, to the half section occurring at the end, and the other

A

l uare parallel to the stretchout line, place it against the several and, bringing points in the miter and cut the corresponding measlines V,

the

T' S(

U U
1

V

uring lines,
tern.

all

as

shown, thus completing the pat-

136

The

New

Metal

Worker Pattern

Book.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

44.
at

an Elbow

Any

Angle.
it

LetDFHKLIGE
tion,

of a pipe in

angles.

in Fig. 324 be the elevawhich elbows are required at special In convenient proximity to and in line with

J-square, placing

parallel to the

second section, and,

bringing

it

them upon

H

against the several points in I. At right angles to the
as

F G, drop
first

section

lay off a stretchout of
in

AB

C,

shown by T U, through the
which
draw
the
lines.

points

customary

measuring

Placing the T-square at right angles to this section of the
pipe, and bringing it against the several points in F G, cut

the corresponding measuring Then the line lines.

ELS

traced
will,

through these points with the line T U, be the

pattern sought.

The

pattern

for the opposite end is to be obtained in like manner, all as shown by P, and

MN

therefore need not be

described in

detail.

For the pattern of the middle section
lay off a stretchout,

W V,
it,

at right angles

to

with the cusPlacing the
at
r
i

tomary, measuring
lines.

T-square

gh

t.

angles to the section, bring it successively against the points in G F and I H, and cut the correspondThen lines traced ing measuring lines, as shown.

through these points, as shown by Y X Z Q, will be the pattern sought. The positions of the longitudinal joints in the several sections of this elbow, as well as those of all others, are determined by the

order in which the measuring lines drawn through the stretchout are numbered. In the present instance the joints are allowed to come on the back of the
pipe,
Fig.

or,

in

other
to

words, upon

D F

II

K, which

Sij.An Elbow at Any Angle.

one end of the pipe draw a profile, as shown by A B C, which divide in the usual manner. Placing the
T-square parallel to the first section of the pipe, and, bringing it against the several points in the profile, Shift the drop corresponding points upon F G.

the point 1 in the profile. corresponds Hence, in numbering the measuring lines in the several stretchouts, point 1 is placed at the commencement and

ending,

while

if

it

were desired to have the joint
side, or at a point

in either piece

come on the opposite

corresponding to 9 of the profile, the stretchout would have commenced and ended with that figure, the

Pattern

Problems.

137

figure 1 in that case

now

occurs.

The

effect of

coming, in regular order, where 9 such u change upon anv of
if

were cut in two upon the line 9 and the two halves were transposed.

the patterns here given would be the same as

they

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a Bifurcated Pipe, the

45.

Two Arms Being
the

the

Same Diameter

as the Main Pipe, and Leaving:

It at

Same

Angle.

shown an elevation of a bifurcated In this pipe, all arms being of the same diameter. as in many others, it becomes necessary to problem,
In Fig. 325
is

of the miter lines will at once be determined.

Thus

the intersection of the three bisecting lines at E gives the point at which the miter lines starting from the
points P,

first

a correct drawing of the intersection of the after which parts showing the miter lines correctly
;

make

E and

K

must meet.

In line with the upper end of the pipe draw a

Fig.

MS.

The Pattern for a Bifurcated Pipe.

method of laying out same as that employed
the

of the miter patterns is the in several other problems

profile of

it,

as
in

shown by

A

C

B.

A

profile will also

If. in this case, each arm immediately preceding this. of the pipe be divided longitudinally into two equal as shown by the center lines, and each half be

one of the oblique arms, a half only shown at A' C' B' on account of the limited being For the pattern of the upper portion of the space.

be needed

parts,

pipe, divide the profile

considered as a separate molding the correct position

any number of of the same on equal spaces, and place the stretchout
into

A

C B

138

The
line

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
concerned, from the original profile, by simply continuing the lines through to the miter line J F, as shown. For simplicity, therefore,

any

the continuation of

as shown by and draw the usual measuring lines. Next drop the points from the profile C B parallel with S P till they cut

drawn

at right angles to

S P,

by

C'

B' on profile

is

S

D

to the left,

A

the miter line

then placing the T-square at to S P, drop the points from the miter right angles
line

PEE;

the profile A' C' B' is divided into the same number of equal parts as the original profile, and a stretchout of
it is

P E

into measuring lines of corresponding
to P', will give the miter cut

num-

placed upon any line, as T U. drawn at right angles to E F. The points are then dropped from the profile

ber.

A line traced through these points of intersection,
DE
on the one-half of which only P,

as

shown from E"

lower end of the pipe S
is

shown

E FJ

K is obtained

The pattern for the piece in the engraving. in exactly the same manner, and
so
far

both ways, cutting the miter lines K R E and J F, after which, with the T-square placed parallel to T U, they can be dropped into the measuring lines of the stretchout. Lines traced through the points of intersection will constitute the required pattern, as

might be obtained,

as

the

half

indicated

by K' R' E' R"

K" X

W V.

shown

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

46.

the Top and Bottom of a "

Common "

Skylight Bar.

represents a portion of the prothe ridge bar, or of the ventilator forming the file of top finish of a skylight, against which the upper end of a "common" bar is required to miter; and C

In Fig. 326,

AB

"hip
in

" bar will be given later among those problems which the development of the miter line and the

D

represents the profile of the curb or finish against which the lower end of the bar miters. The parallel oblique lines connecting the two show the side elevation of the bar

shown at E F F As the profile consists of two symmetrical halves, either half, as E F or E F may be chosen to work
whose
1

profile is
1

.

,

from, and

as

it

contains

no curved portions

it

is

simply necessary to number all of its points or angles, and then to place a complete stretchout of the same upon any line drawn at right angles to the lines of the
molding, as
lines, all
Gr

H, and

to

draw the usual measuring

a properly drawn elevation shows the intersection of the points of the profile with
as

shown.

As

the two miter lines

AB

and C

D

1

,

it

is

only neces-

sary to place the T-square parallel
lines

to the stretchout

G

in

A

B and C D

lines,

H, and bring it successively against the points and cut corresponding measuring as shown at I J and K L. Straight lines con1

,

necting the points of intersection will complete the The length of the pattern, as shown at I J L K.
pattern,

which

is

here
1

shown

indefinite,

must be
rise

determined by a detail drawing, in which the B and the run D are correctly given.

M
the

" Fig. 32fi.The Patterns for a

Common

"

Skylight Bar.

M

raking of the profile are necessary, with which they
for

The

patterns for the

"jack"

bar

and

are properly classed.

1'atkrn

I'rMems.

139

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

47.

a T-Joint Between Pipes of the

Same

Diameters.

Let
tion of

D FG

II

M

F

K

ft

in Fig.

327 be the elevameeting
at right

two

]>i])cs

of the

same

size

D', of the piece G I the points B and B' from the By projecting profiles through their respective elevations the point L is found, which being connected with the points F and

D, will miter with one-half, B'

C

1

M

H.

Space the profile A B C D into any number of equal parts and lay off the stretchout 1ST O ut right angles to the pipe of which

K gives

the miter lines.

ABC

D is the profile,

as shown,

through the points in which draw the usual
measuring
lines.

Set the

T-square at right angles
to this pipe, and, bring-

ing the

the

blade

against

points on the rniter lines, cut the
several

corresponding measuring
lines

drawn through the

stretchout, as indicated by the dotted lines. Then

N

F

1

UV

WO
A

will

be

As both halves of the pattern for the upper piece. this piece (dividing now upon the line C) will be alike only one-half of the profile (A B C) has been
For divided, but the stretchout is made complete. the pattern of the other piece, divide its profile into

any convenient number of equal parts and lay off the stretchout on the line R T, drawn at right angles
T-square parallel with the miter lines from that the pipe drop points upon portion of the profile (B C' D') which comes in line
to

the

pipe.

Placing

the

1

with them

;

then place the blade of the T-square at

it against the right angles to the pipe, and, bringing several points in the miter lines, cut the corresponding measuring lines, as shown by the dotted lines.

A

line,
Fig. 327.

X Y Q

A

T- Joint

between Pipes of the

Same Diameter.

bound
lower
B'

Z, traced through points the opening to be cut in the pattern for the From the points 1 in the stretchout pipe.
will

these

angles and forming a T, of which As (J D' are profiles drawn in line with either piece. the two profiles are alike, and as the end of one piece (D E F K) comes against the side of the other piece
1

A

B C D and A'

draw the

length of the pipe.

and T S, in length equal to the. Connect P S. Then P R T S The seam iji the pipe will be the required pattern. may be located as shown in the engraving, or at some
lines

RP

(G

I

M

H), both halves of

D E F

K,

B

AD

and

B C

other point, at pleasure.

140

The

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

48.

a Square

Pipe Describing a Twist or

Compound Curve.

As problems
connection
this

of this nature frequently occur in

with

hot

air

pipes,

grain

chutes,

etc.,

problem is given as embodying principles which The upper opening of the can often be made use of. in a horizontal pipe in this case is required to be
is in a vertical position plane, while the lower opening and placed at a given distance below and to one side of the top, the pipe describing a quarter turn when viewed from either the top or the front.

and C' J of cutting the two miter lines D' the plan, as shown (the figures of the plan 2 to 11 have no reference to this part of the operation). Upon 8, drawn at right angles to the direction of the mold,
tically

M

R

lay off the stretchout of the usual measuring lines.

ABE,
With

through which draw
the T-square placed

8 and brought against the several points parallel to in the two miter lines cut lines of corresponding num-

R

To more

lem, a perspective which the pipe is the pipe

the probfully illustrate the nature of view of it is shown in Fig. 328, in

ber; lines traced through the points of intersection, as shown by R T and S, will give the pattern of the top It will be noticed that owing to the contrary piece.

U

represented

as

being

contained

relation of the

within a cubical shaped solid.

The

solid, of

which

is represented as forming a part, is shown in the pipe itself being shaded to show its form, outline, while upon the front and lower side of the solid are

necessary to have the points of the profile occur more frequently near B than E, as otherwise they would intersect the miter
it

two curves

is

and plan of Thus G F T C represents the front view of the pipe. a solid just large enough to contain the pipe, in which A B C D shows the position of the lower opening, and A B E FD C shows the curve of the pipe as seen from G II S B is the top of tin- solid in which the front.

shown

in dotted lines the front elevation

1

P S R is situated. The curve of the upper opening in plan has been projected to the lower face the pipe of the solid by vertical lines, R L, and others not
shown, and
is

N

shown by C J

K

L

M

D.

To

state the

is the case simply, then, profile of the piece of L and the top of the pipe, while 1) metal forming of the are the two miter lines, or the plans C J

ABE

M

K

is the profile of the intersecting surfaces, and lower side of the pipe intersecting the same miter

CDF

lines.
it is

pieces being developed, only necessary to reverse the operation and con-

The top and bottom

sider the lines of the plan I) front and back profiles of the

ML

and C J

K

as the
Fig. SS8.

while

ABE

and

CDF

pieces respectively, become the miter lines or
line D'

Perspective View of

a Pipe Describing a
Curve.

Twist or

Compound

elevations of the intersecting surfaces. part of these operations are

A

carried

out

in

M

detail in Fig. 339,

where the elevation and the plan

are

drawn

points

directly in line with each other; the various being represented by the same letters in the

occur more frequently than there is no curve from A to
of the pattern from

too far apart near D', while they would is necessary near M. As

B

R

to

S

will

of the profile, that part be a duplicate of the

two

illustrations.
its profile

divide

points (1, 2,

3,

For the pattern of the top piece by any convenient number of from which drop lines veretc.),

plan

view, consequently the
line

ABE

measuring
plan.

curve from R to the drawn from S may be traced from the The development of the pattern for the lower

/'a ttcni

Problems.

HI
Q 1 and brought against D F cut corresponding

not given, but it would be accomthe same manner as that of the top exactly plished F as the profile instead of B E. piece, using C D
Mile of

the pipe

is

in

A

the T-square placed parallel to the various points' in B E and

measuring

lines.

For the pattern
divide
its

of the front piece

of the pipe,

profile

L

M

intersection, as

shown by

Lines traced through the points <>f Q P and N, will give the

D' by any convenient

number

required pattern.

-

/

512
Pig. iS9.

3

t

5

6

1

Patterns for a Pipe Describing a

Compound

Curve.

of points 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., from which drop lines verlines 1) F and B E, as tically, cutting the two miter

pattern of the back piece not given in the illustration can be developed in exactly the same man-

The

shown.
tion of

Upon Q

1,

drawn

at right angles to the direc-

place the stretchout of L through which draw the usual measuring lines.

the mold,

M

D',
'

by using C' ,T K and proceeding otherwise the same as
ner as that of the front going.

as the profile
in

the fore-

With

T/ic

yew

Metal

IFcr/ar

Patient

Jlwk.

PROBLEM
The Construction
of

49.

a Volute for a Capital.

It is

large size of metal cut

sometimes desirable in designing capitals of to construct the volutes of the same of strips

and soldered together. The principal characteristic entering into the design of the volute,

the nine spaces on the upper side of the line. Drop lines vertically from each of these points intersecting the upper line of the side of the scroll in plan. Place
the J-square parallel to the stretchout line B K, and bringing it successively against the points in the plan, drop lines cutting corresponding lines of the stretch-

and that which distinguishes it from an ordinary scroll, consists in a pulling out or raising up of each successive revolution of the scroll

beyond the former, thus

This feature of its deproducing a ram's horn effect. is also frequently embodied in the construction of sign
scrolls

Then a line traced through the points of intersection, as shown from I to J, will give the shape of
out.

blocks, such as

used to finish the sides of large brackets or head may be seen by reference to Fig. 87 on

the side of the strip to cover the space between the and G of the elevation. A similar course is points

H

As all volutes, except those of the Ionic page 12. order, always occur under the corners of the abacus and project diagonally from the bell of the capital, their forms can only be correctly delineated in a
diagonal elevation. In Fig. 330 is

be pursued in obtaining the outside cover or strip This stretchout consists of extending from F to G.
to

fourteen spaces, and is shown on the lower side of the center line K, the pattern being shown from L to The pattern for the remaining strip consists of a M.

A

shown

portion of the bell and C B shows volute. Immediately below the same, D of the plan of the capital, turned to correone-quarter

a diagonal elevation of a abacus of a capital with the

tween

stretchout of seven pieces taken from the profile beG and the termination of the scroll line. Points

from

this part of the profile are

intersected with two

A

miter lines in the plan, one forming the outer line of the strip, or its finish against the more projecting part

spond with the elevation, in which the various curves of the volute have been carefully projected from the As the patelevation, as shown by the dotted lines.
dependent upon the drawing of the plan for his miter lines, considerable care must be given to this part of the work. On account of the small scale
tern cutter
is

and the other forming its finish against the lower scroll or inner edge of its first or outer curve. In Fig. 331 the lines showing the projection of the
of the scroll,

inner part of the volute beyond the outer curve are In the lower half the lines correspondclearly seen.
ing to the points 1 to 7 of the profile are shown by corresponding numbers. Lines dropped from the points on

drawing Fig. 330, an enlarged view of the of the helix of the volute, as seen from below, is plan shown in Fig. 331, in which the various curves can be
necessary in

both these lines to corresponding lines of the stretchout
will give the pattern as

shown from

M

to

N.

followed throughout their course. The volute as here given consists of two side pieces or scrolls, an outside cover or face strip, an inside cover

inspection of the drawing it will be seen that the outline of the volute, as given in the elevation,

By

and two narrow strips to rill the space where the second curve of the scroll projects beyond the first. The outside cover or face strip extends from F of tinelevation to G, where
it is

does not represent exactly the "true face" of the As the variations in the angle of the side of the scroll.
central part or helix of the scroll are only such as can be produced by the springing of the metal necessary to

which begins

at

H.

To

inside face strip, obtain the pattern for the in-

met by the

bring

it

into shape, no allowance need be

made

for such

the profile from II to G into any convenient number of equal spaces, and lay off a stretchout of the same upon the center line of the
side cover, divide

variation in cutting the pattern directly from the elevaCareful measurements of the stern or lower tion.

show part of the volute, as shown in the plan, however, 9 to points a and i, if laid that, the distances from point
olf

volute in plan,

A

B, extended toward K, as shown bv

on a

line parallel to

A

B, would reach to points

a'

Pattern

143

and b\
locate

These points projected back into the elevation them in that view at a and V. Therefore the
stem will have to be ex-

and need not be repeated here. The correct outline, from

G

to

b' is

outline of the back of the

To avoid

omitted to avoid confusion with the figures. confusion of lines in dropping the points
profile to the miter liues

tended as shown by the dotted line from

F

to a'.

This

from the different parts of the

Fig. S3 1,

Enlarged, View of Helity

PATTERNS
Fig. 330.

The Construction of a Volute for a Capital.

outline can be accurately obtained, if deemed necessary, by the raking process described in connection with a

and thence to the stretchout, only the first and last of each series or stretchout have been shown by dotted
lines in the drawing.

number

of other problems in this section of this chapter,

144

Tin-

Sen-

Miiul

Wvrhr

I'ntim,

/;<,/,;

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a

50.
Its

Pyramidal Flange to

Fit

Against the Sides of a Round Pipe Which Passes Through

Apex.

pictorial illustration of the flange fitting against the sides of the pipe, as stated above, is shown in Fig. In Fig. 333 L 332. represents the elevation of

A

K

M

be used in obtaining the pattern. Therefore, divide I into any C&nvenient number of parts and carry vertical lines to L M, which represents one side of the

G

pyramid, and then, from these points and the points L and M carry lines at right
angles to it indefinitely, as shown. in the elevation represents the

L

M

complete

length of one side of the pyramid, as it would be if not cut by the pipe. Lav olT

on the

line

from

M

the length of one side

of the base of the in the pyramid, as B as shown by Biseet plan,

D

MM

1

.

M M

1

at F, from
to

L

E.

and

M

which point draw F E parallel M, cutting the line from point L at The lines from K to the points M
of

1

would give the pattern
if

one side of the

be cut by the pipe. It pyramid simply remains now to measure the width of the pat tern at the various points of the curved portion, which
it

were not

to

Fig. 332.

Perspective View of

Pyramidal Flange.

can be done by measuring the distance of each point in the profile G I, from the center line of the side B D in
off these distances upon lines of number drawn through the pattern from corresponding the line L M, measuring each time from the center line E F. Thus the distance of point 4 from the center

plan,

and setting

Fig. 333.

Pattern for a Pyramidal Flange to Fit Against a

Round

Pipe.

pyramid, and

pass through As the pyramid has four sides, each side will mid. miter or fit against one-quarter of the profile oj the
pipe, as will be seen by reference to the plan. Again, as each side consists of two symmetrical halves, as

P K T S elevation of the pipe that is to it, A B D C being plan of pipe and pyra-

from the center line of the patway upon lino 4, and coincides with this point as previously established by the lines drawn from E to M and M'. The distance of the point 3 frcm the
line in plan
is

set off

tern each

center line in the plan is set off from the center line of Point '1 pattern each wavMipon line 3 of the pattern.
is

established

in

the

same manner.

A

line

traced

the dotted line dividing the side B D, oneof the profile of the pipe (as G I) is all that need eighth

shown by

through the points
tern.

4321234

completes the pat-

145

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a

51.

Square Pyramid to Fit Against the Sides of an

Elliptical Pipe

Which Pisses Through

Its Center.

Fa Fig.

pyramid, whose

F

II

1

shows the plan of a square completed, would be at E. J shows the horizontal section of an elliptical
:>:-i,
;i]ic.\,
if

AB

C

D

B G S to fit patterns will be necessary, one for the broad side of the pipe, and another for against
B G T C
edge
or
to
iit

A

against what

might be termed the
pipe.-

pipe, against, the sides of which the sides of the pyramid are required to be fitted. From the side B (or

narrow side of the

To

obtain

the

A

pattern of the side of the pyramid

shown by B

G

T C
1

D
Fig. SS4.

C
The Pattern! for a Square Pyramid

C1
to Fit

Against the Hides of an Elliptical Pipe.

D C)of the plan is projected a front elevation, K L M N shows the broad side of the pipe.

in

which
the

(or

To

in which right another or side elevation is projected, P Q li. the narrow view of the pipe is shown by

B E C, if the pyramid were complete), first divide that portion of the profile of the pipe from G to by any convenient number of points, as shown

H

An

will inspection of the plan

show

at

once that two

by the small figures, from which, together with B and E, project lines vertically to the elevation above, cut-

146

The

New

Metal
1

Worker

I'utl'-rn

lion!.-.

At ting that side in profile as shown from E' to B right angles to E' B carry lines from each of the points At any convenient distance indefinitely, as shown.
. 1

away, cut these lines by any line, as E V, drawn Upon each of the lines drawn from parallel to E B'.
3
1

K B of tin complete pyramid'), whose profile is shown bv B E of the side elevation, showing the narJ The pattern is shown at A B" row view of the pipe. G S*, and the operation is clearly indicated by the
1

(or

A

3

J

4

2

lines of projection.
If it is desired to

the points in

E

1

B', set off

from

E

3

V

3

the distances

complete the elevations bv show-

upon

lines of

ured from
off either

E V.

corresponding number in the plan measThus upon line 5 of the pattern set
its

ing the lines of intersection of the sides of the pipe with the sides of the pyramid shown respectively in

way from

intersection with the line

E V
1

3

each elevation, as from

c to b

and

<-.

toy',

it

can be ac-

a length equal to the distance of point 5 of the plan from the line E V. Upon line 4 of the pattern set off

complished as follows
vertically

:

To

obtain the

line c i, erect lines

distances equal to that of point 4 from
ct.-.

EV
3

of the plan,

Also make
of the plan.

V

3

C and

3

V B
s
1

3

equal to

VB
3

Lines drawn from

C and

V C and B toward
3

from points ti. T and S (not shown), passing the space between c and b in the front elevation, through upon each of which set off the hight of each point as

measured upon
C" to
tion
;

lines of corresponding
<?,

number from B

2

E will meet the points previously set off on line 5 of the pattern, indicated by T" and G , and will constitute the sides or hips of the pattern, and a line traced
through the points set
will give the
off

B E

3

3
,

as

shown from R toward

in the side eleva-

then a line traced through the points thus obtained In the same manner lines from tinwill give the line ci.
a a points 1, 2, 3 and 4 can be carried at right angles to B C into the side elevation, upon which to set off hights of

on

lines 1

and 5 inclusive
fit

shape of that portion of the pattern to
is

against the pipe.'

An

exactly similar course

to be

taining the pattern of the side of the

pursued pyramid A S

in

ob-

corresponding points as measured from A' 15' to B E in the front, elevation; then as shown between <i and
1 1

,

1>

GB

a line traced through the points will give the line ef.

PROBLEM
The Patterns

52.

for a Rectangular Pipe Intersecting a Cylinder Obliquely.

In Fig. 335,

let

AB M

C

or cylinder, and B E D the profile of which is pipe, L OPQ the elevation, J represents the drum, and n O the angle at which the rectangular pipe,

drum

represent the plan of a C the plan of rectangular shown by F G II I. In

1', and, bringing it successively against the points in the miter lines N n Q q, cut the corresponding measuring lines, as indicated

parallel with the stretchout line 1

K

N

K

they are to intersect.
circular

Draw

the end view, or plan, of

lines. Lines traced through the points thus obtained, as indicated by ihgfi', will give the desired pattern. It will be observed that 1 II li i is a

by the dotted

drum

in

line

with the elevation, as shown.

duplicate of
cate,

O P Q N,

and that

G

F///

is

Also extend

C
n

q so a line dropped from point will cut them, as shown by and Q. of plan Then N" q is the joint between the drum and pipe, as

n and

P

only

in a reversed position.

The

also a duplipoints in h >/ of
in
tin-

N

Q

pattern arc derived from Q y, as the points If the size of pattern are derived from N //.
is

f

i'

of

work-

For the pattern of rectangular Divide B C of plan into anv pipe proceed number of equal parts, and from these convenient Also from points carry lines horizontally cutting E D.

shown

in

elevation.

as follows:

it inconvenient to drop points the elevation to the pattern by means of the Tfrom square, the stretchout line I I' can be drawn where

such as to render

the points in On O.

N

C B drop lines vertically cutting Q P and P extended lay off a stretchout of profile
1

distances from

convenient, the usual measuring lines erected and the O P to points in N and (.) */ transferred
/

F G

II I, as

ED

to

HG

shown by 1'. transferring the spaces in and F I', and through the points in it draw
Place the "T-square

by means drawn from

of

the dividers to lines of similar

number

the stretchout line.

the usual measuring lines, as shown.

For the pattern or shppe of opening in drum, proceed as follows: On L M extended, as R U, la}- off a

fit//'

/;.

I'rnlilems.

147
of

stretchout of

BO

tainc"! erect the

of plan, and from the points thusobusual measuring lines, as shown. Place

in.tr

lines

corresponding

number.

points thus obtained trace the lines

V

W and

Through the

YX;

PLAN

i

Fig. 335.

Patterns for Rectangular Pipe Intersecting a Cylinder Obliquely.

the T-square parallel with cessively against the points

M
N

L, and, bringing it sucn and Q q, cut measur-

then

V

WXY

will

be the shape of the required open-

ing in the side of the

drum.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
lor the Intermediate Piece of a

53.

Double Elbow Joining:

Two

Other Pieces Not Lying in the

Same

Plane.

In Fig. 33fi

is

shown

a front and side view of a

somewhat complicated arrangement of elbows such as sometimes occurs when pipes have to be carried around

the drawing will show that once the correct angle of the different elbows is ascertained the development of
the miters will be quite simple, and is the same as those occurring in several of the problems preceding

beams or through limited openings.

An

inspection of

148
this.

Tin-

Sf.w Metal

Worker Pattern B<>k.

section of the pipe rises vertically to elbow, B, from which it must be carried upward a distance equal to C M, to the left a distance

The lower

the

first

equal to B M, as shown in the front view, and back a distance equal to o C, as shown by the side view.

methods employed in drawing the two views shown in Fig. 336 will be of assistance to the pattern cutter. According to the principles of projection each individual point must appear at the same hight in both elevations, and at the same distance right or left and for-

Fig. a38.

Diagram Used in Obtaining Correct Side View of Upper Elbow.

Fig. 337.

Correct Side View of

Lower Elbow.

2.

s

FRONT VIEW
Fig. 836.

SIDE VIEW

Elevations of Double Elbow.

1

2

Fig. 339.

Correct Side View of Upper Elbow.

Fig. 840.

Method

of Obtaining the Pattern of Middle Portion in One Piece.

The Pattern for the Intermediate Piece of a Double Elbow Joining Two Other Pieces Nut Lying

in the

Same

Plane.

From
front,

the elbow C it then rises vertically, as seen in but really toward the observer as shown by the

ward or back, with reference to the center lines of the As front and side views are here required, plan.
begin by first placing the given plan in two positions, turning those sides of it to the bottom which corre-

side view.

The problem then

really consists in find-

ing the correct angles of the elbows, and becomes a question of draftsmanship rather than of pattern cutting.

Some

suggestions

then

with regard

to

the

spond to the sides required in the elevations, and proceed by erecting the center lines of the differ-

Pattern

Problems.

149

ent pieces in their proper positions and building the The plan being pipe around them, so to speak. a circle, the different sides can only lie indicated by

C

of the elevations,

and the distance C P

will

be

its

numbering the

points,

as will

be

seen

by referring
in

Since, now, its vertical distance cap easily be obtained from either front or side elevation, a new diagram can now be easily constructed

horizontal distance from B.

to the plans, point 2

appearing

in front

the front

elevation, and point 3 appearing in front in the side The plans having been so arranged and elevation. corresponding parts in both given the same number,

which shall contain the proper dimensions to obtain a correct side view of this elbow. Proceed, then, to
construct diagrams shown
in

Fig. 337,

equal to

proceed
tion,

now

to erect the center line of the lower sec-

making
this

both

views, as indicated
it its

the bight of the first bend, B, the same in by the dotted horizontal line.
is

Fig. a line connecting the represent the center line of the intermediate portion of the pipe and give its true relation to the vertical por-

C M,
;

336, M

B

equal to

Fig. 336

making C M C P of the plan, points C and B will

From

point the center line

continued in both

proper inclination to the left in the views, giving front view, and to the right in the side view, all according to the specified requirements, thus establishing the
agree in bight in both views. From this point the pipe appears inclined only in the side view, which means that it leans toward the observer point C,

represented by B H, Fig. the outlines of the pipe at the reBy drawing quired distance on either side of the center lines B and B C, a correct side view of the miter is obtained.
tion

whose center

line is

337.

H

making

it

Since, as has been referred to above, the upper portion
of the pipe appears vertical in one view and inclined in the other (see Fig. 336), a correct side view of the

in the front view.

Next draw

the outlines of the pipe

at equal distances from the center line and on either side of it throughout the entire course of the pipe in

While upper elbow is more difficult to be obtained. methods may be devised for obtaining it, the different
following is perhaps the simplest As the upper section of the pipe, as shown by Fig. 336, is of indefinite
:

both views, deriving them from the points of plans 1 and 3 in the front view and 2 and 4 in the side view.

length, any point
to take

may be assumed,

as D,

from which

Their intersection in the front view will give definitely
the positions in the miter of points 1', 1", and 3', 3", J As and in the side view of points 2', 2', and 4', 4 3' has been established in the front view, if a line point
.

measurement

upper elbow.

for obtaining the angle of the Since the true length of the line C B of

either elevation has already been obtained and given in Fig. 337, and since the true length of the part C D

be carried horizontally across from point 3 of the side view,
point
3' in

till it

intersects the line

can be derived from the side view of Fig. 336,

it

is

the miter, as shown same manner a horizontal line from

give the hight of in the front view. In the
it

will

necessary only to obtain the true distance between the and B of the elevations to obtain the proper points

D

1' in front, inter-

secting the perpendicular f?om point 1 in plan of side, will give the true hight of point 1' in the side view.

angle at the point C. By dropping a vertical line from the point D to a horizontal line drawn from the point C
in the side view, Fig. 336, the horizontal distance be-

A careful
make

inspection of the dotted lines of Fig. 336 will the subsequent operations necessary to the com-

pletion of the elevations clear to the reader without Since neither of the views gives further explanation. a true side view of the intermediate piece, one must

be obtained. By tranf erring this the plan of the front view, and locatdistance, o C, to ing its distance from C, as indicated by D. this point will give the true position of the point D in the plan,

tween C and

D may

be constructed from the facts now known, so as to get the true angle of the elbow B. By dropping a vertical

and the line 1) P will give the true horizontal distance In Fig. 338 let the between the points D and B. to the line D P of Fig. 336. C be equal At distance
point tance

from the point C of the front view into the plan it appear that the horizontal distance between the points C and B would be measured by the line K P of
line

will

O erect a perpendicular, O O D equal to o D of the side

D, making the diselevation, Fig. 336.

the plan; but bv further reference to the side elevation the position of the point C is found to be to the to B C' right of its center line by a distance equal
of the plan ; therefore, if this distance be set off on the vertical line from the point E in the plan below the

the point C drop a perpendicular, C B, making distance equal to the vertical hight between the that

From

points

C and B,

as

measured on

line

C

M

of the front

view

;

will readily

and B a diagonal line connecting the points be seen to give the true distance between

D

indicated front view, which C, the point C will determine the true position in the plan of the point
is

by E

Proceed the points bearing those letters in Fig. 336. construct the triangle shown in Fig. 339, maknow to ing C B equal to C B of Fig. 337. From C as a center,

150
with a radius equal to

Xf/r

.!/<'/"/

Worker Puttcm

IlooL:

C D

as obtained

from the side

means

of a line

drawn

parallel to the center line of the
it

in Fig. 336, draw a small arc. which intersect with the arc drawn from the point R, with a radius equal to B D as obtained in P'ig. 338 this will give the

view

middle portion, intersecting

at,

the

point

ij,

from

;

correct angle of the upper elbow at C. complete view of the miter may be obtained by further adding
outlines of the pipe at equal distances on either side of the center lines, and connecting their angles, as shown
side by the line bf. Having now obtained two correct views of the two elbows, the problem of obtaining the patterns for the same can be solved by the regular

A

which point it can be carried vertically to the plan, as shown by Z, where its distance from other points can be measured with accuracy. The position of the point a in Fig. 337 will readily be seen to be at point in
//

the plan of the front view, Fig. 336. By transferring the point Z from the plan of the side view to the plan of the front view, which can be done by measuring its distance from either of the points 2 or 3, the relative position of the points h and Z upon the same circle will
Fig. 340 shows a diagram, in which a correct side view of the two elbows is shown, giving

method.

be apparent.
obtain the pattern for the middle portion in further calculations, however, will be re-

To

one piece

the
,

quired. This, of course, could be obviated by making a slip joint in the middle portion of the pipe, by means of which the two elbows could be made separate, and

proper distance between the points B and C. Considering the lower one to be in its proper and lixed
position, the profile is constructed and divided into points for the purpose of obtaining a stretchout and

then simply turned upon each other
is

till

the required
|

might be desirable to angle make the pattern of the middle portion in one piece some means must be employed of ascertaining just how far one elbow would have to be turned upon the other
obtained.
as
it

But

stretchout
j

the miter pattern according to the usual method, the being shown upon the line E F in the
will readily be seen to correspond h in the plan of the front view. with point The position of the point Z in the same plan can be obtained

profile

and point 8

As the seam in pipe conwere they made separately. elbows is usually made at either the shortest or taining the longest point of the miter, it may be easily seen, by
an inspection of Fig. 336, that a line from the shortest in point, or throat, b of the upper miter of the piece
point, or point a, of the other end, and some Fig. 337, in the miter means must be devised for obtaining the real position

by measuring
it

its

to Fig. 340, as indicated

distance from point h and transferring by M. As the point I of

the upper elbow is in relation to the highest point, or is to the of the lower elbow as the point point 8 in the profile, it becomes necessary to place the point
,

M

question,

would not meet the longest

8 in the stretchout of the

upper elbow

as far

from the

point 8 on the stretchout of the lower one as the disin the profile, which is shown by tance from 8 to

M

of these points, of which the following is perhaps the or B, Fig. 339, From either of the points simplest
:

m

in the stretchout.
is

The

stretchout

of

the upper

D

draw a

line through the point i, continuing it to the further side of the triangle, as indicated by the line B X. Lay off the distance D upon the line D C of

thus moved, as it-were, in its relation to the stretchout of the lower elbow, that portion of it which

elbow

X

extends beyond the point
to the other so as to

1 at the left

end being added

make

the

seam continuous.

The

the side view, Fig. 336, thereby locating the position line connecting this of the point x in that view. with point B must intersect the miter line 2", 4:', point

A

points are then
rniter lines,

dropped from the profile to the two and thence into measuring lines of corre-

in this view at the

same point which

it

does in Fig.

339, thereby locating its position just as much as This point having been obtained, its in Fig. 339. equivalent upon the lower miter may be found by

Lines traced sponding number in the stretchout. the points of intersection, as shown by Y I* R through X, will be the required pattern. The miters for the

upper and lower sections would, of course, be inverted duplicates of the adjacent ends of the middle piece.

Pattern ProU<-inx.

151

PROBLEM
A
Let
Joint

54.
at Other

Between Two Pipes
_\l

of the

Same Diameter

Than Right Angles.
In the illustration the

LF D E K

I

II

elevation of two pipes of the

of Fig. 341 represent the same diameter meeting at

in the stretchout.

seam

in the

arm

the angle I, for which patterns are the profile or section A' B' C' in line with the branch pipe, and the section

M H

required.

located in the shortest part, or at a point corresponding to 1 of the profile. Accordingly, in numberis

Draw

ABC
side of

in line

with the main pipe.

As

both pipes are of the same diameter, and the end of one piece comes against the
the other piece, both halves of the branch pipe (dividing at the point B)
will miter with one-half,

B D,

of the

main

through the By projecting elevations of each piece from the points B or 4 of their respective profiles the point
pipe.
lines

G is obtained, which, being connected with
points
line.

F and H,
Space

gives the required miter both the profiles into the

same number of equal divisions, commencing at the same point in each. For the pattern of the arm proceed as follows
:

Lay

opposite the end of the arm and draw the usual measoff

the stretchout

ON

uring lines at right angles through it, as Place the T-square at right shown. with the arm, or, what is the same, angles
line, and, the blade successively against the bringing points in the miter line F G H, cut the corresponding

parallel

with the stretchout

Through the points thus obtained PEST, which will form the end of the For the pattern of the main pipe pattern required.
measuring
lines.

trace the line

proceed as follows
stretchout, as

:

shown by

Opposite one end lay off the V Y, and opposite the other

end lay Connect

off

UV

a corresponding line, as shown by X. and Y. From so many of the points

U

X

in the stretchout line

half of the profile
lines.

BAD draw

VY

as represent points in the

With the T-square placed
I,

the usual measuring parallel to the mold-

ing

D

drop the points from

the
it

miter line

then, placing the molding, drop lines from the points in the miter line intersecting the corresponding measuring lines.

F G H;

profile onto the at right angles to

lY

Fig. S41

A

Joint between

Two Pipes of the Other than Right Angles.

Same Diameter

at

A
F'
is

line traced

through these points of intersection, as
will describe the

Z

H W,
1

position of the

seam

in

The shape required. both the arm and the main pipe

ing

the

placed
is

first.

divisions of the stretchout, that number is In like manner the seam in the main pipe

determined by the manner of numbering the spaces

located at a point opposite the arm.

Therefore, in

152

The

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
during the operation of describing the pattern wherever desired. It is not necessary, as prescribed at the outset of this problem, that both profiles should be spaced off exactly alike. Any set of spaces will answer quite
as well, provided there

numbering the spaces in the stretchout commence at 1, which, as will be seen by the profile, represents If it were desirable to make the seam the part named. come on the opposite side of the main pipe from where that is, come directly through the it has been located made to receive the arm the numbering of the opening In that case stretchout would have been begun with 7. F IT Z would appear in two halves, and the opening the shape of the pattern would be as though the present pattern were cut in two on the line 7 and the two By this explapieces were joined together on lines 1. that the seams may be located nation it will be seen
1

W

be points in each exactly half between A and B of either profile that is, where way points 4 are now located. They are spaced alike in this
case to

show that lines dropped from points of the same number in each profile arrive at the same point on the miter line, and that therefore when both pipes are the
same diameter and
their axes intersect, one profile be used for the entire operation.

may

Note. In the nineteen problems immediately following, the conditions are such that it will be necessary to obtain the miter line from the data given by the operation of raking before the straightforward work of laying out the patterns can be begun. However, as certain parts of the work of raking the miter line and of laying out the pattern are common to both operations, the two are usually carried along together, and therefore such points and spices should be assumed upon the profiles at the outset as will be required in the final stretchout.

PROBLEM
To Obtain the Miter Line and Pattern
for a Straight

55.

