THE NEW METAL WORKER PATTERN BOOK
^^KjrBiKn
THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Arthur H. Memmler 18741956
THE NEW
METAL WORKER
PATTERN BOOK
A TREATISE
ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF PATTERN CUTTING AS APPLIED TO SHEET METAL WORK.
BY GEO. W. KITTREDGE.
.
NEW YORK:
232238 WILLIAM STREET.
DAVID WILLIAMS COMPANY,
1901.
THE NEW METAL WORKER PATTERN BOOK,
COPYRIGHTED, 1896, BY DAVID WILLIAMS.
THE METAL WORKER PATTERN BOOK,
COPYRIGHTED,
l88l, BY
DAVID Wll.LlAMS.
GIFT
CONTENTS,
PAGE.
Introduction
9
CHAPTER
Terms and
Definitions
I.
ALIMIABETIOAL LlST OF TERMS


15
CHAPTER
Drawing Instruments and Materials
II.
17
CHAPTER
Linear Drawing

III.
CHAPTER
Geometrical Problems
IV.
CONSTRUCTION OF REGULAR POLYGONS
TIIK KLLIVSE TIIK

43
. 
59
VOLUTE





67
CHAPTER
Principles of Pattern Cutting
V.
71

PARALLEL KOKMS
72

REGULAR TAPERING KOKMS
IRREGULAR KOKMS

79 86
CHAPTER
Pattern Problems
SECTION SECTION SECTION
1.
VI.

96
('
PARALLEL FORMS (MITEK CUTTING)
2.
REGULAR TAVKRING FORMS (FLARING WORK)
IRREGULAR FORMS (TKIAXGULATION)

240
3.
306
Index of Problems
421
766
the benefit of those
FOR well
who may contemplate
for
making use of this work, wholly or in part,
it
is
to lay before
them
at the outset a general statement of the plan
upon which
it is
written,
together with some advice
the use and study of
the same, which
A under any of the several headings comprising the subject matter. From tents immediately preceding will give at once a clear idea of its scope and arrangement. this it will be seen that the first five chapters are theoretical or educational in their nature,
devoted to practical work; and further, that the book does not presume upon anv previous technical knowledge upon the part of the beginner, but aims to place before
while the last chapter
is
may not properly belong glance at the table of con
him
in
the
in
preliminary chapters
the last chapter,
all
that
is
necessary to a thorough
understanding of the work
performed
which constitutes the bulk of the book.
the
A
very important feature of
work
is
the classification of
the problems.
The forms
for
which patterns mav be required are divided, according to the methods employed in developing their surfaces, into three classes, and the problems relating to each are arranged in three corresponding sections of the
last chapter,
thus bringing near together those in which principles and
is
methods are
alike.
In Chapter
V
(Principles of Pattern Cutting) this classification
defined and
the principles governing each class are explained and illustrated under three subheadings of the
chapter.
The
third
subdivision
a subject
treats
of
the
method
of
developing the surfaces
treated
in
of
irregular
forms by
cutting.
Triuiir/ulation,
not
heretofore
systematically
any work on
pattern
A
chapter on drawing (Chapter III) has been prepared for the benefit of the pattern cutter
especially interested in cornice wcrk, and
tectural draftsman, this chapter will render
though he may not intend to become a finished archi
him valuable
required in
assistance in reading the original drawings
received from architects, from which
to his
he
is
many
cases to
make new drawings adapted
own
peculiar wants.
The New Metal Worker Pattern Book,
pattern cutting,
is
besides being a systematic treatise on the principles of
also valuable as a reference
book
of pattern
is
convenience, and be read independently of the others so that the student whose time is limited can turn to any portion of the work the title of which promises the information sought, The relative importance of the chapters without feeling that he must read all that precedes it.
on
the subject treated, to be
drawn from
at
problems and as a fund of information so written that each problem, or chapter
;
of descriptive matter, can
depends, of course, upon the individual reader, and will be determined by what he considers his weakest points. However, it is advisable in the study of all works of a scientific nature to begin
at the beginning
and take everything in its course. continued progressively from the first, much advantage
If,
therefore, the study of this
work can be
will
be gained.
The statement
of each
problem
in
prominent type appears at the head of the demonstration,
iv
Tlie
Neiv Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
and every problem is numbered, by which arrangement the problems are well separated from each other and easily found.
While each demonstration
into detail
is
considered complete in
itself,
some
are necessarily carried farther
than others, and references arc made from one problem to another, pointing out similarity
of principle,
where such comparison would be advantageous to one who
is
looking for principles
rather than for individual solutions.
In preparing the diagrams used to illustrate the solutions of the problems, forms have been
chosen which are as simple in outline as the case will admit, upon the supposition that the reader will be able to make the application of the method described in connection with the same to his own
especial case,
small scale
which may embody more complicated forms. It must also be noted that, owing to the to which the drawings in this work are necessarily made, extreme accuracy in the
is
operations there performed
impossible.
In
many
instances the length of
the spaces used
in
dividing the profiles
is
much
too great in proportion to the
amount
of curvature to insure accuracy.
Therefore
if
apparent errors in measurements or results are found, they must not be considered the
fault of the
system taught.
If
such errors arc discovered the student
in
is
recommended
to reconstruct
the drawing upon his
own drawing board
accordance with the demonstration given and to a scale
sufficiently large to insure accurate results, before passing
judgment.
the basis,
In the preparation of this to a
book, the former Metal
Worker Pattern Book has been made
of the
certain extent,
of the
new work.*
Such problems or portions
former work as were
found satisfactory have been assigned to their proper places in the new work without change. In most of the problems, however, the demonstrations have been revised and the drawings accompanying them have been amended or corrected in accordance with the text, and in many cases
the case of
entire
new drawings have been made.
To
these have been added a large
number
MHul
of
new problems
since the
also
based upon inquiries and solutions that have appeared in the columns of
Tin
WrL<'i
former work was published.
Much new
explanatory matter not
in
the former
work has
been
added
in
the preliminary chapters, prominent
in
among which
are Chapter III, and the principles of
Triangulation
Chapter V. p]special care has been taken
it
in
the composition of the book to have each engraving and the
text referring to
arranged, as far as possible, on the same page or upon facing pages, so as to
obviate the necessity of turning the leaf in making references.
A
great advantage
is
gained over the former work by the classification and numbering of the
problems, which, in connection with the table of contents, renders any desired subject or problem
easily found.
In regard to the system of reference letters
employed
in the
drawings,
it
should be said that the
in
same
letter
has been used so far as possible to represent any given
it
point
the several views or
in
positions in which
fully
may
occur, the superior figure or exponent
being changed
each view.
To
comprehend
this
the reader
must carry
a
in
mind
the concrete idea of the
form under consideralie
tion, just as
though he held in his hand
perfect completed model of the same, which
turned
this
way
or that to obtain the several views given.
Any
point, therefore,
be marked by a letter A, would be designated in one of the views as A 2 etc., or as A', A", places where it might appear it would be designated as A
1
which might on the model A. while in other views or
etc.
,
,
In the
The author of this book, George W. Kittredge, prepared the drawings and outlined the but a few of the less important problems in The Metal Worker Pattern Book, which was published in 1881, and also prepared portions of. the introductory chapters of that wcrk.
demonstrations of
all
* Publisher's Note.
Introduction*
solution of problems by triangulation, dotted lines arc alternated
witli
solid linos, as lines of meas
urement, merely Occasions arise
for the
in
sake of distinction and
the experience of
to facilitate the
work.
every pattern cutter wherein some portion of the work
is
before him, of relatively small importance,
strietly
development of its pattern by a accurate method would involve more labor and time than would be justified by the value
BO situated
It is
that the
of the part wanted. ing the
the purpose of this work to teach the principles of pattern cutting, leavsuch questions to the individual. Nevertheless, if one is thoroughly conversant with pattern cutting methods and familiar with pattern shapes it may be possible in such
decision
of
cases to obtain accurately the principal points of a required pattern
and
to
complete the same by the
explicit than others.
eye with sullicient accuracy for all practical purposes.
As intimated above, some work
of the demonstrations are' necessarily
made more
In the longer demonstrations and those occurring near the ends of the Sections, less important details x
of
the
described in
sometimes omitted and certain parts of the operation arc only hinted at or are a general way, upon the supposition that the simpler problems in which the demonare
strations are carried further into detail
would naturally be studied
fair
first.
Although the principles
intricate,
it
of pattern cutting here set forth
may
at times
be regarded as somewhat
is
believed that any one possessed of a
degree of intelligence
and application can
easily master them.
Notwithstanding the great care which has been used in the preparation of this work, it is Should errors be discovered by any into its columns. possible that errors mav have found their way
of
its
readers, information of such will be gladly received.
CHAPTER
I.
by
its
Pattern cutting as applied 1<> sheetmetal work. verv nature, involves ilic application <i{ geo
faces of solids,
as
the
and may be more accurately described development <>f .<,////;<<<*, under which name its
metrical principles.
in
Any
treatise
on descriptive geom
the principles that general way etry presents enter into the science of pattern cutting. To those who have had the advantages of a mathematical education
a
all
principles are now being taught to a great extent in schools of practical instruction. Articles made from sheet metal are hollow, being only shells, and must,
therefore, be considered in the process of pattern cutting as though they wen.' the coverings or casings
these principles are well
plication
is
known and
l>v
such their ap
easily
made.
For the benefit of those,
who have not had such advantages, this work to make specilic purposes application of those princihowever,
readily understood bv the mechanic. While throughout the work the use of an unnecessarv number of technical terms and words not in common use among mechanics will be carefullv avoided, it must
ples in a
stripped from solids of the same shape. Point is that which has place or position with3. out magnitude, as the intersection of two lines or the
A
way
to
lie
center of a circle
;
it
is
usually represented to the eye
by
u small dot.
LINES.
4.
A
Line
is
be here noted
that which has length merely, and
that
precise ln</ii<i</f
in
describing
a
all
geometrical figures and operations becomes
may
be straight or curved.
5.
necessity,
A
Straight Line, or, as
it
is
sometimes
and therefore compels the employment of some terms not in the every day vocabulary of the workshop, which it is to delinc ami explain at the outset. As proper
the language of the workshop is usuallv far from accurate and varies with the locality, student of
called, a
right line, is the shortest line that
can be drawn between
two given points. Straight lines are generally designated by letters or figures at their extremities, as B,
A
Fig.
1.
(i.
every
A
Curved Line
is
this
introductory chapters for the purpose of increasing and improving his vocabulary, and of enabling him to more
readily
greatly to his advantage to give careful attention to this and the other
it
book
will lind
tion at every point, or
one which changes its direcone of which no portion, how
Fig. 1
A S
It
raight Line.
Comprehend
The
list
the demonstrations in the pages following. of terms herein defined has not been restricted
rccpiireniciits of
ever small,
is
straight.
is
therefore longer than a
points.
to the barest
the book, but has been
straight line connecting the
same
Curved
lines
belonging to plain geometry, and such architectural terms as are usually met with in problems relating to cornice work. The terms are arranged first logically, in classes, after which
follows an alphabetical be readily found.
1.
list
made
to include nearly all the terms
by which an v definition can
Geometry
is
that branch of mathematics which
Fiy.
2.
Curved Lines.
treats of the relations, properties
lines, angles, surfaces
i'.
and measurements of
are designated by letters or figures at their extremities and at intermediate ~R C or I) K ', points, as
and
solids.
Cutting is founded upon those principles of geometry which relate to the sur
SheetMetal Pattern
A
1
I
l'iu'.
2.
7.
Parallel Lines are those
which have no
inclina
tion to cadi other, being
everywhere equidistant.
A
in
Lines are perpendicular 11. Perpendicular Lines. each other when the angles on either side ol the
Vertical and horizontal
B
and
A
1
B' in Fig. 3 are parallel straight lines, and B
B
point of meeting are equal.
lines are
to each other, but perare not always vertical and horizontal, pendicular but may be at any inclination to the horizon, provided
always perpendicular
line.s
that the angles tion are equal.
said to
C'
Fig.
3.
D'
on either side of the point of intersecIn Fig. 5, C F, D II and E G are Also in Fig. G, be perpendicular to A B.
Parallel Lines.
G D and can never meet though produced to infinity. C' D' are parallel curved lines, being arcs of circles
which have a common center.
Horizontal Lines are lines parallel to the horiHorizontal Line in a drawing is indizon, or level. cated by a line drawn from left to right across the
8.
A
paper, as
A
B
in Fig. 4.
B
Fig.
6.
F
Perpendicular Lines.
C D and E F
are perpendicular to Line? perB. to the same line are parallel to each other, pendicular as C F and H, Fig. 5, which are perpendicular
A
D
to
Horizontal
A
B.
12.
Fig.
4.
Names of Lines by
lines
Direction.
linos
An Angle is the opening between two straight which meet one another. An angle is commonly
designated by three letters, the letter designating the
9.
Vertical
Lines are
parallel
to a
plumb
line
Vertisuspended freely in a still atmosphere. cal Line in a drawing is represented by a line drawn up and down the paper, or at right angles to a horizontal line, as E C in Fig. 4. 10. Inclined or Oblique Lines occupy an intermediate between horizontal and vertical lines, as C D,
B
A
point in which the straight lines containing the angle
meet being between the other two
letters, as
the angle
BCD,
Fig. 4.
13. Right Angle. 'When a straight line meets another straight line so as to make the adjacent angles equal to each other, each angle is a right angle, and the straight lines are said to be perpendicular to each
Fig.
5.
A
Perpendicular Lines.
other.
14.
(See
C B E
or
or
C B D,
is
Fig. 7.)
An
Acute Angle
an angle less than a right
Fig. 7.
is
which converge toward each other produced, would meet or intersect, are said to incline to each other.
Fig. 4.
lines
Two
and which,
if
angle, as 15.
A BD
An
ABC,
E, Fig.
Obtuse Angle
an angle greater than
7.
a
right angle, as
AB
7'rrrnx
uml
Definitions.
3
STRAIGHT SIDED FIGURES.
16.
A
Surface
is
that
which
has length
if
and
breadth without thickness. 1 7. Plane is a surface such that
25. An Isosceles Triangle is one in which two of the sides are equal. (Fig. 9.) 26. Scalene Triangle is one in which the three
A
A
any two of
points be joined by a straight line, such line will be wholly in the surface. Every surface which is not a
its
sides are of different lengths. (Fig. 10.) 27. RightAngled Triangle is one in
A
which one
its
of the angles
is
a right angle.
(Fig. 11.)
is
plane
I'lrri'd
surface,
surface.
or
composed
of
plane surfaces,
is
is
a
28.
An
AcuteAngled Triangle
one which has
18.
A
Single Curved Surface
one
in
certain points
may be
joined
by
straight lines
which only which
three angles acute. (Fig. 12.) 29. An ObtuseAngled Triangle
is
one which has
an obtuse angle.
(Fig 13.)
Fig. IS.
An AcuteAngled
Triangle.
Fig.
IS.
An
ObtuseAngled
Triangle.
Fig.
8.
An Equilateral
Triangle.
Fig.
9.
An
Isosceles Triangle.
B B
Apex orVcrtX
Base
B
Fig.
Fig. 10.
14.
Names of the Sides of a
Fig. IS.
Names of
the Parts
A
Scalene Triangle.
Fig. 11
RightAngled Triangles.
Right Angled Triangle.
of a Triangle.
shall lie
wholly in
its
surface.
The rounded
surface of
a cylinder or cone is a single curved surface. Double Curved Surface is one in which no 19.
A
is the longest side in a rightor the side opposite the right angled triangle, angle. C, Fig. 14.
30.
A
Hypothenuse
A
two points can be joined by
in its surface.
is
a straight line lying
wholly
31.
The Apex The Base The
of a triangle of a triangle
is its
upper extremity,
The
surface of a sphere, for example,
as B, Fig. 15.
It is also called vertex.
is
a
double curved surface.
20.
32.
the line at the bottom.
A
all
Plane Figure
nated on
21.
A
a portion of a plane termilines either straight or curved. sides by Rectilinear Figure is a surface bounded by
is
B C and A
33.
C, Figs. 14 and 15.
Sides of a triangle are the including lines. and B C, Figs. 14 and 15.
A
to
is
C,
A
34.
B
straight lines.
(See Figs. 8, 16, 21, etc.) 22. Polygon is the general name applied to all rectilinear figures, but is commonly applied to those
having more than four sides. in which the sides are equal.
23.
A
The Vertex is the point in any figure opposite and furthest from the base. The vertex of an angle the point in which the sides of the angle meet. B,
The
regular polygon is one
A
Triangle
is
a flat surface
bounded by three
Altitude of a triangle is the length of a let fall from its vertex to its perpendicular base, as
Fig. 15. 35.
B
straight lines.
24.
An
Equilateral Triangle
(Fig. 8.)
(Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, etc.) is one in which the
D, Fig. 15,
36.
A
three sides are equal.
four straight lines.
Quadrilateral figure is a surface bounded by There are three kinds of Quadri
Tlie
\'.'
M' "/.</
Pattern Bool".
laterals:
Tlie Trapezium,
tin
T rape/old and
its
the J'ar
411.
A
An
Heptagon
Octagon
is
a plane
figure of seven sides.
allelo<rram.
37.
(Fig.
Tlio Trapezium has no t\vui>f
sides parallel.
sides parallel.
47.
is
a plane a
figure of eight sides.
n;.)
38.
The
Trapezoid has only two of
its
(Pig. 25.) 4S.
A A
Decagon
is
plane
figure
of
ten
sides.
(Fig. IT.) 3i. Tlu Parallelogram has
allel.
(Fig. 2<>.)
its
opposite sides par
49.
Dodecagon
is
a
plane figure of twelve sides.
the line or lines
There are four
the
varieties of parallelograms:
The
till
(Fig. 27.)
5<i.
Rhomboid,
Square.
Rhombus,
the
Rectangle
and
The Perimeter is
bounding any
figure, as
AB
C U
E, Fig. 22.
6
Fig.