Molding Meeting a Curved Molding of Same Profile.
represent a piece of a curved mold, G I J, straight molding joining the profiles of the straight and curved molding being
let

In Fig. 342,

F G J

K

H

the same.
Gr J,
910

To

proceed as follows the straight molding, as
:

obtain the miter line or line of joint, Draw the profile in line with

shown by C D E, and divide From the diviinto any convenient number of parts. sions in the profile draw lines parallel to F G in the
miter indefinitely, and also in the opposite direction, cutting the vertical line C E of the small figures, which correprofile, as shown by the
direction
of

the

K/
9-10

spond in number to the divisions on the profile. From B, the center from which the curved molding is struck, draw the line B A through the molding, as shown.
Transfer the hights of the various points of the profile as obtained on the line C E to the line B, placing the E at the point o of the intersection of the lower point

A

line of the

from the divisions on the line X o, intersecting lines of corresponding numbers drawn from the profile
lines of the straight molding. parallel to the traced through these intersections, as shown
will

shown by

X

curved molding with the line A B, all as o. Then, with B as a center, draw arcs

A

line
Gr J,

by

be the required miter

not a straight line.

To

line, and, as will be seen, is obtain the pattern for the

Pattern

/'/-otilems.

153

straight molding,

draw the

line

L

N

at right angles to

place the stretchout of the profile C D it, upon which At right angles to K, as shown by the small ligures. the stretchout line L X. and through the points in it,

the points forming the miter line G ,], and cut lines of Then a line corresponding number in the stretchout.
traced through these points of intersection will form the miter end of the pattern shown by L N O. The

M

draw the usual measuring
placed
at

lines.

With the T-square

methods employed

right angles to

K J, bring it successively against

obtaining the patterns for the curved portions are treated in Section 2 of this chapter.
in

PROBLEM
A
In Fig. 343
angles between
it

56.

T-Joint Between Pipes of Different Diameters.
a joint at right and the larger

is

required to
pipe

make

used in both operations the following course will be

tin smaller

DFGE

most economical.

At a convenient distance from the end of the smaller pipe in each view draw a section of it. Space these sections into any suitable number of equal parts,
commencing at corresponding points in each, and setting off the same number of spaces, all as shown by A

B C and
points in

A B C A B C draw
1
1 1

.

From
lines

the

downof

ward through the body

the

From the large pipe indefinitely. B' C' drop point onto points in the profile of the large pipe, as

A

1

shown by the dotted

lines.

For

the pattern of the smaller pipe the B' requirements are its profile

A

C
is

1

and the

line

F

1

G',

which

the outline of the surface against which it miters, and therefore its miter line. Therefore, take the

stretchout of A'

B C
1

1

and lay

it

off at right angles

W. Draw opposite the end of the pipe, as shown by the measuring lines, as shown. Then, with the T-square set parallel to the stretchout line, and brought successively against the points between F' and G' upon the profile of the large pipe, cut corresponding measuring Then a line traced through these lines, as shown.
points, as
pattern.
-

V

shown from

X

to

Y,

will

form the end of the

b

-

6
-7

-

-

e
9

Fiij. 3(3.

A

1-Joint between Pipes of

For the pattern of the larger pipe the stretchout is taken from the profile view F G' L' and laid off at right angles to the pipe opposite one end, as shown by "N P. A corresponding line, M O, is drawn opposite the other end, and the connecting lines M N and P
1

Different Diameters.

are. drawn,

pipe

H K L I. For this purpose both a side and an end view are necessary. As the two pieces forming the J are of different sections this problem really consists of two separate operations, but as certain steps can be

thus completing the boundary of the piece through which an opening must be cut to meet or miter with the end of the smaller pipe. According to
the rule given in Chapter V, a profile and a rniter line
L' has already been but no line has yet been drawn in the elevation stated,

are necessary.

The

profile F'

G

1

154

The Neiv Metal

\Vorker Pattern

Book.

of the larger pipe which shows its connection with the This can only be found l>v projecting smaller pipe. line's from the points dropped upon K' (}' through the elevation till they intersect with lines previously drawn from the 'profile B C, as shown between F and G.

into

measuring

lines of corresponding

number, when

a

line traced

through the points of intersection, as shown

by

R S T
It

U,

will give

the pattern of the opening

required.

A

F G

then constitutes the miter

line.

For economy's

miter

may be line F G

noticed that the development of the is not really necessary in this case, as

sake, then, the spaces 1 to 4 previously obtained in the profile are duplicated upon the stretchout, as shown, to

the points are really dropped from the profile right, through the elevation till they intersect

ABC

the

which are added as many more (4 to 10) as are necesAs the points 1 to 4 have already been dropped sary.

measuring

lines.

This happens

in

consequence

of the

upon the miter
necessary to

line in its

development

it

is

now only

or smaller pipe being at right angles to the larger Different conditions are shown in Problems 57 one.

arm

drop them

parallel to the stretchout line

and 58 following.

PROBLEM
The Joint Between Two Pipes

57.

of Different Diameters Intersecting at Other

Than Right Angles.

Let
pipe, and
II

ABC, Fig. Y N Z the
1

344, be the size of the smaller size of the larger pipe, and let

L

M

be the angle at which they are to meet.

Draw

an elevation of the pipes, as shown by

GK1

N M L H,

placing the profile of the smaller pipe above and in line with it, as shown, also placing a profile of the larger In this pipe in line with its elevation, as shown.

problem the profiles of the moldings or pipes are given, but the line representing their junction must be obtained before going ahead. To obtain this miter line,
first place a duplicate of the profile of the smaller pipe in position above the end view of the larger pipe, as shown by B' C , the cen-

A

1

1

both being on the same vertical line, C' Divide both profiles of the small pipe into the same
ters of
1

N

1

1 1

.

II II
H
i|
i|
|
i

number of spaces, commencing at the same point in each. From the points in A B' C project lines indefinitely through the elevation of the arm, as shown. From the points in A' B' C drop lines on to the profile of the
1

II ii
1
1 1 i 1

i 1

i |

large pipe, and. from the points there obtained carry lines across to the left, producing them until they intersect

corresponding lines in the elevation.

A

line traced

through these several points of intersection gives the miter line L, from which the points in the two

K

patterns are to be obtained. small pipe proceed as follows

:

For the pattern of the Opposite the end lay off

a stretchout, at right angles to it, as shown by Through the points in it draw the usual
lines, as

E

F.

measuring

In the developing of the line L the points have already been dropped upon the miter It therefore only remains to carry them into the line.

shown.

K

stretchout,

which

is

done by placing the

-square at

Pattern Problems.

155

right angles with the pipe, and, bringing

against

tin

1

]iDints

iii

the miter line
lines,

K

successively L, cut the correliy

it

sponding measuring
lines.

as

shown

the

dotted

the case of the smaller pipe, and also avoiding conThe other points in the profile arc taken at fusion. Draw a convenience, simply for stretchout purposes.

through the points thus obtained will give the pattern of the end of the ami, as indicated.
line traced

A

corresponding line, P T, opposite the other end, and In laying off the stretchout connect P R and T S. R S, that number is placed first which represents the

For the pattern of the large pipe proceed as follows: Opposite one end, and at right angles to it, lay off a stretchout line, as shown bv K S In spacing off
this stretchout

For point at which it is desired the seam shall come. the shape of the opening in the pattern, draw measuring lines from the points 4, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, as shown, and
intersect

u

is

l>est to

to

result

4 as they which

exist, as
will

by

transfer the spaces from 4 so doing measuring lines will

them by

lines

dropped from corresponding

correspond with points already exist-

points in the miter line. tained trace the line

UV

Through the points thus obX, which will represent

W

ing in the miter line

K

L, thereby saving labor, as in

the shape of the opening required.

PROBLEM
The Joint Between an
Elliptical

58.

Pipe and a Round Pipe of Larger Diameter at Other Than Right Angles.

Two

Cases.

In Fig. 345 J K L round pipe and E F G

M
II

is

the side elevation of the

that of the elliptical pipe the larger pipe at the angle F G J. In the joining

B C D and P Q, pipe whose profile is shown at in the side and end views. From an inrespectively,
spection of the drawings it will be seen that the side elevation shows the narrow view of the elliptical pipe, while the end elevation shows its broad view, or in

A

N

WJ

other words, that the profile of the elliptical pipe is so placed that its major axis crosses the round or larger
pipe.

In Fig. 346 the elevations show

the same pipes intersecting at the same angle,, but with the difference that the
profile of the elliptical pipe is so placed

ioQ

that

its

minor axis crosses the round

pipe. are the

The

same

reference letters and figures in the two drawings and

the following demonstration will apply equally well to either:

By way of getting ready to lay out the miter, it will first be neeessarv to obtain a correct elevation of the miter
line or intersection

pipes, as sliown,
this divide the

between the two from H to G. To do
profiles

two

AB

C D

and
Fig. 345
The, Joint between an Elliptical Pipe and a Round Pipe of Larger Diameter at Other than Right Angles. First Case. The Major Axis of the

NOPQ
in

equal parts,

same number of commencing at the same
into the

Elliptical Pipe Crossing the

Round

Pipe.

points in each.
points

Draw
Q,

lines

from the

end elevation
pipe and

UR

T S S T

I shows the profile of the round the intersection of the elliptical

T, cutting
definitely

T

S.

parallel with In a similar manner draw lines
in

NOP

U
in-

from the points

AB

C D,

parallel with

156
II

The

Nno

Mni<il

Worker Pattern

Hook.

which produce until corresponding lines from the two profiles intersect. Through the intersection thus obtained draw the several points of
.],

E, as shown. parallel with

From

the points in

T S draw

linos

M

angles with H E, or parallel with V W, and brought successively against the points in the miter line II G, cut line corresponding measuring lines. traced through the points thus obtained, as shown by
right,

A

Fig. $46.

Second Case.

The Minor Axis of

the Elliptical pipe Crossing the

Round

Pipe.

miter line
as follows

H
:

G.

For the pattern of
extended, as

E F G

II

proceed
off

X Y Z,

will give the miter cut required,

and

V "W X Y

On E F

V W,

lay

a

Z shows

the entire pattern.
of obtaining the shape of the openpipe is exactly similar to that de-

stretchout of profile B C I), through the points in which draw the usual measuring lines at right angles to the stretchout line. With the T-square placed at

A

The method

ing in the round scribed in the several preceding problems.

PROBLEM
A

59.

T-Joint Between Pipes of Different Diameters, the Axis of the Smaller Pipe Passing: to One Side of That of the Larger.

The

principle here involved and

the method of

procedure are exactly the same as in Problem 5<>, but the whole of the profiles must be used instead of the
halves, because the two axes or center lines of the pipes do not intersect.

as

pipe being set to one side of the axis of the large pipe, Draw an elevation, as indicated in the end view.

shown by
1

DF

I

L

MK

G

E.

Place a profile of the

small pipe above each, as shown by C , both of which divide into the same
parts,

ABC and A' B'
number
in

of equal

In Fig. 347, let
1 1 1

AB

C be

the size of the small

commencing

at the

same point

each.

Place

pipe and F H M be the size of the large pipe, between which a right-angled joint is to be made, the smaller
i

the T-square parallel to the small pipe, and, bringing it successively against the points in the profile B'

A

1

Pattern

Problems.

157
In the illustration
giv.
.

drop lines cutting tin- profile of the large pipe, as shown, from F to II'; and in like manner drop lines from the points in the profile A B C, continuing them
C',
1

pipe.

the

seam

lias

been

located at the shortest part of the pipe, or, in other words, at the line corresponding to the point 10 in the
section.
lines

through the elevation of the larger pipe indefinitely. For the pattern of the small pipe set off a stretchout

Therefore commence numbering the stretchout

with 10. Place the T-square at right angles to the small pipe, and, bringing the blade successively against the points in the profile of the large pipe from F toH', cut
1

Ai

the corresponding measuring lines, as shown. line traced through the points

A

thus obtained, as shown by X Z, will end of the required pattern. form the

Y

For the pattern
lay off a stretchout

of the large pipe,

from the

profile

shown in the end view, beginning the same at whatever point it is desired to
locate the seam,

instance will

which in the present be assumed on a line

file.

corresponding to point 13 in the proAfter laying off the stretch-

out opposite one
as

end of the pipe,

shown on R, draw a corresponding line opposite and P the other, as shown by P, and connect thus completing the outline of the pattern, through R,

N

N

which an opening must be cut

to miter with the

end

of the smaller pipe. In spacing the profile of the large pipe, the spaces in that portion against which the small

pipe

fits

are

made
lines

by dropping upon it, as shown by

to correspond to the points obtained from the profile of the small pipe
1 to 7 inclusive.

This

is

done

in order to furnish points in the stretchout correspondC, as ing to the lines dropped from the profile

AB

other measuring lines than those which the portion of the pipe which the small pipe represent Accordfits against are required in the stretchout.

shown.

No

R, ingly the lines 1 to 7 inclusive are drawn from as shown, and are cut by corresponding lines dropped

from

ABC.

A line

traced through the several points

-

-12

13

R

of intersection gives the shape S T U, which is the If it be necessary for any opening in the large pipe. bepurpose to show a correct elevation of the junction

Fig.

.Itf.A t-Joint between Pipes of Different Diameters, the Axis of the Smaller ripe Passing to One Side of that of the Larger.

tween two pipes, the miter line F H G is obtained by with corintersecting the lines dropped from lines carried across from the .same points responding obtained on the profile F IF, by dropping from A' B'

ABC
5.S,

1

line,

and opposite the end of the pipe, and draw the measuring lines, as shown. These measuring lines are to be numbered to correspond to the spaces in the profile, but the place of
at right angles to

V W,

C',

explained in Problems shown by the dotted lines.

;">(>,

;">7

and

and
is

all

as

As remarked

in

Problem

.">'.,

this line

not abso-

beginning determines the position of the seam

in

tin-

in illustratlutely necessary, but is of great advantage and principles of the work to be done. ing the nature

158

TIte

Xcw

Metal

\\'u/-L-,'f

I \iltrn,

!',<>,,

I.

PROBLEM
A
Joint at Other

60.
of the

Than Right Angles Between Two Pipes of Different Diameters, the Axis Being Placed to One Side of That of the Larger One.
1

Smaller Pipe

In Fig. 348, let C' B A' be the size of the smaller pipe, and D' E I the size of the larger pipe, between
1 1

desired.

The spaces of the profile between D' and K' should be transferred to the stretchout point by point
by
so doing

required at an angle represented In \V F K, the smaller pipe -to be placed to the side of the larger. Draw an elevaa joint
is

which

as they occur, as

measuring

lines will

be

tion of the pipes

joined,

as

shown by

VDGH IK

F W.

As

in the preced-

ing problems, the miter line or line giving a correct elevation of the junction of

the pipes must be developed before the actual work of laying out the miter patterns can be begun, therefore place a
profile or section of the
it,

arm

in line

with

as

shown by C B'
of

1

A

1

,

and opposite
as

and
D'

in line with

the end of
it,

pipe draw a section

the main shown by

E

1

1

I

.

draw a second
as

Directly above this section profile of the small pipe,
relative

shown by C B A, placing the center
it

of

in the required

position

to the center of the profile of the large Divide the two profiles of the pipe.

small pipe into the same number of equal spaces, commencing at the same point in each. From the divisions in C' B' A' drop lines parallel to the lines of
the

arm

indefinitely.

From

the divisions in
profile of

C B

A

drop lines until they cut the
as

shown by the points

in the arc D'

E

1

the large pipe, From these
.

points carry lines horizontally to the left, producing them until they intersect the corresponding lines from
C'

B

1

A

1 .

A

line traced

tersection, as

shown by
pipes.
:

DE

between the two
angles to

through these points of inF, will be the miter line For the pattern of the arm
off

proceed as follows

Lay

a

stretchout

at

right

and opposite the end of the arm, as shown R P, and through the points in it draw the usual by Place the T-square at right angles measuring lines.
the arm, and, bringing it successively against the points already in the miter line, cut the correspondto

ing

measuring
as

lines.

points,
pattern.

shown by

A line traced through these UTS, will form the required
Fig. 348

A

Jnint at other than Right Angles between

Two Pipes

of
lt>

For the pattern of the main pipe draw a stretchout line Opposite one end of it, as shown by M 0, numbering the divisions in it with reference to locating the

Different Diameters, the Axin of the Smaller Pipe being Placed One Side of that of the Lartjtr One.

seam,

which can

be placed at any point

obtained which will correspond to the points already Draw a line corresponding to the in the miter line.

Pattern

I'roliterns.

159

stretchout

line opposite the

shown by L N, and connect L
1

other end of the pipe, as M and N 0. Through

ing the blade against the points in 1) K K successively, cut the measuring lines of corresponding number, all
as

the points in the stretchout line corresponding to the points between D and E' of the profile draw measuring
lines, as

shown by the dotted

lines.

A

line traced

through

shown by

10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and

1.

Place

these points of intersection, as shown near the middle of L 0, will give the shape of the opening to be

M

N

the T-square at right angles to the main pipe, and, bring-

cut in the pattern of the main pipe.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig.
34!), lot

61.
Elbow Through One
of the Miters.

for a Pipe Intersecting a Four-Piece

A B

C

1)

E E

1

U

1

C'

13'

sent the four-pieced elbow in elevation,

F G

A' repreII J its

the pipe draw the profile of sftme, as indicated by P R S. Extend F of the profile of elbow, upon which

H

draw another profile of the small pipe, as shown by 0' P' R' S Divide both profiles of the small pipe into the same number of parts, commencing at the same points in each, as S and S Now parallel to F P of the profile draw lines from the points in O' P R' S intersecting the profile F G II J. as shown. A profile should properly be drawn in its correct relation to the part of which it is the section. As the
as a center line
1

.

1

.

1

1

1

part
file

C D D

1

C'

is

about to be considered

first,

the pro-

should be pjaced with its center line F H at right but as in a regular elbow of any numangles to C D ber of pieces the miter lines all bear the same angle
;

with the sides of the adjacent pieces, the profile may for convenience be placed in proper relation to one of the end pieces, after which lines may be carried from
it

parallel to the side

it

represents to the miter line,

thence from one miter line to another, always keeping parallel to the side, continuing this throughout the
entire

elbow

if

necessary.

Therefore parallel to
1

DE

from the points in G H of the profile, cutting the miter line D D, and continue these lines parallel to D C and C B. From the points
of the elevation

draw

lines

P S draw lines parallel with in the profile lines of corresponding numbers drawn intersecting

R

L

K

from

G

II.

A

line traced

through these intersections will

Z N. From the point Z in give the miter line the miter line carry a line back to the profile of the This gives, upon the propipe, as indicated by Z a.
file

K

of the pipe, the point at which the rniter line crosses the rniter line of the elbow C C , so that it can
1

KN

be

located
'.

upon the

stretchout

line,

where

it

is

marked
Fig. S49.

Pattern for the Pipe Intersecting of the Miters.

an Elbow

Tliroiigh Our.

follows:

For the pattern of the pipe K L M N proceed as At right, angles to K L draw the line
as

M' M",
the elevation of the pipe which prolile, In line with intersects the elbow through a miter joint.

and

K

L

MX

1!

S.

upon which lav shown bv the

oil'

the

stretchout

of

()

I'

smiill

figures,

points in which, and at right angles to

through the it, draw the

100

The

\'t'tn

Mini

\\~vrkcr

Pattern

liuuk.

which numbers drawn corresponding
usual measuring lines,
the pipe
line of

intersect with lines of
at

profile
is'

and Stretchout

of

the piece alivadv developed
,

right angles to the

L

K

from the intersections on the
line traced through the inter-

5, properly designated by the figures 1, '2, 3, while that of the piece next to be considered

(i,

is

miter line

K

Z N.

A

sections thus obtained, as shown by M", will be the required pattern for the intersecting pipe. To avoid confusion of lines in developing the

M N K N
1 1

1

2

properly designated by the figures 1, 2, 3, -ia, 5, 6, the point 4 not occurring in the first piece at all, while the
points i and a both
fall

out of the second piece,

upon the same line in the stretchall of which is clearly shown.

patterns of the intersected duplicate of those parts, as
is

pieces

of

the

elbows a
D'

shown by B C

D

also

given in Fig. 350, in which the miter line shown. The profiles F G H J and O' P' K'

K

C B Z N is
1
1

,

Z is pattern of the cut on the miter line obtained in the same manner as for Z N. At right angles to B C draw the line R' S', upon which place
the
stretchout
of

The

K

S' are

V H

of

the

profile,

as

shown.

presented merely to show the relationship of parts, as Z N, the patterns are obtained from the miter line

K

in connection with the stretchout of as
profile as
is

much
It

of the
is

s

1

covered by the intersection.

not

necessary to include in this operation the entire elbow such a part of the pattern will pattern, therefore only to H. be developed as is contained in profile from

V

For the pattern for that portion of elbow shown or II of profile, proceed as Z in elevation by

U

N

V

C D of elevation draw which lay off the stretchout of V H upon of the profile, as indicated by the small figures, through which draw the usual measuring lines at right angles to it, which intersect with lines of corresponding numbers drawn from the intersections on the miter line
follows
:

At

right angles to

the line

R S,

Z

N

at right angles to

C

D.

Trace a

line

through the

B

1

intersections

thus obtained, as shown by Z 3 Z s represent the pattern for that part of Then will 3 be the elbow shown in elevation by Z, and Z
1 .

U

3

3

N

ELEVATION
Fig. S50.

D

U

U

N
1

Patterns for the Pieces of an Elbow Intersected by the
Pip*.

1

on the miter line Z pattern for the cut tern for the other half of opening shown
is

N.

The

by

N X

VS

pat-

simply a duplicate of the half just obtained reN' Z" shows the shape to be cut out Then versed. of what would otherwise be a regular elbow pattern.

Through the points in the stretchout and at right angles to same draw the usual measuring lines, which
intersect with lines of corresponding

X

numbers drawn

The point a in the profiles O' S' and V II is so near the line drawn from the point 4 that separate lines are not shown, and on this account when obtaining
the shape of

from the intersections on the miter line K Z, at right Trace a line through the intersections angles to B C.

K

1

Z' the points 4

and a are shown on the
is

Then will thus obtained, as shown by K Z' U'. Z' U' represent the pattern for that part of elbow shown in elevation by Z U, and Z K' be the pattern
1

1

same

line.

for the

cut on the miter line

Z K.

The
1

In order to show that the pattern
-that

produced by

the regular method is, by from the miter lino into lines of corresponding points number in the stretchout it should be noted that the
the intersection of

the other half of opening obtained by duplication.

S' can be shown by K' X' Then will X K' Z' repreclb<>\\-

V

pattern for

sent the shape to be cut out of the regular
pattern.

Pattern Problems.

161

PROBLEM
The Pattern Let
<r:ililc

62.
Molded Pilaster.

for a Gable Molding: Mitering Against a

NXVE
of

in

Fig.

351

be the elevation of a
is

K

(.)

ML

molding be the elevation of a molded

which

A

BCD

the profile, and
pilaster against

to E, as would be the case if the side straight from of the pilaster were perfectly flat and projected further than the gable molding. It will therefore be neces-

N

Fig. 151.

The Pattern for a Gable Molding Mitering Against a Molded

Pilaster.

which

it

is

pilaster is

The profile of the required to miter. shown by J I in the plan, where a profile

H
1

of the miter, sary to first obtain a correct elevation after .which the pattern can be obtained in the usual

of the gable

placed as to

mold A B C D is also shown and so show the comparative projection of the
1

1

1

simple manner.

To do
mencing

this

divide the profiles in the plan and

various points in each. By an inspection of the plan and elevation it will be seen that the miter line or joint

elevation into the same
at the

same

between the molding and the pilaster will not be

corresponding figures,

of equal parts, comas shown by the points in each, From the divisions in the pro-

number

162
file

The Xeir Metal Worker

/'nttrn,

/AW,-.

H A
the
until

in plan carry lines to the left, parallel to A', until they cut the side of the pilaster II I J, as shown. From these intersections drop lines at right angles to From the divisions in indefinitely, as shown.
1

H

angles to the lines of the gable molding. through these intersections, as shown 1>\-

A line traced N G E will
2
,

be the required pattern.

Although the
ing
is

roof strip

AB

of the gable

mold-

profile in

elevation draw lines

they intersect corresponding

parallel to lines drawn

N X
from

perfectly straight, points will

have

to

be intro-

duced between

II I in plan.

as

shown

A line traced through these intersections, by N F E, will be the required miter line, or
of

intersection

the gable molding with the

upright

pilaster at the angle

N

X.

and B for the purpose of ascertaining the shape of the cut from to F, its intersection with the side of pilaster. The simplest method of obtainthese points is to derive them from the points being tween B' and C as shown by 0' to 5' in the plan.

A

N

1

,

Foi the pattern of the gable molding proceed as
follows
:

They can then be

At

right angles to the lines of the gable
line

molding draw the stretchout

A"

place the stretchout of the profile of ing, through which draw the usual measuring lines,

D", upon which the gable mold-

transferred to their proper place in the 3 and B". By so doinir stretchout, as shown, between of like number fall in the same place on the propoints

A

lile

H I, and

intersected with

the vertical lines dropped therefrom ran !>< F for the pattern of the roof strip

X

which intersect with drawn from the points

lines

of corresponding

number
at right

and with the other

lines

in the miter line

N

FE

the face of the mold,

all of

from F to E for the pattern of which is clearly shown.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
occurs that sheet metal reproductions of various emblems or tools are desired for use as ornaIt frequently
for

63.
an Anvil.

obtain the pattern of the side, first lay off a stretchout of the profile Z T, as shown, upon v q, through
the points in which draw the usual measuring lines.

To

In the following problem is shown signs. the various pieces necessary to form an anvil may be obtained. The description, of course, only applies to the several sides, as a representation of the horn

ments or

how

can only be obtained by hammering or otherwise stretching the metal.

In Fig. 352

is

shown a

side

and end elevation and

two plans

of the anvil, exclusive of the horn, the plans being duplicates and so placed as to correspond reBefore spectively with the side and the end views.

K
J

B G can be developed the pattern of the side piece J the line P Q R S, which is the result of the miter-

N

V of the ing together of the two forms shown by T of the end view, must be obtained. and Z plan T of the Therefore divide the curved portion Z

U

W

X

X

profile of

the side

WVU

equal spaces, as the points thus obtained drop lines vertically cutting the profile of the gore piece. Transfer the ,
1

any convenient number of shown by the small figures, and from
into

of the U' to points thus obtained on other plan, and from these points erect lines vertically through the elevation of the side, and finally intersect

WV

WVU

them with

lines of corresponding

number drawn from
'

the points originally assumed in Z T. Then a line traced through the points of intersection, as shown by

P QR

S, will

be the required miter

line.

Pattern Problems.
of the side from J to a and
(i to //, and also cutting the miter lines of the gore piece O Q S (which last operation has really been done in the raking operation above Placing the T-square parallel with v q, described).

163

the raking operation, lay off a stretchout of the same upon any line running at right angles to the form of

bring it successively against the points- in the several miter lines of the side elevation and cut corresponding measuring lines; then lines traced through the points

As the points have already been dropped from the profile to the miter lines in the operation of obtaining them, it only remains to the I -square parallel to IP W* and bring it sucplace
this piece, as

shown upon U"

W.

cessively against the points in

Q

and

Q

S. cutting

||

I

(ELEVATION

jSIDE

|

Fig. 352.

Patterns for the Side, Gore Piece dud Bottom of an Anvil.

of intersection, as

shown, from y

to

e,

o to

X,

X to

s

and

corresponding

measuring

lines;

then

lines

traced

g

toe?, will give the pattern for the

side.
file is

As

lower portion of the that part of the side from Y to Z of the pro-

through the points of intersection, as will give the pattern and Q

shown by
for the

U

1

Q

1

1

W,

gore

straight and vertical, that portion of the pattern to </ can be made shown on the stretchout line from

piece.

X

For the end pieces of the

anvil,

NM

a

KJ

and

an exact duplicate of that part of the elevation shown N B E b, all as shown. by a

B E

b

HG

of the side elevation
1

become the

profiles,

M

and Z

T and Z T

1

are the miter lines.

For the pattern of the gore 'piece, U profile and O Q and Q S are the miter lines.
of the points previously obtained

V

W

is

the

By means
profile in

obtain the pattern of either of these pendently of the preceding operations, space the curved
portion of
its

Therefore, to pieces, inde-

upon the

profile into

any convenient number of

164

The

New

Metal Worker Pattern
tained there

Booh.

spaces, and lay off a stretchout of the
line
at right

angles to

T

T'.

same upon any Carry lines from the

B, cutting the miter lines, thence profiles parallel to at right angles to T T', cutting corresponding measuring lines.

N

cutting the pattern of the side; therefore their stretchouts must be transferred point bv point to the stretchout lines; E D of Fig. 353 being the stretchin

To

avoid confusion of lines the operation
in

of obtaining the patterns of the end pieces has been
Fig. 353, in which B an elevation of the front end and

shown separately

J
1

N
1

N' J

1

is

a J in Fig. 352 and B of Fig. 353 being G. In consequence of the above the points upon the miter line Z T are such as were originally obtained there by spacing, and have been transferred

out of

N

A

that of

B

b

G

B G
of,

that of

to the lines of

N

J,
is

N

the back end.

The

upon

their profiles,

however, in Fig. 352, are such as were obpoints

made use

the

work

J B G and B G'. The remainder shown sufficiently clear to need no
1

1

1

,

further explanation.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for

64.

a Gable

Cornice Mitering Upon an Inclined Roof.
several points in

In Fig. 354 let represent one side of the gable molding and O its profile. II B F E the horizontal molding, and I) C the upper represents

ABCG
N

A G
all

M

measuring

lines,

as

B, cut corresponding indicated b

and

line of roof.

The profile of this molding is shown bv and the inclined roof by K J. Before the pattern for gable can be described it will be necessarv to

K L,

obtain an elevation of the intersection of the gable cornice with the inclined roof between C and B to be

used as the miter

line.

W
be taken in obtaining this
mitej-

The
line
is

first

step to

draw the profile of gable cornice, directly over and in line with the profile of the horizontal molding J K L, as shown. Divide both profiles O M and P R into the same number of parts. From the points in M draw lines parallel with the rake, extending them indefinitely in the direction of
to

PQ

R,

C

B.

upon

From the points in P R drop lines the roof line J K, and from the points

J carry lines liorizontallv across to the elevation, intersecting them with lines of corresponding number
of intersection in

K

previously

Through the points of intersection trace a line, which will be at once the correct elevation of the miter and the miter line from which to obtain the pattern.

drawn from

M.

G is required, in gable at connection with that at the foot, extend the lines from points in O to the miter line G.
If the pattern of

A

M

A

ELEVATION
Fig. S54.

proB of right angles to gable lay out a stretchout of O, as shown by S T, through the points in which draw the usual measuring lines. Place the T-square at right angles to the gable

To

obtain the pattern of
:

AB

C G,

ceed as follows

At

A

Method of Obtiiinimj Miter Line mid I'ullcrii for a Gable Cornice Milering Upon an Inclined Roof.

M

Thus

the line

UX

of pattern

is

of the same' length as

AB
as
(\

of elevation, and

V \V
It

of pattern the
is

same length
of corre-

C

of elevation, etc.

evident

line

A

that the various
as. lines

B, and, bringing,

it

successively against the

lines in pattern arc of the

same length

Pattern

1G5
and

sponding number
obtained

in

elevation.

in the pattern trace lines as indicated

Through the points by U V

W X.

part of gable

Then U V X shown by A B C

W

is
(i

the

pattern for the

in elevation.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for

65.

the Molding on the Side of a
Side of a

Dormer Mitering Against the Octagonal Tower Roof.
Let F J in Fig. 355 represent a half elevation of a portion of the tower roof B C corresponding to 1) K of the O P S be the side elevaplan ; also let

HG

A

U

R

tion of a

dormer cornice

for

which the pattern

is

re-

quired,

K

L

MN

dormer, and

being half the front elevation of the The first step profile of the molding.

before the pattern can be described is to obtain a correct elevation of the miter line or intersection of the
cornice with the oblique side of the tower, as shown by To obtain this miter line proceed as follows:

On

UTS. AE

draw

of the plan extended as a center line, as , a duplicate of the half front elevation correspond1

N K
1

1

ing to the half E D of the plan as shown by K' L Now divide the two profiles of the return mold1

M

N

1

.

ing into the same number of parts, commencing at the same points in each, as shown by the small fig.ures.
of the points in the upper front elevation carry lines parallel with cutting the side F J of the tower, and for convenience in obtaining the

From each

UK

miter line extending them into the figure, as shown. From the intersections obtained on the side of the tower, as shown by the small figures in S, drop lines par-

U

allel to

the center line
of the plan.

F G

until they cut the miter

line

AD

From

the points in

C D

ward

A vation K

(the oblique side), from the points in the lower front eleC.

draw lines parallel with extending them indefinitely to-

AD

Now
1

1

L

them

until

draw lines parallel with A K', producing they meet or intersect lines of correspond1

M

ing numbers, just described.
these intersections, as shown the shape of the miter line as

A
by

line traced
1

through
will give
J

U

TJ"

T S
1

1

,

'it

will

appear

in plan, TJ

T S
1

1

showing that portion of the intersection which

occurs upon the oblique side of the tower roof. From the points of intersection in the miter line

U" T' S

of the plan erect lines parallel to B, producing them until they intersect lines of correspond-

1

A

ing numbers drawn from the profile the side elevation.
355.

KLMN

through

The Pattern for the Molding on the Side of a Dormer Mitering Against the Octngcm.nl Side of a Tomer Roof.

A line traced through

these intersections, as

shown

New
in

Metal

Worker Pattern

Jiook.

U T S of the

elevation, will be the miter line in eleva-

tion,

formed by the junction of the return with the

D C of the plan. oblique side of the tower At To obtain the pattern proceed as follows of the elevation draw the line right angles to
:

A

through which draw the usual measuring lines, which intersect witii lines of corresponding numbers of the elevation from the drawn at right angles to U
figures,

U

V

T points of intersections in the miter line the points of intersections in the profile
line traced

U

S and from

OPE. A

W, LM

as

shown, upon which lay

off

the stretchout of

K

of the front elevation,

as

shown by the small

T' S" K"

P

a

through these intersections, as shown by U" O', will be the required pattern.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for

66.
1

an Inclined Molding; Mitering; Upon a Wash Including a Return.
frequently occurs that
pilasters and partly returns at the sides of pilasters.

As a feature of design, a belt course between stories
which

it
is

between the

carried around pilasters occur between all the windows of a front, and

affairs presents

some

interesting

upon the wash of the Such a condition of features and is shown

PLAN
Fig.

SOG.The

Pattern far

an,

Inclined Molding Mitering

Upon a Wash Including a Return.

from the foundations to the main cornice. In a certain instance, small gables or pediments were introduced between the pilasters in such a manner that

which

rise

in Fig. 356, of

the miters at the foot of the gables came partly upon the roof or wash of that part of the belt course lying

which A B C is the front elevation. shows the plan of the belt course, upon which the foot of the gable mold is required to miter in the The gable mold, of which ,1 C is the vicinity of F.. elevation and H the profile, is required to meet the

DE G

Patte

ir,7

C J M, its top line starting In this instance, as in many others, the first requisite is that of obtaining a correct elevation of the miter between the gable mold and the three
level cornice at the angle

described,

thus:

From

points

upon J

K

above S

from the point

J.

car'y lines horizontally across to side view, intersecting thun with lines of corresponding number

dropped

from

profile

H' until a line traced through points of

washes.

To

facilitate this operation

it

will be neces-

intersection,

shown by

S' T', crosses the line 0'

P

1

,

as

sary to draw a side view which will show the comparative projection of the gable mold, the pilaster and the
belt cornice
right.

shown
lines

at point T',

which point happens

to coincide
profile

with point 4 of

profile.

From

point

-I

of

H'

from the face of the wall, as shown at the Divide both profiles of the gable mold into the

same number

From
J

of spaces, as shown by the small figures. of the elevation carry the points in the profile

are dropped upon O' P', from which they are carried horizontally across as in the first part of the operation till they intersect with lines of cor-

H

lines parallel

to

C

J, extending

them

across the line

responding number drawn from points in profile H, Then the line J N T S L as shown from T to N.
will be a correct elevation of the required intersection and can be used as the miter line from which to obtain

the points in drop lines the profile of the wash of the belt course O P cutting so far as they fall within its projection. From the
indefinitely.

L

From

H

1

points in O P carry lines horizontally across the elevation till they intersect lines of corresponding number Inspection will previously drawn from the profile H.

the final pattern of the gable mold. With this as a miter line and II as a profile the remaining operation
is

performed in the .usual manner.
at right angles to

V W, drawn

Upon any line, J C lay off a stretchout

as

of

show

that only the lower portion of the profile will miter upon the main wash and that, therefore, the above operation can be begun with advantage at point
1

In obtaining this stretchout the profile of gable mold. of point x must be obtained from profile the position

of

4 and continued until a line traced through the points intersection crosses the line J K, which is really

the profile of the wash of the return. This, as will be at S, which point can be carried back to seen, occurs
profile
II in

H, while from profile H is obtained the position of point Q, which shows the point at which the roof piece of the gable mold passes beyond the side of the pilaster, shown best at J' in the plan. With the
1

"["-square

placed parallel to

V W,

and brought success-

(shown

at

a;),

where

it

will

be subsequently

ively against the points in J
lines of corresponding

NT

S

obtaining the stretchout of the gable mold. Above the point x of the profile all points will fall until the projecagainst the wash of the return J carries them across the forward miter tion of the mold

needed

number.

A line traced through
1

L, cut measuring

K

the points of intersection, as give the required pattern.
tersection
is

shown

at

N

2

L'',

shown by J N' S' L', will The plan view of the inwith some of the lines of

of the return (J' K' in plan), after which they will fall upon the wash in front of the pilaster. This point of

projection used in obtaining it, merely to assist the student in seeing the relation of parts, but is not

crossing can be found

by reversing the operation above

necessary in the actual work of obtaining the pattern.

PROBLEM
The Pattern

67.

for a Level Molding; Mitering Obliquely Against

Another Level Molding

of Different Profile.

In Fig. 357

is

shown the plan and a portion

of

BCD being the same as B C D of
A
D
and X. ively at the direction of F

In the side view is the side view of a bay window. also shown the section of a lintel molding, shown it is reindefinitely by C D E F of the plan, which
quired to miter against the oblique side of the large cove under the bay window indicated by B C F of the
plan.

In Fig. Fig. 357. B F G represents the base of the window and G E 358, C the lintel cornice. The profiles are shown respect-

Y

The

lintel

molding

is

continued

in

window between
lintel

G until it G and C.

intersects the base of the

In Fig. 358

is

shown an enlarged plan

of the

particular portion in

which the miter occurs, the angle

In order to obtain the pattern of that part of the molding which abuts against the base of the

108

TV
indicated from
of

\en-

Metal

\Vorlrr

Patte

window

obtain the plan

G to C, it is first necessary to the intersection or shape of the

lino with the profile at Z.

Y

draw a duplicate

of

X,
it

as

In placing the profile

Z

in position

shown must he

N,

M

--4
I

1I

J
I

1

I

i

+

r

i

1

1-

I

III

54-

-4-44- -4
III
L
i

L
>

J
I

1
I

-4-- +44
i

1
i

1

1

r

n
1

i

Fig. 357,

Kan and Sectional View of a Level Molding Mitering Obliquely Against Another Livel Molding of Different Profile.

(.

i

f

,._

12 1/

Fig. S58.

Method of Obtaining the Pattern of

the Lintel

Molding Shown in Fig.

S57.

miter

line, as

shown

this miter line

in plan by G proceed as follows
:

H

C

F.