16.
A
Trapezium.
Fig.
17.
A
Trapezoid.
Fig. 22.
A Pentagon.
Fiy. 23.
A
Hexagon.
Fig. 24.
A Heptagon.
Fig. 15. Fig.
IS.
An
Octagon.
Fig. 26
A
Decagon.
Fig.
S7.A Dodecagon.
A
Rhomboid.
Fig. 19.
A Rhombus or
Lozenge.
Fig. tO.
An Equiangular Parallelogram Called a Rectangle.
Fig.
il.An
Equiangular
and Equilateral Parallelogram Called a Square.
A~
Fig. 28.
Diagonals.
'.
29.
A
Circle.
40.
Tlie
equal, the length and width being
Rhomboid has onlv the opposite sides different and its
(Fig. IS.)
51.
site
A Diagonal
is
a straight line joining
two oppo
angles of a figure, as
AB
and C D, Fig. 28.
angles are not right angles.
41.
The FhombUS, Lozenge
of
or
diamond
(Fig.
is
a
rhomwhose
CIRCLES AND THEIR PROPERTIES.
plane figure bounded by a curved (Fig. ''.) line, everywhere equidistant from its center. The term cirele is also used to designate the boundary
52.
Circle
is
boid
all
whose
sides are equal.
is
I'.'.)
A
a
42.
The Rectangle
a
parallelogram
all
of
(Fig. 20.) angles are right angles. 43. The Square is an equilateral rectangle.
(Fig.
line.
(See also Circumference
53.
)
21.)
The Circumference
of a circle
is
the boundary
44.
A
Pentagon
is
a
plane figure of live sides.
of
line of the figure.
.~>4.
(Fig. 22.)
The Center
(Fig. 29.) of a circle
is
a point within the
its
45.
A
Hexagon
is
a plane
figure
six
sides
circumference equally distant from every point in
circumference, as
(Fig. 23.)
A,
Fig. 29.
Terms and Definitions.
55.
The Radius
of a circle
is
a line ilra\vn
from
dicnlar
to
the
radium drawn
I)
to
the
to
point
!'
of
tan
the center to any point in the circumference, as A 15. The plural of radius Fig. ait, that is, half the diameter.
is rinlii.
gency. to F 15.
Tims K
is
perpendicular
Hand A
56.
The Diameter
('
I),
of a
circle
is
any straight
line
drawn through the renter
cumference, as
57.
Fig.
is
to opposite points of the cirL'!.
A
Semicircle
the half of a cirele,
and
is
Fig. 35. Tangents.
64. Concentric circles are those
which are described
about the same center.
65.
Dismeter
(Fig. 36.)
B
Fiy. SI
Eccentric circles are those which are described
(Fig. 37.) are inscribed in, or circumscribed by, Polygons
Fig
SO.
A
'
Semicircle.
about different centers.
Stymints.
a
66.
bounded
(Fig. 3i.)
.V>.
liv
half the circumference and
diameter
A Segment
oil'
of a circle
is
face
cut
l.v a
straight line, as
anv part of its surA K 15 and C F D
Fig 31.
.V.i.
An
Arc of
a circle
is
any part of the circumFig.
3:2.
ference, as
ABE
and C F
I),
Fiy. S6.

Concentric Circles.
Fig
all
17
Eccentric Circles.
circles
when
the vertices of
(Fig. 3s.)
is
their angles are in
the
circumference.
67.
A
circle
inscribed
in a
straightsided figure
when
tangent to all sides. (Fig. 3!t.) All regular may be inscribed in circles, and circles may polygons
it is
Fig.
fig
Arcs and Chords.
Fiij.
.:.',.
Sec/o
.1.
(!<t.
A
Chord
is
a straight line joining the extrem
ities of
an arc. as
A
E and C D,
a circle is
Fig.
3:2.
61.
A
A A
Sector of
radii
the space included be
tween two
A C
15
and
D C
K. Fig. 33,
is
and the arc which they intercept, as and B C. Fig. :!4.
A
62.
Quadrant
a
a sector
whose area
C. Fig. 34.)
is
equal to
onefourth of the circle.
radii
(B
A
The two
is
Fig.
.
An
In'C'ibed Tiiangle.
Fig
3!).
An
Inscribed Circle.
bounding
ti:i.
quadrant are at right angles. Tangent to a circle or other curve
a
1)
in the polygons hence the which polygons may lie constructed.
be inscribed
;
facility
with
straight line
which touches
it
at only
one point, as K
is
and
A
(_'.
Fig. 35.
Every
tangent to a circle
perprn
>S. A Degree. The circumference of a circle is considered as divided into 3t>< equal parts, called i/cr/reia
Neiu Metal
Worker Pattern
ffook.
(marked (marked
')
).
;
Each degree
is
divided into 60 minutes
and each minute into 60 seconds (marked "). the circle be large or small the number of divisions is always the same, a degree being equal to
intercept a portion of ber of degrees given.
40,
is
the
circle equal to the
numFig.
Thus
the angle
AE
II,
Thus
if
an angle of 60. In the measurement of angles the circumference of the circle, and in the various by mathematical calculations based thereon, use is made
of certain lines
known
as circular functions,
always
liearing a fixed relationship to the radius of the circle
and to each other, which gives rise to a number of terms, some of which, at least, it is desirable for the
pattern cutter to understand.
69. The Complement of an arc or of an angle is the difference between that arc or angle and a quadIn Fig. 41, D B is the complement of B D C, rant.
A
and
vice versa.
To.
The Supplement
of an arc or of an angle
is
the
difference between that arc or angle
and a semicircle.
Fig. 40.
A
Circle Divided into Degrees for
Measuring Angles.
is
part of the whole circumference equal to 180 and the quadrant to
;
the semicircle
90.
The
radii
drawn from the center
of a circle to the extremities of
a quadrant are always at right angles with each other; a right angle is therefore called an angle of 90 (A E
B, Fig. 40).
line, it
If a right angle be bisected by a straight divides the arc of the quadrant also into two
equal parts,
each being equal to oneeighth of the
whole circumference, or 45, (A E F and FEE, Fig. 40) if the right angle were divided into three equal divide the arc into parts by straight lines, it would
;
Fig.
4$.
Diagram Showing the Circular Functions or Angle A C H. of the Arc A
H
In Fig. 42,
vice versa.
BDC
is
the supplement of
is
A
I)
B, and
three equal parts, each containing 30 H, E B, Fig. 40). Thus the degrees of the circle are
(AEG, G E
H
71.
The
Sine of an arc
a straight line
to a
from one extremity perpendicular
the other extremity of the arc. 72. The CoSine of an arc
is
drawn radius drawn to
(II
B, Fig. 43.) the sine of the comis
plement of that H. arc
arc.
H
Of
K,
Fig.
4:1.
the sine of the
A
73.
The Tangent
an Arc
is
a line
which touches
Fig. 41.
Complement.
Fig. 42.
Supplement.
the arc at one extremity, and is terminated by a line passing from the center of the circle through the other
extremity of the arc.
In Fig. 43,
AE
is
the tangent
used to measure angles, therefore by an angle of any number of degrees, it is understood that if a circle with
of
AH
74.
or of the angle
A
C H.
any length of radius be struck with one foot of the compasses in its vertex, the sides of the angle will
the
The CoTangent of an arc is the tangent of Thus F G, Fig. 43, is the cotan complement.
gent of the arc
A
H.
Terms ami
75.
Tlic Secant of an
arc
is
Definitions,
a straight lino drawn
from the center of a circle through one extremity of that arc and prolonged to meet a tangent to the other
(K 0, Fig 48.) extremity of the arc. 70. The CoSecant of an arc or angle
of the
43. 77. The Versed Sine of an arc is that part of the radius intercepted between the sine and the circumference. (A B, Fig. 43.) 78. An Ellipse is an ovalshaped curve (Fig. 44),
is
In this and the straight lino (CD) the directrix. anv point, as N or M, is equally distant from lignre F ami the nearest point in I>, as II or K. (See defiix.
nition
1
1
'.',.
i
the secant
SO.
in
A
Hyperbola (A B. Fig.
if
4ti) is a
curve from any
complement
of
that arc or angle, as V C, Fig.
point fixed points, their difference shall always be the same. and L is II L. Thus, the difference between E
which,
two straight
lines
be drawn to two
G
G
and the difference between
and
E F
and F
L
is
B L
are equal.
The two.
fixed points,
B L. II L E and L,
are called /oa.
(See definition 113.)
Fig. 44.
.In KlHpse.
Fig. 40.
A
Hyperbola.
Fig.
Fig. 45.
47.Evolute and
Involute.
Fig. 4S.
A
Parabola.
A Triangular Prism.
from any point in which, if straight lines be drawn to two fixed points within the curve, their sum will be
always, the same.
81.
An
Evolute
is
a circle or other curve from
and
II).
These two points are called The line A B, passing through the
foci (F
foci, is
which another curve, called the involute or evolutent, is described by the aid of a thread gradually unwound
from
it.
(Fig. 47.)
called the major or transverse a.r/.s. The line E G, perto the middle of the major axis, and extendpendicular
82.
An
Involute
is
string
wound upon another curve
a curve traced by the end of a or unwound from it.
ing from one side of the figure to the other, is called the minor or conjugate axis. There are various other
definitions of the ellipse
(Fig. 47.)
(See also Prob. 84, Chapter IV.)
besides the one given here,
83.
84.
is
SOLIDS.
dependent upon the means employed for drawing it, which will be fully explained at the proper place
A Solid has length, breadth and thickness. A Prism a solid of which the ends are equal,
parallel straightsided figures,
among
the problems.
79.
A
(See definition 113.) Parabola (A B, Fig. 45) is a curve in which
similar
and
and of which
any point is equally distant from a certain fixed point and a straight line. The fixed point (F) is called the
the other faces are parallelograms. 85. Triangular Prism is one whose bases or ends
A
are triangles.
(Fig. 48.)
8
n<
\>>r
.\f't,il
Pattern
*;. A Quadrangular Prism is one whose bases or ends are quadrilaterals. (Fig. 49.) 87. A Pentagonal Prism is one whose bases or ends
97.
l>y
is
A
Truncated Cone
is
a
plane
parallel to its base.
a
/;;/.//////
one whose apex is out off This 1'iLnire (Fig. .~>7.
)
also called
ti:in<<<ili<l.
of a cone.
t'>9
A
are pentagons. (Fig. 50.) 88. A Hexagonal Prism
are hexagons.
s'.t.
be
is
(Sec
Figs.
and
pyramid may also ~o and dctinition
a
one whose bases or ends
112.)
9S.
(Fig. 51.)
is
~>~2.
A Pyramid
is
a
solid
having
A Cube
(Fiir.
a
i
prism of
which
all
the
faces arc
base and triangular .sides
apex.
terminating
in
straightsided one point or
squares.
'.>(>.
Pyramids arc distinguished
JM iitnijnniil.
lir.rni/niiiil.
as /rim n/u/rn. f/nn</
der,
is
Cylinde.",or properly sjieakingaCirCUlarCylina round solid of uniform diameter, of which the
circles.
A
i"ii>//t/ti>;
etc.,
according as the
base has three sides, four sides,
etc.
live sides, six sides.
ends or bases are equal and parallel
(Fig..V!.j
(Figs.
.Vs;.
59 and 60.)
Fig. 49.
A Quadrangular Prism.
Fig. 50.
A
Pent
Fig. 51.
agonal Prism.
A Hexagonal Prism.
Fig .o. .1 Tiiangular Pyramid.
Fig.
'>!>.
.4
Quadran
gular Pyramid.
Fig.6().An,Octagonal Pyramid.
Fig.
5S.A
Cube.
Fig. 53.
A
Cylinder.
Fig
.14.
A
Cone.
Fig. 61
A Right
Fig.
r,2.
Altitude
Pyramid.
of a Cone.
Fig <;.! Altitude of a Pyramid.
/
BOM
Fig
55.
\
Fig. 56
\
Fig.
r,5
A
Right
Cone.
An Oblique or Scalene Cone.
is
Fig.H7.A Tiuncated Cone.
fig. r,4.AUitude
Altitude
Fig. 66.
A
Sphere,
of a Priam.
of a Cylinder.
or Globe.
91.
ellipses.
Aii Elliptical Cylinder
one whose bases are
92.
is
A
Right Cylinder
its
is
one whose curved surface
perpendicular to
93.
bases.
is
Right Pyramid is one whose base is a regular and in which the perpendicular let fall from polygon, the apex upon the base passes _ through the center of This perpendicular is then called the ".'/.the base.
99. of the pyramid.
A
An
Oblique Cylinder
its
one whose curved surfor its
face
is
inclined to
base.
100.
solid with a circle to
The
(Fig. 61.) Altitude of a
94.
A
Cone
is
a
round
base,
and tapering uniformly
a
point ac the
top
A which the perpendicular from the vertex upon the base passes through the center of the base. This perpendicular is then
let
fall
called the apex. (Fig 54.) 95. Right Cone is one in
length of the perpendicular The altitude of a prism or the plane of the base. cvlinder is the distance between its two bases or ends.
let
pyramid or cone is the fall from the apex to
and
is
measured bv
a
line
drawn from
a
point in one
(Figs.
base perpendicular to the plane of the other.
:,<!.
il2,
63, 64 and 65.)
called the axin of the cone.
'.<;.
An
is
(Fig. 55.) Obliqe Cone or Scalene Cone
its
lul.
is
The
Slant hight of
to
one
in
which
from
base.
its
apex
the
a pyramid middle of one of
is
the distance
sides at the
its
the axis
inclined to the plane of
base.
(Fig. 5G.)
The
xlimt
///<////
of
a
cone
is
the
distance
Terms mul
Definitions.
from
base.
its
apex
to
any point
in
the eireumference of
its
io
the other.
each other as to appear as though one passes through The intersection of their surfaces forms
l(>'2. A Sphere or Globe is a solid hounded bv a uniformly curved surface, anv point of which is equally
the basis of the greater part of the problems of Chap.
VI.
1
1
distant from a point within the sphere called
(Fig. 66.)
tin
center.
>.
The Frustum
of a
Cone or Frustum
of a
Pyra
mid
103.
ligurcs.
A
Polyhedron
Tetrahedron
is
a solid
hounded by plane
vi/,.
:
that portion of the original solid which remains after the apex has been cut away upon a plane parallel
is
There are
live regular
is
polyhedrons,
to the base..
f<> in
(Figs.
.">".
<i!)
and 7u.)
When
the cut
104.
equilateral
A A
a .solid
is
hounded by
ting plane
is
oblique to the base of the solid they are
nliliijur
triangles.
(
It
one form of
triangular
six
spoken
of as
frustums.
is a
pyramid.
105.
squares.
(.Fiji.
>7.)
is
113.
a solid
A Conic Section
a cone
curved
a
line
formed by the
Hexahedron
bounded by
is
intersection of
and
plane*.
The
different
The common name
(Fig. 52.)
for this solid
which
see.
conic sections are the triangle, the circle, the ellipse, the parabola and the hyperbola. When the cutting
Fig. 67.
A
Tetra
Fig. CS.
An
Octa
hedron.
hedron.
Fig. 69. Frustum of a Scalene Cone. Fig.
72.
A
C
A
Cone Cut by a Plane Parallel to One of Its Sides.
Fig. 73.
A Cone Cut by a Plane Which Makes an Angle with the Base Greater than the A ngle Formed by the Side.
Fig.
70.
Frustum
Fig.
71.
.1
Cone Cut by a Plane Obliquely
of a Pyramid.
throu'jh Its Opposite Sides.
106.
The Octahedron
is
a solid
bounded by
solid
eight
equilateral triangles.
(Fig. 68.)
is
plane passes obliquely through its opposite sides the resulting figure is called an ellipse. (Fig. 71.) (An
ellipse
is
lo".
The Dodecahedron
is
a
bounded by
twelve pentagons. 108. The Icosahedron
equilateral triangles.
When
a solid
a cone
also an oblique section through a cylinder.) is cut by a plane parallel to one of its
a.
bounded by twenty
sides, the resulting figure is
parabola.
Thus
in Fig.
109.
An
Axis
it
is
body on which
revolve.
a straight line, passing through a revolves, or may be supposed to
72 the cutting plane B is parallel to the side of the cone C D. See definition 79. When the cutting makes a greater angle with the base than the side plane
A
and 61.) 110. By the Envelope of a solid is meant the surface which encases or surrounds it, as the envelope of
(Figs. 55
a
cone.
cone makes, or when it passes vertically through the cone to one side of the axis, the resulting figure is a hyperbola. Thus in Fig. 73 the angle A B C is greater " than the angle See definition 80. The paraof the
ADR.
111. Intersection Of Solids
is a
term used to describe
the condition of solids which are so joined and fitted
bola and hyperbola resemble each other, both beiny incomplete figures, with arms extending indefinitely.
10
Tlie
New
Mrtitl
\\~,,, /.<;
Pallrrn
Book.
The
ellipse is a
complete figure, but of varying prois
has been omitted.
illustration are
portions, as the cutting plane
inclined
more
or less.
114.
Concave means hollowed or curved inward.
The names of parts given in the such as are generally understood l>r architects and cornice makers. The cornice of clasarchitecture
sical
may
contain simply a bed
it
mold,
planceer and crown mold, or
tion, a dentil
may
contain, in addi
course or a modillion course, or both. 117. The Entablature was used by the ancients to
colonnade (more especially the latter), of three parts, the cornice, the frieze and the architrave. (Fig. 75.)
finish a wall or
and consisted
118.
Fig. 74
The
Architrave, the
lower division of the
Sections of Curved Surfaces.
entablature, was
in reality a lintel used to span the
said of the interior of an arched surface or curved line in opposition to convex.
(Fig. 74.)
is
space between the columns, but its form was maintained when used above a wall. In modern imitations
of the antique styles the
115.