To

obtain

remembered that

as nights are all to

Opposite to

and

in

vertical lines of each profile

be compared the must be placed parallel

I 'ill III' II

I

'fill ill' nix.

Hi!)

;iinl

their ii]i|xT ends

turned
1

in

tin\'.\

same
the

direction.
profile

.1

as to

produce a curve between those points in the

Therefore, the back or line
placed parallel to
P>

of

/

is

with reference to

which represents a vertical line the profile V, and the point 12 is
(',

Therefore, for accuracy it is necessary to pattern. subdivide those spaces on K J, as indicated by a l> and c d e there shown. These points must be dropped back
to the profile Z,
to the

placed exactly opposite the point .1. according to the Divide the requirements of the side view. Fig. '~>7.
profiles

and the spaces thus produced transferred

stretchout line

L M,

all

as indicated.

The

lines

X

and /
in

into the

same number
in

of parts, as in-

indicated

by

the small letters in

K

J have only been

dicated l>v the small figures

each.

From the

points

thus obtained
P>

profile

J ('. cutting T-square placed parallel with the
of the
file

K

carry lines at right angles to of profile Y, as shown. With the
line

/

B

(J

of the plan

K

from the points on the proJ in the direction of (i and F; also draw lines
carry lines
in

window

from the points

cutting the lines of corresponding munlier drawn from the profile Y. line traced through points of intersection,

the profile

X parallel to Gr K,

drawn partway in the engraving to avoid confusion, and the measuring Hues produced by these points in the stretchout have been shown dotted for the sake of distinction. These points are then intersected with the surfaces to which they belong in the miter line G H C, as shown between 2 and 3 and 11 and 12. For the pattern of the lintel molding first draw a
line at right angles to

A

as shown by (r H (< F, will give the miter line, as shown in the plan. While the curved portions of the profiles X and / have been divided into such a number of spaces as

shown by L M, on which X, as indicated the small figures. the points thus obby Through tained draw the usual measuring lines. With the
it,

as

line lay off a stretchout of the profile

j

T-square placed parallel with the stretchout line L C F to measuring carry lines from the points in G

M

H

answer the purpose, of an ordinary miter, it will be noticed that the plane surfaces between points 2 and and 1.1 and 12 intercept so much of the curve of K
will
.">

of -corresponding number, when a line drawn through the points of intersection, as shown by N P,
lines

will

complete the pattern.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a

68.

Square Shaft of Curved Profile Mitering Over the Peak of a Gable Coping Having a Double Wash.

Let

AB

DE FGH
mount
at

C in Fig 359 be the front elevation and be the side elevation of a coping to suris

base), lar to

DK

a gable, the profile of the top of which Also let II in the side elevation.

shown

MN
As

and through the point draw a line perpendicunext through the point X draw a line, that D K, of the making the same angle with Y

V

W
,

W

;

W

P

be the elevation of a square shaft or base, as of a finial, having a curved profile, as shown, which it is required
to miter

given profile of the coping, does with the horizontal line D L and extend this line to the right till it meets
1

the line from

W

at K',

and
is

to the left,

making

D K
1

1

down upon

the top of the coping.

the

matter of drawing the elevations of the shaft in correct position upon the washes of the coping is attended with

equal to D K. wash, which is
elevation.

This gives one-half the profile of the
all

that

Now

from the points

some

difficulty, the

method
:

of obtaining these will be

briefly described

Through the lowermost point on either side of the front elevation, as P, draw a line'
first

till project lines parallel to they meet the center line of the front elevation, and duplicate them on the other side of the center line, which will complete the

Y

W

necessary in obtaining the in the profile D'

K

1

at the correct angle of the pitch of the

coping or gable,

far

shown by V W, and extend the same to the right enough to permit a section of the coping to be constructed upon it. Upon this line set off the distance
as

front elevation of the gable. From the points in the erect vertical lines indefinitely, which profile may be intersected with lines projected horizontally from the points on center line I L to complete the side

D K H

X W,

equal to

P L

(half the

width of the shaft

at its

elevation.

Thus a

line

from point

B

intersected with

170
line

Tlie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

and a line from point Z intersected with lines from D and H will give the points E and G, front and back of the washes
from
will give the

K

apex

of coping,

point

U

;

while the crossing of the side

P

with the

at the apex.

top line of coping B C (marked 4) is projected upon the center line of the side view, thus giving the point Y. This completes the elevations with the exception
of the lines

As
of
it,

the shaft
1

is is

M

N' 0'

P

1

,

exactly square, the side elevation in all respects the same as that of

MU

P and

M YP
1

1

.

If the profile of

the

shaft
|

P were

a straight line, either slanting or vertical,

U4-U
i 1 i i

M--M-

FRONT ECEVATION
S59.The Patterns for a Square Shaft of Curved
Over the Peak of a Gable.

Fig.

Profile Mitering

the front, and

is

drawn

in line

with

it,

as

shown by the
This

the lines

U P and M Y would be straight lines,
1

because

horizontal lines of projection connecting them.
1

having been completed, the point at which its side M N' crosses the line E F (marked 4) is projected back to the front elevation, as shown, thus locating the

they would represent the intersection of two plain surfaces but as the profile is a curved line it will be
;

necessary to obtain correct elevations of these two lines, as they are essential in obtaining the patterns to follow.

I'n n,, H
-

I'nJdems.

171

The

angles are are developed by the ordinary plain square miters and method, as explained in several problems in the earlier
sliaft
its

being square, the miters at

P draw the points 1 to 4 of the profile lines parallel to B C cutting the profile D K', as shown
From
1

The peculiarity of this problem, part of this chapter. P and consists in obtaining the miter lines then,

U

M Y
1

and the part of the pattern corresponding to the same, which can all be done at one operation, as follows P and M' N' into the same Divide the profiles
:

and transfer the same to the profile and from these points erect perpendicuK, lar lines (also shown solid) indefinitely, as shown, which intersect with lines drawn horizontally from points of

by the

solid lines,

of coping

D

corresponding number in either profile, as shown at 2," 3" and 4". This will give the correct miter line

M

1

number
1

of equal parts,
1

and place the stretchout of the

same upon the center lines extended, as shown at I J and I J, through which draw the usual measuring lines From the points in M N' from for subsequent use.
1

O P miters at the sides of piece are of course the same as those of the front piece, therefore after they have been obtained the points 2"
Y.

The

M N
1

1

1

1

4

down drop

lines

vertically

upon the
lines,

profile

of

coping
fer the

D K,

as

shown by the dotted
lines parallel to

and
as

trans-

points thus obtained to the profile D' K', from

which points draw
the dotted lines.

V W,

shown by

Intersect these with lines of corre-

sponding number (2, 3 and 4) drawn either profile, as shown at 2', 3' and
the

horizontally from
4',

miter line

U

P.

After the points

thus obtaining 1 to 11 of

the profile have been dropped into the measuring lines of corresponding number of the stretchout the points 2',
into the measuring lines 3', 4' and 4^' are also dropped of corresponding number, thus giving the cut U' T at the bottom of the pattern, which can be duplicated on

the other side of the center line, thus completing the of the front of the sliaft. QRST
pattern.

U

1

and 3" are dropped into measuring lines 2 and 3 of the stretchout I J which when duplicated on the other side of the center line complete the line Q' Y T which is the bottom cut of the side piece. It has been remarked that in obtaining the intersections between U and P and M' and Y horizontal The lines may be drawn from points in either profile. reason for this is simply that the two profiles O P and N M' are identical and have been divided into the same number of equal parts. If a case should occur in which the side and face should be dissimilar it must be borne in mind that N' M' is the profile of the face piece and its points must be used in obtaining the intersections between U and P, while O P is the profile of the side piece, and its points must be used in obtaining the intersections between M and Y.
1

1

,

1

1

,

1

1

PROBLEM
The Patterns
of a Cylinder Mitering with the

69.

Peak

of a Gable Coping;

Having a Double Wash.

360 be the elevation of a coping to surmount a gable, the profile of which is D E F E D which, as will be seen, shows a double wash, E Y
Let
in Fig.
1 1

ABC

by

,

directly over the profile of the coping, all as shown, which divide into the same number of equal parts, beginning to number at a corresponding
II

GL

K,

P Let M and F E shaft which is required
1 .

N

to miter over this

be the elevation of a pipe or double wash

Before any patterns can be peak of the gable. developed it will be necessary to first obtain a correct
at the

place in the profile, and from the points in it drop lines to the profile of the coping, cutting the washes E F and F E and thence carry the lines parallel to the lines

on

1

,

of the coping, producing
lines

them

until they intersect the

elevation of the miter line or intersection of the shaft

dropped from the

profile
1

G L
1

1

K'

II'.

Through

To accomplish this proceed as folwith the coping. In line with the pipe or shaft construct a profile lows
:

the points of intersection thus obtained trace a line, as B P will be the miter line to P, then shown from
in elevation.

of

which divide of equal parts, and from into the points thus obtained drop lines vertically through
the same, as

shown by convenient number any

G L K H
1 1 1

1

,

the
it is

As both halves of the shaft are alike (dividing on line II L in one profile, and on H' L' in the other),
really only necessary to use one-half of the profile,

the elevation.

Draw

a corresponding profile, as

shown

172
MS to use both halves as
in

Tin-

New

Worker

/'<///,/,/

/>W-.
lines of

the diagram requires the additional work of carrying the points from E F E' to the center line B B' for one-half and then down the

unifies

to the
a

lay

oil'

one side of the coping, as stretchout of the wash of the coping K
J

A
'

B,
K',
set

1

I

all as
oil'

shown by

K'

F'

E

3
.

In

this

stretchout line

For the other side of the gable for the other side. of the shaft proceed as follows In line with pattern
:

of the shaft, and at right angles to it, lay L as shown by a stretchout of the profile G' R S in ihc usual manner, through the points in which draw measuring lines. Commence numbering these

the end
off

MN

points corresponding tained by the lines previously dropped from the profile G L. Place the J-square at right, angles to B,
,

to

the points in

E F E

1

ob-

HK

A

H K
1

1

1

,

;

and, bringing it against the points in the miter line O B cut lines of corresponding numbers drawn through
1

,

the stretchout E"

E

3
,

all

as indicated

by the dotted

L'9

Fig

S60.

The Patterns of a Cylinder Mitering with

the

Peck of a Oable Coping Having a Double Wnxh.

measuring lines with, the figure corresponding to the point at which the seam is desired to be, in this case 1.
Place the J square at right angles to the shaft, and, B P bringing it against the points in the miter line cut the corresponding measuring lines. Then a line traced through these points of intersection, as shown
1

lines.

Then

tersection, as

a line traced through these points of inshown by Z 1 Y, will be the pattern of

by
it

T UV

W X,

the wash for the side of the gable B required to miter against the base of the shaft. Incase the design should call for a shaft octagonal in shape, the same general rules would apply. Less
divisions, however, will be required
in

A

will

be the miter required.

In case

the profile,

it.

should be desired to miter the coping against the base of the Shaft, the pattern for it may be obtained from
the same lines in the following manner:

only being necessary to drop points from each of the angles of the octagon, as in the ease <>f Problem 33,
previously given.

At

right

1'iitlrni.

/'/<>/:/>

,,/.-,;

173

PROBLEM
A

70.

Butt Miter of a Molding; Inclined in Elevation Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Plan.

Let
cornice,

AB
and

in Fig. 3(>1 be

the profile

<>l'

a given

let

ED

represent the rake or incline of

Let G represent the intersecting surface in plan. The lirst step in developing the pattern will be to obtain the miter line in the elevation, as shown by E F. For
the cornice as seen in elevation. the angle of
this

H

purpose draw the profile

AB A

in

connection with

the raking cornice, which space in the usual manner, as indicated by the small figures. Draw a duplicate
of
this
profile,

as

shown by
1 1

1

B',

placing

it

in

proper position with reference to the lines of the plan. B into the same number of parts Space the profile as A B, and through the points thus obtained carry

A

lines parallel

to the lines of the cornice, as seen in the line G II, as shown. In like manplan, cutting ner draw lines through the points in B, carrying them parallel to the lines of the raking cornice in the

A

direction of

E F

indefinitely,

as

shown.

Place the

T-square

at right angles to the lines of the cornice, as
it

shown

in plan, and, bringing intersection in the line G H,

against the points of

cutting corresponding drawn from the profile

lines

in

carry lines vertically, the inclined cornice

B. Through the points of intersection thus obtained trace a line, as shown from E to F. Then E F will be the miter line in elevation, B meetformed by an inclined cornice of the profile

A

A

in the plan. ing a surface in the angle shown by At right angles to the raking cornice lay off a
B'

GH

B upon any line, as L, and through the points draw the usual measuring lines, all as shown. Place the T-square at right angles to the lines of the
stretchout of

A

K

/'!/.

,161.

A

raking cornice, and, bringing it against the several line E F, cut corresponding measpoints in the miter L. lines drawn through the stretchout line uring

K

A

Butt Miter of a Molding Inclined in Elevation Against a. Plain Surface Oblique in Plan.

traced through these points of intersection, as to N, will be the pattern required. from

shown

M

PROBLEM

71.
of a

Patterns for the Moldings and Roof Pieces in the Gables

Square Pinnacle.

Fig.
ilar

302 shows the elevation of one

of four sim-

shown

at

K, from which

to derive the pattern.

Draw

of

The profile gables occurring in a square pinnacle. The first step is to the molding is shown at P.
the

the pnrtile P in the molding, as shown, placing it so that its members will correspond with the lines of the

obtain

miter

line

or

elevation

of

the

miter

molding.

Draw

a second profile, P', in the side view

174

The

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.

of the gable, placing it, as shown in the engraving, so that its members will coincide with the lines of the side view. Space both of these profiles into the same number of parts in the usual manner, and through

equal to D' A' and

A

B- of
1

the side view, and draw

the lines

A

F, as shown.

the points thus obtained draw lines parallel to each of the moldings respectively, as shown, until they intersect,

and trace a

line

through the points of intersec-

shown at K. Then K is the line in elevation which the moldings will miter. Draw the center upon line O M, which represents the miter at the top of the
tion, as

gable.

For the pattern of the molding lay
out of the profile upon any
right angles
line,

off a stretch-

as

G

H, drawn

at

to the line of the gable in elevation, as

shown by the small figures. Through these points draw measuring lines, as shown. Place the T-square stretchout line, or, what is the same, at parallel to the
the gable, and, bringing it right angles to the line of the several points in the miter lines successively against

and K, cut the corresponding measuring lines, and trace lines through the intersections. This completes the pattern of the molding, to which the piece forming the roof may be added as follows Make L D equal to E D of the side view of the
as shown,
:
1

M

gable and set

it off

at right angles to

L

B'.

In like

manner, at right angles to the

same

line, set off

A' B

1

Fitj. $62.

Patterns for the Moldings and Roof Pieces in the Gables of a Square Pinnacle.

PROBLEM

72.

Pattern for the Moldings and Roof Pieces in the Gables of an Octagon Pinnacle.

Fig. 363 shows a partial elevation and a portion the plan of an octagon pinnacle having equal gables o,f on all sides. The first step in developing the patterns
is

plan, cutting the line D F, representing the plan of the From the points in D F thus obtained carry miter.
lines vertically, intersecting corresponding lines

dniwn

to obtain a miter line at the foot of the gable, as shown by L. To do this proceed as follows : Draw

from the

profile in the elevation.

A line traced through
N
:

the profile

K,

as

shown, placing

it

so that

it

shall cor-

the several points of intersection, as shown by L, will be the line of miter in elevation between the moldings
of the adjacent gables.

respond

in all its parts

in elevation.

with the lines of the molding Divide into spaces and number in the

The

center line

forms the

usual manner, and through the points draw lines parallel to the lines of the gable toward L, as shown. so placed as Draw a duplicate profile in the plan, to correspond with the lines of the molding in plan.

K

miter line for the top of the gable. For the pattern proceed as follows Upon any line, as E E, drawn at right angles to the lines of the
gable, lay off a stretchout of the profile, as shown by the small figures. Through the points of the stretchout draw the usual measuring lines. Place the T-

1

,

Divide

it

into the
it

the points in

same number of spaces, and through draw lines parallel to the lines of the

square at right angles to the lines of the gable, and,

Pattern Problems.

175
off

bringing the blade successively against the points in the two miter lines above described, cut the corre-

be added by setting
equal in length to

A' B

1

at right angles to

A' C

1

,

AB

of the side view.

In like man-

F
Fig. S6S.

C

Pinnacle. Pattern for the Moldings and Roof Pieces in the Gables of an Octagon

sponding measuring

lines,

as

shown.

Lines

traced

ner,

upon the

line

from

M

set off

will through the points of intersection thus obtained The roof piece may give the pattern of the molding.

of the side view.

Then draw

F'

D

1

equal to C D B', thus completing

D C
1

1

the pattern.

176

Ttie

Xcw

Metal

Worker Pattern Bouk.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for the Miter

73.
Upon a Square
Shaft,

Between the Moldings Means

of Adjacent Gables of a Ball.

Formed by

file

let C be one of the gables in prothe other in elevation, the moldings forming a joint against a ball, the center of which is at E. The first operation necessary will be that of obtaining

In Fig. 364,

A

elevation, set the dividers to the radius

E G

of the ele-

and

B D

the miter line, or, in other words, the appearance in elevation of the intersection of the molding with the
ball.

vation, and from S and U respectively as centers strike Then N arcs, which will be found to intersect at N. To is tin; center by which to describe the arc S U. find the radius for the curve from V to T continue the
line 8
at

shown at F and H. the same number

Place the profile of the mold in each gable, as Divide each of these profiles into
of equal parts, as indicated

M

through the sphere, cutting its opposite sides L will be the diameter of the and L then
;

M

M

by the

From the points thus obtained in F small figures. drop lines vertically, meeting the profile of the ball,
as

shown from C

to J.
line,

From
as

the center

E

of the ball

erect a vertical

shown by E

J.

From

the

points in C J already obtained carry lines horizontally, cutting E J, as shown, and thence continue them, by
arcs struck from

E

as center, until they

meet

lines of

corresponding number dropped from

points in the proin elevation. file Through the parallel to the gable intersections thus obtained trace a line, as indicated by

H

DG
tion.

M.

Then D G M will be the miter line in elevaTo develop the pattern for the molding, first lay

off at right angles to the

gable a stretchout of the proP R, through the points in which file, as shown by Place the T-square draw the usual measuring lines.
stretchout line, or, what is the same, at parallel to the right angles to the lines of the gable, and, bringing it

successively against the points in the miter line D M, line traced cut the corresponding measuring lines.

A

through the points of intersection from 2 to 7 (that is, to will give the pattern for the curved porfrom

U

V)

tion of the profile. As any section of a sphere is a perfect circle whose length of radius depends upon the proximity of the

Fig. S64.

The Pattern for the Miter Kftween the Moldings of Adjacent Gables Upon a Square Shaft, Formed bij Means of a Ball.

cutting plane to the center of the sphere, the curves S to T of the pattern, representing the plain and to surfaces 1 2 and 7 8 of the profile, must be arcs of

U

V

fore with

circles,

whose lengths

of radius can be determined

from

is a Therepart. as a radius, and and L) T respectively as centers, strike arcs, which will interFrom 0, with the same radius, sect in the point 0.

circle of

which the

arc 7 8 or

VT

K M (one-half of M
V
T.

V

the elevation.
is

As

simply a duplicate of the cut

the pattern for the plain surface 1 2 from D to of the

describe the arc
tern, of

Then S

UVT

will

be the pat-

G

the molding to miter against the ball.

" or dein this section of the chapter involve the necessity of " raking before the pattern for the required part can be obprofile profile tained. One of the principal characteristics of this work is that, as the normal profiles are usually spaced into equal parts for convenience in beginning the work, the resulting or raked profiles must by force of cir-

Note.

The remaining problems

veloping a new

from the given or normal

cumstances be made np of a number of unequal spaces
transferred to given straight lines, space

:

in

consequence of which their stretchouts must be

by

space, as they occur

upon the new

profiles.

177

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a Flaring: Article of

74.
an Oblong: and the Top Square.

which the Base

is

Let
article,

and F

ABDE N

of Fig.

365 be the elevation

of the

and
I

L' P',

making them

I the plan at the base,

KMP

in length

equal to

F

N

and
1

L

If the sides are to be debeing the plan at the top. veloped in connection with the top (supposing the

of the plan, letting the points way of their lengths respectively.

O

V

come midDraw K' F', M' N
and
,

U

L'

I'

and

P

1

0', thus

be open) proceed for the pattern as follows Draw K' M' 1" L', Fig. 366, equal in all respects to
to
:

bottom

sides.

Upon S T

completing the pattern for the set off Z T from P and S

M

1

1

,

Y

from

K

1

L', in length equal to
1

A
1

B
,

or

DE

of the ele-

KMP

L

of the plan.

at right angles to

indefinitely.

Through the center of it, and each other, draw lines V U and S T While the elevation in Fig. 365 shows
it

and through the points S and T draw F' P and N' 0' parallel to K L and M P and in length equal to F I and N of the plan, letting the points S and Tvation,
1 1

the slant hight of the ends

does not give the slant

fall

midway

of their lengths respectively.

Draw F

J

K

1

Fig. 365.

Elevation and Plan.

Fig. 366.

Pattern.

The Pattern of a Flaring Article uf Which the Base

is Oblonij

and

the

Top Square.

hight or profile of the sides, therefore through the elevation, and perpendicular to the base and top, draw
the line

P L

1

,

N M
2

1

and

O P
!

1

,

which

will

complete the pattern

of the ends.

C

G, which will measure the straight hight of

From set off II, in length equal, to of the plan. Draw Then C. C will be the of the article through the side, and therefore profile the width of the pattern of that portion. Upon
the article.

G

G

M

R

H
1

H

required to produce the pattern with the sides joined to the bottom, supposing the top to be I 0, through the F open, lay out first a duplicate of
If it is

N

VU
1

of the pattern, from K' set off , I" set off U, in length equal to

M

"W V, and from L

V U and S and proceed in the same general manner as described above to obtain the sides, placing thencenter of which draw the stretchout lines

T as before,

X

H

C

of the eleva-

tion.

Through

U

and

V

draw

lines parallel to

K' M'

wider ends against corresponding sides of the base or bottom.

178

The

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
In Fig. 367,
let of the

75.
is

Frustum

of a

Pyramid which

Diamond Shape

in

Plan.

ABDE

be the elevation and

R

II.

Then

MR

II

N

will

be the pattern of one of

KGI

the points the points

the plan of the pyramid at the base. Project B and D into the plan, as shown, locating and P, and draw the sides of the plan at

the four sides composing the article.

M

top, each parallel to the corresponding line of the By projection from G or O of the plan at the base. R of draw C F of the elevation, representing plan the plan and also the straight hight of the frustum.

Before the slant hight or stretchout of a side can be obtained it will be necessary to construct a section

on any
as

line crossing the plan of the side at right angles

Therefore extend the top and bottom lines shown dotted at the right, cutting 5 the vertical line S S , thus making 'S S" equal to the

S T.

of the elevation, as
1

1

Upon the base line straight hight of the frustum. extended set of from S' the distance S T , equal to S T
1
1

Then will S" of the plan, and draw S T true profile or slant hight of the frustum.
3
1

.

T

1

be the

At

right angles to
its
1

M R of

the plan draw S

W,

length equal to the slant hight of the frusmaking as shown by S* T of the section. tum, Througli II indefinitely, parallel to 0. At right draw

W

N

K

angles to
lines
II,

K

KN

and 0, draw 0, through the points and II in the points and H, cutting

K

PATTERN.
Fig. 367.

N

thus establishing

its

length.

Connect

N M N and

The Envelope of the Frustum of a Pyramid Which Diamond Shape in Plan,

is

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of the Flaring:

76.
an Oblong Tub.

End

of

In Fig. 368,

ABD

C shows

the elevation and

N

the plan of a vessel having straight sides and semicircular ends, one end of which is slanting.
First

P O R

draw a correct plan and elevation

of the article,

the elevation is carefully projected from its corresponding point in the plan. Divide half of the boundary line of the top into any

seeing that each point of

number of equal spaces, commencing at O, all as shown by the small figures 1, 2, 3, etc., in the plan. From the points thus obtained carry lines vertically
until they cut the top of the elevation, as

B D, producing them upward indefiand continue them downward until they meet nitely, the bottom line of the elevation F D, as shown. At right angles to the lines thus drawn, and at any convenient distance from the elevation, draw G II. With the dividers, set off from the line G H, on each of the lines drawn through it, the distance from T O, on the lines of corresponding number, to the curved line P 0.
lines parallel to

shown

in

and L also continue the lines downward until they meet the line T 0, all as shown. From the points between L and B thus obtained draw
the points between
;

B

In other words, make G equal to T 6 of the plan. Set off spaces on the other lines corresponding to the distance on like lines in the plan. Through the points

K

G H K

thus obtained trace a line, as shown by Then H. will be the half profile of the end of the

K

vessel on

any

line, as

L M, drawn

at

to right angles

Pattern Problems.

179
lines, as

the line

D

B.

The

stretchout of
profile

be

taken

from the
to

thus

the pattern constructed.

is

to

spending measuring

shown, for the top of the

At

any convenient distance from it, draw U V, upon which lay off twice the stretchout of K II, numbering each way from the central point 1, as shown. From the points in the
right angles
II,

D

and

at

If it is desired to make a pattern. joint E F of the elevation, the triangular

upon the

line

shaped piece ELF
:

may be added

to the pattern as follows With the dividers take the distance E F of the elevation as radius,

stretchout thus obtained draw measuring lines at right

and from the point Z of the pattern as center describe an arc. In like manner, with E L of the elevation as

PLAN
Fig. 368.

R
Pattern of the Flaring

End of an Oblong

Tub.

angles

to

it

indefinitely.

With

the blade

of

the

T-square

set at right

angles with

D

B, and brought

successively against the points in

F D, cut lines of corresponding number drawn through the stretchout.
as

and point R in the upper line of the pattern as describe a second arc, cutting the first arc in center, the point W. Connect with R and also with Z.
radius,

W

Then a line traced through the points of intersection, shown by Y Z, will be the pattern of the bottom In like manner bring the blade of end of the piece.
the T-square against the points in

triangular piece at the opposite end terminating in point is added in a similar manner, thus com-

The

X

pleting the entire pattern of that portion of the vessel from the line E F to the right.

L B and

cut corre-

PROBLEM

77.

Pattern for the Flaring Section of a Locomotive Boiler.

adapted tapering a locomotive boiler its principles are equally applicable to tanks, cans or pipes whose shapes are governed by
the spaces or positions which they are to occupy.

While the pattern here described to the section or "

especially " of taper course

is

section of the boiler at

A

F, Fig. 369,

is

round, as

shown by

The

The lower half of the circle I M L is the profile from L F to G D, but the upper half is raked or slanted from B K to C II, retaining its semicircular character at C H. The line H G is a vertical
I

NL

M.

180
line, as

New
shown by S L
of the sectional view,
is

Metal

Wwkvr

/'//>

m

liwk.

and the

surface

HKG

being vertical

simply a flat triangular

right angles to B C at any convenient position outside of the elevation, us the vertical center lino of the new

surface, exactly as

shown

in the elevation.

Divide one-half, the normal section, as N L, into any convenient number of spaces, as shown bv the figures, and from the points thus; obtained draw lines
section.

A B, cutting B K, as shown, also extendthem back to the center line N M. From 15 K ing carry them parallel to B C, cutting the line C II, and extend them indefinitely, cutting also the line U AY. AVith the dividers measure the horizontal distance of
parallel to

the various points in the normal profile L from the center line M, and transfer these distances to lines

K

N

of corresponding

number, measuring each time from
to to

U AY. Thus make AA" 7 equal from U W to the point 6 equal
tinue
till

O P

7;
l>
;

the distance

and so con-

all

the

distances have been measured.

A

line traced

through these points will constitute a profile of the raking portion on a line
at right angles to
its

direction,

undBK
pattern

and C

il

will

be the
the

miter lines.
first

To develop

layoff the stretch-

upon drawn at right angles any to B C, as A' B As the in U T have already points
line
1

out of the profile

T U
.

A

r

been dropped upon the miter
lines
it is

in

the previous

process

now only
1

necessary to place the
it

to

A B

1

and, bringing

T-square parallel successively against the

points

in

C

II

and

B K,

measuring
Fig. 369.

lines

of corresponding

drop lines cutting number.

the
line

A

Pattern for the Flaring Section of a Locomotive Boiler.

Since the part

B

KH

C

is

semicircular

when cut

upon any

a section of

vertical line, the first step will be to obtain it as it would appear if cut upon a line at

XXY B K H C. To this may be added the flat triangular From the points piece K H G, as shown by X Y Z. X and Z lines may be drawn at right angles to X /,
as

traced through the points of intersection, as shown 1>\Y, will be the pattern of the raking portion

right angles to

B
:

C.

This section must be derived

shown by Z J and

X

Q, extending them sufficiently

from the normal section of the level part, and may be done as follows Assume any line, as U ~W, drawn at

to complete the lower portion of this part of the boiler, of the elevation. E shown by

K

DG

PROBLEM
The Pattern
In Fig. 370
for a

78.
for

Blower
shall
tion,

a

Grate.

DFKHE

M

shows a front view, P L

conform

to
it

the semicircle
shall slant

F

K
K

IT of
to.(i

the elevaat

and C B a plan of a blower. The conditions which determine the course to be pursued
a side view,

A

and that

from

an angle

indicated

in arriving at the pattern

are that its

upper outline

the

first

the profile. Therefore, by will be to determine a true section of its step
of

the line

L

M

Pattern Problems.

181

upper portion or hood upon a line at right angles to ]j M from the puiut N of the side view; after which,

file

of the hood, divide one-half of the semicircle

F

K
L

H
N

into

any number of equal spaces, and carry

lines

from each of the several points
of the side view.

to the vertical line

From

the points thus obtained in

L N" carry lines parallel with L indefinitely, which intersect at right angles by the line T S, located at any convenient point outside of the diagram. With the
dividers take the horizontal distances between the points in the arc F to the line G, and set them off on the

M

K

K

corresponding number, measuring from the Then a line drawn through the points thus obtained, and as indicated by T R, will be a correct
lines of
line

T

S.

Take the stretchout
at right angles to

and place the spaces on the line U V, which is drawn L M. Through the points in U V
at right angles to
it.

section through the inclined portion of the blower. of the profile T R point by point

draw the usual measuring lines As the points from the profile
Fig. 370

T R

Pattern for a Blower for a Orate.

dropped upon both the miter lines only necessary to carry them, at right angles to L M, on to the measuring lines of corresponding numbers.

M

have already been N and N L, it is

with

NM

and

N L as

developed in the usual manner.

miter lines, the pattern can be To obtain a true pro-

Then
and

as indicated

a line traced through the points thus obtained, by I" K' H', will be the desired pattern.

PROBLEM

79.

Pattern for a Can Boss to Fit Around a Faucet.

Fig. 371 is shown a top and side view of a boss whoso sides are in part parallel and just sufficiently apart to allow the faucet to fit between them. In

L

N
L

K

represents the diameter of the opening at the top. represents the general shape of the boss

the points thus established drop lines vertically, cutting the line repreF to senting the top in the side view, as shown from From the points thus established in F C carry C.
as indicated

by

1, 2, 3, etc.

From

MX
it

lines parallel

to

the side
line

F D, producing them

until

where

joins the can

and

is

the result of the condiis

tions existing in the side view, but

not

of in the process of obtaining the pattern. tial points are the curve of the can body,

made use The essen-

D

they cut the curved and A. The next step to be taken is to obtain the a section taken profile which would be shown by
E, as

D

AB

shown between

DAB

E,

the diameter of boss at top, L tween 1) and E and the distance

N,

the distance beall of

X C,

which are

through the article at right angles to the line D F. For this purpose at any convenient point draw a line through D F and at right angles to it, as shown by P R.

shown

in

the side view.

From

the points established in the plan of the top, as
lines vertically until

cated by

Divide one-quarter of the plan of the top, as indiN, into any convenient number of spaces,

shown from O to N, carry meet the horizontal line K

they

M

passing through the cen-

182
ter of the top, as

Neiv Metal Worker Pattern Book.

shown. Taking the length of each the distances thus obtained in the dividers, set it of off from either side of P R on the lines of corresponding numbers, and through the
trace the curve, as shown.

points
this

thus obtained

Then

curve will repre-

sent the required section from which the stretchout of On the line E P, prothe. envelope may be obtained.

duced
as

sufficiently outside of the side view for the purpose, lay off the stretchout of one-half of this curve,

shown, and through the points thus established draw measuring lines parallel to D F. Then, with the T-square placed parallel to P R, or, what is the same, at right angles to D F, and brought successively
against the points in the profile of the can body between D and A, cut the measuring lines of correspond-

ing

numbers.

In like manner bring the J-square

against the points in the top of the article shown from F to C and cut the measuring lines of corresponding

numbers.

obtained, As that porhalf of the pattern of one of the ends. tion of the boss lying between points A, B and C is

Then lines traced through the points thus as shown by D' A' and F' C', will be one-

flat triangular piece it is only necessary to a duplicate of its shape to that part of the pattern add

simply a

just obtained, bringing one of its straight sides against To the other straight side the line 5, all as shown. C' B' must be added a duplicate of the first part of the
as pattern reversed,

shown by B' C' G' E'; the

result-

ing shape will then constitute the pattern of one-half the boss.

Fig. 371.

Pattern for a Can Boss to Fit Around a Faucet.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a Molded

80.

Base

in

which the Projection

of the Sides is Different

from that of the Ends.

Let

and

E F G

A B C D, in Fig. 372, represent the side view H the plan of a base in which the projec-

angles to

A

B

and

L

Gr in plan.

until they intersect the miter lines J P At right angles to F draw the line

G

tion of the sides, as shown at C. the ends, as shown at

M

O P, is less than that of B C and A D show the

B" C", upon which place the stretchout of the profile B C, as shown by the small figures, through which draw
of corresponding
intersections, as

ends of the base. As the projection the sides of the base is less than that of the through P ends, a profile must be obtained through the side
profile

of the

the usual measuring lines, which intersect with lines numbers drawn from the miter lines

at right angles to

F

G.

A

line traced

in plan, from which to obtain the stretchout in proTo obtain the pattern for ducing the pattern of sides. Divide the profile B C the end proceed as follows
:

shown by

J' L'

G'

F', will

through these be the re-

To obtain the quired pattern for the end of the base. the side proceed as follows From B profile through
:

into an equal number of parts, as shown by the small figures, and from the points obtained drop lines at right

in elevation

draw the

vertical line
profile

from the divisions on the

B M, as shown, and B C draw lines par-

Pattern

Problenifi.

183

allel

to the lines of the

moldings until they intersect
l>v
tlie

the side of the base.
side proceed as follows

To
:

obtain the pattern for the

small figures. From on the miter line L G in plan, the intersections obtained
the line
as

B M,

shown

At

as before explained,

draw

lines parallel to

tend them indefinitely, cutting the

H G and exmiter line K H, as

the line B* N", upon which It will be profile B' N', as shown by the small figures. noticed that the spaces in the profile B' N' are unequal,

draw right angles to II place the stretchout of the

G

shown.

Upon K L

of the plan extended set off IV M',

and therefore each must be separately placed on the

line

F'

,

N'

W
0. P.
IN"

PROFILE THROUGH
PLAN,

H'
Fig.

N2

G
{s

Patterns for a Molded Base in Which the Projection of the Sides

Different

from

that of the Ends.

in hight equal to

B

M

of elevation,

and transfer the

At right angles spaces from B M to B' M', as shown. to B' M' and from the points on same draw lines, as shown, intersecting lines of corresponding numbers
drawn from the
rniter line

Through the points in this stretchout line draw the usual measuring lines, as shown, which intersect with lines of corresponding numbers drawn at right G from the miter lines II and L G. A angles to
.

B N
8

J

H

K

L

G.

A

line traced

through

line traced

these intersections will be the desired profile through

K' H' G'

L', will

through these intersections, as shown bv be the desired pattern for the side.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for

81.
in

an

Elliptical

Vase Constructed

Twelve Pieces.

first essential in beginning the work is an which may be drawn by whatever rule is most ellipse, convenient, and which must be of the length and Draw the breadth which the vase is required to have. of the sides of the vase about the curve, as shown plan

The

in Fig. 373, in such a manner that all the points X, Y, Z, etc., shall have the same projection beyond the
at least one-fourth of the plan by miter lines, as shown by P C, C, U C C, drawing Above the plan construct an elevation of and N C.

curve.

Complete

M

184

Tin

1

\/'/r

Mini

II

'<;//>;

I'lilli-ni

HV

the article, as shown bv II L G. Only the profile L of the elevation is needed for the purpose of

K

considered before the article
projection of cadi of lhe sides

is

constructed.
the plan

As

the

W

upon

is differ-

Fig.

37S.The

Patterns for an Elliptical Vase Constructed in Twelve Puves.

pattern

cutting,

but the other

lines are

desirable in

ent

when measured from

the center

C on
will

lines at right

process of designing, in order that the effect

may

be

angles to the lines of the sides,

it

be necessary

Pattern

185
the
points in
C' in

develop the profiles of each of the van ing sides from the normal prolile II V \V L. Therefore. di\ idc
lirst

to

C

A

of

the plan,

making the distance

from

each instance the same as the distance from

-II

Y

\\'

Ij

in

the usual manner, and
lines across its

from the several

C

in the plan.

NumVr

the points to correspond with

points in

it

drop

corresponding section
in

(.No. 1) of

the plan. Across the second

section

the plan, from the

<)

C, draw lines parallel to points already obtained in U, the side of it cutting O C, and produce them
until

U

numbers given to the points in the profile II V from which they were derived. In like manner L, from C* set off points corresponding to the points in C
the

W

B

From C

of the plan, numbering them as above described. 3 set off points of corresponding to those in

CD

thcv meet
1'

A

C, which

is

drawn from C

at right

angles to
section

Then the points in give produced. the projections from which to obtain a profile of the
<)

AC

the plan, likewise identifying them by figures in order to facilitate the next From C erect the operation.
1

perpendicular C'
perpendiculars

A
2
3

1

;

likewise from C" and
3

C

3

erect the

numbered

'2.

In like manner continue the

points from
parallel to

C O

O M,

across the third section in the plan, the side of it cutting C, and pro-

M

C B and C D From each of the laid off from C and also from each of those laid points off from C' and C erect a perpendicular, producing it
3
.
1

,

,

duce them until they cut C
at right angles to

15,

which

is

drawn from C
contains

until

it

O M

produced.

Then C B

HVW

meets the horizontal line drawn from the profile L of corresponding number. Then lines traced

the points requisite in obtaining a profile of the third across the fourth Continue the points in C section.

M

through these several intersections will complete the profiles, as shown. Perpendicular to the side of each
section in the plan lay off a stretchout taken from the
profile corresponding to it, just described, the points in the stretchouts draw

section, cutting

its

other miter

line

C

P.

From C
4.

draw C

D

at right angles to the side

P

M

of the sec-

tion, cutting the lines

drawn across section
of

Then

upon C
duce the
as

D

will

be found

determine

profile line of the base of

the

the points necessary to Prothe fourth pattern.

W
L

shown by
I)'.

C' C"

C

:l

.

the elevation indefinitely, and also the line of the top A'

"W the several points in the profile draw lines indefinitely, parallel to the lines just de-

From

HY
1

the usual manner, all E 3 F 3 Place the T-square parallel to each of these stretchout lines in turn, and, bringing it against the several points in' the miter lines bounding the sections of the plan to which they correspond, cut the measur.

and through measuring lines in J J as shown by E F, E' F', E F and

scribed and as

shown

in

the diagram.

From C

,

upon

the base line produced, set off points corresponding to

Then lines tracad ing lines in the usual manner. the points of intersection thus through obtained, all as shown in the diagram, will complete the patterns.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a
Finial, the

82.

Plan of which

is

an Irnegfular Polygon.

In the central portion of Fig. 374
plan B C D construct a

is

shown the
to

is required II, upon which it the only other view given being a fiuial, section through one of the sides, being that numbered

E FG

the T-square placed parallel with C B of plan and brought successively against the several points in B L, drop lines cutting the miter lines profile

K

;

A

and

A

C.

1

on the plan.

On

AM

extended, as

Al Ml,

lay off a stretchout

The

section of side
line

ABC,

or No.

1, is

shown
is

.of

KL

of profile, through the points in

which draw

above and in

marked Profile No. 1, and is a section on the line A M, which is drawn at right angles to B C of the plan. To obtain the pattern of A B C of plan, or No. 1,
divide the profile

with the plan of the same, and

the customary measuring 'lines. the stretchout line Al parallel to

Place the T-square

Ml, and, bringing it B and against the several points in the miter lines cut corresponding measuring lines. C, Tracing

A

A

KL

in the usual

manner, and, with

lines

through the points thus obtained, as shown by

186

The

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.
at right angles to eacli

Bl, will give the pattern of part of shown on plan by A B C.
PROFILE NO.4

Al Cl

article

that

is,

since

A N, A

and

A
PROFILE
NO. 3

P, drawn

at right angles respectively to

C D, D E

PROFILE
NO.1
K2

PROFILE
NO.2

cij

D3

02
Fig. 374.

C2

Pattern for a

Finial,

the

Plan of Which

is

an Irregular Polygon.

in the plan is not equidistant Since the point from all the sides of the same, when measured on lines

A

and

E

F, differ in

A M

length from each other and from a correct section must be obtained for each

Pattern Problems,

187

of

the

other

sides

before

their

patterns

can

be

developed.

the points in and in the normal profile. each of the points in J2 L2 erect lines

AN

From

perpendicular

most conveniently obtained at one operation in the following manner: With the T-square placed parallel with D C, and brought successively against the points in A C, draw Then the points in A N lines cutting A D and A N.
different sections can be

These

to the same, intersecting lines of corresponding number drawn from L. Then a line traced through the

K

points

of intersection, as

shown from K2

rect section

can be used to obtain a profile of section No.

2.

Also

continue the points from

A D across A

the third section

of the plan, and parallel with D E, and produce them until they cut E, also 0, which is drawn from

A

A

of the plan, from which to obtain a stretchout of piece No. 2. The sections of pieces No. 3 and No. 4 are obtained in a similar manner from O and P. J3 L3 is a duplicate of and J4 34 of P.

on

AN

to L2, will be the cor-

A

A

A

A

Perpen-

at right angles to

D

produced.

Then

A

contains

diculars are erected from each of the points cutting horizontal lines of corresponding number, thus devel-

the points necessary in obtaining a profile of the third
section.

Continue the points from A E across the fourth section of the plan, and parallel with E F, cutthe points in P can be used to obtain a profile of section No. 4. While the projection of the several points in each
ting

oping

K3 L3 and K4
downward

L4.

To

obtain the pattern of

ADC

A N

AP

and

A

F.

Then

A

stretchout of

K2

indefinitely, L2, as shown

(No. 2) continue upon which lay off a

by A2 N2, through

be obtained respectively from and A P, the hights of the several points must be the same in all and must be derived Therefore continue from the normal profile K L. a horizontal line of profile No. 1, J L, which represents
of the
profiles can

new

the lines

A N, A

the points in which draw the usual measuring lines. Place the "[-square parallel with A2 N2, and, bringing it C and against the several points in D, cut

A

A

measuring

lines

of

corresponding numbers.

Lines

traced through these points, as shown by A2 D2, will be the pattern sought.

by

A2 C2

and

in either direction,

as

shown by L4 L2.
No.
1

From

the

stretchouts for pieces Nos. 3 and 4 are taken A3 03 is the respectively from profiles 3 and 4.
of

The

several points in profile

L4 L2, extending them

At any
shown

lines parallel with in either direction. indefinitely convenient position on L4 L2 set off points

draw

corresponding to the points in
at

A N

of the plan, as

K3 L3 and is laid off on a continuation while A4 P4 is taken from K4 L4 and is set O, off on a continuation of P. The remaining operations are the same as those employed in obtaining the
stretchout of

A

A

J2 L2, numbering them

to correspond with

other pieces.

PROBLEM
Pattern
for a Three-Piece

83.

Elbow, the Middle Piece Being: a Gore.

Let

AB

C D E F

Gr in Fig.

375 be the elevation

NK
any

L, cutting the miter line

F

H

C, as shown.

(X

elbow to any given angle, as G F E, the middle piece of which, B C II, forms a gore extendThe lines H B and ing around one-half the diameter.
of a three-piece
II C are drawn parallel respectively to the ends of the two outer pieces, therefore the patterns for the end H to B and pieces will be straight from H to C and To obtain the pattern for one mitered from H to F.

line, as

E D

extended,
e d,

lay off a stretchout of

M

through the points in which draw the usual measuring lines, as shown. With the
L, as

K

shown by

T-square brought successively against the points in II C, cut corresponding measuring lines, as shown.
line traced

F

A

by fh"

c,

will

through the points of intersection, as shown be the half pattern of end, as represented

of the ends, as

F

H ODE,
N

divide

N K L
With

into

any

in elevation

convenient number of equal parts.
at right angles to

the 7-square

The

L. E, or in profile by other half of the pattern can be obtained by dupli-

by F

H

C D

N K

L, carry lines

from the points in

cation.

188
Since II
II

The

New

Metal

HW.vr

Pattern Bool'.

C

is

drawn

parallel to

E

J

is

less than one-half the diameter of the

D, the distance normal

than L, therefore it will lie necessary before obtaining the pattern of B II C to obtain a corJ of elevation. To do this, rect section on line
profile, or less

H

C place tlie T-square parallel with from the points in C, cutting II J and
first

B

and carry lines

H

H

B.

Next

draw any

line, as

K' M'
J'.

of the section,
II',

and erect the
J',

perpendicular H'

From

on H'

set off the

them point by spaces in H J of elevation, transferring Through the points thus obtained draw lines point. with K' M', as shown. With the dividers take parallel
the distance across
lines

K O

L

or

L O M,

on the several

same drawn parallel with distance on lines of corresponding number drawn Thus H' M' and H' K' are the same as through H' J'. A. line traced through the points thus M. K and the section obtained, as shown by K' J' M', will be

K

M, and

set off the

desired.

J extended, C, lay off on of section, through which as h h', draw the usual measuring lines. With the T-square
For the pattern
of II

B

H

a stretchout of K' J'

M'

measuring

II J, and brought successively placed parallel with the points in B II and C H, cut corresponding against lines drawn through k h', as indicated by the

K'

H'

dotted lines.
intersection, as

Lines

drawn through these points
1>
1>

of

SECTION.
Fig. 37S.lttltei-n
/../

of

h' r, shown by shown in. elevation by the part

will

be the pattern

B

II 0.

a Three-Piece Elbuw,
lie in
ij

tlie

Middli- Piece

a

(Jure.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
of

84.

a Tapering

Article

which

is

Square at the Base and Octagonal

at the Top.

ABD
at the base,

C
J

IKLMHGrFE
H' D"

in Fig.

376 shows the plan of the

article

I G.

Draw

I

1

A' and G'
s

D

1

,

thus completing a diagonal

the top,

E

3

C

3

is

represents the shape at an elevation of one side. In

section.

order to obtain the slant hight of the octagonal sides it will be necessary to construct a diagonal section or ele2 3 vation. Therefore extend the lines of the base C 1) and
top
off

complete a diagonal elevation, set off E F" equal to E F of the plan and draw ! lines to C as shown.
If it is desired to
,

E

3

ir, as shown, to the

left,

through which draw a

obtain the pattern of one of the smaller sides, produce the diagonal line R C, upon which set off the as shown by C', and length or stretchout of I'

To

A

1

,

N

vertical line, as

R C
1

2
.

Upon

the line of the base set

draw the measuring

line

E'

F

1

.

By means
1

of

the
1 1

each

way

of the plan.
set off

or 1) from C' a distance equal to In like manner upon the line of the top,
a distance equal to one-half

A R

R

from R' each way

T-square, as indicated by the dotted lines, set off E K equal to E F of the plan and draw C' E and C' F'. Then E' C' F' is the pattern of one of the smaller sides

1'iitii

i-ii

Problems.

189

Fig. 377.

Pattern in One Piece,

of the article.
sides,

For the pattern of one

of the larger

draw
set

11

P

which

oil'

C, upon perpendicular to the side 3 P, in length equal to E C' of the ele-

A

vation, at right angles to

which through

and

P draw

measuring
lines,

lines.

By means
2

of the T-square, as
4

make A C equal to A C of manner make F E' equal to I E of A P and C E Then A' T E C
2 4 4 4
.

shown by the dotted
the plan.

In like

4

the plan. Connect will be the pattern

one of the larger sides of the article. If for any reason the pattern is desired to be all in one piece the
of

,

may adjacent the large and small sides alternating, all a a , Fig. 377. as indicated by i
in c:ich other,
1

shapes of the different sides

be laid

off

Pig. 376.

Elevations, Plan and Patterns.
is

A

Taperinij Article

Which

Square at

the

Base and Octagonal at the Top.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
of a Finial,

85
Sides.

the Plan of which

is

Octagon with Alternate Long: and Short

P K S T be the eleL In Fig. 378, let iinial corresponding to the plan which is vation of the shown immediately below it. The elevation is so
drawn
the long sides, profile of one of which proceed in the usual manner. Divide the profile A L M N O P into any number of convenient spaces, as shown by the small figures, and
as to
for the pattern of

A

MN

made on account
tern
to

of the
if

would have
2

made

extreme length which the patin one piece. Perpendicular

DD

lay off a stretchout, as

shown by

G H, through

show the

manner.
in

the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual Place the y-square parallel to the stretchout

line, and,

bringing

D E C

and

D F
2

against each of the several points C, cut the corresponding measuring
it

from the points thus obtained drop lines across tin; corresponding section in the plan, cutting the miter
lines

lines.

traced through these intersection will be the pattern sought.
line

Then

a

points of
dif-

DEC and D
same

2

F

C, as shown.
is
2

A

duplicate of the
1

For the pattern of the short sides
ferent course
is

a

somewhat

part in the demonstration
ered the

E C F

of the plan

shown below by K C
1

2

F',

and

to

C K and

0" K' are to be consid-

C
C

to the line

K

E

be pursued. As the distance from is than that from C to E F a greater
it

in all respects

as

C K and C

F.

The

profile of the piece as
1)

same mav be said
line

bearing

the two parts of the stretchout like letters; the division having been
of

must
:

first

be obtained.

would appear To do

if

cut on the line

this

proceed as

follows

From

the points in

C

E,

dropped from the

190

The

Sew

Metal

Worker Pattern Bwk.

Pattern Problems.

191

Vrs

in the profile

from whirh they are derived.

At

After obtaining the profile as here described, for the
pattern of the short side proceed as follows Perpendicular to E of the short side^ or on C extended, O' of lay off a stretchout of the diagonal section
:

of the IV erect the perpendicular B' A', equal to B From the several points in the profile of elevation. the elevation draw horizontal lines cutting the 'central

A

K

D

A

1

vertical line

A

B, as shown.

Set off points in A'

B

1

in

Fig.

379, as

shown by

C'

D

1

,

Fig. 379

to correspond,

From the several points P' carry lines vertically, intersecting correspondThen a line traced through these ing horizontal lines. as shown by A' L' M' N' O P', will be the points, the short side on the line C D of the plan. profile of
in

horizontal lines, tification in the following steps.

and through these points draw number for convenience of idenwhich

which draw measuring

lines in the usual

through the points in manner. Place

the T-square parallel to the stretchout line, and, bringing it against the several points in the miter lines D

K

B

1

1

side in the plan, cut the corresponding measuring lines. Then a line traced these points, as shown in the diagram, will be through

C and

DEC bounding the short

the required pattern.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for

86.

a Gore Piece Forming a Transition from an Octagon to a Square, as at the End of a Chamfer.
sents the intersection of the gore piece with the side of the shaft, may be of any contour whatever at the pleasure of the designer, the method of laying out the

represent the plan of the that of the square portion of a shaft and

In Fig. 380, let

FF FF

AAAA

pattern being the same no matter what its outline. By reference to the plan it will be seen that the lines of the molding, of which C D shows only the termination,

run octogonally, or

in the direction of

A

A.

There-

fore, before a stretchout of the piece can be obtained a correct profile must be developed on a line at right

angles to

its lines
:

that

proceed as follows in the elevation, into any convenient number of spaces, From the points thus as shown by 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
Pattern

on the line E F. To do this Divide the line C D, as it appears
is,

obtained drop lines down upon the side of the plan F, which should be placed in line below the ele-

A

vation.

Continue the lines from the side
corner,
as

A

F

across the

crossing with the

E

shown, F, and number the

all

parallel to

A A of the octagon,
lines

to

correspond

numbers of the points in the elevation from Draw the vertical line which they were derived. G n at a convenient distance from P D, and cut G n by lines drawn at right angles to it from the points in C D, as shown by the connecting dotted lines. G II
then
plan,

may be

or 11 of the

considered to represent the point F in the numbers on the line E F. From

G
Fig. 380.

off

The Pattern for a Gore Piece Forming the Transition from an Octayon to a Square.

on each of the several lines drawn through it, lay a distance equal to the space from E to the corresponding number in the same plan. Thus lay off from
II,

GH
on

on

line 1

a distance equal to 11 1 on

octagon portion.

Let

DPC

be the elevation of the

line 2 a distance equal to 11 2 of

is required to form the transition begore piece which The outline C D, which repretween the two shapes.

H. for each of the lines through these points, as shown by I through

G

E F, and F, and so on Then a line traced E
H,
will

'

be the

192

The

New
its

Metal

ll'w/ar Pattern Book.

profile of

when

the gore piece, or the shape of cut by the line E F.

section

from C D.
the

Through the
measuring

usual

lines,

points thus obtained draw as shown. Place the

Prolong

E

F, as

shown by

K L,

the latter a stretchout of the profile I

and lay off on H, the spaces of

T-square at right angles to the measuring lines, or, what is the same, parallel to E F, and, bringing it against

which must be taken from point to point as they occur, so as to have points in the stretchout corresponding to the points on the miter lines A F, previously derived

A F and F A, cut the corresponding lines drawn through the stretchout. Lines traced through these points, as shown, will constitute the pattern.
the points in

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a

87.

Gore Piece

in

a Molded Article, Forming: a Transition from a Square to an Octagon.

A B D C represent the elevation of an article of which G H I J is the half plan at the base and K L M N O P the half plan at the top. A C
In Fig. 381, let
the normal profile or profile of one and II of the plan of the square sides, and L show the miter lines between the square sides and the
of the elevation
is

H

M

gore piece.
lines II

C E and D
and
I

M

N,

are

shown

F, the elevations of the miter as part of the design,

but are not necessary in cutting the pattern. As only the normal profile, which would be used
cutting the pattern of one of the square sides, is shown in the elevation, the first step will be to obtain
in

from

this a profile of the gore piece, or in other words,

a section

upon

its

center line,

RH

of the plan. Divide

the profile C into any convenient number of parts, and from the points obtained drop lines at right angles in plan, as shown. to B, cutting the miter line L

A

A

H

From
draw

the intersections obtained on the miter line
lines parallel to

L

II

L M,

as shown, cutting the other
indefinitely.

miter line

H

M, and continue them

At

any convenient position outside the plan draw the line A" parallel to R, and draw a duplicate of the 2 that in the same relative position to C profile

A

1

H

A

A A
1

A A
1

C C

holds to
1

spaces as

A B, and divide the same into the same A C, all as shown by A C'. From the points in draw lines parallel to A A", cutting lines of
1
1

corresponding number drawn through the plan of the
gore piece.

A line traced through these intersections, as
to C", will

PROFILE OF

GORE

PIECE.

shown from A"

be the profile of the transition
:

piece from which to obtain the stretchout for the pattern. To obtain the pattern proceed as follows Upon K' a continuation of II R, place the stretchout of a the profile A' C as shown by the small figures, through
, ,

R

2

which draw the measuring n<>\v to be intersected bv

lines, as

shown.

These are
of

lines

drawn from points

L and corresponding number upon the miter lines Lines traced through the points of intersection, II M.
shown by

H

RT

and

R

Fig.

X81.The

S, will give the desired

pattern.

Pattern for a Gore Piece in a Molded Article, Forniinrj a Transition from a Square to an Octa,j,,
lt
.

f '/!//<

rn

lit 3

PROBLEM
The Patterns
Tliis
is

88.

for a

Raking: Bracket.

one of the
1

many

instances which calls for

on the part of the pattern cutter. the architect's drawings give Frequently only a detail of a bracket for the level cornice of a building, while
special draftsmanship

It may be necessary introduce in the several profiles of the normal bracket other points than those derived from spacing the profile.
in

the side of the normal bracket.

to

the scale elevations

show

one- or

more

of the gables to

be finished with raking brackets. In such cases the " level " bracket, and the detail of the pitch of the roof
are the only available facts from required bracket.
In

which

to

produce the
at the re-

Fig.

:;s-J, let

M

Use as many such points as may be necessary to determine the position of all points in the side being constructed. Then X' N" P' will be the pattern of the side of the bracket, and U" Z" D will be the pattern of the strip forming the sides of the sink shown in the face by E F II G, and &' a d c' will be the shape of the panel in
3
1 l

X

or

<)

I'

be drawn

the side of the bracket.

quired angle, with reference to any horizontal line, to The first step represent the pitch of the gable cornice. is to redraw the normal side elevation of the level

For the patterns of the several pieces forming the face of the bracket the profiles are to be found in the

be at right angles to the lines of the rake, all as shown at L Q P. Next, at any convenient distance from this draw two rertical and N' 1", the horizontal distance between lines, as M
its

bracket so that

vertical lines shall

normal side view, from which stretchouts can be obtained when wanted, and laid out at right angles to the
while the miter lines of any part are the vertical lines of the face view corresponding to that part of the profile under consideration.
lines of the rake;

(

)

which

shall be the required face

width of the bracket.
j

Lines projected parallel to the rake from the various angles in the profile between these vertical lines will

For the strip forming that part of the face at the side of the sink, lay off a stretchout of its Z at right angles to the lines of the rake, as profile

REGS,

U

complete the front elevation of the raking bracket. The additional lines E <! and F II representing the sink in
the depth of the panel in side, and U 1) giving the depth of the sink in the face, will be understood from, the drawing.
the face,

shown by u
measuring

1

lines are

A

z\ through the points in which the usual drawn. Drop the points from the

C showing

profile to the miter lines

R

S and E G;

then, with the

T-square placed at right angles to the lines of the rake,

To
what
is

construct a side view of the raking bracket, or, the same thing, the pattern for the side (includ-

ing the bottom of the sunken panel and the sink strips I' I) Z in the face), all hights must be measured upon

and brought successively against the points in R S and E G, the corresponding measuring lines are cut. Then lines traced through these points of intersection, as shown by R S and E G 3 form the pattern for that
1
1

.

1

,

piece.

one of the vertical lines of the face view, as 0. To avoid confusion, however, and make room for other patterns, another vertical line. X' P% will serve as well.
Divide the curved portions U to P of the face of the normal profile into any convenient number of small
spaces for use in this and subsequent parts of the operFrom all the points in the profile of face carry ation. lines parallel to the rake through the side view and
'

M

the sink, as
indicated

For the piece forming the face of the bracket below shown in the elevation by S P Z proceed in like manner. A stretchout of its profile, as
1

1

,

P, is laid off at right angles to the lines by of the rake, through which the usual measuring lines are drawn. The points in D P are then carried parallel
to

D

the

rake, cutting the
is

miter lines S

and Z

1

P'.

The T-square

continue them

From
lines

P they intersect the vertical line the points thus obtained in the line P 3 carry
till
1

X

3

.

X

1

then placed at right angles to the lines of the rake, and brought against the several points in the sides S and Z' P', by which the corresponding In like manner it is brought and II, by which the shape of the part extending up to meet the sink is determined.

indefinitely horizontally, as indicated. each oi the lines so drawn lay off from the line

Upon
X'

measuring

lines are cut.

P

s

a

against the points

G

distance or distances equal to the distance or distances upon the corresponding lines drawn across the normal
side of the bracket.

Then

lines traced

through these several points of interII
s

Through the points thus obtained trace lines, which will give the several shapes in the sides of the brackets corresponding to the shapes shown

form the pattern for that part of the face of the bracket. The upper part of the face of the bracket, shown in the face view
section, as

shown by

Z P
3

s

0'

S

3

G*,

194

The
1
1

New

Metal

HW.vr

l'nll>',-i<

Tiook,

N U K M, being u Hat side view N U, is obtained
by

surface, as indicated in the

by pricking directly from the face view of the bracket, no development of it
being necessary. To avoid confusion of lines, the sink piece

E

FH

d\ is laid oil at right angles to the lines of the rake, and through the points in it the usual measuring lines are drawn. The -square is then placed at right angles to the lines <>f the rake, and, being brought successively against the points in the sides
"

prolilc, as

shown by

'

\^.\\\\$^\\Y<L

VP

Fiij. 383.

Upper Return of Bracket Head.

Fig. 384.

Lower Return of Bracket Head.

Fig. 382.

The Patterns for a Raking Bracket.
1 1

G
is

is

The

transferred to the right, as shown by E F H' G'. profile of it, as indicated in the side view by UD,

E

1

G' and F'

divided into
1

any

convenient
lines
II'.

number

of

spans.

Then section, as shown by E G" F
cut.
3

the corresponding measuring lines are lines traced through these points of interII',
2

IF, constitute the pattern
of the side in the

and through the points miter lines E G' and F'

are

The

drawn, cutting the stretchout of this

of the

bottom of the sink. Of the strips bounding the panel

Pattern Problems.

195

piece corresponding to l> c in the side view, being vertical, is obtained by pricking directly from its elevation in llie face view of the bracket, B
bracket,
ilie

lines

M, cut the measuring points in the profile N' L' and drawn through the stretchout. Then lines traced
1

K

A

D'

For the other straight strip bounding this panel, shown in the side view by a b, the length is laid off equal to a b, while the width is taken from the face view, equal to the space indicated
the shape.

C being

through the points of intersection thus obtained, as shown by L3 N' and K M', will be the shape of the ends of the molding forming the front of the bracket
head.

by strip representing the irregular part a to c proceed as follows Divide the profile a d c into any convenient number of parts, from the points in
:

A

B.

For the

Before laying out the pattern for the return molding forming the upper side of the bracket head a correct side elevation of it must be drawn. duplicate

A

which carry

lines

crossing the face view of the

same

B 1)' C. At right angles to part, as indicated by the lines of the rake lay off a stretchout of the profile just named, as indicated by a' c', through the points
in

A

any convenient L 1ST* in Fig. 383, and parallel lines from its angles are extended to the right, as shown, making L' Q equal to L Q of the side view of the
of the profile L' place, as shown at
1

N

1

is

transferred to

3

bracket.

which draw the usual measuring
at

lines.

Place the

angles to the lines of rake, and, C bringing against the several points in the line and B D', cut the corresponding measuring lines drawn Then lines traced through through the stretchout.
1

-square

right

which represents , repeat the outline L" the intersection of the bracket head with the bed mold
of the cornice. L'

At Q

1

N

4

it

A

N

1

of

Fig. 382

is
1

then the cor-

X" are the miter and rect profile and the lines L' lines of this return ; however, as both the miter lines
are identical with the profile, the stretchout q

N

4

Q

the several points of intersection thus formed, as indicated by A' G" and B D', will be the pattern of the
1

x may

be taken from either one, the other being divided into

curved

in the side

forming part of the boundary of the panel view of the bracket. Of the three pieces of molding forming the head
strip

number of spaces as the first, which is easier The than dropping the points from one to the other. then be placed at right angles to the T-square may
the same
lines in the

of the bracket, the profile of the piece across the face is normal, as shown at L N, while that of the two side

the points in the lines

molding and brought successively against L N 4 and Q' X*, and the cor3

or returns, requires to be modified or raked before square miter with the face piece can be These principles will be further explained eH'ec.tcd.
pieces,

responding measuring lines intersected.
traced through these points, as 3 Q 3 , will form the pattern.

a

shown

Then lines .by L N* and
4

X

in

Problems 91 to 94.

The

first

correct elevation of the head,
profiles of the

step will be to draw a which includes raking the

upper and lower returns. Divide the normal profile L N into convenient spaces, and from the points thus obtained carry lines

pattern for the return molding of the head occurring on the lower side of the bracket is obtained in the same manner. duplicate of the profile

The

A

KM
The

of the face view of the bracket

is
2

drawn

at

any con-

venient place, as

shown by

K M
3

in Fig. 384.

indefinitely parallel to the rake across the top of the Draw duplicates of the norI'.K e view of the bracket.

proper length

is

given to the molding by measuring

mal

profile, placing

them

in a vertical position directly

upon the side view of the bracket, and a duplicate of the profile is drawn at the opposite end. Space the
profile

above where the new sides are required to be, as shown Divide these two profiles into the b\- it I and k m. same number of parts employed in dividing the normal

K"

W

into

any convenient number

of parts, as

indicated by the small figures, and in like manner di3 3 into the same number of parts. vide the profile

K M

from these points drop lines vertically, profile, and those drawn from L N. Then lines traced intersecting
through these points of intersection, as shown by L' N and M, will be respectively the profiles of the on the upper side and on the lower side of the moldings
1

At

right angles to the line of the stretchout of these profiles, as shown

molding lay
k'

off a

which draw the usual measuring
of

lines.

through by With the blade
,

m

1

K

the T- srl uarc

molding, and

right angles to the lines of the brought successively against the several
at

bracket.

at the profile L Lay to the line of the rake and through the right angles the points in it draw the usual measuring lines. "With
off a stretchout of

N

points in the profiles

K M
3

3

and

K M
3

3
,

cut the corre-

sponding measuring

lines.

Then

a line traced through

blade of the T-square at right angles to the lines of the rake, and brought successively against the several

and these points of intersection, as shown by 4 4 constitute the pattern of the return moldwill

K M
5

5

K M

,

ing, or the lower side of the bracket.

196

Tlie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a Raised Panel on the

89.
Face of a Raking Bracket.

In the solution of the problem stated above, and which is given in Fig. 385, the first requisite is tinas design or outline of the side of the normal bracket, such an outline is really a section through the raking ST bracket upon a line at right angles to the rake.

B and C D. intersection gives the outlines shown at of the lower These outlines constitute a front, elevation
end of the molded panel, or the view
point exactly
in front of

A

as seen

from u

the face

<>f

the raking bracket

N

shows the side view of a normal bracket, or the bracket as it would appear in a level cornice, the part from G to H being molded as shown by the shaded profile, which profile, being a section on line a b of the normal bracket, is given complete at J and called the normal profile. The first step is to derive from these factors a front elevation of the molded panel upon tin-

The proper or linal position. outline or shape of the upper end of the panel \vouhl appear as a simple straight line in this view because it
when
finished

and

in its

miters against to back.

a

surface which
I)

is

horizontal from front

ABC
G

F K shows

the entire front view of

the molded panel. This view furnishes the means for the next step, which is to obtain a view at right angles
to the face
lines of the

H, and

at the

same

at right angles to the

To accomplish face of the raking bracket. divide the profile of the panel molding into
venient

this first

rake

N

0.

To do

this, first

continue the
their vertical

any con-

lines

from the normal
till

profile of panel in

shaded

of equal parts, as shown in the section in the side of the normal bracket, and through

number

course

E

F.

they intersect the upper line of the panel These lines are omitted through the face of the

these points draw lines parallel

to the face of

the

bracket, producing them iintil they cut the upper surface against which the panel terminates, and in the opposite direction until they meet the vertical surface

bracket, the points only being indicated on the line K From the points thus established in K K. and from F.

the points derived in the outlines

AB

lines at right angles to the raking cornice,

and C D, carry producing

lower part of the bracket against which the panel From the points thus obterminates at the bottom.
in the

At right angles to the indefinitely, as shown. raking cornice, at any convenient place, draw the line

them

tained in the horizontal surface near the top of the bracket and in the vertical surface near the bottom of the bracket draw lines at right angles to the face, thus transferring the points to the line representing the outer
face of the panel, as

H' and

setting off on it spaces corresponding to those established in II G, already described. Through G draw lines at right angles to it to the points in the left, producing them until they intersect lines al,

G

1

H

1

1

shown from
be used a

G

to II.

ivadv drawn from the outlines
points in
left

A

B

and C D and the

in developThese ing the view of the panel at rjght angles to the face. Next, from the points already obtained in the line rep-

points will

little later

Through the points of intersection thus obtained, a.s indicated by 1 T in the lower
F.

the line

E

resenting the vertical surface near the bottom of the bracket carry lines parallel with the rake, extending

corner, 8 14 in the lower right hand corner, s, 9, 10, etc., in the upper right hand corner, and 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., in the upper left hand corner, trace lines, thus

hand

them

across the front elevation of the bracket.

In the

diagram, to

avoid confusion, these lines terminate at

the intersections

shown from

work they would tion, thereby making

to B, but in actual be extended across the front elevaalso the intersections

A

completing a view of the panel piece at right angles to The next step to be taken is to develop a its face.
true profile of this panel, or in other words, a section at right angles to its lines, from which to obtain a

shown from

stretchout for the required pattern.

To do

this,

first

C

to D.

At any convenient

place in line with the

assume any

line, as

P

0, at right angles to the lines of

front elevation of the raking bracket draw the normal profile, as shown below the elevation, and divide it
into spaces corresponding to the spaces used in dividing From the points thus the profile in the side view.

the view just obtained as the surface of the panel in the new profile. Upon this line extended,, as at K, draw a duplicate of normal profile so that the points 7

and

S

shall lie in

it.

Divide the profile K
in

into the

obtained carry lines vertically, intersecting those just drawn from the side of the normal bracket across the
front elevation.

same number

of spaces as

previous instances, and

A

line traced

through the points of

from these points carrv lines through the face view intersecting them with lines of corresponding number, as

Pattern Problems.

197

14

NORMAL

PROFILE,

a

Fig. 385.

The Pattern for a Raised Panel on the Face of a Raking Bracket.

198

Tlic

New
will

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
as

shown

at

LP

and

Q

R.

Then L P

Q K

be the

shown
in

to the left
this line

true profile of the moldings along the face of the raking The student will observe that only half the bracket.
profile is

points

by the line L M. Through the draw the usual measuring lines, as

shown.

shown
answer

at
all

K,

as both halves are alike, oneif it

Then, with the blade of the T-square placed with the stretchout line and brought against parallel
the several points of intersection at the corners of the " View at Right Angles to the Face," cut correspond-

half will

purposes

be kept

in

mind while

that the points making At any con1-7 in one profile are 14-8 in the other. of the true profile, venient place lay off the stretchout

the intersections

by number

Lines traced through the points ing measuring lines. thus obtained will produce the pattern shape, as shown.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 386
cornice of
fits is

90.

for a Diagonal

Bracket Under Cornice of a Hipped Roof.

shown a constructive section of the a hipped roof, under which the bracket L

through the points of intersection, and L N", will give the pattern for

as

shown by

K M

half the face.

against the planceer and over the bed molding C. Fig. 387 shows an inverted plan of the angle of such a
cornice, including two normal brackets B and C, and the diagonal bracket D, of which the patterns are re-

" the " operation of obtaining or raking pattern of the side is exactly similar to that employed in Problem 88, with the difference that while in Problem

The

quired.
plan,
is

At A,
also

in line with

one arm of the cornice in

shown a duplicate

normal bracket.
to

E F

of the profile of the represents the miter line of the
is

88 the side is elongated vertically, in the present instance (the cornice remaining horizontal, and the bracket being placed obliquely) it is elongated laterally or

planceer over which the diagonal bracket
fit.

required

The operation horizontally. the addition of a profile at the

is

also

back edge

complicated by of the bracket

Two distinct operations are necessary in obtaining the patterns of the bracket D, one for the face pieces and the other for the sides. As the bracket is placed
exactly over (or more properly speaking under) the miter in the cornice, one-half its width must be drawn

on either side

of the miter line, as

shown

in Fig. 387.

Each

half of its face thus

becomes a continuation of

the moldings forming the faces of the course of normal brackets of which it is a part. Therefore the normal
profile

X
G

8 of the bracket

A

is

the profile to be used,
lines

and

I

and J F form the miter

for

one half

the face.

The

face piece
of the

usual method in obtaining the pattern for the would be to divide the profile of into any

A

convenient number of spaces and lay
direction of the

off a stretchout

Fig. S80.

Sectional View of the Cornice of Showing Bracket,

<t

Hipped Hoof,

same upon any line drawn at right angles to the mold that is, at right angles to I Jor G F after which lines should be dropped from the profile upon the rniter lines and thence into-the stretch-

where

However, as the miter is a square miter, the method is available hence the stretchout line is drawn at right angles to the horizontal line of the elevation X X, as shown at II G. The usual measuring lines are drawn and intersected with lines from points of corresponding number on the profile. Lines traced
out.

required to fit over the bed molding of the obtain the pattern of the side it is first to ascertain the correct horizontal distances necessary between the various points of the profile. The points
it is

cornice.

To

short

;

already

made use

of in obtaining the face

may

be used

Therefore, drop lines from each of these points vertically, intersecting the side of the bracket, or, what is the same thing, the center line E F,
for this purpose.
as

shown

in the plan, Fig. 387,

by

1',

2', 3', etc.

The

Pattern Problems.

must number of spaces, as als<> be divided into a convenient shown by the small figures, which must also be dropped upon E F, as shown, and numbered correspondingly.
profile at the

back

of the bracket in the elevation

from transfer the points and spaces from E F. each point in the line E' F', erect lines vertically, intersecting lines of corresponding number previously drawn to the right from the elevation. Thus, lines

Low

H
-r

drawn upward from the intersections 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., on the line E' F' intersect with horizontal lines 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., while lines drawn upward from the intersections
1', 2', 3', 4', etc.,

horizontal lines

1', 2', 3', 4', etc.

on the line E' F' intersect with Lines traced through

the points of intersection, as shown by be the required pattern of the side.
If it

R

S P,

will

be desirable to ascertain the exact angle to which to bend the edges or flanges of the bracket to
fit

against the planceer
:

it

may be accomplished

in the

following manner
side
till it

Extend

P
from

of the pattern of the

intersects the line

X of the side

eleva-

Fig. S87.

Inverted Flan of Cornice

and Method of Obtaining
tion, as

Patterns.

of the points in the profile of the elevation to the right, as shown. At any carry lines indefinitely convenient point at the right of the plan, draw another

From each

shown

at

Y.

Upon

the solid line

X X

in

as T. Through diagonal elevation establish any point, P draw a line inT and at right angles to the

point

Y

so placed that its sides plan of the diagonal bracket, of the shall be parallel with the horizontal line F' all as shown, and upon its center line E' elevation,

X X

P at U. tersecting the line As the angle of the plan shown in Fig. 387 is a a right angle, Fig. 388, right angle, construct

Y

ABC,

200 and bisect
it,

Tlie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
the face together, as shown by E' H' F' in Fig. 389. Tin- anisic which the sides of the bracket make with

B L. Now take T in diagonal elevation, and the distance from B L in Fig. 388, from B to place it 'on the miter line At right angles to B L draw a line through the D. A B point D, intersecting the sides of the right angle
obtaining the miter line

Y

to

D

the planceer will be the complement of the angle II K of Fig. 388 and may be obtained as follows: Paral-

lel to

B

L, in Fig. 388, and through the point E, draw

Fig. S89. Fig. S88.

Perspective View of Finished Bracket.

Diagram for Obtaining Angles for Sending

the Flanges.

C

at

E

and F.

Now

take the distance
it off

T U

in diag-

I

onal elevation and set

toward B, locating Connect the points E, II and F; then the point H. F in Fig. 388 represent a section will the profile E

from

D

will the angle

K, representing the vertical side of the bracket then J E I represent the profile required IW
;

H

file

across the hip at right angle to its rake and will also be the angle to be used in putting the straight parts of

bending the flanges on the side of the bracket, the probeing shown in position by I' E' J' in Fig. 389. In Fig. 389 is shown a perspective view of the finished bracket as seen from below.

PROBLEM
To Obtain the
Angles
in

91.

Profile of a Horizontal

Return, at the Foot of a Gable, Necessary to
Profile,

Miter at
of Both.

Right

Plan With an Inclined Molding of Normal

and the Miter Patterns

In the elevation
of

BCE

D, and plan

FG

H K L I,

file

A'

will

have to be changed or "raked,"

in this

Fig. 390 is presented a set of conditions which necessitate a change of profile in either the horizontal or raking molding, in order to accomplish a miter
joint at I II in the plan.

case increased in hight, in proportion to the inclination. (These conditions are treated in the succeeding problem.) The vertical hight of the profile of the re-

In other words, the condiprofile, as

tions are

such that with a given

shown by

may be measured in the side elevation and compared with that of the inclined molding by measuring
turn
across the latter at right angle's to the line B C. In this problem it is assumed that the profile as

A

in the raking molding, the profile of the horizontal molding forming the return will require to be modi,

1

fied, as

shown by the miter upon the line I H The reason for this
line

profile A*, in order to in the plan.
is

form a

well as the pitch, or rake, of the cornice B C are established and that the profile of the horizontal reis to be modified, or "raked," to suit it. To obtain this profile, first draw the normal profile in the

easily found.

If a vertical

turn

it will be be erected from point 9 in profile a point in the norseen that each line emanating from mal profile A becomes depressed after passing this
1

A

raking cornice, as shown by placing it to correto the lines of the cornice, as shown. Draw spond
,

A

1

vertical line,

more or

less,

according as

its

distance

another profile corresponding to
with the face of the
placing this profile

it

away from

amount shown by the dotted lines. If, on the contrary, the normal profile, the proprofile A" be considered as the

this line increases, all in proportion to the of rake or incline of the face molding, as

above or below the foot of the raking cornice,

in all parts, directly in line to

new

profile

A so that its vertical

be constructed,
lines shall cor-

respond with the vertical lines of the horizontal cor-

Pattern

Problems.