A
is
Convex surface
one that
is
curved out
used without the
fascias, in
molded portion which case it
(Fig. 75.)
is is
frequently
regularly protuberant or bulging, when viewed from without. The opposite of convex is concave. (Fig. 74.)
ward, that
known
itrave
as the foot mold.
is
commonly The term arch
also used to designate the molding and fascias running around an arch or a window opening.
ARCHITECTURAL TERMS.
ordinarily used to designate any molded projection or collection of moldings which finishes or crowns the part to which it is affixed.
119.
is
The
Frieze, the
middle division of the entab
116.
The term
Cornice
is
lature, really a continuation of the wall surface to add hight and effect to the building, and was originally intended for the display of symbols, inscriptions, orna
ments, &c., appropriate to the use of the building of
The term
in this sense
is
applicable in all styles of
it is
architecture. In classical architecture, however,
con
fined to the upper division of the entablature, the
whole
was a part. It is sometimes treated very and sometimes receives considerable ornamenplainly tation, being subdivided into panels or enriched by
which
it
CORNICE
<
ENTABLATURE <
Ti'/iiis
ii/nl
Definitions.
11
ArCi. Tin curved top of an opening in a wall. Tlio arch of masonry is constructed of separate blocks
120.
1
plan, designed as a support for an entablature. It cona base, a shaft and a capital. sists of three parts
:
and
joint supported only lines between the bloeks are disposed in the direcis
at
the extremities.
The
is a column placed the face of a wall or other surface, from which against
122.
An
Engaged Column
Fig. 76.
A
Semicircular Arch.
Fig.
77.
A
Pointed Arch.
Fig. 80.
A
Pilaster.
tion of radii of the curve, thus enabling the arch to support the weight of the wall above the opening.
it
projects onehalf or
more than onehalf
its
diam
eter.
When
in classical designs
its
face
is
finished
with
123.
A
Pilaster differs
moldings their proper profile is that of an architrave. The level lines at which the curve of the (Fig. 75.)
square in plan instead of within a wall.
124.
from a column in that it is round and is usually engaged
Sometimes arch begins are called the springing lines. the lower stones of the arch rise vertically a short distance from the supports before the springing lines
are reached, in
(Fig. 80.) Pedastal. structure designed to support a column, statue, vase or other object. It is by some described as the foot of a column, but is, properly
A
which case the arch
is
said to be
stilted.
speaking,
not a part of
it.
It
consists
of
three
Fig. 81.
An Angular
Pediment.
Fig.
78.
A
Moresque Arch.
Fig.
79.A Flat Arch.
parts, a base, a
a die
Fig. 82.
A
Segmental Pediment.
The
stones composing the arch are called the voussoirs, and the middle or top stone is called the keystone. The
middle portion cubical in shape called and a cap or cornice. It is also used as a finish
ends of a balustrade course.
supports below the ends of the arch are called imposts.
at the
Arches are usually
elliptical,
semicircular
(Fig. 76), semi
segmental, pointed (Fig. 77) or Moresque (horseshoe) (Fig. 78) in shape, according to the style of architecture with which they are used.
The
to
top of an opening
of
may be
perfectly level and
it is
Fig.
SS.A
Broken Pediment.
yet composed
arch.
wedgeshaped blocks so combined as
called a flat
be selfsupporting, in which case
(Fig. 79.)
121.
A
Column
is
a vertical shaft or pillar round in
Pediment is a triangular or segmental orna125. mental facing over a portico, door, window, etc. (Figs. 81, 82 and 83.
A
12
126.
of
TJie
Xeir
Wor/,>
Ifook.
A
Broken Pediment
<>r
is
one. cither
is
in
the
frm
in
its
1:;:;.
A
Cortd
is
a modified form of bracket.
It is
a gable
a
segment, which
for
cni
away
central
portion
the
purpose
of
ornamentation.
used to terminate the lower parts of window caps, and also forms the support for arches, etc., in gothic forms.
(Fig. 83.)
\2~t.
A
Gable
is
the vertical triangular end of a
to
house or other building, from the cornice or eaves
the top.
I'JS.
A
Lintel Cornice
lintel.
is
a
cornice above or some
is very generally used to designate the cornice used above the lirst story
times including a
This term
of stores.
1
(Fig. S4.)
2!).
A
Deck Cornice or Deck Molding
is
the cornice
Fig.
S6.A
13t.
Modillion.
Fiij.
X7.A Head
Block.
A
Fig.
S4.A
Lintel Cornice.
bracket
all tlu>
in
Head Block or Truss is a large terminal a cornice, projecting suflicientl v to receive
to the
moldings against its side, thus forming a finish end of the cornice. (Fig. ST.) 135. A Stop Block is a blockshaped structure, vari
ously ornamented,
which
is
placed
above the end
Fig. 85.
A
Bracket.
or molding used to finish the edge of a
it
flat
roof where
joins a steeper portion. 130. Bracket, as used
A
in
sheet metal work,
is
Brackets in stone simplv an ornament of the cornice. architecture were originally used as supports of the Hence modern architecture parts coming above them.
has kept up that idea in their designs. 1:51. Modillions are also cornice
differ
(Fig. So.)
ornaments, and
(Fig. 86.)
Fig. 88.
from brackets onlv
in
general shape.
While a bracket has more' depth than projection, modillions have more projection than depth. 132. A Dentil is a cornice ornament smaller than a modillion, which i,i shape usuallv represents a solid
with
plain
A
Stop Mock.
Fig. 89.
A
Pinnacle.
bracket in a'cornice, and which projects far enough to
receive against
its
side the various moldings occurring
linish.
above the brackets, forming an end
136,
(Fig.
*V
i
rectangular
in
face
and
sides.
Dentils are
never used singly, but
courses, the spaces between
(Fig. 76.)
slender turret or part of a elevated above the main building. A small building
is
A
Pinnacle
a
them being
less
than their face width.
spire.
(Fig. s!.)
Definitions.
13
ni'/'l.illinii
137.
A
Finial
is
an ornanient. variously designed,
of
a
sheet
metal work the
lauid. anil
///<////'////,/<
the molding
(Fig.
placed
roof.
at
tlic
apex
pediment, gable,
spire or
immediatelv below them the
7:,.)
nmldiny.
13.s.
iiniii
<>r
Capital.
It
pilaster.
The upper member or head of acolmay vary in character according to
which
it is
147.
dentils
The
all
Dentil Course of a cornice embraces the
tiie
and
moldings
to
which the dentils are
the'/'/////
the style of architecture with
employed, from
attached as ornaments, comprising
ill
Imnd and
a few simple projecting moldings around the top of tincolumn to an elaborately foliated ornament. The lower
niil nKiii/iiiij.
(Fig. 75.)
'A8ACUS
IVOLUTE
Foot Molding is the common term used to It is freelesignate the lower molding in a cornice. in this connection used in the sense of archiquently
14S.
trave.
(Fig. 75.)
149.
A
Bracket Molding, alsocalhd bracket
/,<>l, is
the molding around the upper part of a bracket, ami which generally members with the bed molding, against
which
Fig. 00.
it
finishes.
(Fig. 75.)
is
Capitals,
is
150.
A Gable Molding
A
A
Ridge Molding
It
is
an inclined molding which
a
used
in
the finish of a gable.
is
most mold
member
above
is
1:5!).
muld and the uppermost the weight of the lintel or arch sustaining
is
called the
ni'i'l:
151.
mohling used
//'/<//
to
cap or
tinish a rielge.
also culled a
fn/i/i///;/
or sim
called the
ulnuii*.
(Fig. 90.)
Panel.
A sunken compartment having molded
a plane surface', as a frieze ceil
ply
ridtjiii'j.
152.
Hip Molding
is
a molding
used to protect
It is
cdu'cs used to
ornament
ing, planceer or tvmpanum. be raised instead of sunken.
A
anel finish the hips or angles of
a n>of.
very
fre
panel may, however,
quently included in the more general term
153.
'''</'//'//.</.
A
A
Fascia
is
a plain
band or surface below
a
or space between the sides of the pane! and the edges of the surface in which it is placed is usuallv made equal all around and is called the stil<
j
The margin
molding,
or, in
other words, the unornamenteel face of a
.
140.
A Volute
(Fig. 75.) portion of a cornice or architrave. Fillet is a narrow plain member of a mold154.
finish or separate the different forms a a a Fig. 75 are fillets.) (a 155. Drip is a downward projecting member
is
a spiral scroll used as the principal
ing
used to
ornament
of a capital
and
is
placed
under the corners
of the abacus.
For
8i>,
inethe>il of
drawing the volute see
A
Probs. 81 and
141.
A
Chap. IV. Molding is an assemblage of forms projevtto
in
a cornice or
in a
molding, used to throw the water
(Fig. 75.)
off
from the other
15(i.
Sollit
is
parts.
ing bevoiid the wall, column or surfaceaffixed.
which
it
is
the term
applied to the under side
Chap. V.) 142. Crown Molding is the term applied to the upper or projecting member of a cornice. (Fig. 75.) 143. Planceer or PlanCher is the ceiling or under
(See
side of the projecting part of a cornice. (Fig. 75.) 144. The Bed Moldings of a cornice are those moldings forming the lower division of the cornice proper, and which are made up of the bed course, modillion
tirst
part of
of a projecting molding, cornice or arch. Sink is a depression in the face of a piece 157.