201

nice.

number
draw
parallel

Divide the profiles A and A' into the same of parts, and through the points thus obtained
those

lines,

from
of

A
the

ively against the points in measuring lines. Then a
Z

V

U, cut tne corresponding
through, these

line traced

1

being
raking

to

the

lines

cornice,

and those from

A

intersecting

them
of

vertically.

intersection of

Through these points like numbers trace a
profile,
is
2 3
.

line,

as

which gives the modified shown by A Then A

the
indi-

profile of the horizontal

return,

cated

byG

II 1

F

in the plan.

It is also

the elevation of the miter line I II of the
plan.

Therefore at any convenient point

at right angles to the lines of the raking

cornice lay off the stretchout of the profile through the points in

M N
in

A

1

,

which draw
usual manner.
right

measuring
to

lines

the

Place the J-^quare at
the
lines

angles

of
it

the
sucthe

raking cornice, and, bringing
cessivelv against
profile

the

points

in

A

2
,

cut

the

corresponding measuring lines
of

just described. trace a line, as
will

Through the points shown by O P II.

intersection

Then

OPE
T, mak-

be the shape of the lower end of the raking cornice mitering against the return. For the pattern of the return proceed as follows: Construct a side
elevation of the return, as

shown by S

VU

ing the profile
elevation.

the same as the profile A' of the Let the length of the return correspond to

VU

the return, as
file

shown

in

the plan

by F

I.

In the pro-

set off points corresponding to the points in 2 as shown from to D. At right angles the profile

V.U

A

B

1

to the elevation of the return lay off a stretchout of 2 U, or, what is the same, of the profile^A. , as shown

Fig. 390.

V

by

W X,
in

lines

the

through the points in which draw measuring usual manner. Placing the T-square

Pr.-f.le cf c, Il.-rizontzl return at the Foot of a Gable, Necessary to Miter at night Angles in Plan with an Inclined Molding of Normal Profile, and the Patterns of Both.

To OotzLi tte

parallel to this stretchout line,

and bringing

it

success-

points of intersection, as usual, from the pattern of the horizontal return.

Y

to Z, will be

PROBLEM
To Obtain the
Profile of

92.

an Inclined Molding Necessary

to Miter at Right Angles in Plan with a Given Horizontal Return, and the Miter Patterns of Both.

shown in this problem are similar one just demonstrated. In this, howthe normal profile is given to the horizontal reever, turn, and the profile or the raking cornice is modified
conditions
to those in the

The

to correspond with it. To obtain the new profile proceed as follows: Divide the normal profile , Fig. 391, into any convenient number of parts in the usual

A

1

manner, and from these points carry

lines parallel to

202

Tlte

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

At any the lines of the raking cornice indefinitely. convenient point outside of the raking cornice, and at

F'

Pattern Problems.
in the designing of the pediment, the normal profile should be placed in the return at the foot, as is sometimes necessary, then the profile <>f tin- inclined mold-

.

203
the view of the miter line
is

As

the same in both

the front and the side elevation the pattern may be developed from the front just obtained in the following

ing must be first obtained, which in turn must be considered as a normal profile and used as a basis of obtaining the third profile, that of the return at the top. In Fig. 392, let A' be considered as the normal Divide into- any profile of the inclined molding.

manner, with the result, however, that the pattern will Draw the line K be reversed perpendicular to the
:

M

A

1

convenient number of parts in the usual manner, and

through these points draw lines parallel to the lines of the cornice indefinitely.- At any convenient point outside of the cornice, and in a vertical line with the point at which the new profile is to be constructed, draw a
duplicate of the profile of the raking cornice, as shown lv A, which space into the same number of parts as
A', already described.

From

the points in

lines vertically, intersecting lines drawn from . Then a line traced through these several points of intersec1

A A

draw

tion, as

shown by

A

3
,

will constitute the profile of the

horizontal return at the top and also the miter line as shown in elevation. If the normal profile were in the

horizontal return at the foot of the pediment and the modified profile in the position of ,

A

1

it

would he immaterial whether the

normal

profile or a duplicate of the modified profile were in the place of A by which to obtain the intersecting

lines,

only
tion,

is

as the projection of the points to be considered in this opera-

and that is the same in both cases. For the pattern of the inclined At right molding proceed as follows
:

angles to the lines of the raking cornice lay off a stretchout of the profile of the raking cornice as shown by F G, through the points in

A

1

,

lines in the usual manner. Place the T-square at right angles to the lines of the raking cornice, and, bringing the blade successively against the points in the profile A", which is the miter line in the elevation, cut the corresponding
lines,
line,

which

draw measuring

tern

measuring and through these points of intersection trace a as. shown by G II. Then G II will be the patof the top end of the raking cornice to miter

Fig. SOS.

For the pattern of the' against the horixontal return. horizontal return the usual method would be to construct an elevation of it in a manner similar to that
described for the return at the foot of the gable in the preceding demonstrations the equivalent of this, howto save a considerable ever, can be done in a
;

To Obtain the Profile of the Horizontal Return the Top of a Broken Pediment Necessary to Miter with a Given Inclined Molding, and the Patterns of Both.
'

lines of the horizontal return, as it

would be

if

shown
and

in elevation.
profile

Upon
as

KM

lay off a stretchout of the
figures,

A

1
,

all

shown by the small

way

por-

through the points draw the usual measuring

lines.

tion of the labor.

With

the T-square parallel to the stretchout line

KM

204

Tlie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
L, which will be the pattern of the end of the horizontal return to miter against the trable as shown. cornice,

in the bring the blade successively against the points the corresponding measuring lines. profile A% cutting

shown by

N

Through

these points of intersection trace a line, as

PROBLEM
To Obtain the Profile and Patterns
of the

94.

Returns at the Top and Foot of a Segmental Broken Pediment.

three problems treat of the various miters involved in the construction of angular pedi-

The preceding

would be obtained
lems.

as described in the previous prob-

In Fig. 393 is shown an elevation of a curved or segmental broken pediment in which the normal
ments.
foot. profile is placed in the horizontal return at the

The

profiles for the

curved molding and for the return
:

can both be obtained at one operation in Divide the normal profile the following manner
at the top

ABC into any convenient number of parts,
any convenient point draw

and from

the points thus obtained draw lines at right angles to At the horizontal line C F of elevation, as shown.

With Gr, cutting them. the curve of the molding was struck, as center, strike B C, extending them in the arcs from the points in

A

II, at right angles to the point from which Q,

G

A

direction of

D

indefinitely.

From any convenient
line to the center Q.

point in the arc

A D, as L,

draw a

From L draw L M,
beginning
as

at right angles to

L Q, upon

which,

at L, set off the distances contained in II

G,

From the figures in L M. where arcs struck from Q cut points of intersection draw lines at right angles to L Q. From the L
shown by the small

Q

points in L M, and at right angles to it, drop lines cutting those of similar number drawn at right angles line traced through these points of interto L Q.

A

section,

as

shown by

M

K,

will

be the profile of

be observed that the points for obtaining the profile are where he perpendiculars intersect the lines drawn at right dropped from L

curved molding.

It will

M

angles

to

L

Q, and

not where the

perpendiculars

intersect the arcs. dropped from L For the profile D E draw N D, parallel to C J, or at right angles to N 0, and, starting from D, set off on D N the same points as are in G II. Drop perpendiculars from these points to the arcs of similar numbers drawn from B, when a line traced through the

M

A

Fig. 393.

points of intersection will form the desired profile, as show by D E. The normal profile is also drawn above

To Obtain the Profiles and Patterns of the Returns at the Top and Foot of a Segmented Broken Pediment.

G
is

II

and

ND
N

at

X and

Z

to

show

that the

same

result

L

M

obtained by using the points in G II to set off on D as would be obtained by dropping the and

points from the profiles.

The

patterns for the returns

Problems describing the method of obtaining the pattern for the blank for the curved molding will be found in Section 2 of this chapter.

Pattern Problems.

205

PROBLEM
From
to

95.

the Profile of a Given Horizontal Molding, to Obtain the Profile of an Inclined Molding Necessary Miter with it at an Octagon Angle in Plan, and the Patterns for Both Arms of the Miter.
is

required a change of prolilc in order to produce a miter between the parts In this case the angle shown is shown in Fig. 394.

Another example wherein

us indicated,

and

in the

corresponding side, as shown
as

in

elevation

by N OLK, draw a duplicate profile,

by A'.

Divide both of these profiles into ber of parts, and from the points in each
carry lines parallel to the lines of molding in the respective views, producing the lines drawn from profile until

shown the same num-

A

they meet the miter
the points

C X. From thus obtained in C X erect
line

lines vertically until

they meet those
intersecting as Through these

drawn from shown from

profile A',

to L.

points of intersection

draw

the

line
in

O

L, which elevation corresponding to
will

be the miter line

C

X

of the

plan.

From

the points in

O L

carry

lines parallel with- the raking

molding

in

the direction of

P

indefinitely.

At
the

any convenient point outside of
normal
profile, as

raking cornice draw a duplicate of the

shown by

A

2
,

its vertical

line at right

angles

placing to the

lines of the raking cornice. 2 into the same profile

Divide the

A

number
1

of

A and A and spaces as employed from these points carry lines at right
in
,

angles to the lines of the raking cornice, those of corresponding intersecting

number drawn from

the points in

L.

Trace a line through these intersections, as shown from E to S. Then R S
be the required profile of a raking cornice to miter against a level cornice at an angle indicated of the profile by
will

A

B C D

in the plan, or an octagon angle. For the pattern of the level cornice,

at right angles to the

arm

B C

in the

plan
the Profile of a Given Horizontal S94. Moldiiiy to Obtain the Profile of an Inclined Moldiny Necessary to Miter n-ith it at an Octa-

lay off a stretchout of the profile
as

From

A,
ing

shown by E
in

points

F, through the which draw the usual measur-

line.

gon Angle in Plan, and the Patterns fur Roth Arms of the Miter.

With

angles to

B

the T-square at right C, bringing the blade suc.

plan between the abutting octagon, as indicated by
iii

members

is

that of an

X
1

BCD.

To produce

the

I

!

cessively C, cut corresponding measuring lines drawn through Then a line traced through these points, as shown !'.
II to

against the several points in

modified, profile
as follows
:

and

to

In the side

B

describe the patterns proceed draw the normal profile A,

from

G, will be the required pattern of the horiIn like manner, for the pattern of zontal cornice.

206
the raking cornice, at right angles to the profile R S, as

The

Xew

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
ively against the points in the miter line O L, as shown elevation, cut the corresponding measuring lines.

its lines

lay off a
l>y

stretchout of

shown

U

T,

in

through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual manner. With the T-square at right angles
to the lines of the raking cornice, arid

us

Then a line shown by

W V,

traced through the points thus obtained, will be the required pattern for the

brought success-

raking cornice.

PROBLEM
From
In Fig. 395, let B C D be the angle in plan at which the two moldings are to join, U V the angle in elevation, and A or A the normal profile of the raking mold.
1

96.

the Profile of a Given Inclined Molding, to Establish the Profile of a Horizontal Molding to Miter with it at an Octagon Angle ia Plan, and the Patterns for Both Arms.

elevation proceed as follows: Draw the normal profile with its vertical

A

side parallel to the lines in the plan of

To form

a miter between moldings

arm E D C, corresponding to the front of the elevation. Draw a duplithe
cate of the normal profile in correct position in the elevation, as shown

X

meeting under these conditions

a

VL

by

A

1 .

into

the same

Divide both of these profiles number of parts, and

through the points in each draw lines parallel with the plan and with the
elevation respectively, all as indicate.] by the dotted lines. From the points

the miter line of the plan C E, obtained by the lines drawn from the
in
profile

A, carry
the

lines vertically, inter-

drawn from secting Then a line traced through the intersections thus obtained, as shown from
lines
1

A

.

N

vation.

to 0, will be the miter line in eleFrom the points in O

N

carry lines horizontally along the of the horizontal molding
as shown.

arm
Y,

NOU

At any

convenient point

outside of this arm, either above or below it, draw a duplicate of the nor-

mal

profile,

divide into
as before,

shown by A", which the same number of parts
as

and from the points carry

lines vertically intersecting the lines

drawn from

N

Then a
From the Profile of a Given Iiu-lined Moldiwj. Establish the Profile of a Horizontal Moldimj to Miter with it at, an Octagon Angle in Plan, and the Patterns for Both Arms.
to

line

0, just described traced through tin

.-(

Fig. SOS.

points of intersection, as shown by T S, will give the required modified
profile.

For the patterns of the arm

YN

O U

change of

profile is required.

To

obtain the modified
line

profile for the horizontal

arm and the miter

in

angles as G F. a lay off on any straight line, stretchout of the profile T S, all as sh'own by the small

by

W E C B,

At right proceed as follows: to the same, as shown in plan

Pattern Problems.
3

207

figures

I

,

2",

3",

etc.

measuring

lines in the usual

Through these points draw manner. With the T-square
and brought against the

parallel to the stretchout line,

points of the miter line E C in plan, cut corresponding measurirg lines, as indicated by the dotted lines, and

dropped from it to the line E C according to the rule. For the pattern of the raking molding, at right angles to the arm N Z V O in the elevation lay out a stretchout,

L M, from

the profile A'.

Through the points

in this stretchout

through these points of intersection trace a line, as shown by K II. Then K II will be the shape of the end of Y N U to miter against the raking molding.
be easily understood that the points as found iipon the line E C arc just the same as would be obtained there if the newly obtained profile were drawn
It

manner.
line,

lines in the usual Place the T-square parallel to the stretchout

draw measuring

will

and, bringing it against the several points in the miter line in elevation 0, cut corresponding measurThen a lines, as indicated by the dotted lines. ing line traced through these of intersection, as points

N

into the plan of the

arm C

13

W E and the points were

shown by P R,

will

be the shape of the cut on the arm
molding.

N

Z

V

to miter against the horizontal

PROBLEM
The Miter Between the Moldings

97.

of Adjacent Gables of Different Pitches

upon a Pinnacle with Rectangular

Shaft.

The problem presented in Figs. 396 and 397 is one occasionally arising in pinnacle work. The figures represent the side and end elevations of a pinnacle which

other at the corners, and which are of the same hight in the line of their ridges, as indicated by L and L'

M

M

1
.

Whatever

profile is

given to the molding in one

face of such a structure, the profile of the gable in the adjacent face will require some modification in order to

form a miter.

In Fig. 396

let

A

be the normal

profile

of the molding placed in the gable of the side elevation. Before the miter patterns can be developed it will first

be necessary to obtain the miter line or joint between the moldings of the adjacent gables as it will appear
in the elevation, to

accomplish which proceed as

fol-

lows

a duplicate of A, placing it in a vertical position directly below or above the point at which the
:

Draw

two moldings are
indicated

to meet,

both of these profiles into

shown by A the same number of
as
1 .

Divide
parts, as

by

the small figures, and through these points

draw
will

lines intersecting in the points from to K, as Then a line traced through these intersections shown.

H

be the miter line in elevation. For the pattern of the molding of the side gable lay off at right angles to II a stretchout of the profile A, as shown by B C, through the points of which draw the usual measuring

M

Place the T-square at right angles to the lines of the molding, or, what is the same, parallel to the
lines.

stretchout line, and, bringing it against the several points in the miter line II K, cut corresponding meas-

uring
Firj. 396.

lines.

Then a
E, will

line traced

Side Elevation of Rectangular Pinnacle, Showing the Miter Between the Moldinijs of Adjacent Gables.

shown by

D

through these points, as be the shape of the cut at the foot

of the side gable to miter against the adjacent gable. The next step is to obtain the correct profile
of the

is

rectangular, but

not square.

All of

its

faces are

tiuished with gables

whose moldings miter with each

molding on the adjacent gable. having been established as the correct elevation of the miter, its

HK

208
outline

The

Xcw Mdal Wurkvr
points, to the

Pattern Bovk.

may now

be transferred, with
it it

its

end

elevation of the pinnacle, as

shown

tit

II

1

K', Fig.

397, reversing it, because side of the gable, whereas
other.

appears here at the right

appeared

at the left of the

Draw

a duplicate of the normal profile, as
its

shown

at A", placing

vertical lines at

lines of the gable,

and divide

it

right angles to the into the same spaces as

in the first operation.

From

these points draw lines at

right angles across the molding, which intersect with lines drawn parallel to the molding from the points in

the

miter line

IP K'.

Then

a

line traced

through

these points of intersection will form the required modified profile, as

shown by
:

W X.

proceed

For the pattern of the molding of the end gable At right angles to the lines of the. as follows

X, raking cornice lay off a stretchout of the profile P R, through the points in which draw as shown by
measuring
T-square
at lines
in

W

the

usual
to

manner.

With

the

right
it

angles

the lines of

the raking points in

cornice, bringing

successively against the
lines.

K H
1

1 ,

traced

Then aline cut corresponding measuring through these points of intersection, as shown

Fly. S97.

End

from S to T, will be the pattern required.

Elevation of Rectangular Pinnacle, Slwn-ing Miter as in Fig. 396.

Same

PROBLEM
The Miter Between the Moldings
of Adjacent Gables
01'

98.

Different

Pitches upon an

Octagon Pinnacle.

This problem
that

differs

from the preceding one
is

in

parallel to the

lines of the raking cornice,

which proBring
1

the angle

of

the

plan

octagonal

instead of

duce in

the direction

of

N O

indefinitely.
1

a change of profile in one square, but like it requires In Figs. 398 of the gables in order to effect a miter. and 399 are shown a quarter plan of pinnacle and the
elevations of two adjacent gables of different widths B' F' O D' of Fig. but of similar bights. Let

points in C O and with it erect vertical lines, cutting the lines drawn from E as shown from to O. Then a line, NO, traced through

the T-square

against the

,

,

N

these points of intersection will be the miter line in
elevation.

A

1

G

1

398 be a correct elevation and

AB

C G be

a quarter

For the pattern
:

of

the

miter at the foot of the

In that portion of the plan corplan of the structure. to the part of the elevation shown to the responding
E, placing its vertical Divide it into side parallel to the lines of the plan. convenient number of spaces, and through these any
front
profile

wide gable or gable shown in elevation proceed as follows At right angles to the lines of the gable cornice
lay off a stretchout of the profile E as shown by II K, through the points in which draw the usual measuring
1

draw the normal

,

lines.

to the lines of the plan, cutpoints draw lines parallel In like ting C O', the miter line in plan, as shown.

Placing the T-square at right angles to the lines of the cornice, or, what is the same, parallel to the .stretchout line, and bringing it against the several
points
in

manner plaee

a

by E

1

in the elevation.

duplicate of the normal profile, as shown Divide it into the same num-

N

O, cut corresponding measuring

lines.
<:.

Then

a line

traced

through the points of intersect:.

ber of equal parts, aud through the points draw lines

thus obtained, as shown from

L

to

M,

will

be the put-

P/ltf/'/'ll

Frnlil, in

.

209

tern of the miter at the foot of the gable

shown

in ele-

the miter line
as

N

()

vation.

Fur the mudilied

profile of the gable

molding

shown by

K P

in Fig.

from Fig. 398 (reversing tne same), 399, and through the points,

also reproduced from O, carry lines parallel to the lines of the gable cornice indefinitely, as shown. Draw a duplicate of the normal profile at any convenient

N

point outside of the gable placing
its

cornice, as shown by E', vertical side at right angles to A" 11, or the

lines of the cornice.

Divide

E

3

into the

same number

of parts as used in the other profiles, and through the points draw lines at right angles to the lines of the cornice, intersecting the lines

drawn from P R.

Through

Fig.

S'JO.

Elevation of

Narrow Side of Octagon Same Miter as in Fig. 398.

Pinnacle, Showing

these points trace a line, as indicated by be the modified profile.

E which will
,

3

To

lay
it

out the pattern
off

take the stretchout of
line

E

3

and lay

on any straight

angles to the lines of the cornice, as the points in it draw the usual measuring lines.
/

drawn at right S T, and through
Place

'HIS.
iiirj

Miter Bctu-een

Quarter Plan nnd Elevation of Octayon Pinnacle, Moldinrjs of Adjacent (tables of Different

Pitches.

the T-square at right angles to the lines of the gable cornice, and, bringing it against the points in P R, cut the measuring lines, as indicated by the dotted lines.

upon the narrow side proceed as follows: Draw n correct elevation of the narrow side, reproducing therein

Then a line traced through these points of as shown by U T, will be the pattern for
at the foot of the gable

intersection,

the molding

on narrow side.

210

Tlie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a Cold Air

99.
in Plan.

Box

in

which the Inclined Portion Joins the Level Portion Obliquely

The

in the plan

conditions of the problem are clearly shown and side elevation of Fig. 400, in which Z

Thus the ele pipe as it would appear in those views. ration would show the slant, which is determined by
the two dimensions
c

B C

is

the elevation and

X C'

D'

Y

is

the plan of the

and

d.

Therefore from the point
to

level portion of a cold air passage joining a furnace The inclined portion of the just above the floor line.
air

A

of the elevation erect a perpendicular line equal

passage or

box

is

at the angle

Z

A E

required to join the level portion of the side elevation, and at the

the required hight c, from the top of which draw a horizontal line to the right of a length equal to the amount of slant </, thus locating the point K. which

angle

are in

in plan. These conditions similar to those given in Problem many respects 95, with the difference, however, that in this case the

Y

A' E' when viewed

connect by a straight line with A.

Then

will

A E

represent the angle of the inclined portion of the pipe as it appears in the elevation. But according to the

joint or miter

between the level and the inclined portions does not appear as a straight line in the plan. It be here remarked that the solution of this probmay

requirements the pipe

is

also to

have an

oll'set a dis-

lem

is

more

as nothing can

a matter of drawing than of pattern cutting, be more simple than the cutting of a

tance equal to e that is, the point E of the elevation is nearer the observer than the Therefore point A. from A' of the plan draw a line forward the amount of
the offset, from the end of which draw a line to the right, in length equal to d, or in other words till it

miter between two pieces of rectangular .pipe
required angle between them
is

when

the

This problem is capable of two solutions, both of which will be given, leaving the reader to choose which is the more
adaptable to his requirements.

known.

comes directly under the point

E

of the elevation, thus

E which locating that point in the plan, and draw will show the apparent angle in the plan. The depth and width of the oblique portion of the
.

A

As above intimated, before the First Solution. pattern can be developed it will be necessary to make tareful drawings, in the preparation of which a knowledge of the principles
necessary.
of orthographic

box

will

next demand attention.

the line

AE

box a and

At right angles to of the elevation set off the depth of the draw a line to represent the lower near cor-

projection

is

(See Chapter III). proceed, then, with the drawings, first draw a plan and elevation of as much of the furnace as is necessary to show its connection with the cold air box,

To

ner of the box, which continue downward until it cuts the floor line, as shown at D; then draw D, which the miter cut for the side of the box. At represents

A

right angles to

A' E'

of the plan set off the width

/,

as

placing each part of the plan directly under its corresponding part in the elevation, so that as soon as any

shown, and draw a line parallel to A' E' intersecting the line from X at B', as shown, and draw A' B', which
gives the plan of the miter cut across the top of the As the point D of the elevation is in the same box. it vertical plane as may now be dropped into the

new
tion

point

is

determined in either of the views

its

posi-

can be located in the other by means of a perpendicular line dropped from one view to the other. Upon
the plan set off the width of the box b and draw parallel lines from the side of the furnace body to the right indefinitely, and upon the elevation set off its hight, a,

A

line showing the front side plan, intersecting with the of the box in that view, as shown at D'; and the point

from the floor line up, and draw Z. A vertical line from the point X of the plan will give the point Z upon
the elevation, or, in other words, curve of the furnace body cuts

A

B' of the plan, being on a level with A', may be projected into the elevation, where it would intersect with

show how
into

far the

A line the line showing the top of the box at B. drawn from D' of the plan parallel to A' K' (shown of -the lower near dotted) will then show the position
angle of the inclined portion of the box, and a line E will show the from B of the elevation parallel to

the

top

and

bottom surfaces of the cold

air

box.

Next, upon the

A

the required distance from elevation locate the point the side of the body according to specification and find
its

A

position in that

view of the further top corner of the

box.
position in the two views of the remaining of the box may be ascerangle of the inclined portion The width b may be set off tained in several ways:

position in the plan by means of a vertical line, as in both views lines must shown. From the point be drawn to represent the angle or deflection of the

The

A

I '<dli

rn

/'rMnns.

211

from

1)'

of

tlic

sect with

X

line drawn which will interplan ami B' continued, as shown at C'; thence it
:i ;

may be projected into the elevation at C, as shown or the width a may be set off from B of the elevation,
0,

thus locating the line which intersects with the floor at which point may be dropped into the plan, thus
or, again, B G may be drawn locating the point C' D, or 1)' C' may be drawn parallel to A' parallel to B', all producing the same result.
;

A

was noted that

In the case in Problem 95, above referred to, it if the normal profile is adhered to in the

mold must be changed " raked" before a or perfect miter joint can be oblevel arm, the profile of the gable

tained.

\Vhat

is

Irno in the case, of the gable miter

is

a correct equally true in the case of the furnace pipe or cross section of the box must be developed profile in order that a correct stretchout may be obtained for use in cutting the miter of the inclined arm of the pipe. As neither the plan n<>r the elevation, which have been correctly obtained, gives the true length of the inclined
piece
that
is,

flic

true distance

from

A

to

E

it

will

be necessary to obtain still another elevation, in which As A' E' of the such distance is correctly shown.
plan gives the liori/.ontal distance between the points A and K, and c represents the vertical distance between them,
lie
if

a right angled triangle

constructed with A'
as
c

K'

a

base

and

the

as the perpendichight ular, itshypothenuse will

then

give

the

desired

measurement.
triangle

Such

a

properly

forms

part of an oblique elevation which may be pro-

jected from the plan in the following manner:
Parallel to

A'

E', at

any

convenient
away, draw a
resent
floor,

distance

line to rep-

the level
as

of
;

the

shown

above

which, at a distance equal to draw another paral,

representing the hight of the horizontal arm of the pipe. Above the line X" 3 at
,

lel line,

X"

A

2
.

A

,

a

hight equal to

c,

draw

another line, upon which the point E is subsequently to be located.
still

Fig. 400.

Plan and Elevations of a Cold Air Box

iti

Which

the Inclined Pcrtion Joins the Level

Portion Obliquely in Plan.

First Solution,

212

Tlie

Xt-w Metal

Worker Pattern Book,
lines

Now

drop lines from

all

the points of the plan at right

of

the stretchout,

all

as clearly

shown

in

the

A' E', intersecting each with its correspond ing line of the new elevation, thus locating each point of the As points D' and C' are upon the miter in that view Liketheir position will be found at D and C floor, wise lines from A' and B' will locate those points in the upper surface of the horizontal pipe, as shown at A* and B where they are also shown to be in the side A line dropped from E' will also locate that elevation. a A line conat its proper hight, as shown at E point necting A" and E will then be the hypothenuse above As all alluded to and be the correct length sought.
angles to
3 2
.

drawing.
zontal

the plan shows all the dimensions of the horiof the pipe, the pattern for that can be dein the usual manner. To avoid confusion a veloped of that part of the plan has been transferred duplicate

As

arm

to Fig. 401,
is

a

,

where a stretchout of the normal profile laid off at right angles to the lines of the pipe, into
1?

.

3

which the points are dropped from the miter line A C D. In the normal profile of course the distances 4 and 2 3 are equal to I and the distances 1 2 and
3 equal to a of Fig. 400.

1

4

edges or corners of the pipe are necessarily parallel, 2 J lines drawn from B C' and D' parallel to A' E will

complete this part of the elevation as far as necessary. In these, as in all geometrical drawings, lines showing
parts concealed from view shown dotted. Lines from
in the

by other

parts are always

X and Y locate those points
is

new

elevation and

elevation of the inclined

show that, while a correct arm of the pipe has been oboblique, the
to
fit

tained, the view of the horizontal portion

space between X" and Y" showing the open end against the furnace body.

Having now obtained a correct oblique
the next step
line, as
is

elevation,

F H, which may be accomplished in the following manner From each point upon the line of the section F, G, J and H project lines parallel with the direction of the
:

to obtain a correct profile upon any drawn at right angles across the pipe,

pipe to a convenient point outside the elevation, as shown at the left, across which draw a line, x y, at
right angles to them as a base distances from front to back.

from which

to

measure

Assuming

its

crossing with the line from

G (point
*>

of the pipe, set off from 1) to represent the near angle x on the line from F the horizontal breadth of the pipe
6,

D

12
Arm
of Cold Air
Boar.

PLAN
Fig. 401.

thus locating point 4, which corresponds to the In like manner on the line point F in the elevation.

Plan and Pattern of Level

II set off from y the distance o of the plan, locatthe point 2, which corresponds to point II of elevaing The distance tion, and draw the lines 1 4 and 1 2.

from

from line x y is equal to distance b plus the or in other words, draw the line 2 3 paro, allel to 1 4 and the line 4 3 parallel to 1 2, thus
of point 3

be noted here that, as is the case in all profiles, the dimensions and shape of the profile obtained from the oblique elevation differ somewhat from .those of the normal profile shown in Fig. 401,
It

may

raked

distance

and that their stretchouts are therefore necessarily
ferent.

dif-

locating the point

3.

Having now
of

a

profile

and

a correct

elevation

the

miter,

nothing remains

but

to

lay

off

a

and drop stretchout, as shown, upon the line the points in the usual manner from the profile to 5 B" C'' D", thence into the measuring the miter line

H K

may be asked naturally, is of producing a miter without a change of profile, just as a carpenter would saw off the ends of two square sticks of timber of the same section and
Second Solution.
It

there no

way

A

produce a perfect miter at an oblique angle ? There is, but the method of doing it is not so apparent as the

Pattern

Problems.

213

To accomplish this a drawing or one just described. view must be obtained, in which the surface of the
paper represents a plane

shown

commou

to

both arms of the

in Fig. 402, in which the plan shown in Fig. 400 has been reproduced, but turned around in such a manner as to facilitate the projection from it of an end

elevation, all of

which

is

clearly

This view shows the

offset e

shown in the drawing. and the rise c of the

The new view, which oblique portion of the pipe. will give the required conditions, is obtained by lookE of ing at the pipe in a direction at right angles to

A

the end elevation, and
to

is

obtained as follows

:

Parallel

A E at any convenient distance away draw A' E', which make equal to A E by means of the lines drawn at right angles to A E, as shown. Upon the line E' E set off from E' the slant d as given in the side elevation and plan, Fig. 400, locating the point E", and 2 draw the line E A'. From all points of the profile or end view of the horizontal pipe, 1, 2, 3 and 4, project
lines also at right angles to

across the line
Fig. 402.Pfiiterns of Cold

Air Box.

Second Solution.

three points determine the position of a be seen at once that such a plane passes plane, and E of the side elevation, through the points Z, The best means of obtaining this view is Fig. 400.
pipe.
it

As

will

A

E, continuing them and make A' Y* equal to A Y Then A' Y" will be the length of the of the plan. horizontal arm in the new view and A' E" will be the length of the inclined arm, both lying in the same plane, and the angle E" A' Y" will be the angle at which the two arms meet. Under the above conditions, then,

A

A'

E',

a line

which bisects that angle,

as

A'

C, will be the

t)ie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Hook.

miter line between the two arms.

As

the two arms of

the miter are symmetrical, the view can be completed,
if

on any line at right angles to C and the points in the usual manner, all as shown. If desired. dropped
laid off

W

desired,

by drawing

lines parallel

with A'

E from

2

the points of intersection with the lines from the end As is the view with the miter line A' C.

1234

the stretchout may also be laid off at right angles to the inclined arm and the pattern for this piece thus developed from the same miter line, although the miter

which the short profile from new view, a stretchout may

arm was projected now be taken from

in the
it

cut

A

B CD

A

is

the same in both pieces, one simply

and

being the reverse of the other.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for the Inclined Portion of a Cold Air

100.
Meet the Horizontal Portion Obliquely
alike.
in Plan.

Box

to

This problem
the similarity of

is

here introduced on account of

two views are lettered
clearly that
it is

Thus

the elevation shows

its

conditions with those of the one
its

an elevatio:i of the front

AB

F E

of

immediately preceding, although, as obtained entirely without the use of

patterns are

profiles, it

does

the plan, with the back the plan shows clearly the

C

I) II

G
G

ABD

dotted behind, while of the elevation with

not properly belong in this connection. will serve to show what widely different

Its solution

bottom E F

H

Gr clotted

below.

means may be employed to obtain the same ends. In the preceding case the miter cut was obtained without reference to the miter at the upper end of In this case the the oblique arm.
its
is required to join, at with another arm like upper end, and exactly parallel with the arm join

oblique portion

ing

its

lower termination.
it

Under such conditions

follows

that the planes of the upper and lower miters must be parallel, and, therefore,
that miter

cut

at

the upper end

of

either of the faces of the oblique portion must be parallel with that at the

lower

may

end of the same. Advantage be taken of these conditions to
a

obtain

very simple solution of the

problem, as will be seen below. The first requisite is, of course, a
correctly

drawn elevation and plan

in

which

all

the points in each are duly

in projected from corresponding points is shown In Fig. 403 the other view. a plan and elevation of the box, with

Fig. JOS.

Patterns for

the,

Inclined Portion of a CoM, Air Portion Obliquely in Plan.

Pox

to

Meet the Level

the lines of projection connecting cor-

be conresponding points in each, all of which may in the preceding structed very much as described
'

The

first

important information to be derived from

problem.

The

inclined

arm

is

required to have a rise

the correctly drawn views is that the front and back are the same, likewise the top and bottom are alike.

equal to a of the elevation and a forward projection Corresponding points in the equal to I of the plan.

The

patterns of the top and front are given separately, upon the supposition that joints will be made at all of

Pattern Problems,

SIB
of the dotted lines

the angles should they he wanted in one piece they could readily be connected. As all the surfaces of the
;

by means

drawn

parallel to

M N.

inclined portion of the pipe are oblique to the given view, only some of their dimensions will be correct as

This pattern is completed by connecting the point A' with B' and C' with D'.
In developing the pattern of the side B FE the same course might be pursued, beginning with the
lines

A

An inspection of both they appear on the paper. elevation and plan will show that the lines A C and 13 D are both horizontal and parallel, and, therefore,
correct as they appear in the plan, and may be used as given in the construction of a pattern of the top
piece.
will

AE

and

B

F,

whose lengths are correctly given

in the elevation,

method has

but for the sake of diversity another been employed. Beginning with the
the point

known
point
struct

fact

that

B
in

is

The

shortest distance between these

two

lines

A,
a

as

shown

by a

the

higher than the elevation, con-

be represented by a line at right angles to both, as M N. Since the point N in the line B D is higher
than the point

M

of
it

the lino

A

C,

by

the distance a

of the elevation,

will

be necessary to construct the

in order to get the correct distance bediagram J L tween the points and N. J K is made equal to the distance L X, as indicated by the dotted lines. is equal to the rise given in the elevation; hence the

K

M

M

K

P K, making O P equal to B of the plan, and E equal to a, thus giving K P as the correct length of the line represented by A B of the From the plan. points E and F draw, at right angles to E F, the lines E S and F T indefinitely. Since the distances A E and B F are the same and are correctly given in the
diagram,

and

parallel with

A

elevation, take that distance
dividers, and placing one foot

between the

feet of the

distance J

points of the plan set off the distance J L, as shown at ,1 L'. Through each of these points lines are drawn

M

represents the true distance between the and N. Upon the continuation of the line

L

MX
'

at the point describe a small arc, cutting the line E S in the point S. By repeating this operation from the point P, the
is

E

established in the line

F and

parallel to
is

A

and
to

B D

of the plan.
I)' is

made equal

A

C, and B'

The line A' C' made equal to B D

the points E S, S T and T tern of the front and back.

P

point T Lines connecting will complete the pat-

T.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a Hip

101.

Molding:

upon a Right Angle
of a

in

a

Mansard Roof, Mitering Against the Planceer

Deck Cornice.

Let Z X Y V in Fig. 404 be the elevation of a deck cornice, against the planceer of which a hip molding,

shown

in elevation

by

U

W Y T,

is

required to

5 the point in which the line meets the a vertical line, cutting the horizontal planceer, drop at the point C, all as shown by line drawn through

From B,

A

A

miter.

Let the angle of the roof be a right angle, as

B

A', Fig. 405, D N" representthe plan of the angle over which the hip molding ing is to be placed. This angle is also shown bv B of

shown by the plan

Q

I)

A

D A' in Fig. a duplicate of the plan, in such a manner that the diagonal line shall 405, lie parallel to the horizontal line drawn through A, all
Y'.

W

C.

Produce the

line of planceer

W Y,
Q

as

shown by

Draw

DN

the elevation.

the only view which will show the correct angle at which the hip molding meets the planceer is a view at right angles to the line D N, the first
step in the

As

as

At right angles to the line D' A'. 5 draw the line A" A", at any convenient point, as C in elevation, in length equal to the distance C',
shown by
1

Q D

1

A

,

A
1

development of the patterns will be to construct such a diagonal elevation. Assume any point,
as A, line representing a plain surface in the profile of -the roof, as B A. Through draw a horizontal line indefinitely, as shown by
in the elevation

and through
I

on any

A

A", as shown in the point the diagonal line I) cutting , by Then D N' represents the diagonal plan of that in the elevation. From part of the hip from B to
C'

draw a

line parallel to

D

1

N

1

N

1

N

1

1

.

A
1

LAC.

N

1

erect a perpendicular,

N

M, which produce

until

it

216

Tlie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
the side D'
to

meets the line carried horizontally from the plancccr in the point B'. In like manner from I) erect a per1

A

1
,

from which erect a line perpendicular
K,

D

1

N', as

shown by K
line
it

which produce
in

until

it

pendicular, which produce until it meets the horizontal line L C in the point L. Connect L and B', as shown, which will constitute the desired oblique projection
of

meets the horizontal
thence carry
in

L C

the point

L

1

,

and

upward
1

parallel to

LB
F
1

A

the point

F

.

On

either side of

cutting G II lay off a space
1

,

B.
step will

equal to

F E

of the diagonal plan, as

shown by

F'

K'

The next

be to construct a section of the
it,

and F
to

1

hip molding u-pon a line at right angles with

as

G

K,

Through these points E' and E" draw lines the intersection of the lines L B' and G II. From
E".

Fig. 404.

The Pattern of a Hip Molding in a Mansard Roof, Mitering Against, the Planceer of a Deck Cornice.

any convenient point. It might be supposed that in such a section the two fascias of the hip molding would be at right angles to each other, as
II,

assumed

at

K
off

as a center describe the curve of the roll of the re-

Upon the lines quired diameter. from a distance sufficient to

K

E' and

K

E" ccs

K

make

the desired

they undoubtedly would appear in the plan
Fig. 405 or
in a section

QD

A'

of

width of

fascia, thus

completing the profile of the hip
J

on any horizontal

line, as

L M.

molding in the diagonal elevation.
Space one-half of this profile, as G E in the usual manner, through the points in which carry lines parallel to L B', cutting the line of plam-ccr V, which
,

object of this part of the demonstration is to show exactly what that angle would be and how to obtain it.

The

Assume any

point in the diagonal plan, as K,

in

W

Pnaern Problems.
is

217

the miter line of the

will of

edges of the fascia course miter with the lower edge of the fascia
roll.

The

right angles to the line

L

B'

draw the straight

line

S R,

upon which
lines.

lay off a stretchout of

the profile in the

usual manner, and through the points draw measuring With the T-square parallel to this stretchout

line, or,

what

is

of the
it

molding

the same, at right angles to the lines in the diagonal elevation, and, bringing

successively against the points in
lines

W

1

Y

1

,

cut corre-

drawn through the stretchout. sponding measuring The measuring lines 7 and 8 are cut from the interPlan of
the Fascias

Fig. 405.

and Angle of

the

Mansard Shown

section of the fascia of the hip with lines projected from E 3 as above explained. Then a line traced

in Fig. 404.

through these points,
as

as J,

shown
will

in

the the

engraving,

shown by J P
1

be

at the top of the mansard, as

shown

in profile at

shown by the dotted

lines projected

from

B E all E At
3
,

the

hip

molding

inhering

against

pattern of the horizontal

3

.

planceer.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a

102.

Hip Molding upon a Right Angle in a Mansard Roof, Mitering Against a Bed Molding
at the Top.

Let
tion of a

A

C

B, in Fig. 406, be the section of a porroof, the elevation of which
let

lines.

Then

A

3

B

3

F' will be the correct angle

upon

mansard

to the left,

and

shown P E be any bed molding whose
is

which

to construct the corner piece and develop the miter line between the hip molding and the bed mold-

profile does not correspond to or member with the molding used to cover the hips, a section of the hip molding being shown at Z Y C'. The solution of this problem will be accomplished

ing of the deck cornice.

by means of a "true face" of the roof, rather than by means of a diagonal elevation as in the problem
immediately preceding
Therefore, supposing the section C B to give the correct pitch of the roof, the first step will be to obtain the true face, or elevation of the roof as it would appear if tipped or
this.

The next step will be to obtain a correct section of the hip molding upon a line at right angles to the line of the hip. To do this it is necessary to first construct a diagonal section through the hip. At any
as

A

convenient place lay off a plan of the angle of the roof, shown by D F D" in Fig. 407, and through this angle
1

of the hip, as shown by a line perpendicular to F D', as

draw a plan
to

F K. From D
1

1

erect

D
it

DC

of the section.
2

Through
it

C', in length equal C", parallel to D' F,

into a vertical position, for the purpose of getting the correct angle at A' B F'.

swung

draw C K, producing

until

cuts the line repre-

1

reproduce the section of mansard and bed molding as a whole at a convenient point below, but so turned as to bring the faces of the roof into a
this

To do

senting the plan of the hip. From the points F and in the lines representing the plan of the hip erect perpendiculars,
parallel

K
3

to

shown by F L and K C Draw L C F K, as shown at the base line of a diagas
3
.

vertical

position,

maintaining the same distance be-

onal section.

tween the points

A

and

B

as

shown by A" and B

2
.

length

Project lines horizontally to the left from this section for the true face, marking the lines from the points
of the original section carry a line across intersecting the line B' at the point
.

E

1

L.

From C erect a perpendicular, C E in Connect equal to C E of the original section. Then L C E' will be a diagonal section of a
3
1

3

,

3

A

2

and

B

2

From

A

A

1

A

1

.

portion of the roof, and L E will be the length of the At right angles to L E hip through that portion. draw , upon which to construct a correct section
1

1

MH

1

Next drop
iiiK-s

line

from

A

1

and B' vertically intersecting

of the hi}) molding.

Take any
and from

of

corresponding letter, as

shown by the dotted

F D

1

,

at convenience,

it

in the line point, as erect a perpendicular

G

218
to

The

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
'

in the point H, and produce it cutting F also iintil it cuts the base line of the diagonal section

P K,
3
,

K

LC

as

shown, and from this point carry

it

parallel to
it

be obtained by which the angle contained between the hip molding mav be determined. Therefore from II' on either side set off the distance
will

the facias of

the line

LE

1

,

representing the pitch of the hip, until

HG

of the plan,

as

shown by G and
1

G

2
.

Through

Fiij.

jfOfi.Thr Pattern of a

Hip Molding Upon a Right Anyle
1

in a

Mansard Rnof, Miteriny

Atj<ni,nt

Bed

cutting it in the point II Since D F D* represents the angle in plan over which the hip molding is to lit, and since G is the meascrosses
line
,
. 1

the

M H

1

H

these points draw lines representing the fascias of the 2 Add the hip molding, as shown by O (I and () (i
1

.

fillets
all

urement across that angle, if the distance II G be set off from H either way in the diagonal section, points
1

and draw the roll according to given dimensions, as shown. In the true face, Fig. 4nii. draw a half section of

Pattern Problems.

219

the hip molding as derived from Pig. 407, as shown. -M' IF. H' of the diagonal section. corresponds to

M

Place a corresponding portion of the profile of the hip molding in the vertical section, as shown, in which

M' IF also corresponds to II M in the diagonal section. Divide this section into the same number of equal parts, and through the points draw lines upward until
1

they intersect with the profile of the bed molding,, as shown between P" and B a From the points n P 2 B" carry
. i

lines

the

horizontally, intersjecting the lines drawn from Then a line traced profile in the .true face.

through these, points of intersection will be the miter line between' the, hip molding and the bed molding, as
seen. near B'.rh elevation.

Fpy
i.
1

'the pattern

proceed as follows

:

At

right
in the

/
'

'
;

c

-<

angles to -the line of the hip molding, as
true face, lay off
a-

shown

Diagonal Section

shown by S R, through the

-stretchout of the hip molding, as points in which draw the

usual measuring lines. Place the T-square at right to the lines of the hip molding, and, bringing angles it successively against the several points in the miter
line, as

shown

in elevation, cut corresponding measur-

ing lines,
fillets,

as

which will give the pattern for the roll and shown from U to V. In like manner place

Fig. 40?.

Method

f Obtainim./

t

',,,;<<*

Cross Section of

Hip

in

in the true face, the T-square against the point which is the point of junction between the flange of

X

Fig. #;.

the hip molding and-, the apron of the bed molding corresponding to points 9 and 10 of the profile, and
of partis
is

Space

this profile into

any convenient number

in the usual manner, and through the points draw lines to tjie lines of the hip molding indefinitely.
parallel'

cut the corresponding measuring lines. then completed by drawing u line from

The

W

pattern

to

V
'

and

T

to U.

PROBLEM
In the upper part of Fig. 408
is

103.

Patterns for the Top and Bottom of the Hip Bar in a Skylight.

sJiown the trans-

as a

means

B verse section of a skylight in which of the ventilator or finish at the top, and portion
the curb or finish at the bott >m.

A

represents a

points,

of obtaining thejmefal projection of all its numbering corresponding points in both profiles

C D

The

section also

shows the side elevation of a

''

common"

bar whose

the points in the normal profile F with the top and .bottom of the B skylight finish, as shown by the small figures in the same.
the intersections of
all

Number

A

The plan immediately below shows a profile is at F. corner of the skylight with one of the hip bars, H K, It will be necesthe patterns for which are required.
sary
first

and C G.

of the points in the profile F lines parallel to the center line of the hip in either carry direction, intersecting lines of corresponding number

From each

to sec

that the plan

is

correctly projected

dropped vertically from-bo-tk

4-ho -miters

of the

trans-

from the elevation, and afterward that a diagonal elevation of the hip bar bo obtained from this plan, before the correct or raked profile of the hip bar can be
obtained.
-Draw, a duplicate of -normal profile F with its center line on the center line of the hip, as shown at F',
'

Lines traeed through these verse section to the plan. of intersection will give the miter lines at top points

and bottom

At
as

as they appear in plan. right angles to the lines of the hip carry lines,

shown, by means. of which to construct the diagonal Assume anv line, as E' G', as the base or elevation.

22C

Tlte

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
the
horizontal
at

horizontal line of the diagonal elevation representing E G of the section. At E' erect a perpendicular upon

shown

A

molding at the top whose profile B, it will be found most convenient

is

to

Fig. 408.

Plan and Section of a Skylight and Patterns for

the

Hip Bar.

which to obtain the hights of the various points
upper
miter.

in the

carry
line

all

the points of the upper profile to the vertical
1, 2, 3', 4, 5

As

the hip bar

is

required to miter with

A

B, as shown by

and

1

(5

,

and

after-

Pattern Problems.

221

ward

to

transfer them, as

shown, to the
1

line
1

A' B',

in Fig.

keeping the perpendicular hight from E to B equal to E B. From all the points in A' B' carry lines horizontally
nitely, partial

been taken

108 are necessarily small, but great care has in the preparation of the drawing, and all

that

is,

parallel to E' G'

to the right indefi-

the points in the several views of both miters have been carefully numbered, so that the reader will have

as shown.

These
of

lines will

elevation

the

top

then represent a B in the molding

no

difficulty in following
start to finish.

out the various intersections

A

from
lines

Lines from each of the points in diagonal elevation. the plan of the upper miter at II may now be carried

now being
drawn

profile and the two miter in readiness, the pattern may be de:

The

veloped in the usual manner, as follows
line

Upon any

they intersect with lines of corLines connectresponding number drawn from A' B the points of intersection will give the required ing
parallel to II E' until
1 .

at right angles to the hip bar, as L M, lay off a stretchout of the profile R, as shown by the small
figures,

miter line at the top of the hip bar. From each of the points obtained in this miter
line carry lines parallel to B' G', or the rake of the hip bar, and intersect them with lines projected parallel to
in plan at K. Lines conthese points of intersection will give the renecting quired miter line at the bottom of the hip bar.
II E'
It

through which draw the measuring Keeping the blade of the I -square parallel with

lines.

L M,

it successively against the points of intersection previously obtained in the upper and lower miters and cut corresponding measuring lines. Then lines traced

bring

from the lower miter

N

through the various points of intersection, as shown by and P Q, will constitute the required patterns. It may be noticed that while most of the points

now remains only

to obtain the correct profile

of the

To

hip bar before a stretchout can be obtained. accomplish this, draw any line cutting the lines of

.

come squarely against the profile inner beveled surface of the curb G, the points 1 and 2, representing the vertical portion of the bar, pass
from the normal
over the curb to a point beyond. The line from point 2, therefore, intersects at both 2 and 2', which points
are duly carried through the views of this miter at and and finally into the pattern, as shown from which it may be seen that the miter pattern may be

the hip bar in the diagonal elevation at right angles,'as shown at R. Upon this line, and above or below the

hip bar, as shown at F", draw a duplicate of the normal
profile

K

F, from the points

in

which carry

lines at right

G

1

;

angles to the hip bar, cutting lines of corresponding number in the same. Then lines connecting the points
'

of intersection will give the raked profile, as

shown

at R.

cut as shown by the solid line from P to Q, or that portion from point 2 to 3 may be cut as shown by the
dotted line.

On

account of limited space the important details

PROBLEM

104.

Pattern for the Top of a Jack Bar in a Skylight.

The jack bar in a skylight is the same as the " common " bar in respect to its profile, and the miter
at
its

miter with the jack bar, or what is the same thing, that the surfaces indicated by 2 3 of the profile of the
hip bar in Fig. 408 shall lie in the same plane with that portion of the profile of the jack bar. However, as the raked hip bar presents exactly the same appear-

lower end with the curb.

At

its

upper end,

it is required to miter against the side of the instead of against the upper finish of the skyhip bar. As the hip bar occupies an oblique position light.

however,

with reference to the jack bar, two could not be effected perfect miter between the without a modification or raking of the profile of the
it

is

evident that a

ance when viewed in plan as a bar of normal profile, it will not be really necessary, so far as the miter cut

on the jack bar
operation.

is

concerned,

to

perform the raking

hip bar,

all

of

which has been demonstrated,

in the

preceding problem. It may be here remarked that the raking of the of the hip bar is done not so much to affect a
profile

In Fig. 409 is shown a sectional and a plan view of a portion of a skylight containing the miter above The normal profile of the jack bar shown referred to.

finish as to perfect joint with the top

make

a perfect

j

not exactly the same in its proportions as that of the preceding problem, but possesses the
at F'
is

F and

222

77/e

Xvw

Mi'lul

Worker Pattern Book.

same general features. the section from A to
jack bar.

The view
15

of the bar

given in

lowed
at x,

to intersect with the line
is

from

5 of

F

3
,

as

shown

represents an oblique elevaside of ihe hip bar which is toward the tion of that

which point

carried into the sectional view and

From B

to

D

the view shows the side of the

thence into the pattern, where it intersects with lines 4, as shown by x, so that the cut in the pattern is from

jack bar, while beyond D is shown a continuation of the full hip bar with its profile correctly placed in position at F".

x

to 5 instead of

from 4 to

5.

For the same reason,

The
is

to

first step before the pattern can be laid out obtain a correct intersection of the points in the
1

and afterward an elevation of the same, plan, as at B Draw u normal profile of the jack bar at B. as shown Al>n in correct position in the plan, as shown at F'.
,

as

place a profile of the hip bar in the plan of the same, As only the lateral projection of the shown at F are here made use of a normal profile will [mints
:
.

answer as well
intimated.

as

Number

the raked profile shown, as above all the points in both profiles
points
in

Correspondingly, and from the
lines

each carry

respective! v
B'.

parallel

to

as

shown at like numbers
view, cutting

From
of

the

their plans, intersecting points of intersection of

erect lines
lines
in

vertically into

the sectional

corresponding number drawn

the profile F parallel to the lines of It will' be seen that both Uhe rake, as shown near B. sides of the profile F' intersect with one side of the

from the points

profile

F".
1

alike, as

I

,

both sets of intersection being numbered This gives rise to two miter etc. ~2', 3',
the sectional view.

lines at

B

in

The line
'.'>',

correspond-

ing bar are

to

the

intersections on the upper side of the jack here numbered 1", 2", etc., while those
to the

points belonging exclusively 3 ^ and it are numbered 3
;i

lower intersection

.

,

A
laid off

stretchout of the normal profile

F mav now be

on anv

line,

as

(i

II.

drawn

at right angles to

the elevation of the jack bar, through which the usual Now place the blade of measuring lines are drawn.

the T-sqnare parallel to G H, and, bringing it against the various points in the two miter lines above described, cut corresponding measuring lines, carrying the
points from the upper miter line into one side of the pattern and those from the lower one into the other
side;
as

then lines connecting the points of intersection,

Fig. 409.

Section

and Plan of Miter

at the

shown from

K

to L, will constitute

the

required
it is

a Skylight and Pattern of

the

Top of the Jack Bar Same.

in

miter cut.

As
so as to

it is
fit

desirable to cut the miter on the jack bar o.ver the hip bar (that is, so as not to cut the

and in order to prevent the surface from all) 4 to 5 of the jack bar from hipping on to a like portion of the hip bar, as shown between the points 4', 5"
hip bar at

desired to prevent the surfaces 2 3 from overlapping the line from 2 of F may be intersected 2 with 3 from F as shown at ?/, and carried into the
if
1

,

pattern, as

shown, producing the cuts in the pattern
lines

and x in the plan, the line from point 4 of

F

1

is al-

shown by the dotted shown from 3 to 2.

3 y in the place of those

I'lttti'.rn

Problems.

223

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a

105.
in

Hip Mold Upon an Octagon Angle

a Mansard Roof,
Profile.

Mitering

Against a

Bed

Molding of

Corresponding

This problem, like many others pertaining to mansard roofs, m;iv reach the pattern cutter in drawings either more or less accurate, and in diil'erent stages of
Certain facts, vi/., the profiles completion. of the moldings, the pitch of the roof and the angle in
plan

From
I

the lines

I

K'
oil'

aud

F'

K. upon

lines

at

right

angles to each, set

F and

K

II;

the projection D E, as shown at through the points F and 11 draw linos

however

parallel to the first lines,
<!

meeting

in

G; then

a line from

must be known before the work can be accom;

plished

have no

but with these given the pattern cutter will as are difficulty in drawing such elevations

to II will represent the plan of the angle or hip of that portion of the roof of which B D is the profile. N"o\v, to complete the true face of that part of the

necessary to produce the required patterns. B C D be the given section of In Fig. 410, let

fro.n

roof drop a line from the point E' intersecting the line B at L, and one from G intersecting the one from
1

A

D

the

mansard trimming shown, A C the profile of the bed molding and apron, and B D E the pitch of
According
to

then the angle B L will be the correct angle of the miter between the bed mold and the hip mold.
1 1

at

M

;

M

the roof.

the statement of the
is
;

octagonal angle cither greater or less than that of an special octagon, but the principle involved and the operation As in all of cutting the patterns would be the same.
a

above the angle of the plan

it

problem might be

As

in

Problems lUl and 102 preceding,

it

will

next

be necessary to obtain a correct section of the hip mold on a line at right angles to the line of the hip. To avoid
in

confusion of lines, this operation is shown in Fig. 411, which E" G the base line, is made equal to E G of
1
1

,

other problems connected with mansard trimmings, the first requisite is an elevation of the "true face," in order to obtain the correct angle between the bed mold
ing and the hip molding.
as
is
is

the plan in the previous figure. At the point E erect a perpendicular, making it equal in hight to B E of the sectional view. Connect B" with G', which will give
a

A

normal elevation, such

likely to be
in the

met with

in the architect's 'drawings,

engraving at the left of the section, In obtaining the true merely for purposes of design. the section and plan face, shown below, it is best to use

shown

the correct angle of the hip of the roof. As a means of constructing a correct section at right angles to this line, assume any two points on the original plan, as

N

and 0, equidistant from
1

G

and connect them by a

onlv.

Therefore, redraw the section as shown immediately below it, placing the line of the roof in a verall

Set off straight line, cutting the angle or hip line in P. from G on the line G' E" of Fig. 411 a distance equal
to

GP

of the plan, as
to

shown

at 1",

from which draw a

the points of this tical position, section lines may now be projected horizontally to the in developing the required true left, as the first step
all

as shown.

From

the hip G' W. Next intersect these another at right angles at any convenient two lines by 2 From the point P" set off the point, as shown by P Q.
line parallel

face.

Immediately above the space allotted to the elevation draw a plan of the horizontal angle, as shown
I E'

distances

P O and
3
1

P" N', making them equal to

P

and

by

K.

As

it

will be impracticable to include the

entire profile of the roof in the drawings, some point must be assumed at a convenient distance below' the

with R, which is the intersection of P" Q with the line then the hip angle O' R N will be a correct section of thereof upon
;
1

PN.

Connect the points

O

1

and

N

1

bed mold, as D, from which to measure hight and proalso in the section below, as shown jection, which locate B D' equal to B D. From A draw a at D', making
1

or upon any line cutting the hip at right which the finished profile of the hip mold angles, upon

the line

P Q

3

may now be

constructed as follows:

;

jections of the fascia

and

fillet

Set off the proas given in the sectional
1

line at right angles to the line of the roof, meeting it be assumed for convenience as which at

B, point may the upper limit of that part of the roof under consideration. Now, from the point B drop a vertical line,

view, Fig. 410, from the lines R O and R N', continuing their lines to the center line P" Q. From the intersection S as a center, with a radius of the bed mold,
describe the
roll.

*which intersect with one drawn horizontally from D, as shown at E; then 1) E will represent the projection.

stipulated in the statement of this problem, the profiles of the bed mold aiul hip mold are to cor-

As

224

Xew

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

Fig. ill. -Diagonal

Section of flip.

Fig. 410.

The Pattern of a Hip Molding Upon an Octagon Angle, Miteriiig Against a

Heil

MMituj of Corresponding

Profile.

Pattern Problems.

225

respond.

By

this

it is

understood that the curves of

their molded surfaces are alike and struck with the

same

radius,

As
circle,

and so placed as to member or miter. the curve of the bed mold is only a quarter
while that of
it

'pon any line at right angles to the line L M, as V, lay off a stretchout of the complete hip mold as obtained from the half profile S' T, through which
I

U

the
will

hip mold

is

nearly three-

draw measuring lines as usual. Drop lines from the points from 1 to 10 of the profile, parallel to L M, cutting the miter line; then, with the T-square placed at and brought successively against the right angles to L

quarters of a circle,

be seen that the quarter

circles in each half of the hip mold next adjacent to the fascias and iillets will miter with the arms of the bed

M

mold on either side of the miter, and that a small space in the middle of the roll will remain between them, which must be mitered against the planceer, and the object of the operation shown in Fig. 411 is to determine exactly what
from
to

points in J X, intersect them with lines of corresponding number in the stretchout; then lines traced through the points of intersection, shown by d I and a c, will give the pattern for that nart of the profile from 1 up to the The pattern ci that portion of the roll which point 10. miters against the planceer muso be obtained from the

this

space

is.

The dotted
at

lines

S
(.)'

to

the

points

10

drawn

right

angles

N' show the limit of the quarter circles or the parts that must miter with the bed mold, while the space between them (10 to 10) shows the

K

and

R

From points 10, 11 and diagonal section of the hip. 12 in Fig. 411 carry lines parallel to G' B* intersecting the line of the planceer, as shown at W. It is only
necessary to ascertain how much shorter the lines 11 and 12 are than the line 10, and then to transfer these

must miter against the planceer. might be that the angle between the fascias of the hip supposed mold, to fit over the angle of a mansard which is octag.part that
It

onal in plan, would be octagonal, but the demonstraof tjie plan, tion shows that while the angle

N GO
less

This can be done by dropdistances to the pattern. lines from the intersection of points 11 and 12 ping with the planceer, in Fig. 411, at right angles to G' B 3 ,

the angle Fig. 410, is that of an octagon, N' 0' Fig. 411, is greater, because the distance
to

N R O',
1

is

equal

These distances can then be transcutting line 10. to line 10 of the pattern, Fig. 410, measuring ferred down from the point 10 of pattern already obtained,
after

X

O, while the distance

RP

J

is

than

G

P,

being at right angles to the line of the hip being oblique to
it.

and

RP G P'
1

3

which they may be carried

parallel

to

UV

into

the measuring lines 11 and 12,
pattern.

thus completing the

The
as follows

true face, Fig. 410,
:

may now
1

be completed,
in

right angles to

Upon any line, as S T, drawn at L M, representing the face of the roof,
of one-half the profile of the hip

This portion of the work is necessarily very minute the drawing, but it will be easily seen, in applying
1

draw a duplicate

mold

the

the principle to other similar cases, that if the angle of were less than that shown, for plan I E

K

obtained in Fig. 411, placing the point S upon the line L M, as shown. Lines drawn through the angles of
this profile

parallel to

L

M

will intersect with lines

were a right or an acute angle, a instance, distance or more points would occur between greater the points. 10 and 10, and further, that if the angle of
if it

from corresponding points from the profile line .1 viously drawn, giving the miter
pleting the elevation of the true face.

A C', preX and com1

the

roof

were

less

steep

a

greater

curve

or
of

would occur between those points
pattern.

(a to i)

dip the

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of

106.

a Hip Molding Upon an Octagon Angle of a Mansard Roof, Mitsring Upon an Inclined

Wash
In Fig. 412,
let

at the

Bottom.

DB

of the section represent the

whatever.

The

profile of the hip

mold

as given in the
fitting

wash surmounting the base molding at the foot of a mansard roof, the inclination of the roof being shown 2 2 by B A. The plan of the angle of the roof B K B as specified, is that of an octagon, but so far as prin,

original drawings over an octagonal angle

will

most likely be drawn as
that
is,

over the angle as given

in the plan

ciple

and method are concerned,

it

may

be any angle

As explained in the building. problem preceding this, a section through the angle of the roof at right angles to the line of the hip must be
of

the

226

Tlie

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.

Ks

|?

P
Diagonal

3

Fig. U1S

Section of Hip.

, f

Ri D

G"
2

H*

The Pattern of a Hip Molding Upon an Octagon Angle, Mitering Upon an Inclined Wash at the Bottom.

Pattern Problems.

227
1

obtained, to which the profile of the hip mold must be The difference between adjusted before going ahead.

such a section and the angle in plan may seem trilling, but will be found to increase as the pitch of the roof decreases, and in a low hip roof will be found to be
considerable.

horizontal lines previously drawn from A', B' and D , 2 as shown then P' I will be the correct angle at which to construct the miter of the half of the hip
;

K

1

mold belonging
IP

to

this face of the roof,

and K' G'

P

will represent

a corresponding elevation of the

Hence the

original

detail

of

the

hip

wash.

mold must be accepted only so far as it gives width and depth of fascias and fillets, and diameter or radius of the roll, while the angle between the faseias must
be adjusted to the true section across the hip as above
stated.

The

elevation 01 the true face

may now be com-

pleted by placing one-half the profile of the hip in correct position that is, with its base line or fascia at

The method

of doing this

is

shown

in Fig.

on the

!13, and the principles involved therein arc explained connection with Fig. 411, in the previous problem

m

right angles to the hip line P' K', the point coming line. Through the points Y, S and T project lines parallel to the To show the intersection hip line.

R

and need not, therefore, be repeated here.
operation will consist in obtaining the "true face" of the roof in the usual manner, viz.:
first

of the hip mold with the wash, first place a duplicate of the half profile of hip mold in the sectional view, as

The

shown by

T' then divide the curved portion of both profiles into the same number of equal spaces and
;

Y R
1

1

Assume any
at a

point upon the section of the roof, as

A,

convenient distance above the base, as a point

number all From these

the

points

correspondingly,
lines

as

shown.

from which to measure hight and projection. the section of the roof immediately below the
placing
t'.ie
1

Redraw
first

one,
1
1

it

in a vertical position

and locating thereon

the points B and D project lines horizontally to the left, thus obIt will be taining all the hights in the true face. next to complete the plan, to do which first necessary

point A, as

shown by

A

1

.

From

A

,

points drop parallel with the lines of the respective views, those in the sectional view cutting the line of the wash B D From these points of intersection carry lines horizontally, intersectS T. Then a ing the lines dropped from the profile line traced through these of as points
1 1

downward
.

Y

shown by

Y

intersection,

2

S T
3

2
,

will

be the miter

line

formed by

i

the projection of the points in the section upon horizontal line, as the one drawn through B, which any can be done by dropping vertical lines from the points
litain

the junction of the hip molding with the wash. At right angles to the line of the hip molding in the true face lay off a complete stretchout of the hip molding,
;

as

shown by

U

V.

A

and D, cutting

it

as

shown

at I

and C.

Assuming

measuring

lines in

of the plan to represent the point B of the section, set off upon any lines at right angles to

the line

B

2

KB K
I,

Through the points in it draw the usual manner. Place the Tor,

2

square parallel to this stretchout,

what

is

the same,

the lines

equal to

B B

3

these projections

that
to

is,

make B"

I'

at right angles to the line of the hip molding, as in true face, and, bringing it

shown

and

B C
2

1

equal

B

C.

Through

points in the miter line

Y

2

S T

2

successively against the 2 cut the corresponding
,

these points

draw

lines parallel to B"

and forming the line P G, whicn is is required to fit. From angle over which the hip mold the points P, K and G, which represent upon the angle
of the roof the points
lines

intersecting the plan of the

K,

a line traced through these of intersection, as shown from to Z, will be points the cut to fit the bottom of the hip molding.

measuring

lines.

Then

W

The normal by means
as shown.

elevation

A, B
the

and

D

of the section, drop

of projections

may be completed, if desired, from the plan and the section,

vertically

into

true face

intersecting

the

PROBLEM
Pattern for a

107.

Hip

Molding:

Mltering
is

Against the Planceer of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof

Which

Square at the

Eaves and Octagon at the Top.

In Fig. 414
in
it

is

shown the method

of obtaining the

deck cornice formed by the molding covering a hip, which occurs between the
or against the planceer of a

main roof and that part wnich forms the transition from a square at the base to an octagon shape at the
top.

The

roof

is

of the character

sometimes employed

228

Tliv

Xcw Mdal

\Ywlxr Pattern Bouk,

upon towers which are square in a portion of their bight and octagon in another portion, the transition from
square
to

by adding the
required
is

molding

in question covers

The hip octagon occurring in the roof. what may be called a transi-

Since the mittr flanges and the roll. the junction between the hip molding, the profile of which has just been drawn, and a horizontal planceer, the remaining step in the development of the
pattern consists simply in dividing the profile into any

tion hip, being a diagonal line starting from one of the corners of the square part and ending at one of the

corners of the octagon above. carefully drawn plan, with a section through one of the sides of the together
roof, giving the pitch,
will

A

convenient number of parts, and carrying points against the line of the planceer, as shown near B and thence
1

,

be the

first

requisites to
in the

carrying them across to the stretchout, as indicated. It is evident, however, upon inspection of the elevation, that the

solving the problem, both of which are

shown

apron or fascia strips in connection with

engraving. tion of a section upon the line of the hip, which may Assume any point, as A, in be done as follows
:

The

first

operation will

be the construc-

the planceer which miter with the flanges of the hip molding will form a different joint upon the side cur-

the

section

of

the

roof
If

bight and projection.

which to measure a horizontal line from A
from

responding to the transition piece of the roof than upon the side corresponding to the normal pitch of the
roof,

and a vertical line from the top of the roof surface B be intersected in C, then B C will represent the bight and A C the projection of the part of Set off the projection C A at the roof assumed.
right angles to the top line of the plan C' E, as

sides.

owing, to the difference in pitch of these two To obtain the lines for this rniter an additional

section
line

must be constructed, corresponding to a center L in through the transition piece, as shown by

W

plan.

shown

by C

through A' parallel to C' E then D E will till it cuts the plan of hip E Q at D form the base and B C the bight of the required sec1

A

1

,

and carry a

line

;

From L erect a perpendicular, as shown by L' B% equal to C B of the original section. Connect and B
,

W
1

Prolong C

3

1

and lay

off

W

D", as indicated, in the direction of
L',

equal to

W L of the plan.

W

3

,

which may be obtained for convenience by lines The projected from D E at right angles, all as shown. line B' D" then represents the real angle at which the hip mold meets the planceer or level line at
tion,

against the face of which draw a section of the apron or fascia strip belonging to the planceer, as shown, and from

the points in

it

intersect lines

drawn from the flange

carry lines parallel to B" B' until they of the hip molding

the top. operation will consist in obtaining a correct section of the hip mold from the data given and in

lying against that side of the roof, all as indicated by X. From these points carry lines, cutting corre-

U

The next
it

sponding

lines in the stretchout.

The

lines of the fascia

belonging to the other side are the

same

as

if

placing

Take any

in correct position in the diagonal section. point, G, in the plan at a convenient distance

from the normal section
elevation.

at B, or as

they appear

projected in the
as

DA Set off G at the same disfrom the angle From the tance from the angle on the opposite side. G and G' carry lines at right angles to and cutpoints
1

W

Having obtained these points proceed

1

.

follows

right angles to the lines of the molding in the diagonal section lay off the stretchout of the hip
:

At

ting

D C
3

3

in

the

points H" and

O

3
,

and from these
2

parallel with the line D B' indefiAt right angles to D' B' draw a line, as shown nitely. by Z II intersecting with the lines last drawn in the

points carry them
1

molding S T, and through the points draw the usual Place the T-square at right measuring lines, as shown. angles to the lines of the molding, or, what is the same,
parallel to the stretchout line, and, bringing
it

success-

,

and 0. From H', along the line H' PF, set points off a distance equal to II G of the plan, and from 0, in the line Z set off a distance equal toO' G of the ,

H

1

ively against the points formed by the intersection of the lines drawn from the hip molding and the planceer line B , cut the corresponding measuring lines, as shown.
1

H
1

1

1

In like manner bring the

f -square

against the points

U

plan, as

shown by

G".

Connect the intersection of

and X, above described, and

Y

and V, points corre-

Z

H

1

and D'

B

with the points

G

3

and

G

3
,

which

will

give the correct section through the angle of the roof. Having thus determined the angle of the hip molding finish, a representation of it is indicated in the drawing

sponding with the opposite side of the hip molding, Then a line traced and cut corresponding lines.
through these several points of intersection, as shown by U' X' Y V, will be the pattern sought.
1

Pattern Problems.

22!)

SECTION

fig. 414.

The Pattern for a Hip Molding Mitering Against the Planceer of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof Which Eaves and Octagon at the Top.

is

Square at

tht

230

Tlie

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM
which
at the

108.

Patterns for a Hip Molding Mitering Against the Bed Molding of a Deck Cornice
is

on a Mansard Roof

Square

Base and Octagonal

at the Top.

The problem presented

in Fig.

415

is

similar to

section with the line

D

3

B".

Complete the

profile of

that described in the previous problem, with the difference that a bed molding is introduced in connection

the hip molding, as indicated, laying off the width of the fascias on these lines, adding the roll and^dges.

with the planceer against which the hip molding

is

to
is

be mitered.

MEM

The next
to

1

the top, while L D of the section, assumed at convenience the point somewhere between the top and the bottom for the

M

represents a plan of the roof at represents a horizontal line at

draw a " true face "

step in the development of the pattern of the roof. In performing

this operation it matters not

whether the actual

sur-

A

face of the roof be used or the surface of the fascias.

purpose of
lines

measurement.

The

intersection

of

the

M

L and E D

prolonged would indicate the cor-

In this case the points and B of Fig. 415, by which the depth and projections of the pitch are measured, are taken on the surface of the fascia. For the true
face transfer the section
as
J

A

ner of the building at the bottom of the roof, the structure being square at the base and octagonal at
the top.
is

A B

to a vertical position,

indicated by A' B', Fig. 415, in connection with which the bed molding against which the hip mold-

step in the development of the pattern to obtain a correct section of the roof on the line of
first

The

ing

is

to miter

is

also drawn, as shown.

From

the

one of the hips.
lay off

E D
3

3

Therefore, at any convenient point of Fig. 416 equal to D E of the plan.

several points in this vertical section draw horizontal lines, which intersect by vertical lines dropped from cor-

responding points in plan.

Then D E
5

2

X

is

the true

From

the point

E
C

3

length equal to 3 nect B" and D ,
section

erect a perpendicular, E B", in B of the section of the roof. Con
3

face of that part of the roof corresponding to E M' M* of the plan. In connection with the vertical section just
described,' place a half
profile of

D

which

will

corresponding to the line

DE

be the pitch of the hip of the plan. Since the

true section of which has been obtained

the hip molding, a by the process

B" has been constructed away from and out of line with the plan, it will be necessary to re-

D E
3

3

already explained in Fig. 41G, and also place a duplicate of this portion of the profile in connection with
the true face.

produce a portion of the plan

in

immediate connection

Space both of these

profiles into the

with the section, as shown by I' II C". This can done by tracing, or any means most convenient. be

A

3

same number

From

the point II in this plan lay off on either arm the points I and I , equally distant from it and conveniently located for use in constructing the profile of
1

of parts, and from the several points in each carry lines upward parallel respectively to the lines of the views in which they appear; the lines

from the

profile in the vertical section cutting the

bed

molding, and the
tersection in the

lines

from the

profile in the true face

the points I and I' erect perand 0, pendiculars to II C , cutting it in the points 3 3 which prolong until they meet the base D E of the the hip molding.
s

From

being continued indefinitely.

From

the points of in-

K

diagonal section, from which points carry them paral3 J lel to the inclined line D B' indefinitely. At right

bed molding carry lines horizontally, those drawn from the profile in connection intersecting with the true face, producing the miter line, as shown

by

E'.

B draw a straight line, angles to the inclined line the lines last described in the points O , cutting
3

D

2

1

K
1

1

K' and

0'.

From

K

1

,

measuring back on the

line

By inspection of the plan where a portion of the bed mold is shown it will be seen that the miter of the bed molding around the octagon at E is regular that
is, its

P

K
1 1

,

K
O O

to

F

set off the point F, the same as from
1

making the distance from

miter line does not coincide with the line of the

K

to I of the plan.

From
equal to

hip

D

E.

If

in the line I I set off the distance
I'

3

O
3

1

I

s
,

vertical section,

the profile of the bed molding in the and also the profile of the bed mold-

these points I and F draw lines meeting the line O' K' at the point of its interof the plan.

From

ing as shown in the plan, be divided into any equal umber of parts, points may be dropped from the

n

Pattern Problems.

231

Fig. 415.

Plan, Elevation, True Face

and Part of Pattern.

Fig.

417.

True Face of Octagonal Side and Part of Pattern.

Patterns for a

Hip Molding Miteriny Against

the

Bed Molding of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof which
Octagonal at the Top.

is

Square at the Base and

232
profile of the plan

Tltc

New Mdal Worker
and thence
in

Pattern

iiook.

on

to the miter line E,

carried

downward and
shown
at

intersected with horizontal lines

It will be portion corresponding to F G of the plan. well to add to this at B a section of the bed mold as
3

from the corresponding points of the bed molding
section, also

it

thus giving the appearance of the miter between the two arms of the bed mold behind
,

E

2

true relation between
roof.

appears in the section below, thus establishing the it and the transition side of the

By means
by means

of this section

and the plan, construct
side of

with the hip roll. The vertical lines from the miter E of the plan have not been cartheir

intersection

a

true face of

one-half
of

the transition

the

roof,

which

to obtain the miter of the reroll.

ried, in the engraving, further

intersected with lines

where they are from corresponding points from
than
,

E

1

maining portion of the
the section

To do
4 2
,

this first

redraw

B

3

F', placing the line of the roof in a ver-

the profile at the operation
this

B
is

of the elevation, thus

performed. avoid a confusion of lines at
line in

showing how This has been done to

tical position, as

points in

E

2
.

Having obtained

the right,

Fig. 417, from the which project horizontal lines, as shown to upon each of which set off from an assumed

shown by B F

the true face, the point where it crosses the miter line between the hip mold and bed mold
line from previously obtained at E" must be noted. this point of intersection must then be carried parallel

Thus make

A

vertical line the width of the roof as given in the plan. G' E' equal to E of the plan, and

G

V
4

D
F

4

equal to

F

D.

Connect

D

4

and

E'.

Then

G E D
1

4

to the line of the
profile

molding in the true face, back to the of the hip, and there marked, as shown by the

is the true face of that portion of the roof represented by G E D F in the plan. In connection with the vertical section just de-

3

figure 1\.

The

be marked upon
profile as exists

position of the point 7 should now the section of the hip molding previ-

scribed place so much of the stay as was not used for the pattern already delineated, and in the elevation of

ously obtained at

O

1

in

Fig.
1

416.

So much

of the

between

and 7

in the true face is

the transitional face of the roof place a corresponding portion of the profile, as shown, each of which divide
into

used in obtaining the stretchout of this part of the
pattern.

the

same number

of spaces.

From

the

points

The remaining
to 14
is

from 7

portion of the stay namely, afterward used for the true face of

thus obtained carry lines parallel to the lines of the respective views of the part, those in the vertical section cutting the bed molding, and those in the elevaFrom the points in tion being produced indefinitely.

the octagonal side for the remainder of the pattern. At right angles to the line of the molding in the
true face lay off a stretchout equal to that portion of the profile thus used, as shown by P N, through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual

the bed molding of the vertical section carry lines horizontally, intersecting those drawn from the profile the elevation, thus establishing the miter line, as 4 indicated at E At right angles to the line D 4 E 4 set off a stretchout of the profile, as shown by R P*,
in
.

manner.

Place the T-square at right angles to the

lines of the

molding

in the true face, and, bringing it

against the several points in the miter line between 2 the hip and bed molding at E , cut corresponding
.

through the points in which draw the 'usual measuring
the T-square placed parallel to this stretchout line, or, what is the same, at right angles to 4 4 the line D E , and being brought successively against
lines.

With

measuring

lines

drawn through the stretchout.