A
Fig. 91.
Stays.
course and dentil course.
145.
(Fig. 75.)
is
the upper division of the the part with which the bracket heads bed moldings,
The Bed Course
of
and modillion heads ordinarily correspond, and against which they miter. (Fig. 75.) 14<i. The Modillion Course <>f a cornice embraces the modillions and all the moldings which are imme
in a plain surface. (See face of bracket Fig. 85, side of modillion, Fig. sti.) 158. Incised Work is a style of ornamentation
work or
eonsisting of
line
members and
irregular lines,
sunken
or cut into a plain surface.
(See side of
bracket Fig.
85.)
The plain surface below them. diately back of and modillions is called in the lying back of or between
Stay of a molding cut in sheet metal. (Fig. lU.)
15!).
The
is its
shape or profile
u
The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.
kinds of projections, viz. Cavalier and Perspective.
explanation
jection.
160. Rake Moldings are those which are inclined, as in a gable or pediment; since to miter a rake mold
:
Chapter
of
Orthographic, Isometrical, II I is devoted to an
ing with a level return under certain conditions necessitates a change or modification of profile in one or
the other of the moldings
to
of
the
principles
orthographic pro
rake
means
to
make such
change of
161.
profile.
A Raked Molding, therefore, is a term describ
1
Fig.
Fig. 92.
94.
Section
of House on Line
Elevation.
Elevation of a Hoiise.
is
A B of Plan and
167.
ing a molding of which the profile some other profile.
162.
profile
a modification of
I
or Raked Stay describes the which has been derived from another or stay
A Raked Profile
by
a geometrical projection of a building or other object on a plane perpendicular to the horizon. (Fig. 92.)
is
An
Elevation
profile or stay,
like that of mitering a horizontal
certain established rules, in a process and inclined molding
Profile or
the representation of the ]utrts as they would appear if cut by a horizontal plane. (Fig.
is
168.
A
Plan
93.)
together. 163.
169.
A
Section
is
The Normal
Normal Stay
is
the
appear
if
cut in two
a view of the object as it would by a given vertical or horizontal
original profile or stay from which the raked profile or stay has been derived.
B
In the one case the resulting view plane. (Fig. 94.) is called a vertical section, and in the other a horizontal
Fig. 9$.
Plan of a House.
section.
fig. 05.
Perspective View of House.
a projecting edge by which a piece is strengthened or fastened to anything. 165. Hip is the external angle formed by the
164.
A A
Flange
is
Oblique sections are representations of objects
cut at various angles. 170. Perspective
A
is
meeting have their wall plates running in different directions.
of
two sloping sides or
skirts of a roof
which
ing or other object
upon
a representation of a builda plane surface as it would
appear
DRAFTING TERMS.
166. Projection
viewed from a particular point. (Fig. 9o.) Detail Drawing or Working Drawing is a 171. drawing, commonly full size, for the use of mechanics
if
A
drawing which
plans, sections
that department of geometrical treats of the drawing of elevations,
is
in
constructing work. Scale Drawing 172.
A
is
one made of some scale
and perspective views.
There are four
less
than
full size.
Ti.'iinx
an'/.
Definitions.
15
173.
A A
Miter
is
a joint in a molding, or between
at
two pieces not moldings,
17i.
Butt Miter
of
is
any angle. the term applied to the cut
molding
to
lit
17S. An Octagon Miter is a miter joint between two sides of a regular octagon, or between any two
pieces at an angle of
1
135.
made upon the end
a
it
against
applied to the miter either at the peak or at the foot of the moldings of a gable or pediment.
176.
ings,
another molding or against a surface. Gable Miter is the name 175.
Inside Miter indicates a joint at an interior or reentrant angle.
7'.i.
An
A
A
180.
angle. 181.
of finding,
An
Outside Miter
is
a
joint at an exterior
The Development
from a drawing
of a surface
is
the process
one of
Rake Miter is a miter between two moldwhich lias undergone a modification of
prolile to
admit of the joint being made. 177. Square Miter is the common term for a
or pattern upon a flat bent or formed as indicated by that drawing, will constitute its envelope or, in other words, the stretching
;
rounded form, a shape surface which, when cut out and
of a
joint at right angles, or at
90.
out
flat
of a surface
shown by
a drawing to be curved.
Alphabetical List
In the following
to the
list
all
words are arranged
:
in alphabetical order, the figure following each referring
number
of the definition in the list preceding
Abacus Acute Angle
Altitude
35,
138
14
Cone, Truncated Conic Section
97
113 115 133
Entablature
117
100
12
Convex
Corbel
Envelope Evolute
Eccentric
no
81
Keystone' Line
Line,
120
4
Curved
6
8
10
Angle
Angle, Right
Angle, Acute
65
153
13
14
15
'
Cornice Co Sine
116
Fascia
Fillet
72 76
154
137
:
Line, Horizontal Line, Inclined or Oblique.. Lines, Parallel
7
Angle, Obtuse
CoSecant
Finial
Line, Perpendicular Line, Straight Line, Vertical
Lintel Cornice
n
5
Apex
Arc Arch
Architrave
.
31
59 120
1
CoTangent Crown Molding Cube
Cylinder
Cylinder, Elliptical Cylinder, Oblique
74
142
Flange Foot Molding
Frieze
148,
164 118
119 112
127 175 150
I
9
128
41 173
131
89 90
91
18
Frustum
Gable Gable Miter Gable Molding
Lozenge
Miter
Modillion Modillion Course
Axis Base
109
32.
121,
124
145
93
Bed Course Bed Moldings
Bracket
Cylinder, Right
92 48
129
146
141
144
130 149 126
174 138 54
Decagon Deck Cornice
Degree
Dentil
Geometry
Globe
102
Bracket Molding
68
132 147
I7t
Head Block
Heptagon
134
Broken Pediment
Butt Miter
Capital
46
45
105
165
Molding Neckmold Normal Profile Oblique Cone
Oblique Cylinder Obtuse Angle
138
163
96
93
15
Dentil Course
Detail
Center
Drawing Development
Diagonal Diameter Die
Hexagon Hexahedron
Hip Hip Molding
Hyperbola Hypothenuse
Icosahedron
181
51
Chord
Circle
60
52 53
152
56
124
80
30 108
120
Octagon Octagon Miter Octahedron
Outside Miter
Panel
47
178 106
180
Circumference Circumscribed
66
121
,
Column
Complement Concave
Concentric
Dodecagon Dodecahedron
Drip
Elevation
Ellipse
Elliptical
49
107
155 167
139
Impost
Incised
Parabola
Parallelogram Pedestal
79
69
114
Work
158
66, 6
39
124 125 126
Inscribed
Inside Miter Intersection of Solids
Cone
Cone, Oblique or Scalene..
64 94
96
78
1/9
Pediment
Pediment. Broken
Cylinder
91
121
in
82
Engaged Column
Involute
Pentagon
44
16
Perimeter
Perspective
Pilaster
Tlie
Xc/c Metal
\Vorker Pattern Book.
50 i/o
123
Radius
Pinnacle
Plan Planccer
136 168
143
17
Rake Rake Miter Hake Moldings Raked Molding Raked Profile
Rectangle
Rectilinear Figure
55 160
I/O 160
161
Sector
61
Surface, Single Curved....
18
Segment
Semicircle
58
57
121
Shaft
Sides of a Triangle
Tangent Tangent of an Arc Tetrahedron
63
73 104
33
157
71
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Triangle
Triangle, Aeute Angled.
Equilateral Triangle, Isosceles
'triangle,
.
37
162
4'
Sink
Sine
Slant Hight
Soffit
38
23 28 24 25
.
Plane Plane Figure Point
20
3
21
101
.
Polygon Polyhedron Prism
Prism, Hexagonal Prism, Pentagonal Prism, Quadrangular Prism, Triangular
Projection
22
103
Rhomboid Rhombus
Ridge Right Right Right Right
Scale
40
41
151
156
Solid
83
102 120
84 88
87 86
85 166
Molding Angle Cone
Cylinder Line
13
95
92
5
Sphere Springing Line Square Square Miter
Stay
Stile
Triangle, ObtuseAngled. Triangle, Right Angled. Triangle. Scalene
29
27 26
..
43
177
159
139 120
135
Right Pyramid
99
172
Drawing
Stilted
Pyramid
Pyramid. Right Quadrant
Quadrilateral
98 99
(12
Scalene Cone Scalene Triangle Secant
Section
96 26
75
Stop Block
Supplement
Surface
Surface, Double Curved..
.
70
16 19
Truncated Cone Truncated Pyramid Truss Versed Sine Vertex Volute Vmissoir
97
97
134
77 34
140
120
171
36
169
Working Drawing
CHAPTER
II.