Then

a line traced through these points, as shown by S T, will be the miter line for that portion of the pattern

the points in the miter line at

corresponding to the part of the profile thus used. For the other half of the hip molding, being that
another operation must be gone through.
portion which lies on the face of the transition piece, Construct a
1

measuring

lines, as in

shown.

cut corresponding Points also are to be car,

E

4

section of the roof corresponding to the line F G in the plan. At any convenient point lay off F C in From the point C Fig. 415, equal in length to F G.
1 1

same manner as described, corresponding to the bottom of the apron or fascia strip in Then a line traml connection with the bed molding. these points, as indicated by the line drawn through from U to T', will be the pattern of the other half of the hip molding. By joining the two patterns thus
ried across,

the

erect a perpendicular, C B ,*in length equal to C B of the section. Connect F and B 3 Then F B 3 is the
1

3

1

1

.

obtained upon the dividing line of the stay, correspond2 ing to P T of the first piece or P T' of the second
piece, the pattern will be contained in one piece.

length of the transition side of the roof through that

(DUPLICATE OF PAGE

231.)

B

3

Fig. 415.

Plan, Elevation, True F*ce and Part of Pattern.

Fig. 417.

True Face of Octagonal Site anil Part of Pattern.

Patterns for a

Hip Molding M'dering

A&3.inst the

Bed Molding of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof which
Octagonal at the Top,

is

Square at the Base and

234

The

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Hook.

-4V

A

A'

Fig. 418.~-The Patterns for

the.

Miter at the Bottom of a Hip Molding on a Mansard Roof Which at the Bottom.

is

Octagon at the Top and Square

Pattern Problems.

235

Locate the point 8 on the first section of the hip obtained near O, as shown, and use the remainder of profile 8 to 14 for another operacorrespond to the point
8.

hip mold it will be necessary first to construct a true face of the octagon side of the roof. To do this,
the line
1

tion.

Lay

off a stretchout of the entire profile of the

V, through the points in hip molding) as shown by draw the usual measuring lines. With the which

W

obtain a diagonal section of the roof corresponding to 3 D E in the pjftn, viz. Lay off D E equal to
1

:

D E of the plan, and from E' erect E A', equal to C A of the section in
nect

a perpendicular,
Fig. 419.
is

Conthe
roof

A' and

D'.

Then A" D'

length of the diagonal measured on the line

face of the

D E

of the plan.
off

Upon

any convenient straight line lay

D' A* in Fig. 420, in length equal to D'
A", and from
it,

A
4

4

set off, at right angles to

A

4

A* C plan. half of the diagonal what
is

C in Then
,

3

length equal to

E C

1

of the

D

3

shows

in the flat one-

face of the roof, or

At

in the plan. represented by to D 4 C' draw the remainright angles

DEC

1

ing portion of the stay not used in connection with the true face, placing it in 3 such a manner that the point O corre,

sponding

to line

of the hip section, shall fall

which represents the the hip. Through the point 8 of angle of 7 the section L" corresponding to 8 of the 3 of Fig. 418, draw a line section L"

upon the

D C
4
,

3

,

M

M
4

parallel to

D

C', as

and Elevation of the Miter at the Bottom of a Hip Moldiwj Fig. 419. on a Mansard Roof Which is Octagon at the Top and Square at the Bottom.
Section

S'

Y' corresponds

to

shown by S' Y'. Then S Y of the true face
7

in Fig. 418.

Space the profile L M into the same parts as used in laying off the stretchout V, and through the points draw lines

W

cutting the line S" the center line of the octagwhich, being onal side of the roof, is also the miter
parallel to D'

G\

A

4

,

line
Miter between the Inner Edges of the Hip Moldings at the Bottom.

between the two arms of the hip mold-

ing.

From
line

the

points
4
,

of

intersection

Fig. 420.

in the

D A
4

at right angles to

S

3

Y
T-square placed at right angles to the lines of the hip, as shown in the true face, and brought against the of the points in the miter line S T TJ, cut so many
1

1

,

draw

lines cutting

S

1

Y

1

,

giving the

For con13 and 14. points marked 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, venience in using one stretchout for the entire patof the true the line S tern, transfer these points to face in Fig. 418, from which, at right angles to S Y,

Y

measuring lines drawn through the stretchout
correspond to those points.
tion of the pattern
this

W

V

as

shown by

that porBy S T' IT will be obtained.
1

means

draw

lines cutting the

corresponding measuring lines

of the stretchout.

For the portion of the pattern corresponding to the part of the profile which miters against the other

[

points of plete the pattern.

Then a line traced through these intersection, as shown from S' to X, will com-

236

Tlie

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM

no.

Patterns for the Fascias of a Hip Molding Finishing a Curved Mansard Roof which

is

Square at the

Base and Octagonal

at the

Top.

The
82, near

differ greatly

conditions involved in this problem do not from those given in Problems SO, 81 and
it

line

should properly be classed. case, however, the profile of an entire roof

which

In this
is

under

in the plan. The width of the flange or fascia the hip finish may be obtained as described in forming Problem 6, and the corner piece drawn in to agree with the original design, as shown by S' T'
If
it is

E H

consideration instead of that of a simple molding or vase, but the problem is here introduced as being
closely related in

desirable
it

to

produce an elevation of
1

this

angle of the roof

feature to several of the foregoing

problems.

can be done bv dividing the profile B by the same points as were used in dividing O B', from which horizontal lines can be drawn to the left

CD E F
roof at
its

of Fig.

421 represents the plan of the

base, while

V G II

W represents the plan

at

intersecting with the lines of corresponding previously erected from the miter line E II.

number

A

line,

the top. It will be seen that the roof is nearly square at the foot of the rafters and octagonal at the top. The

E

3

II

3
,

drawn through >he points

of intersection will

with D* G' give the correct elevation of the transition
side.

same conditions may

where the corners of the roof are chamfered, starting at nothing at the bottom and increasing to a considerable space at the top, witharise

For the pattern
first

of this side

construct a section

upon

its

be necessary to center line, P R of the
it

will

out reference to forming an octagon.

DG

II

E

in the,

plan.
1

At any convenient

place outside of the plan
1

plan represents a chamfer or transition piece in the construction of a roof which, as above described, is square
at the base

draw a duplicate of P R parallel to it, as shown by P A', and from the point A erect a perpendicular,

and octagonal at the top. This part is rep3 The elevation is by D G" II* E introduced here not for any use in pattern cutting, but
resented in elevation
3
.

A

1

B', in length equal to

AB

of

In A' B' set off points corresponding

the original section. to the points in
1

A

In the sectional simply to show the relation of parts. B the outer line B represents view of the roof

A

B, and through them draw horizontal lines, as shown. Place the "{-square parallel to A' B and, bringing it
,
1

the surface of the fascias of which the patterns are required, the inner curve showing the line of the roof

against the points in E II previously obtained from the Then profile 0' B , cut corresponding measuring lines.

As it is in the boards and the depth of the sink strips. that the miter lines are shown it will be necessary plan
to develop the pattern from the plan. that one of the square sides, as E F
II, is to be be necessary to place a profile so that

a line traced through these points of intersection, as shown by B' P', will complete the diagonal section

W

Assuming then

From this diagonal corresponding to P R in the plan. section take a stretchout, which lay off on the straight
line corresponding to

PR

produced,

all
3

as

shown by

done
its
al".

first, it

will

P

3

B

3
.

Through
lines.

projection
as

O A

shall lie across this part of the roof,

shown by 0'

A B
1

measuring

the points in P" B draw the usual With the T-square placed parallel to

1 .
1 1

Divide the profile

O B

into

any convenient num-

ber of equal spaces, and from the points of division drop lines parallel to E F, the side of the roof, cutting
the miter line
this

and brought successively against the points in R II, cut the measuring lines, as shown. Then a line traced through these points of intersection, as shown by E to II', will be one side of the required
this stretchout line,
1

E

II.

Upon any

line at

right angles to

pattern.

In like manner, having
II across to the
it,

side

of the roof, as

O

2

B*,

lay off a stretchout

from

E

transferred points corresponding line D G, cut the

through the points, in which draw the usual measuring Cut these measuring lines bylines drawn vertilines.

measuring lines from
intersection forms
a

which

will give the other side

of the required pattern.

The width

of fascias (whose

Then a line traced cally from the points in E H. these points of intersection, as shown by E through H', will be the line of the pattern corresponding to the
3

may be obtained above and as given in Problem 6. as suggested In locating the points N and of this pattern it
panel in this case)
1

M

1

Pattern Probkras,

227

_-

IV
_

"nx/*-

/

u

i

a

:.

Bitterns /or the Fascias o/

a

Ht_p

Molding Finishing a Curved Mansard Roof Which
Octagonal at the Top.

is

Square at the Eaves and

238

Tlte

Xew

Metal

Worker Pattern Bwk.
if s<>

is desirable for the sake of design tliat they be, when finished and in position, at the same vertical distance below the corniee as are the points S and T on the

completed

desired, all of

\vhichwillbemade

clear

by

inspection of the drawing. In the ease of very large roofs,
it is
:5

square sides of the roof.

To accomplish

this

it

will

be

ment

of a profile or a pattern to the full size

where the developwould be

necessary to go back to the points S' and
4

T

1

,

in the first

impracticable,
scale of li or

pattern obtained, and from them carry lines back into the stretchout line O* B where they are numbered 10 and 11. Their positions may now be transferred
,

possible to perform the work to a inches to the foot; after which full

size patterns of parts of

convenient size

may be

ob8

tained
or 4.

by multiplying
the
are

their various dimensions

by

by means of the dividers to the normal profile O B, where their vertical bights can be measured on the line A B, as shown, and transferred again to the vertical
line

As
the
hip,

patterns

for the

roll,

properly included
is

under

usually finishing the head of
in

A B
1

1

of the diagonal section.
to carry

It is

only necesto the profile

Flaring

Work, which subject
section
of
this

treated

the fol-

P' B',

shown, from adjacent points may be measured by the dividers and placed upon the stretchsary

now

them

across, as

lowing
tained,

where

their distances

given here.
section
in

The
the

radii

however,

may

be chapter, they from which they can be obbe derived from the diagonal
in

will not

out line
this

means the appearance of By both in the plan and in the elevation may be panel
B'.

P

2

similar

manner described

the

following

problem.

PROBLEM
To Obtain the Curves
for

in.

a Molding Covering the

Hip of a Curved Mansard Roof.

The method
of a

molding Problem G. As it is necessary in obtaining the patterns of the molded portion or roll, that the curve of the hip should be established, this problem really consists of developing from the normal profile of the roof a
profile

of obtaining the pattern of the fascias covering a curved hip has been given in

measuring

lines in the usual

by

lines erected perpendicularly to

manner, and intersect them E F from the points
1

therein.

Then

intersection, as

a line traced through these points of shown by E K', will be the profile to
is

which the molding covering the hip

to be raised.

through the hip, section of the mansard.

or,

in other words, a diagonal

Let A E B iii Fig. 422 represent the plan of a mansard roof or tower, the elevation of which is shown by II K, over the hip of which a molding of any given
profile is to

Inasmuch as in the usual process of mold raising all curves must be considered as segments of circles, to accommodate both the adjustment of the machine used and the describing of the patterns, the curved line E K' just obtained must be so divided that each
1

section or

segment
circle.

will

be

fitted, in this case a

the diagonal line angle of the hip as

E F
it

three-quarter bead, in the plan representing the
if

an arc of a

approach as nearly as possible In this case the section from E to
1

L

viewed from the At any convenient point parallel to E F, and top. equal to it, drawK' F', and from F' erect a perpendicu-

would appear

a center,

to correspond to an arc struck from while the section from L to K' corresponds M, to an arc struck from a center not shown in the engrav-

will be

found

ing,

lar,

F

1

K

1

,

tion

G

K.

in length equal to the vertical line in elevaand F' K' into the same numDivide

lines

but which L N and

will
1

be found by the intersection of the
1

GK

produced. In the lower part of Fig. 423

K N

is

shown an enlarged
it

From ber of equal spaces. lines cutting the profile K,
points thus obtained in

drop ducing them until they cut the diagonal line E F of the Through the points in F K' draw plan, as shown.
1

H H K

the points in as shown, and

GK

draw from the

section of the hip molding, including the fascias, as would appear at the bottom of the hip, and above

it

lines vertically, pro-

another section taken at the top, which has been derived from the normal section or section at the bottom

by the method used and explained

in

Problems 105,

I'n

Htm Prvbkms.
the roll require trimming after being raised so that the roll may have an equal projection throughout its course.

lot!

and

K>7,
of

previously
the
lines

demonstrated.
oi

A

dotted
is
j

reproduction

the

upper

suction

SE.CTIONATTOP

Fig. 423.

Enlarged Sections Through Hip Finish at Top and Bottom, Showing Change in Flare of Fascias.

Fig. 42%.

Diagonal Section of a Curved Mansard Roof Obtained for the Purpose of Mold Raising.

placed here to show the change in the flare that takes place between fascias in going from the bottom to the
top of the hip, thus showing that the outer edges' of

Methods
ings will
chapter.

of obtaining the patterns of

curved mold-

be found in the following

section of this

240

The

New

Metal

Worker

l*uttcru

JJuuk.

SECTION

2.

(FLARING WORK.)
It will

clear statement of the class of

be well to place before the reader here a problems he may ex-

In this connection it is proper to call attention to the difference between a scalene cone and a right cone

It will include pect to meet with under this head. only the envelopes of such solid figures as have for a

base the circle, or any figure of equal or unequal sides which may be inscribed within a circle, and which
terminate in an apex located directly over the center
of the base.

oblique to its axis. According to Ih'linition 96, a scalene cone is one whose axis is inclined to the plane of its base, and according to Definition !M
is

whose base

the base of a cone

is

a circle.
its

As any
the

section of a
as
its

cone taken parallel to
base,

base

is

same shape

any section
its

of a scalene cone taken
circle,

parallel to

According
gon

to the definition of

(l)ef. 66), its

angles must

all

an inscribed polylie in the circum-

its

base must be a

right angles to

and any section taken at axis could not, therefore, be a circle,
Again, as any section of a
its

So the angles or hips of a ference of the same circle. pyramid whose base can be inscribed in a circle must
lie
its

but would be

elliptical.

right cone (Def. 95) at right angles to
if its

axis

is

a

in the surface of a cone

whose base circumscribes
is

base and whose altitude

pyramid.

Therefore the

equal to that of the circle which describes the

base be cut off obliquely, such base would. circle, Thereto Definition 113, be an ellipse. according
fore,

since

its

horizontal

section

is

a

circle,

its

pattern of the base of the envelope of such a cone will also circumscribe the pattern of the base of the pyra-

envelope

may

be obtained by methods employed
(See Problem 136.)

in

this section.

And

since the secits

mid contained within
therefore,

it.

The envelopes
cones,

of

such

solids,

tion of a scalene cone taken at right angles to
is

axis

as scalene

scalene

pyramids and

pyramids whose bases cannot be inscribed within a circle are not adapted to treatment by the methods employed in this section. Even the envelope of an
elliptical

an ellipse, an oblique base that is, with a base elliptical cone with cutoff at such an angle as to produce a circle and, as
stated above, cannot be included in this section. The principles governing the problems of
this

the scalene cone becomes virtually an

cone cannot be included with

this

class

of

problems because it possesses no circular section upon which its circumference at any fixed distance from
the apex can be measured.

section are given in Chapter V, beginning on page 79, which the reader will find a great help in explaining

anything which he

may

fail to

understand.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
Let
of a

112.

Triangular Pyramid.
the point

AB

pyramid, and

C of Fig. 424 be E F Gr of Fig. 425

the

elevation of

the the

K

erect

K H,

perpendicular to F

K and equal
shown by

the plan.

From

in length to the hight of the pyfamid, as

Fig. 424. -Elevation.

Fig. 425.

Plan.

Fig. 426.-Pattern.

The Envelope of a Trianr/ular Pyramid.

center

K

draw the

lines

E K, F

K and G K in

the plan,

A

1)

of the elevation.

representing the angles or hips of the pyramid.

From

which then represents

the hypothenuse F II, the length of the corner lines.

Draw

Pattern Problems.

241
set off

From anv point, as L of Fig. 426, for center, with O I indefradius equal in V II, describe the arc From inite! v, and draw L M. set off the chord

manner
and

N

and

I respectively, equal to

GE
the

MN

E F

of
()

the plan.

Connect

I

and L,
I

as

shown,
is

M

M

and draw L

and L N.

Then L

N M

N, in length equal to the sideF

G

of the plan.

lu like

pattern sought.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
of a

113.

Square Pyramid.

Let

E

A

C

of Fig.

pyramid, and F

II

K L
L

of Fig.

427 be the elevation 428 the plan.

of the

or circumscribe the pattern, as

shown

in the

diagram

The

From any
to

center, as

M, Fig. 429, with a radius equal

and diagonal lines F angles or hips, and G
apex

K

II represent the plan of the a point corresponding to the

A

of the elevation.

From

the apex

A

drop the

S N, indefinitely D, describe an arc, as P R From P, on the arc drawn, set off P. a chord, P R, in length equal to one of the sides of
and draw

A

M

_

N

Fig. 437.

Elevation.

Fig. 428.-Plan.

Fig. 429.

Pattern.

The Envelope of a Square Pyramid.

line

AB

perpendicular to the base

E

C.

in the direction of

D,

making BD
Connect

equal to

Prolong E G F, one

the pyramid

shown

in

the

plan.

From R

set

off

of the angles of the plan.

D

and A.

Then

AD

wiir be the slant hight of the article on one of the corners, and the radius of an arc which will contain

O, in like manner, and repeat the same operation, obtaining S and S N. Draw the lines S R P will O and R. Then N, S,

another chord,

R

M

M

M

M

M N

be the required pattern.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
Let
of a

114.

Hexagonal Pyramid.
the straight hight of the article, as shown in the elevaDraw the hypothenuse B X. Then tion by G K.

a

430 represent the elevation of of which D F C L B E of Fig. hexagonal pyramid,
I of Fig.
is

HG

X

431

the plan.
its

on a line drawn

step is to construct a section from the center of the figure through

The first

the side of a right cone, the represents the apex and of the base of which, if drawn, would circumplan

XB
X
1

oue of

angles in the plan, as

A

B.

From

the center
it

A

erect

AX

perpendicular

to

A B,

making

equal to

From scribe the plan of the hexagonal pyramid. of Fig. 432, with as convenient center,

any
of

XB

242
Fig.

Tlie

Xew

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
as

431 as radius,

describe an arc indefinitely,
line.

shown by the dotted
the arc to the

Through one extremity of center draw a line, as shown by D' X
1

B' L' in the arc thus obtained draw lines to the center, as shown by E' X', B etc., which will represent
1

X

1

,

.

the angles of the completed shape, and serve to locate

Fig. 430.

Elevation.

Fig. 431.-Plan.

Fig. 432.-Pattern.

The Envelope of a Hexagonal Pyramid.

With

plan, as

the dividers set to a space equal to any side of the D E, commencing at D set off this distance on
1 ,

the bends to be

made
1 1

in

process

of

Then
;

X D E B L
1 1
1

C'

F D
1

3

will

forming up. be the complete

the arc six times, as shown.

From the

several points E'

pattern.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
In Fig. 433,
article,

115.
of a

of the

Frustum

Square Pyramid.

let

GHK

I

be the elevation of the

A

E D

the plan of the larger end and

L

M

lows

Construct a diagonal section on the lin? P as folErect the perpendicular P F, making it equal
:

A

Fig. 433.-Plan

and Elevation.

Fig. 434.

Pattern.

The Envelope of the Frustum of a Square Pyramid.

the plan of the smaller end. lines C L, M, etc., in the plan

N

A

Produce the hip
to

to the straight hight of the article, as of

shown by

RK

the center P.

the

elevation.

Likewise erect the perpendicular

Pattern Problems.

243

M
P

B

of the

same length.
the diagonal

Draw F B and

A

B.

Then

the

arc

L N'
1

0' M'

L

1
,

AB

both indefinitely.

Draw

C'

F

is

A. Produce A tion of X, and also produce P F until it meets A B extended in the point X. Then X is the apex of a right cone and X A the side of the same, the base of
the line

P

section of the article upon B indefinitely in the direc-

X', cutting the smaller arc in the point

L

1

.

Make

the

chord C'

equal in length to one side, <J D, of the and D' E to another side, D E, of the plan, plan, and so on, until the four sides of the base have been
1

D

1

set off.

Draw
the
1

drawn, would circumscribe the plan C A E D. Therefore, from any convenient center, as X' of Fig. 434, with X A as radius, describe the arc C' D' E'
which,
if

L L
1

J

in

X E' points N O
D'
1

,

X',
1

etc.,

cutting the arc

1

,

,

etc.

Then

D N
1

1

,

E O
1

1

and

A

1

C",

and from the same center, with radius

X

B, draw

will represent the lines of the bends in the pattern. Draw the chords L' N', O forming up etc., thus completing the pattern.

A

M'

N

1

1

,

PROBLEM
The Envelope
of the

116.

Frustum

of

an Octagonal Pyramid.

Fig. 435 shows the elevation and Fig. 436 the The plan of the frustum of an octagonal pyramid. first step in developing the pattern is to construct a

diagonal section, the base of which shall correspond to one of the lines drawn from the center of the plan

through one of the angles of the figure, as shown by Erect the perpendicular G C equal to the G. B.
straight hight of the frustum, as shown by elevation, and at b erect a perpendicular, b

NM
A,

of the

of like

length. section
line

Draw B

A

and

A
it

C.

Then G B
if

A

C

is

a

of the article as

would appear

cut on the

Produce B A indefinitely in the direction B. and likewise prolong G C until it intersects B A X, produced in X. Then X is the apex and X B the

G

of

side of

a

would circumscribe the base
any convenient

right cone, the plan of which, if drawn, of the frustum. From

center, as X', Fig. 437, with radius describe an arc indefinitely, as shown by the B, dotted line E E' of the pattern, and from the same for radius, describe the arc e' e' of center, with

X

1

XA

the pattern. Through one extremity of the arc E Ei to the center draw a straight line, as shown by E' X'^ Set off on the cutting the smaller arc in the point e
1

1

.

arc

E E
1

s

spaces equal to the sides of the plan of the
1

<

base of the article and connect the points by chords. Thus make E P' of the pattern equal to E P of the

Tier.

437.-Pattern.

and so on. Also from these points in the arc draw lines to the center, cutting the arc e e', as shown. Connect the points thus obtained in this arc by chords, etc. Then e' E E" e' will as shown by e p\ p' d\ d o
plan,
1

1

l

1

1

,

The Envelope of the Frustum of an Octagonal Pyramid.

be the pattern sought.

TAe

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Hook.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
of the

117

Frustum

of

an Octagonal Pyramid Having Alternate Long and Short Sides.
the

In Fig. 438, let I the article of which G
first

MBNOPK H F E is the

L be

elevation.

phm of The

Produce S

K and B A
if

Then

X

is

the apex and

thing to do in describing the pattern is to construct a section corresponding to a line drawn from the center

base of which, of the article.

meet in the point X. the side of a cone, the drawn, would circumscribe the plan
until they

XB

is

From any convenient

center, as

X',

Fig. 439, with radius equal to as shown by M M". Draw X'
1

X
M'
1

B, describe an arc.
as one side of the
set off chords to the
,

pattern.
arc, as

Then, starting from

M

,

equal to and correwith the several sides of the article, as shown sponding From these points. B, B N, etc., in the plan. by
B', B'
,

shown by

M

1

N

1

etc.

M

B

1

,

N', etc., in the arc, draw lines to the center X'.

Fig. 438.

Plan and Elevation.

Fig. 439.-Pattern.

The Envelope of

the

Frustum of an Octagonal Pyramid Having Alternate Long and Short

Sides.

to one of the angles in
'

the plan, as

SB.

At S

erect

From

X

1

,

with

XA

as radius, describe an arc cutting

the perpendicular S B, in length equal to the straight hight of the article, as shown by C D of the elevation.

these lines, as shown by m' m*.

Upon
as

the point b erect a corresponding perpendicular,

Connect the points of intersection by straight lines, as shown by //', b' n\ //' </. 2 will be the pattern sought. Then in' nr etc.
.'

M M
1

1

B

shown by b A. Draw R A and A B. Then B A S is a section of the article taken upon the line S B.

will represent the and the lines B i N ', etc., of bends to be made in forming up the article.
1
1

,

lines

PROBLEM
The Pattern
In Fig. 440, let
square spire which
gables
in a
is

118.

of a

Square Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables.

B F H C

be the elevation of a over four equal
is

Produce F
will

required to miter

B and H C until they meet in A, which be the apex of the pyramid of which the spire is a
Draw
the axis

pinnacle, the plan of which

also square.

section.

A

G, and at right angles to

it,

Pattern Problems.

245
3
1

from the lowest point of contact between the spire and the gable, as F, draw F G. Then F (1 will represent the half width of one of the sides of the pyrarnicl at the base, and A F will represent the length of a side
through
its

spaces of the extent of G' G as shown by G" g, gg and g' B equal to and O A'. Make O. Draw g g B draw a perpendicu13 of the elevation, and through
,
1

A

1

,

A

1

A

1

1

A
it
1

1

lar to

A' F

1

,

as

shown.

Draw

lines corresponding to

center.

From any convenient

point, as

A

1

through the other sections of the pattern.

Make

A D
1

1

'-..A

Fig. 440.

Elevation of Spire.

Fig. 441.

Pattern.

The Pattern of a Square Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables.

in length equal to From F. F' set off, perpendicular to A' F , on each side a space equal to F G of the elevation, as shown by F G' and
in Fig.

441, draw

A

1

F

1

,

A
1

equal to

A

D, and draw

D G
1

1

and

D G
1

5
.

Set the

1

compasses to

1

(. From
F'

From

G' and G" draw lines to

A

,

as

shown.

and from G" and y as centers describe arcs intersecting at d. Draw d g and d G 5 as shown. Eepeat the same operation in the other
D',
,

G

2

A

1

as center,

and with

A G
1

2

as radius, describe

sections of

the pattern, thus completing the required

an

arc, as

shown by

G

3

0, in length equal to three

shape.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
Let
spire,

119.

of

an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Eight Gables.
ing of the valleys and ridges at the line G H, cutting the side
point D.

AG and M

L in O P

Fig. 442 be the elevation of the From the point G, the half plan.

T

in the plan,

draw

A
D
1

C

extended in the
443, upon
C' equal to

which represents the lowest point of the angle or valley between the gables, to H, which represents the meet-

Draw any

line, as

A'

in Fig.

which

to construct the pattern.

Make

A

1

Tlte

New

Metal

Worker Pattern

Itook.

\

'

(

of the elevation,

elevation.

and A' D' equal to A D of the Through D' draw the horizontal line 1 0, as

Draw A' and A' 1. Set the dividers radius, and from A' as center describe the
it

to

A'
1

1

as
in-

arc

8

1 0, and step off as on the arc as there are sides in the spire. many spaces Draw the lines A 2, A 3, etc., to A S, which represent the angles of the spire and the bends in the pattern. Draw C' and C' 1 in the first section of the pattern.

definitely.

Set the dividers to
1 1

1

Set the dividers to
describe

C

;

1,

and from

1

and 2 as centers

manner describe

In like intersecting arcs, as shown by C*. similar intersecting arcs at the points

D'
Fig. 442.

Plan

unil

Klevation of Spire.
The,

Tig. 443.

Pattern.

Pattern of an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Eight Gables.

shown.
vation,

From D

1

set off D' 0, equal to

E F

of the ele-

C

3
,

C

4 ,

etc.

Draw

and likewise

set off D' 1, of the

same

length.

1, 2, 3, 4, etc., as

from these points to the points shown, thus completing the pattern.
lines

PROBLEM
The Pattern
In Fig.
444-, let

120.

of

an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables.
will

gon spire, mitering upon a square pinnacle.

B E Z U be down upon

the elevation of an octa-

be seen that one-half the sides
fit

will

be notched

at

four gables occurring Continue the side lines until

the bottom to

over the gables, while the others will

they intersect in the apex A. H, and from the point Gdraw
center
line,

Draw the

center line

A

G H perpendicular
of one

be pointed to reach down into the angles or valleys between the gables.
ascertain the correct length upon the center line of one of the pointed sides it will be necessary to

to the

To

showing

half

the width

of the
it

sides at the point G.

Ry

inspection of the elevation

construct a section through one of the valleys, for

in-

/

'<

i

Ili-rn

Problems.

241

stance,

upon

tlie line

M' N' of the plan.

Through

the

point J of the elevation draw the line .) M at right angles to the center line, extending it to the left indefinitely,

the distance

and from the point M set off upon this line M N, equal to M' N of the plan. Draw
1

E of the elevation, etc. Through E' draw equal to a perpendicular equal in length to the width of a side at the point E, or to twice G H, as shown in the elevation, placing one-half on each side from

A

E
1

1

,

all as

shown by L K.
A'
as center,

From L and K draw lines to A with A L as radius, describe an
1

.

From
arc, as

shown by L U,
to the space

indefinite in length.

Set the dividers

L K, and

Y X, etc., A
1

until as

in the spire

step off spaces from L, as L Y, are set off as are required in this case Draw the lines eight. Y,

many sides

A

1

etc. From the point D', which, as will be seen in the elevation, by corresponds to the top of the draw lines to the points L and K, which gives gable,

X,

D

the pattern for the notch in the first section. the dividers to L D as radius, and from and
1

Set

X

Y as

centers describe

arcs

X

intersecting at

W.

Draw

W

and "W Y, and repeat this upon all the alternate sides throughout the pattern, as shown, locating the

Fiir.

444.-Plan and Elevation of Spire.

Fig;. 445.

Pattern.

The Pattern of an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables.

N

P, and extend the side

A E until

it

intersects this line

at F.

Then

AF

will

be the correct length through

points a space
to

the center line of one of the long sides. To describe the pattern first draw

L

F',

and P. For the pattern of the point, take between the points of the dividers equal and from L and Y as centers describe small

A

1

F

1

in Fig.

445, equal to A F of the elevation, and set off points on it corresponding to Thus make in A F.
points
1

L and Y. With arcs intersecting. at M, and draw the same radius repeat the operation upon the intermediate sides, establishing the points V,

M

M

H

and

I,

thus

A

1

B' equal to

A

B,

A D
1

equal to

A

D, and A'

E

1

completing the pattern.

The

New

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

PROBLEM

121.

Pattern for an Octagon Spire Mitering upon a Roof at the Junction of the Ridge and Hips.

In Fig. 446, let
lion of the roof

ABC represent the
c

front eleva-

i

vation
spire

let

WO
.1'

and A' a

C' the corresponding plan.

and H'

J II represent the octagon K' M' N' O' the corresponding plan.

N MK

W

PLAN
Fig. 446.

PLAN.
Plans and Elevations of Spire.
Fig. 44".-Section of Spire

on Line of Hip.

Pattern for

an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon a Roof

at thr Junction of the Ridge

and

Fli/is.

Also

let I)

E F G

be the side elevation of roof, and
|

In the side elevation

tlic

spire
I

\"

a' c'

C"

the corresponding plan.

In the front ele-

UTR

Q, and

iji

plan

by

v

X represented by ? R' T" U' V. Q' Only
is

Pattern Problems.

240

the

points in plans are designated by letters which In order to represent similar points in the elevation.

draw the plans and elevations, including the miter lines, it maybe found convenient to first construct the
octagons, as indicated in the plans, and from these to project the elevations aliove, as shown. From the point u in front elevation, which represents the
entire

Q) is determined. Draw Q Z paralC Y, and from the point X' of plan set off J the distance / Q of diagram, as shown by X' Q'. Connect R' Q' ami Q' P'. From the point Q' in plan
(the point
lel

same

with

carry a line parallel with the center line X', cutting the hip line D E at Q. Draw Q R, which shows the

X

miter line in side elevation.

From

the point

Q

can be

intersection of one of the rear angles of the spire with the roof, carry a line parallel with B F, cutting X //.
h'roin

drawn the

the point

I'

draw the miter

line

U

J, cutting the hip lines in front elevation at the points J and N,
line

Q

AB

and

B C

and the miter

T, and from

the

X'

V

points

drop perpendiculars to plan, cutting and X' U', from which points can be drawn
1
1

V

the miter lines

V

lines J and drawn. The points in front elevation correspond with the points K' M' of plan. For the pattern proceed as follows: Draw I x of

K

MN

KM

IT'

T' of the plan.

To
which
a
is

obtain

miter line P' Q' It' of plan, from obtained the miter line Q R of side elevation,
the

Fig. 448, equal to P erect the perpendiculars
to L' P'
<jf

X
/

of side elevation,

and from

I

plan or

L

M

equal in length of front elevation. From y
I

p and

p',

diagram has been constructed in Fig. 447 which shows a section of spire and roof on the line C" X' of
plan.

and p' draw lines to x, as shown. From x as center, with x p as radius, describe an arc, as shown by p' e,
indefinite in length.

To

Draw any
tance

construct the diagram proceed as follows Y. From set off the disline, as
:

Set the dividers to the distance
as

X

X

X E of
point

side elevation or

WB

of front elevation.

p p and step off spaces from p, til as many sides are set off as are
in

p

r,

r

t,

etc.,

un-

desired to be

shown

The
ridge.

E

From

X

represents the junction of hip and set off the distance S, and erect

X

S L, making it in length equal to Then X S L is a duplicate S P, and connect From X set off the distance X Y and of X S P.
the perpendicular

L X.

one part of the pattern. For convenience in dethe pattern draw the lines x r, x t, x c. Conscribing nect c and e and m'ake c d equal to p I and draw x d.
Bisect

p

r

and draw x

a,

and from

x,

distance

X Q

onxa,

set off the

erect

the

perpendicular

Y C,
K

in

length

equal to

X' C" of plan, and connect C sents one side of spire, and C

reprethe hip of the roof, and the point Q the point of junction between the two. As the spire is a perfect octagon, the profile of
ilie

E. Then L X

p q and q r. V and X U
i.

of Fig. 447, locating the point q. Draw From x, on x c?, set off the distances

X

of side elevation, locating the points v Through i draw a perpendicular cutting x c
in the points

x u

e
t.

u and

u',

then draw u'

and and v v u and

side just constructed is in

nowise different from
It

either of those
in

shown

in the elevations.

simply has

addition the profile of one of the hips by means of which the correct hight of its intersection with the

I P' Q' R' T' U' I'. 448 shows a little more than half the full Fig. pattern, which will be readily understood by a com-

spire

Then x p p q r t u v shown on plan by X'

u' is the pattern for part of

V

parison of reference letters.

PROBLEM
The Envelope

122.

of a Rig;ht

Cone.

In Fig. 449 cone and

let

A B

C be

the elevation of the

any convenient point
strike

as

the plan of the same. To obtain the envelope set the compasses to the space B A, or the slant hight of the cone, as a radius, and from

D E F

arc indefinitely. Connect one arc with the center, as shown by A' B'.

an

center, as B' of Fig. 450, end of the

With

the dividers, using as small a space as

is

250

T/ie

Arew

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

convenient, step off the circumference of the plan D E F, counting the spaces until the whole, or exactly

B A' C
1

1

will

be the pattern for the envelope of the

cone

ABC.
It is

not necessary that all of the spaces used in measuring the circumference of the plan should be It frequently happens that when the space equal.

assumed between the points of the dividers has been stepped off upon the circumference of the base, a space
will

remain at the

finish smaller than that original! v

'

Fig. 449.

Plan and Elevation.

FiK.

4.VI.

-Pattern.

The Envelope of a Right Cone.

one

half, is

completed, as shown in the upper half of
set off

assumed.
'after

the plan.

Then
in

on the arc

commencing
contained

at A', the

same

C' of the pattern, number of spaces as is

A

1

spaces can be stepped

In that case the required number of full off upon the arc of the pattern,

the- entire

circumference of

the plan.

which the remaining small space may be added. thus completing the correct measurement of the

Connect the

last point C'

with the center

B

1 .

Then

pattern.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
of a

123.

Frustum

of a Right

Cone.

The principle involved in cutting the pattern for the frustum of a cone is precisely the same as that for

of the pan,

The frustum cutting thfe envelope of the cone itself. of a right cone is a shape which enters so extensively
into articles of tinware that an ordinary flaring pan, an elevation and plan of which are shown in Fig. 451, has

spection of the engraving will show that C D, the top is the base of an inverted cone, its apex ?> and C at the intersection of the lines D being

A

forming the sides of the pan

;

and that

AD

is

the top

of the frustum or the base of another cone,

AO

B.

been engraved for the purpose of

illustration.

An

in-

which remains after cutting the frustum from the origFor the pattern then proceed as follows inal cone.
:

Pattern Problems.

251

initely.

Through the elevation draw a center line, K B, Extend one of the sides of tho- pan,

indefas, for

example,
point B.

D

O, until

it

meets the center

line in

the

greater accuracy will be insured by exthe opposite side of the pan also, as shown tending the three lines meeting in the which deterpoint B
Still

and

mines the apex of the cone to a Then B certainty. B D, respectively, are the radii of the ares which

contain the pattern. point as center, with

From B or any other convenient B as radius, strike the arc P
the
arc

Q

indefinitely,

and likewise from
radius,
strike

same

center,

with

B D

as

the

E

F

indef-

draw a line across these initely. arcs near one end, as P E, which will be an end of the pattern. By inspection and measurement of the plan determine in how many pieces the pan is to be constructed and divide the circumference of the pan
into a corresponding number of equal parts, in this case as shown by K, and L. With the dividers or three,

From

the center

B

M

spacers

step off

shown from
last division

M

the length of one of these parts, as to L, and set off a corresponding num-

E F, as shown. Through the draw a line across the arcs toward the center B, as shown by F Q. Then P Q F E will be the pattern of one of the sections of the pan, as shown
ber of spaces on the arc
in the plan.
Fi'j. 451.

The Envelope of the Frustum of a Right Cone.

PROBLEM
To Construct a
Ball in

124.

any Number

of Pieces, of the

Shape of Zones.

Tn Fig. 452, let
ball

AIG

II

be the elevation of

a'

to this diameter,

and brought successively against the
1, 2, 3, 4, etc.

which

it is

required to construct in thirteen pieces.

points in the elevation, drop corresponding points
it,

Divide the profile into the required sections, as shown by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and through the points thus obtained draw parallel horizontal lines, as shown. The in the profile are to be obtained by the foldivisions

upon Through each of these center by which the points describe circles from the Each of these circles becomes the is drawn. plan
as

shown by

plan of one edge of the belt in the elevation to which
it

lowing general rule, applicable in all such cases Divide the whole circumference of the ball into a num:

corresponds in number, and

is

to be used in estab-

ber of parts equal to two times one less than the ber of pieces of which it is to be composed.

numthe

of lishing the length of the arc forming the pattern Extend the center the zone of which it is the base.
line K-

A

in the

direction

of

indefinitely.

Draw

In convenient proximity to the elevation, center being located in the same vertical line

A

N,

chords to the several arcs into which the profile has been divided, which produce until they cut G 0, as

A

draw a plan
the diameter
elevation,

of the ball, as

K

shown by

KM

L N. Draw

shown by

L

parallel to the lines of division in the

With

the

-square placed at right angles

Then E, 2 3 D, E 2 and E 1 are the radii of parallel arcs which will describe the pattern of the first division above the cen1 2

3 4 C, 4 5

B

and 5 6 A.

252
ter zone,

The

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.

2 are the radii describing the of the second zone, and so on. pattern
3

and

D

and

D

the centers

D

1

,

Fig. 454;

and A', Fig. 457.
as

The
in

Fig. 455; B , Fig. 456, pattern for the smallest section,

C

1

l

,

From E

l

in Pig.

453

as center, with

E

2 and

E

1

indicated

as radii, strike the arcs 2 2

and

1 1 indefinitely.

Step

radius equal

by F to F

the plan, 6 in the plan.

may be
The

struck by a center belt or

Fig. 455.

Pattern of Zone 3

1.

.

453.

Pattern of Zone

1 2.

Fig. 456.

Pattern of Zone 4

i.

Pig. 457.

Pattern of Zone 5

6.

Fig. 452.

Plan and Elevation.

Fig. 454.

Pattern of Zone 2

3.

Fig. 458.

Pattern of Middle Zone.

To Construct a Ball in any Number of Zones.

off the
1

1

length on the corresponding plan line, and make equal to the whole of it, or a part, as may be dein this

sired

case a half.

In like manner describe

zone, shown in the profile by 1 0, is a flat band, and is therefore bounded by straight parallel lines, the in the elevation, and the length measwidth being 1

as shown, struck from patterns for the other pieces,

ured upon line 1 of the plan,

all as

shown

in Fig. 458.

Pattern Problems.

253

PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a Semicircular

125.

Pipe with Longitudinal Seams.

By
self,

with

the nature of the problem the pipe resolves itrespect to its seetioii or profile, into some
In the illustration presented in Fig. is employed, but any other reg-

the profile
15

ABC

and C back upon

regular polygon.
iait

drawing the

D F II G E and project the points N R and complete the elevation by semicircles O U and P T.

an oetagoual form

By

the inspection of the diagram it is evident that for the sections corresponding pattern

elevation may be from the drawing as it pricked directly is now constructed, and that the patto in the

UTP

terns for the sections represented by E and F of the profile will be plain straight strips of the width of one side

A

D

of the figure, as

shown by either

E

A or

D F, and
the lines

length corresponding to the of the sweep of the elevation on length
in

N L V and R X S, respectively.
virtue of the bevel or flare
of

By
P,
as

the pieces

shown by

N L V U T A B

and R X S T and C D of

Fig. 459.

Elevation and Section.

Fig. 480.

Pattern.

A
ular shape

Semicircular Pipe with Longitudinal Seams.

used, and the patterns for it will be L be Let cut by the same rule as here explained. semicircle around which an octagonal pipe is to be any

may be

N V

the profile, each becomes one-half of the frustum of a above or below the point W. right cone, with its apex Therefore prolong C D of the profile until it cuts the center line

curried.

Draw

Through
Let

W

N R

passing through the center W. draw the perpendicular L K indefinitely. be the required diameter of the octagon.
line with

N V,

L

K of

MD
to

and

M

C

Then the elevation in the point M. are the radii of the pieces corresponding

P T S R of

the elevation. Also prolong the side

A B,

Immediately below and iu

N R

construct

or, for greater

convenience,

its

equivalent,

E

G, until

it

254

The X'n-

M'i'tl

Worker Pattern Book.

Then M' cuts the center line in the point M'. M' E are the radii of the pieces corresponding to

G

and

NLV
K
1

UO

of the elevation.

From

M'' in Fig.

460
1

as center,

The essential points to be observed arc the circle. placing of the profile in correct relationship to the elevation and to the central line L K, after which prolong
tin-

using each of the several
definitely, as
off the
1

radii in turn, strike

arcs inS'.

oblique sides until they cut the central

line,

thus

shown by N' V,

O'

U P
1

,

T' and

the elevation, Fig. 457, length Step Draw N' O' of Fig. 45S equal to it. and makeN O will conThen and U' radial to W.
in

N

L V

V

V

N

1

VU
N
L

establishing the radii by which their patterns may be In the case of elliptical curves, by resolving struck. them into segments of circles and applying this rule
to each

1

1

segment, as though

it

were

to

be constructed

of the stitute the pattern for the pieces In like manner establish the length of P' elevation.

V UO

alone and distinct from the others, no difficulty will be met in describing patterns by the principles here set
forth.

T

1

,

as

and draw P' R and T S shown. Then P T S R
1
1 1

,

also radial to the center,
1

The

several sections

may be

united so as to

1

1

1

will

be the pattern for

produce a pattern in one piece
their radial lines.
in

by joining them upon

the pieces

PT SX R

of the elevation.

may be employed for carrying any polygonal shape around any curve which is the segment of a
This rule

This principle is further explained the pattern for the curved molding in an elliptical
in

window cap
126.

Problem 128.

PROBLEM
The Blank
for

a Curved Molding.

As
metal
in

curved moldings necessitate a stretching of the order to accommodate them to both the curve

machinery
taken to

designed

for

that

purpose,
the

care

being

make

the widtli of

flaring strip suffi-

of the elevation or plan

and the curve

of the profile at

cient to include the stretchout of the curve of the pro-

Fiy. 461.

Obtaining the Blank for a Curved Core or Ovolo Molding.

Fig. 462.

Obtaining the Blank for a Curved Ogee Moldiny.

be considered

the same time, the patterns for their blanks can only as flaring strips of metal in which the

file.

tums

of cones

Blanks for curved moldings thus become frusand are cut according to the principles

curve of the elevation or plan only is considered. The curve of the profile requires to be forced into them by

of regular flaring articles, as explained in the preceding The method of determining the exact flare problems.

Pattern Problems.

255

necessary to ]>ro<luco a certain mold with tin- greatest facility is a matter to be determined l>y tho nature of
the profile and tho kind of machinerv to lie used in forming the same. I'sually a line is drawn through the extremities of the profile, as shown at D in

as

though the side

E C

were to be

straight.

Through

the center of the article draw the line

B F

and draw a

A

line through the points C and E the sides, which produce until it meets B F in the Then F E will be the radius of the inside of point F.

indefinitely, of one of

either of the two illustrations

here given, Figs. 401
it

and

-t(i2,

and

is

continued until

meets the center

line,

the pattern. The radius of the outside is to be obtained by increasing F C an amount equal to the excess

for length of radius, as

shown

at F.

Therefore, to describe the pattern of the blank

from which

to

make

to the elevation

AGED,

a curved molding corresponding proceed in the same manner

E C over the straight line E C, as shown by the distance C S. Then F S is the radius of the outside of the pattern. The length of the pattern
of the curved line

can be obtained as in previous problems.

PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig.
in
4ii.'{

127.

for

Simple Curved Moldings in a
of a

Window
it

Cap.

is

shown the elevation

window

essary for joining

to the face

and roof pieces

will

be

cap. are required of

the construction of

which two curved moldings the same profile, but curved in opposite

obtained in one piece. The method of developing the for the blank is the same for both curves. The pattern

II

10

3

Fig. 464.
B'

Blank for Center Piece.

Fig. 403.

Elevation or

Window

Cap.
Fig. 465. -Blank for Side Piece.

Thf Patterns for Simple Curved Moldings in a Window Cap.

directions.

It is

advisable to include as

much

in

one

two pieces
rolls, it

will raise to the

form by the same dies or

piece as can be raised conveniently with the means at hand; therefore, the curved part of the profile with its
lillets

being necessary only to reverse them in the machine. Before the blank for the middle piece can

or straight parts adjacent and the two edges nee-

be developed

it

will

be necessary

to first construct

a

256
section

file

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.
ing to points 9, 10 and 11 of the stretchout, thus completing this pattern. For the pattern of the carved molding forming the end portion of the cap proceed in the same general

upon the center line, as shown atS K; from all center of the curve upon the points in the mold and the Draw center line project horizontal lines to the right.
K, to represent the face of the and at S draw the profile of the mold, as shown. The principle to be employed in striking the pattern is simply that which would be used in obtaining the envelope of the frustum of a cone of
any
vertical line, as

H

cap in the

section

manner.
as

of the curve, as

Upon any line drawn through the center N L M, construct a section of the mold. shown at R. From N draw the perpendicular X !>
Through the average
of the profile R, as

indefinitely.

which

AD

is

the axis.

The

in establishing the taper of

general average of the profile is to be taken the cone, or, in other

B in before explained, draw the line to B, cutting as shown. of the the point B, Lav off the stretchout
profile

N

words, a line is passed through its extreme points. Draw a line through the profile in this manner and proD in the point A, all as long it until it intersects

the

upon this same manner

line,

commencing

at the point 1, in

From any
tern, as
tion,

as explained in the previous operation. convenient point, as B' in Fig. 465, as center,

shown by C
which

A

C

is

A the apex of A. Then A the side and H D the top of
is

with radius

B

1,

describe the inner curve of the pat-

the cone, of the frustum.

shown, which in length make equal to the eleva-

Divide the profile S, as in ordinary practice for stretchouts, into any number of spaces, all as shown by the
Transfer the stretchout of the profile S small figures. on to the line C, commencing at the point 1, as shown, letting the extra width extend in the direction

small figures, after which
1

measuring upon the are 1, all as shown by the add the outer curves, as

A

shown by E E". The straight portion forming the end of this moldas shown in the elevation, is added by drawing, at ing,
a continuation of the angles to the line E B lines of the molding of the required length, as shown
5
1

right
in

,

464, describe the pattern, making the with radius C, length of the arc equal to the length of the correspond-

of C.

From any convenient

center, as

A in Fig.

A

ing 'arc in the elevation, all as shown by the spaces and numbers. From the same center draw arcs correspond-

of the pattern a the ordinary rule for by such purposes, to join to the return at the end of the

the

pattern.
is

Upon

this

end

square miter

to be cut

cap.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
In Fig. 466
tion of a
is
is

128.
an
Elliptical

for the

Curved Molding:

in

Window

Cap.

shown the elevation and
elliptical in shape,

vertical sec-

window cap

the face of which

Then the stretchout, as indicated by the small figures. of the middle segment S is the radius of the pattern

R

molded.

In drawing the elevation such centers have
will

of the cap.

been employed as

produce the nearest approach to a true ellipse after the manner described in Problem 76 of Geometrical Problems, page 65. The centers B, D and
F, from which the respective segments of the elevation have been described, may then be used in obtaining patterns as follows Through the center F, from which
:

With
the radius
as

file, lay off

the dividers, measuring down from the proon P distances equal to the length of

K

the arc forming the middle part of the cap is drawn, and at right angles to the center line of the cap G H, draw

A B, as shown by the point O, and of C 1), shown by the point M. Through these (mints () and M, at right angles to P K, draw lines cutting S R Then U S is the radius for in the points T and U. the pattern of the segment C E of the elevation, and T S
In C. the radius of the pattern for the segment order to obtain the correct length of the pattern, not only as regards the whole piece, but also as regards
the length of each arc constituting the curve, step off the length of the curved molding with the dividers

A

Project a section on the center as shown by P at the right, the line line of the cap,
the line I

K indefinitely.

K

P

K being used as a common basis of measurement upon which to set off the semi-diameters of the various cones of which the blanks for the moldings form a part. Through the average of the profile, as indicated, draw S R, producing the line until it meets I K. Divide the profile of the molding in the usual manner and lay off

upon any line of the elevation most convenient, as shown, numbering the spaces as indicated, and setting off a like number of spaces upon a corresponding line
of the

pattern.

As

a matter

both of convenience ami

Pattern Problems.

257
of

accuracy,
in

greater in the

the spaces used in measuring the arcs arc one of longest radius and are diminished

length
all

the corresponding arc

in

the
1

elevation,

as

those of shorter radii, as will be noticed tion of the diagram.

by examinaare obtained

line

shown by the small figures. From C draw the C D to the center by which this arc was struck.
1
1

To
as

lay off the pattern

after the

radii

Draw any described, proceed as G' II' in Fig. 467, from any point straight line, in which, as F with radius equal to R S, as shown
al>o\-e

as follows:

1

,

an arc, as shown by E'G'; and from the same center, describe other arcs corlikewise,
1'V

F

1

E',

describe

iile.

responding to other points in the stretchout of the proMake the length of the arc E' G equal to the
1 1

length of the corresponding arc in the elevation, as described above. From E' to the center F by which this
,

was struck, draw E' F'. Set the dividers to the distance U S as radius, with which, measuring from
arc

Fig. 467.-Blank for the

Curved Molding.
Fig. 486.

Elevation and Section of

Window

Cap.'

The Pattern for the Curved Molding in an Elliptical

Window Cap.
the distance

along the line E' F establish D' as center, from which describe arcs corresponding to the points in the profile,
1

,

Set the dividers to

T S

in the section,
1
1

as

shown from

E' to C'.

Make

E'

C

1

equal to the

and, measuring from C' along the line C D establish the point B from which as a center strike arcs cor,
1

,

258

The

Xew

Metal

Worker Pattern

B<j<jk.

responding to those already described in

the

other

and

draw

the

line

A'

IV.

Then A' C
to

1

E'

G'

is

section of the pattern. Make the length equal to the of the corresponding segments in the elevation, length

the half pattern
elevation.

corresponding

A

E G

of the

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of

129.

an Oblong Raised Cover with Semicircular Ends.

In Fig. 468 let B C D represent a side elevation of the cover of which E G F is the plan or of the vessel it is to fit. Various constructions shape

A

H

may be employed
that

in

making such a cover

as this

;

is, the joints, at the option of the mechanic, may be placed at other points than shown here; the principle used in obtaining the shape, however, is the

same, whatever

may be

the location of

the

joints.

By

inspection of the elevation and plan it will be seen that the shape consists of the two halves of the en-

joined by a straight piece. for the pattern proceed as follows At any Therefore, 2 convenient point lay off B C", in length equal to B

velope of a right cone,

:

1

C' of

plan. radius equal to
arcs,

the

From B and C" as centers, with A B or C D of the elevation, deseriKe
2

as

shown by

N

and P M.

Upon

measured from

and P, respectively, stretchout of the semicircular ends, as shown in plan, thus obtaining the points and N. From draw
B', and from

these arcs, set off the
Fig. 46S.

Elevation,

Plan and

1'attern of an Oblong Raised Cover with Semicircular Ends.

N

M

draw

M M C\

N
3

right angles to the line B" C'', B of the elevation, length equal to

From B and C draw B" K and C L,
3 2

at,

,

the slant hight of the article.

Connect
will

K

and L,

as

in

shown.
pattern.

Then

NKLMP

be the required

A

which represents

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a Regular Flaring Article

130.

which

Is

Oblong with Semicircular Ends.

In Fig. 469,

let

ABD

C be

the side elevation of

the required article. Below it and in line with it draw a plan, as shown by E c d F G. From D in the

from the elevation, necessary, to meet C
it

H

elevation erect the perpendicular D L. represents the flare of the article and C D
of

Then L C
is

radii of the

meets d H, as curved parts of the pattern.

must be prolonged, if D extended. Produce C I) until shown by y. Then y D and g C are
this
line

the width

Lay

off

on a straight

line

MO

in Fig.

470, the

the pattern throughout. Across the plan, at the where the curved end joins the straight sides. point

draw the
article.

line

d

H

at right angles to the sides of

the

length of the straight part of the article, as shown in draw S At right angles to the plan by c d. and K indefinitely. Upon these lines set off from

M

M

As

the plan

may be drawn

at

any distance

M and

the distance g C, locating the points

S and $,

Pattern Problems.

259
all at

the

centers

for

the curved
('

portions of the pattern..
strike the are

(Mid,

instead of

From S with
initely.

the radius y

M

I"

indef-

ner such changes

one end, as shown. In like manbe made as are necessary for may

center describe the arc

In like manner, with same radius, from R as V. From the same centers,

with radius equal to g D, describe the arcs

NT

and

P

.W. Step

curved part of the article either the inner or outer line of the plan, and make upon
off the length of the

the corresponding arc of the pattern equal to it, as T and 1' W. Through the shown by the spaces in

N

draw lines from the centers S and R, them until they cut the outer arcs at U and producing V. At right angles to the line S T U or K V, as
points

T and

W

W

the case

may

be, set off

V X Y W,

equal to

MO

P

N",

which

will be the other straight side of the pattern.

Then

UMOVXY
it

WPNT

will

be the complete

pattern in
If

one piece. were desired

to locate the

seam midway

in

T
Fig. 49.

Plan and Elevation.

Fig. 470.

Pattern.

The Pattern of a Regular Flaring Article Which

is

Oblong with Semicircular Ends.

one of the straight sections, in adding the last member as above described, one-half would be placed at each

locating the seam at any other point, or for cutting the pattern in as many pieces as desired.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a

131.

Regular Flaring Oblong Article with Round Corners.

In Fig. 471, article and E F G
are arcs of

ACD MN

circles,

B is the side elevation of the P B the plan. The corners being struck by centers H, L, T
in line

shall correspond.

Through the

the plan

by which the corners

H and L of M N are struck, FG and
centers

draw F
shown.

N

and

S, as

shown.

Draw the plan

with the

ele-

elevation

in the different views vation, so that the same parts

C D Then

Prolong the side line of the indefinitely. until it cuts F in the point K, as is the radius of the inside line of

N

KD

2GO
the pattern of the curved part, and of the outside line.

TJie

New
is

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.
to right angles to it lay off O , equal elevation. Draw N' W, and draw the arc N'
1 1

K

C

the radius

N

X
M"

of the in the

the straight line E' F of Fig. 472, in length to the straight part of one side of the article, or E equal F of the plan. Through the points E and F', at right

Draw

1

1

angles to the line

E
1

1

F',

draw

lines indefinitely, as

shown

K Upon these lines set off, E the distance K C, locating the points K
by E
1 1

U

and F

1

.

from

F and
1

1

,

and U, the

K
to

From K', with the radius centers for the curved parts. strike the arc F which in length make equal C, ,
1

G

1

FG
1 ,

of the plan.

From G draw
1

a line to the center

K

at right angles to

which erect G'

equal to

GM

of the plan.

in length In like manner, with like
,

M

1

radius, describe the arc

E

1

R'.

Draw

R

1

U,

at right

N
fig471.

Plan and Elevation.

Fig. 472.

Pattern.

The Pattern of a Regular Flaring Oblong

Article

With Round Corners.

angles to which erect

At
the

right angles to

R P equal to R P of the plan. R P draw P V indefinitely. In
1 1

,

1

1

1

manner above described establish the center V, and from it describe the third arc P' 0'. Draw O V. At
1

In the as already described. ner lay off the inner line of the pattern, as and in yfe r p o n ra'. Join the ends M'

same manner

same manshown by

m

M m
a

1

1
,

1m*

completing the pattern sought.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
of the

132.
Is

Frustum

of a Cone, the

Base of Which

an

Elliptical Figure.

is very frequently used in pans and and therefore in Fig. 473 is shown an elevation plates, and plan of what is familiarly termed an oval flaring

This shape

pan.

L

Let that part of the plan lying between H and is at U, and let those porII and L and \\ be arcs whose tions between V and
be an arc whose center

Pattern Problems.
centers are, respectively,

261

R

and

S.

an elevation of the vessel, and
plan
as to

is

C D B represents so connected with the
of

A

N

0.

From
lines

the points

H

and

L

of the arc

first

draw

to

A, thus intercepting the arc
off

NO

drawn and

show the
step
is

relationship

corresponding

points.

determining its length. In the diagram, Fig. 474, set
line II

from

II,

on the

The
Fig. 474,

first
1>\-

to construct a diagram,

shown

in

U, the distance

means

of

which the lengths

of the nidii to

be used

Draw

describing the pattern are to l>e obtained. the horizontal line II U indefinitely, and at right
in
it

angles to

draw

II

A,

indefinitely also.

Make

II

U

of the plan. equal to R the points R and I thus established, Then, through draw the line R B, which produce until it intersects

of the plan, Fig. 473. the point C, set off C I,

H, making it equal to R II Also, upon the line C G, from

R

N

Make II C equal of the plan, Fig. 471. equal to II to the vertical hight of the vessel, as shown in the

U

A

H.

Then

R B

will

of the pattern lying

be the radius for those portions between V and H and L and of

W

w
Fig. 473.

Plan and Elevation.

Fig. 474.

Diagram of
the

Radii.

Fig. 475.
is

Pattern of One Half.

The Envelope of the Frustum of a Cone,

Base of Which

an

Elliptical Figure.

D X. Draw the line C G parallel to II U, making C G in length equal to U N of the plan. Through the points U and G thus established draw the
elevation

by

the point H, on the line A, Fig. B of Fig. 475, set off the distance B, equal to 474. Then, with B as center, describe the arc E II,

the plan.

From

H

H

R

line

in the G, which continue until it meets II will be the radius by which to Then point A. describe that portion of the pattern which is included

U

A

AU

and from a corresponding center, C, at the opposite end on pattern, describe the arc L K. 'From the same centers, with B I as radius, describe the arcs N M and

U between the points H and L of the plan. With as as radius, and from any convenient point as center A, Fig. 475 draw the arc II L, which in length make
as shown by the equal to II L of the plan, Fig. 473, From the same center, and with points 1, 2, 3, etc. G of Fig. 474, describe the parallel arc the radius
1

A

O

P,

all

as shown.

Make

H E
P

and

L

K

in length

equal to II

E

and

respectively, draw cepting the arcs

of the plan. lines to the centers

L

K

From E and K,

B

NM

and

in the points

and C, interand P.

M

Then E
i

KPM

will be one-half of the

complete pat-

A

terns of the vessel.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
Let E C article, and I
the plan
it
1 1

133.

of a

Heart-Shaped Flaring Tray.

G F G C of Fig. 476 be the plan of the N O K the elevation. By inspection of
be seen that each half of
it

will

consists of

one being struck from D or D as center, and the other from C or C as center, the junction between From C the two arcs being at G and G', respectively.

two

1

arcs,

1

262
draw C F, and likewise draw C G.

The Neiu Metal Worker Pattern Book.

Upon

the

point

Lay

off the

perpendiculars

XU

and

P $

indefinitely.
1

D

1

C'. erect the perpendicular To obtain the radii of the pattern construct a dia-

D

1

Upon P

from P, set off P R, equal to 1)' C of the plan, and on X U, from X, set off X W, equal to D' c of
8,

Fix. 476.

Plan and Elevation.

n
Fig.
478.

Pattern.

R. 477.

Diagram of

Uadii.

The Pattern of a Heart-Shaped Flaring Tray.

gram, shown in Fig. 477, which

is

in reality a section

the plan.

In like manner

Draw P in Fig. 477, of the plan. to the straight hight of the article. in length equal
upon the
line

CG

X

the plan, and R. S and

U

W

X U equal

make P S equal to C G of C .7 of the plan. Connect Produce P X indefinitely in the directo

Pattern Problems.
tion of Z.
tin-

263

Also produce

R

W

until

it

meets

P X

in

point Y. and in like manner produce S I" until 'it meets P Z in the point Z. Tlien / I" and 'A S are the radii for that portion of the article contained between

Z

to G F of the plan. In like manner, with radius from the same center, describe the arc y'f, in I", Draw/' F'. Set length equal to #/ of the elevation.
ei[tial

of]'

G

and K

of the plan,

and

V
(i

\V and
to

Y Rare

the radii of

that portion

shown from

E

of the plan.

lay out the pattern after the radii are estabdraw anv straight line, as Z' G* in Fig. 47s, in lished,

To

upon the line G Z', the distance R Y of 477, as shown at Y', and from Y as center, with Fig. 2 the radius R Y, describe the arc G E', which in length make equal to G E of the plan. In like manner, from tin; same center, with radius Y "W, describe the arc
from

G

2

2

,

1

length equal to
ter,

Z S

of the diagram.

with

Z S

as radius, describe the

From arc G* F

Z' as cen1

.</'

,

in length

equal to the arc g c of the plan. completing the required pattern.
'''.

Draw

c'

E

1

,

thus

PROBLEM
The Pattern
of

134.

an Oval or Eg-g-Shaped Flaring; Pan.

B C D in Fig. 479 represent the elevation Let I is the plan. the article, of which L B' The plan is constructed by means of the centers O, P, F and F , as indicated. The patterns, therefore, are
of

A
1

|

construct a section of the article as

it

A K
1

M

cut on the line

A P
1

of the plan.

would appear if Therefore set off,

at right angles to

it,

A P
2

3
,

equal to

A

1

P.

Make

P

5

D" equal to the straight hight of the

article, as

f'-

Fig. 4HO.

Diagram of Small Cone.

Fig. 479. -Plan

and Elevation.

Fig. 481.

Diagram of Middle Cone.

Fig. 482.

Diagram of Large Cone.

An

Oval or Egg-Shaped Flaring Pan.

struck

by

radii obtained

from sections
is

of the several

shown by
which
will
it

R D

of the elevation.
to

cones of which the article

composed.

At any

con-

diagram equal
longing

D P
1

of

the

Make D 1 A" of Draw A plan.
1
1 .

the A',

venient place draw the line
nitely,

P

2

P',

Fig. 480, indefi-

corresponding to

P

of the plan,

and upon

it

correspond to A D of the elevation, pro2 until it meets P P' in the point P Then

New

Metal Worker Pattern

the radius of the outside line of the pattern 3 and I of the plan, and P' of the portion between is the radius of the line inside of the same part. 2 In like manner draw the line O O , Fig. 481,
1

P A*

is

From
well as at

inspection

it

is

evident
at

K

A

might have been commenced

1

upon any

k of the plan. of the other divisions
I
i,

K

the pattern other point as any If the joint is desired
that

between the
it

arcs, as

and construct a section corresponding to O of the plan, 3 2 B as shown by O 2 B 2 C C taken on the line 2 2 Produce B C until it meets O O in the point O
1

L

I,

M

m, or

the method of obtaining

will

be so

.

,

2

1

1

.

nearly the same as above narrated as not to require If the joint is wanted at some special description.

Then O C and O B are the radii of the pattern of that portion of the article contained between L and of the plan.
1

2

1

3

M

point in one of the arcs of the plan,

as, for

example,

Draw
spond
to

the line
or

F F

3

2
,

Fig. 482,

which
F"

shall corre-

F

F

1

of the plan.
1

Make

E

equal to the
3

and lay off F' L at right straight hight of the article, 2 to F L of the plan, and E Z equal angles to it, equal 3 Draw L ?, which produce until to F .1 of the plan. 2 1 2 3 Then F 2 I and F L ! , it meets F F in the point F
1

.

radii of the pattern of those parts respectively, are the of the plan. I L and shown by To lay off the pattern after the several radii are

K

M
2

draw any straight line, obtained, as described above, 4
in length equal to F L , as shown by F 2 2 and from F* as center, with F V and F
3

K in
L
3
,

Fig. Fig.
1

483,

482, as radii,

strike arcs, as

shown by

1

&'

Z

and
1

KL
4 ,

,

which

in length

make equal
I,

to the corresponding arcs

of the plan upon it set off

K L and k
from
1

as

shown.

Draw L F

and

Z

toward

F

4
,

O

C' of Fig. 481, establishing of in length equal to I which strike the arc T , from the same center, In like manner, the plan. of Fig. 481, strike the arc L with radius O
,

1

a distance equal to 3 from the point O

m

1

m
1

1

B',

M

1

,

equal in

which produce

of the plan. length to L 6 in the direction of F
4 ,

M

Draw M' O making M' F
3

,

Fig.

4S3.The Pattern of an Oval or

E;/g-Shaped Flarimj Pan.

b

F from which center continue the inner equal to i\ which in length line of the pattern, as shown by In like manner, from the i of the plan. must equal

K

m

m
1

F center, with radius 3 1 and draw I F the arc
same

2

L

M

1

1

.

Fig 482, describe off on this line from Set
of

3

line x across the plan, producing meets the center by which that arc of the it until it In laying off the pattern, commence plan is struck. with a line corresponding to X F in place of F K', and from it lay off an arc corresponding to the portion

at

X x,

draw the

X

1

4

,

3 of Fig. 480, thus estabP a distance equal to P' Describe the arc t" k, in length center P lishing the In like manner, from the to i k of the plan.
3
.

A

of the arc in the plan intercepted by Proceed in other respects x.

X
tin-

,r,

as

shown by
as

XL?
there

same

above

of Fig. 480 describe P center, with the radius of the plan. arc I K", in the length equal to I the
1

equal

described until the line k

K

2

same

A

2

1

K

must be added an amount cut from the first part
above described,
of the plan.
or, in

obtained, against which arc corresponding to the
is

Place the straight edge against the points P 2 thus completing the pattern. and draw

3

and

K

2

of the plan by other words, equal to

X as XKkx
a;,

K

k,

Pattern Problems.

265

PROBLEM
The Envelope
In Fig.
4-S4, let

135.
of

of the

Frustum

of a Right Cone, the

Upper Plane

Which

Is

Oblique

to Its Axis.

C B D E

lie

tin-

elevation of the
1)

center lying in

it

draw a

half plan of the article, as

required shape.
til

Produce the sides

C B and K
lie

unof

thev intersect at A.

Then

A

shown by F

G

II.

will

the

:i]>ex

Divide this plan into any number of equal parts, and from the points carry lines
the axis until they cut the base line, and from there extend
parallel
to

them

^in

the direction of the apex

upper plane B D. Place the T-square at right angles
until they cut the
to the axis, and, bringing it against

the several points in the line B D, cut the side E, as shown. From

A

A

as center,

with
arc

AE
C' E',

as

radius,

describe

the

on which

lay off a stretchout of either a half or the whole of the plan, as may

be desired, in this case a half, as shown. From the extremities of
this stretchout,

C and

1

E',

to the

center, as C'

A

draw lines and E A.
1

Through the several points in the stretchout draw similar lines to the
center

A,

as

shown.

With

the

the compasses set at A, the pencil to the point D in bring the side E, and with that radius

point of

A

describe an arc, which produce until it cuts the corresponding line in the
stretchout, as

shown

at

D

1

.

In like

manner, bringing the pencil against the several points between D and E
in the elevation, describe arcs cut-

ting
Fit/. 4*4.

the

The Enrelopf of

th<

Rif/hf Oblique to its Ajrin.

Frustum of a

Cone Whose Upper Plane

is

lines of the stretchout.

corresponding measuring Then aline

(raced
will

through these intersections form the upper line of the
the
entire

the cone of which
axis

C B

DE

is

a frustum.
lignre,

Draw

the

pattern,

the

A

G, which produce below the

and from a

tained in

C

1

pattern B' D' E

of
1

half

being con-

.

PROBLEM
The Envelope
of a Right

136.
Is Oblique to Its Axis.

Cone Whose Base

be the elevation of u right In Fig. 485, let G D cone whose base is oblique to its axis, the pattern of

H

It will be necessary first to assume is required. section of the cone at right angles to its axis as a any

which

Tlie

Xew

Metal

Worker Pattern Book.

This base upon which to measure its circumference. can be taken at any point above or below the ol>li<|iu>
base according to convenience. Therefore at right angles to the axis
O, and Extend the

D

through the point G, draw the line axis, n.s shown by D B, and upon
the cone as
it

G
it

F.

draw a plan of would appear when cut upon the line G F, as shown bv ABC. Divide the plan into any convenient number of equal parts, and from the points thus obFrom the apex D, tained drop lines on to G F. the points in G F, draw lines to the base through

Pattern

G

II.

From D

as center, with

DG

as radius, describe

an arc indefinitely, on which lay off a stretchout taken all as shown by I K. From from the plan the center D, by which the arc was struck, through

ABC,

M

the points in the stretchout, draw radial lines indefiPlace the blade of the T-square nitely, as shown.
F, and, bringing it against the parallel to the line in the base line, cut the side several points H, as

G

D

shown, from F to II. the other successively to the points passes in D, bring in F II, and describe arcs, which pro1, 2, 3, 4, etc.,

With one point of the com-

duce until they cut the corresponding

lines

drawn

Elevation.

^^

through the stretchout, as indicated by the dotted traced through these Then a line, lines.

ILK,

as points of intersection,

shown,

will

complete the

reFig.

quired pattern.

Jj8S.Thf Envelope of a Cone whose Base

is

Obliqur to

its ATI'S

PROBLEM
A
In Fig. 486
is

137.

Conical Flange to Fit Around a Pipe and Against a Roof of One Inclination.

shown, by means of elevation and

B plan, the general requirements of the problem. I represents the represents the pitch of the roof, G through it, and C D F E the required flange pipe passing

A

HK

P R of the plan, it does not pass through the center of the oblique cut E F in the elevation, or, what is the of the plan. same, For the pattern of the flange proceed as shown in

N

fitting

around the pipe

at the

line

C D and

against

Fig. 481,

which

in the lettering of its parts is

made

to

the roof at the line

E

F.

The

flange, as thus drawn,

becomes a portion of the envelope of aright cone. At any convenient distance below the elevation assume a horizontal line as a base of the cone upon which to measure its diameter, and continue the sides downward till they intersect this base line, all as shown
at

Divide the correspond with Fig. 486, just described. 11 into half plan P any convenient number of parts in

X

and from each of the points thus established erect perpendiculars to the base of the cone, Fmni these points obtaining the points 1', :>', 3 etc. draw lines to the apex of the cone \V cutting the
this case twelve
1

,

.

L M.

Also continue the sides upward

till

they

in-

oblique

line

W, the apex. Below the elevation is shown a plan, and similar points in both news are connected S T represents the pipe the lines of projection.
tersect at

shown.

E F and the top of Inasmuch as C D cuts the

the flange

('

1>.

as

cone

at right angles

by and

to its axis, the line in the pattern corresponding to it will be an arc of a circle; but with E F, which cuts the

While the pipe is made to pass the flange. the center of the cone, as may be seen by exthrough in the elevation, and also amining the base line L

NO

cone obliquclv to
point in
it

its

axis, the ease

is

different, eaeli

M

being Accordingly, the several points

at a different distance
in

E

from the apex. F, obtained by

Pattern Problems.

267

the lines from the plan drawn to the apex \V, must Intransferred to one of the sides of the cone, where their
fore from

distances from \Y can he accurately measured. There3 3 in K l'\ draw lines 2 3 the points 0", I
:i

the plan P 11, all as shown hy 0', 1", 2', 3", etc. From these points draw lines to the center \V,us shown. With one point of the dividers set at AY and the other
in

X

,

,

,

ut right angles to the axis of the cone

the side
\V

W M,

as

shown.

With

W

as

AY X, cutting center, and with

brought successively to the points obtained in AY by the horizontal lines drawn from E F, cut the corresponding lines in the stretchout of the pattern, as indicated line traced through hy the curved dotted lines.

M

M

as radius, strike the arc 1"

11'

indefinitely, and.

A

w^i

Fig.

46.-Plan and Elevation.

Fig. 487.

Pattern.
Inclination.

A

Conical Flange to Fit

Around a Pipe and Against a Roof of One
1

with the same center and with
the arc

WD

as radius, strike

D' indefinitely, which will form the boundAt anj- convenient disary of the pattern at the top. tance from draw AY P', a portion of the length of

C

1

these points, as E F', will represent the lower side of As but one-half of the plan has been the pattern.

M

which
tern.

will

form the boundary of one end of the patP' K',

used in laying out the stretchout, the pattern C' E F D' thus obtained is but one-half of the piece required. It can be doubled so that the scam can be made to
1 1

On
in

equal

commencing with P', set off spaces and the same in number as the divisions length

come through the short
long side at

side at

C

E, or through the

D

F, at pleasure.

PROBLEM
The Pattern
for

138.

a

Cracker Boat.
sides of the dish are parts of the frustum of a right

LetE F

A

B C D E

G, in Fig. 4SS, be the side elevation, the end, and I J L the plan of a dish

H

K

cone.

sometimes called a cracker boat or bread

trav.

The

the plan have been addc] the circles showfrustums of which the sides are a part, ing the complete

To

268

Tlie

New

Metal Worker Pattern Book.

being the centers, all of which will appear from an inspection of the drawing, and below is While in further shown a side view of this frustum.
clear

L and

K

Before the pattern can be described it pleted cone. will be necessary to draw a half elevation of the cone

U V Z,
K'
T',

to the same, as in Fig. 480.
Z'.

showing the end view of the tray in its relation Draw any center line, as From the point L', as center, strike the arc K'

being one-fourth of the plan of top, as shown by Tin Fig. 488. Below the plan of top draw one-half of frustum of cone, as shown by V'X' w' in which
'

K

',

draw the end elevation of boat A' B' C' X' K', letting X' be one of its sides, and extend the line b' B'

V

B"

Divide the part of plan through the arc K' T' at B". T' into any convenient number of parts, and from

the points carry lines parallel to the center line or axis until they cut the top line u' V, and from there extend
in the direction of Z' until they cut the line B' C'. Place the T-square at right angles to the axis, and, bringing it against the several points in the line B' C',

them

which represents the shape tion of side, cut the side
center, with Z'

V

V X'.

shown by E C F
as shown.

in eleva-

From
I' J',

Z' as

as radius, describe the arc

upon

which lay
plan

B"

As the part of the a stretchout of plan. T' corresponds to B' C', which shows one-half
off

of one side of boat, and as this part of plan is divided into

three

parts,

six

of

these parts are spaced off on the arc I' J and num-

bered from
to

1

to 4,

and 4

1, 4 being the center

line.

in

the

Through these points stretchout draw
lines to the cen-

measuring
ter Z',

as

shown.

AVith

one point of the compasses
set at Z', bring the pencil point up to the several

and C' in points between the elevation, and describe
arcs cuttingmeasuringlines of corresponding numbers

V

in the stretchout; then a line traced through these points of intersection will form the line I' K' J', showFig. 488.-Plan

and Elevations.

Fig. 489.

Pattern.

ing the upper line of the pattern for one side of the
boat.

The Pattern for a Cracker Boat.

the plan the top and bottom of the sides have been shown parallel, in the side view the top appears curved
at C, the cut

obtain the bottom line of the pattern, with Z' as center and radius Z' X', describe the arc M' N'.

To

BC

producing which curve being shown by of the end view.

until they

Extend the sides IT "W and V X of the frustum meet at Z, which is the apex of the com-

Divide the plan of bottom of boat, as M T X in Fig. 488, into any convenient number of equal parts, in this case six, three on each side of the center T, and starting from the center line 4 of pattern, space off three spaces each way on the arc M' N', thus establish-

Pattern Problems.

269

ing
to

the points the points

M' and N'

M

and

N

of pattern, corresponding of plan. By drawing the

lines

boat,

M' I' and N' J' the pattern for one side of the shown by E F H G in elevation, is completed.

PROBLEM
Pattern for the Frustum of a Cone

139.

Fitting: Ag-ainst

a Surface of

Two

Inclinations.

In Fig. 490, let of a cone, the base of it lit against a roof of

A

B C D

represent the frustum

which is to be so cut as to make two inclinations, as indicated by

the points already established in the side B G of the cone, strike arcs as shown by the dotted lines, cutting meas-

P R D.

Continue the lines of the sides of the cone

until they meet in the point X, the apex of the complete cone. Through the of the cone draw the line R, representing the apex axis of the cone, meeting the ridge of the roof in the

A

B and D C upward
is

which

X

point R, and continuing

downward

in the direction of

Y, as

shown.

A