To
tin: lirst
the person about to liegiu ;i new occupation consideration is, what tools and materials does
one draftsman or pattern cutter will require the whole table, but for ordinary work, such as window caps,
cornices, etc., two men can work at it without interfering w,ith or incommoding each other.
lie need ? In the following description of the appliances, tools and materials likely to be of service to the pattern cutter in the class of work in which he is sup
interested, the description is limited posed to articles of general use. Those who are interested
in
to he the
most
Various woods may be used for drawing tables, but white pine is the cheapest and best for the purInch and onehalf to twoinch stuff will be pose.
drawing
tools
and materials upon a broader basis
found economical,
as
it
allows for frequent redressing
than here presented are referred to special treatises on drawing and to the catalogues of manufacturers and dealers in drawing materials and drawing instruments.
Drafting: Tables.
made necessary by pricking in the process of pattern Narrow stuff, tongued and grooved together cutting.
or joined
by
glue,
is
preferable to wide plank, as
it is
A
drafting table suitable for a
johbing shop .should be about five feet in length and It is better to have a three to four feet in width.
table,
somewhat too
it
large, than
to
have one so small
that
in.
frequently inadequate for work that comes In hight the table should be such that the draftsis
man, as he stands up,
ID his
may
not be compelled to stoop
it.
work.
While
for
some reasons
is
desirable
that the table should be fixed
upon a strong frame and for convenience such tables are generally made legs, Two horses are used for supports and a portable.
movable drawing board
is
hung by
for the top. shallow drawer cleats fastened to the under side, and is ar
A
Fig. 96.
Drafting Table.
ranged for pulling either way.
Sometimes horizontal
less liable to warp.
Eods run through the
table edge
pieces are fastened to the legs of the horses, and a shelf or shelves are formed by laying boards upon
ways, as
shown
in Fig. 96, are desirable
for
drawing
them.
Fig. 96
shows such a table
as is here described.
the parts together and holding them in one compact The nut and washer are sunk into the edge of piece.
When
properly made, using heavy rather t'han light
material, such a table is quite solid and substantial, and when not in use can be packed away into a very
the table, a socket wrench being used to operate them. drafting table should be an accurate rectangle
A
small space. For cornice makers' use, a table similar in construction to the one described and illustrated (Fig. 96)
is
every corner should be a right angle, and The edges the opposite sides should be parallel.
that
is,
should be exactly straight throughout their length. Methods of testing drafting tables and drawing boards,
with reference to these points, are given below. usual way of adjusting a table or board to make
curate
is
is
.
well adapted.
Its
ing
the
extremes
dimensions, however, considerof work that are likely to arise,
The
it
acthis
live feet in breadth.
ihould be twelve to fourteen feet in length by about Three horses are necessary, aud
to plane off
its
edges as required.
But
two drawers may be suspended.
For very large work,
It requires the a task less simple than it appeal's. nicest skill and accuracy to render it at all satisfactory.
18
Tlu:
\<iv
Metal
Worker Pattern
llouk.
remembered that 110 matter how well seasoned the lumber employ ed may he the table will be affected by even slight changes in the atmosphere, it
"When
it
is
ing board, consisting of a pine
wood
edges with a plane, under certain circumstances, might be constantly reFor great accuracy, adjustable metal strips quired. be fastened to the edges of the table in such a may
is
apparent that dressing
off the
wood top with hardledges are put on by means of a dovetail, tapering probably onehalf inch in the width of the board, so that while allowing entire freedom for
ledges.
The
manner
that,
by simply turning
a few screws,
any
arFig.
97.
variation in the table
maybe
compensated.
This
rangement
ner:
maybe
The edge
of the table
accomplished in the following manon all sides is cut away so
Drawing Board, with Ledges.
as to allow a bar of steel, say oneeighth or onesix
teenth of an inch thick and about an inch wide, to lie in the cutting, so that its surface is even with the face
of the table, with its outer edge projecting somewhat beyond the edge of the table. Slotted holes are made
in the table
seasoning there is no danger of cracking the board, and they may be driven tight as required. "Where it
the ledges they arc passed through slotted holes furnished with a metallic bushis
desirable to use screws
in
ing.
through which bolts with heads counter
In Fig. 98
sunk
into the metal are passed for holding the steel washer and nut are used on the under side strips.
which
is
simpler form of board. ilardadapted only for the smallest sizes,
is
still
shown a
A
of the table.
very
the
slight.
The adjustment required is, of course, The edge of the metal projecting slightly,
is
as described,
Tsquare,
well adapted for receiving the head of rendering the use of that instrument
satisfactory than when it is used against the plane edge of the table, even if equally accurate. Drawing; Boards. The principal difference between
more
Fig. 98.
Drawing Board, with Tongued and Grooved
Cleats.
a drafting table and a drawing board
is
in the size.
The
wood
same general requirements in point of accuracy, etc., Convenient sizes of tables for are necessary in each.
various
sizes of boards for different
strips are
tongued and grooved onto the ends
to
uses Tiave been mentioned, but to point out purposes is not so easv a
prevent warping, as shown in the engraving. By using strips of wood thicker than the board, keeping their
matter, their application being far
their use
more extended and
upper surfaces flush with the surface of the board, it may be constructed so as to have the advantage of
ledges on the under side equivalent to those
Fig. 97. Fig. 99
more
general.
size,
A drawing board may be made
shown
in
of
any required
article is
an
from the smallest for which such adapted up to the extreme limit con
shows a construction which, while being
In the larger sistent with convenience in handling. sixes the general features of construction noted under
drafting tables are entirely applicable, save that thinner material should be used in order to reduce the weight. In small sizes there is a choice between several different
modes
of construction,
two or three of which
will
be
described, although boards of almost, any required construction can be purchased ordinarily of dealers in
drawing tools and materials at lower prices than they can be made. However, it is very convenient, in many
cases, to
Fig. 99.
Bottom View of Drawing Board, with Grooved Back and
Cleats Attached with Slotted Holes.
have boards madeof
to order,
and therefore de
tailed descriptions
Any
carpenter or cabinet
good constructions are desirable. maker should be able to do
a very
the work.
In Fig. 97
is
shown
common form
of draw
somewhat more expensive than the others, is unJt is made of strips of doubtedly much better. pine to make the required width. wood, glued together A
19
pair of
hardwood
cleats
is
screwed to the hack, the
in
of a file or
line
sand paper folded over a block of
screws passing through the cleats
brass bushings, which vet allow the screws to
tit
oblong
slots
with
wood.
Careful work in this manner will produce very
closely under the heads and move freely when drawn by the
satisfactory results. means of testing a board with reference to the
A
shrinkage of the board.
To overcome
the tendency of
accuracy of the corners
the surface to warp, a series of grooves are sunk in half To the thickness of the board over the entire back.
is shown in Fig. 101. caror an ordinary steel square used penter's trysquare
A
make the working edges easy movement with the
is let
perfectly smooth, allowing an
into the end of the board.
at
Tsquare, a strip of hardwood The strip is afterward
sawn apart
about every inch, to admit of contraction.
In the construction of such boards additional advantage is obtained by putting the heart side of each piece of
wood
a
to the surface.
Fig. 101.
pattern cutting is nothing if not accurate, it is matter of the utmost importance that the drawing
If
As
Testing the Corner of a
Drawing Board.
far
board or table should be perfectly rectangular.
angle
is
each
upon the corners does not ordinarily reach
in either direction to satisfactorily
enough
determine that the
a right angle
if
its
the Tsquare may of it with satisfactory results. portion accurate the drawing will be accurate
parallel
opposite sides are exactly be used at will from any
If
adjacent end and side are perpendicular to each other; hence it is desirable to obtain some kind of a test with
reference to this point from the middle portions of the With the head of the Tsquare placed against edges.
the board the board
is is
If
not accurate the drawing can only be
made accurate
at
one side of the board draw a
fine line, as indicated
by
the dotted line in the engraving, and from one end draw If the side and end a second line in the same manner.
are at right angles the two lines will coincide with the arms of a square when placed as shown in the engraving. Eepeat this operation for each of the corners.
Fig. 100.
Testing the Sides of
a Drawing Board.
The two methods above described for testing drawing boards, especially when used together, cannot fail to
enable any one to obtain a board as nearly accurate as Modifications of the methods it is possible to make it.
here given, and based upon the same principles, will suggest themselves to any one who will give the matter careful thought.
the cost of extra trouble and care.
While
it is
easy to
get a board approximately correct by ordinary means, one or two simple tests will serve to point out inaccuracies for correction which
by ordinary means would
Tsquare and an or
pass unnoticed.
For such
tests a
dinary twofoot steel square that are exactly correct
will
In connection with every set of drawing instruments there should be one or more
StraightEdfes.
be required.
Having made the opposite
board as nearly accurate as the Tsquare against one side, as shown
and ends of the possible, place the head of
sides
in Fig. 100, to a chisel edge, or
o
Fig. 102.
StraightEdge.
and with a hard pencil sharpened
board.
straightedges.
to be
If
with the blade of a knife, scribe a fine line across the
side of the board, as
made upon
nothing but pencil or pen lines are paper, those of hardwood or hard
;
Then carrying the Tsquare to the opposite shown by the dotted lines, bring
rubber will answer very well
but
if
lines are to
be
drawn upon metal,
terial.
steel is the
only satisfactory
ma
the edge of the blade to the line just scribed and see that it exactly coincides throughout its length with the
The
it
termined by
length of the straightedge must be dethe work to be done, but a safe rule is to
Eepeat this operation at frequent intervals along the edges of the board, both at the sides and ends. Remove any small inaccuracies on the edges by means
line.
have
board.
somewhere near the length of the table or Of course this is out of the question in cornice work, where tables are frequently upward of
The.
New
Metal
Wurl,<r
Pattern
fSuok.
twelve feet in length. In such cases the size of the If iron 96 material to be cut determines this matter.
inches long is used, the straightedge, for convenience, should not be less than 8J feet. If shorter iron is
regularly used, a shorter straightedge will answer. In cornice work, two and even three different lengths are
\Vlien
made
in
the ordinary manner, and depending
upon the friction of the nut of a small bolt for holding the head in place, it is almost impossible to obtain a
bearing that can be depended upon during even a In practice it is found to be far less simple operation.
trouble to
work from a straightedge
found advantageous. described; a second
longest might be as just might be about four feet in
The
across the board and weighted
down
properly placed or otherwise held
length and made proportionately lighter, while the smallest might be two feet and still lighter than the
fourfoot size.
Instead of
long arm
purpose.
of the
common
\ise in
steel
the latter, however, the square serves a good
in
Fig. 103.
lSifiiare
with Fixed Head.
general jobbing shops, a threefoot straightedge in many cases, and a fourfoot one in a few instances, will be found very convenient.
For tinners'
place
by means
is
of
a
triangle
or
setsquaiv,
as
greater accuracy
thus assured.
Some mechanics
the
same
desire their straightedges graduated, as a steel square, into inches and fractions.
In point of materials, probably a "[square having a walnut head and maple blade is as satisfactory as any.
This kind
There is, however, no special advantage in this; it adds considerably to the cost, without rendering the
tool
is the cheapest and is generally considered the best for practical purposes. good article, !>ut of higher price, consists of a walnut head with a Lard
A
more
useful.
in
wood
one end
of
blade,
edged with some
oilier
kind of wood.
A
hole should be provided
the
Still
It should always be straightedge for hanging up. when not in use, as in that position it is not suspended liable to receive injury. It is almost superfluous to
another variety has a mahogany blade edged with Tsquares constructed with castiron head ebony.
add that straightedges must be absolutely accurate, for if inaccurate they would belie their name. A simple and convenient method of testing straightedges is to place two of them together by their edges, or a single one against
the edge of a square, and see
open work finished by japanning with nickelplated steel blade, are also to be had from dealers. They are also made with a hard rubber blade, of which Fig. 104
is
an illustration.
The
liability to fracture,
however,
by dropping
and
is
necessitates
the
otherwise hard rubber makes
use: greatest a very desirable article
care in
the favorite material with
to size,
many
draftsmen.
selected
them.
edges
If
it is
no space
is
light passes between to be observed between the
if
As
Tsquares
should be
with
reference to the use to be
satisfactory evidence that they are as nearly
straight as they can be
made by ordinary
appliances.
it is
Generally, the blade should be a very little less in length than the width of the table or board upon which it is to be
made
of them.
In addition to having the edges straight necessary to have the two sides parallel.
TSquares.
all
also
With
this instrument, as
is
with almost
drawing instruments, there
the choice of various
and kinds, and selection must be made with reference to the kind of work that is to be per T formed. Whatever quality may be chosen, the dequalities, sizes
Fig.
W4.tSquare with Fixed and Swivel Bead.
a large board or a
table
is
sirable features of a Tsquare are strict accuracy in ail respects, and a thin, flat blade that will lie close to the
used.
Where
used
it
will
dif
be found economical to have two instruments of
ferent sixes.
paper.
Fig.
103,
For most purposes a fixed head, as shown in is For drawings in which a preferable.
The
Ste.l Square.
One
of the
most useful
tools in
great parallel oblique lines are required, and where a small size Jsquare can be used, a particularly swivel head, as shown in Fig. 104, is sometimes desirable.
is
number of
connection with the pattern cutter's outfit is an ordinary The divisions upon it concern him much steel square.
less than its accuracy. He seldom requires other divisions than inches and eighths of an inch; therefore in selection the principal point to be considered is that
The
objectionable feature about a swivel head
of
the
difficulty
obtaining
positive
adjustment.
21
of aeeuracv.
The
finish,
bowever,
is
a imittcr not to
twofoot size
onefoot sixe
is is
most desirable.
better suited.
In
some
cases the
he overlooked.
Since a nickelplated square costs hut
it is'
Many
pattern cutters
a trilling advance iinin the plain article, in the long' run to have the plated tool.
cheaper
on cornice work like to have both sixes at their com
mand, making use
to the nature of the
of
convenient method of testing the correctness of the outside of a square, and one which can be used
at
A
them interchangeably, according work to he done.
In the selection of
tri
Triangles, or Set Squares.
the time and place of purchase,
is
illustrated
in
angles, the draftsman has the choice in material be
Fig. 107.
Open Hard Rubber Triangle or Set
Degrees.
Sfauare, 45 x 43 x 90
Fig. 105,
Testing the Exterior Angle of
a
Steel Square.
Tig.
squares are placed against each other and against a straightedge, or against the arm of a third square. If the edges touch throughout, the
H>.">.
Two
squares
the
mav be considered
correct.
Having procured a square which is accurate upon outside, the correctness of the inside of another
Place square may he proven, as shown in Fig. 10t>. If the mi" square within the other, as shown. edges
mahogany, ebony lined hard rubsilver, and steel, silver or nickel plated. In style he has the choice between open work, of the form shown in Fig. 107, and the solid, as in Fig. In shape, the two kinds which are adapted to 108. the pattern cutter's use are shown in Figs. 107 and 108, the latter being described as 30, 60 and 90 degrees, or 30 by 60 degrees, and the former as 45, 45 and 90 degrees, or simply 45 degrees. The special uses of each of these two tools are shown in the chapter on Geometrical Problems (Chap. IV). In size,
;
tween pear wood
;
;
ber
German
the
pattern cutter
requires
large
rather than small
Fig.
lOS.Hard Wood
Triangle or Set Square, SO x GO x 00 Degrees.
Fig. Uifi.Ttas ing the Interior
Angle of a
Steel Square.
together tightly and uniformly throughout, the square may he considered entirely satisfactory.
fit
he can have two sizes of each, the smaller should measure from 4 to 6 inches on the side, and the larger from 10 to 12 inches; but if only a single size is to be had, one having dimensions intermediate
ones.
If
to those
An
accurate square
is
especially desirable, as
it
named will be found the most serviceable. The value of a triangle, for whatever purpose used,
its
ail'ords the readiest
the drawing table The greatest care should be given, therefore, to the For all ordinary. purposes the selection of a square.
means of testing the "[square and and beard, as elsewhere described.
depends on
accuracy.
Particularly
is
this to
be said
of the right angle, which is used more than either of method of testing the accuracy of the the others. is shown in Fig. 109. Draw the line B right angle
A
A
22
Tin'
Xc
Mdal Worker
Pattern Boole.
Place the with an accurate ruler or straightedge. of a triangle near the center of this line, as right angle
a profile line
scribed below.
is
called spacers, as illustrated and de
shown by
with the
DC
line,
B, and make one of the edges coincide and then draw the line D C against the
A
pair of compasses consists of the parts
shown
in Fig. 110, being the instrument proper with detachable points, and extras comprising a needle point, n pencil point, a pen and a lengthening bar, all as shown to the left.
In selection, care should be given to the
workmanship; notice whether the parts lit together neatly and without lost motion, and whether the joint works tightly and yet without too great friction. A
B
C
Fig. 109.
good German
Testing the Right Angle of
a
Triangle.
instrument, although quite expensive at the outset, will be found the cheapest in the end. pencil point of the kind shown in our
silver
A
other edge. 'Turn the triangle into the position indiIf it is found that the sides agree cated by D C A. C and C D, it is proof that the angle is a right with
A
is to be preferred over the old style which a common pencil to the leg. The latter is not clamps nearly so convenient and is far less accurate.
engraving
angle and that the sides are straight. Besides the kinds of triangles described above, a fair article can be made by the mechanic from sheet
zinc or of
Of dividers there
dividers, as
are
two general kinds, the plain
hairspring
differ
dividers, as
shown in Fig. Ill, and the shown in Fig. 112. The latter
from
heavy
tin.
Care must, however, be taken
in cutting to obtain the greatest possible accuracy. For many of the purposes for which a large size 45 degree
the former simply in the fact of having a fine spring and a joint in one leg, the movement being controlled
by the screw shown
at the right.
In this way, after
Fig. 110.
Compasses with Interchangeable Parts.
Fig.
111.
Plain
Fig.
Dividers.
112. HairSpring Dividers.
Fig. US.
Steel
Spring
Spacers.
triangle would be used the steel square is available, but as the line of the hypothenuse is lacking, it can
the instrument has been set approximately to the distance desired, the adjustable leg is moved, by means
of the screw, either in or out,
as
not be considered a substitute.
may be
required,
Compasses and Dividers.
The term compasses
is
applied to those tools, of various sizes and descriptions, which hold a pencil and pen in one leg, and are used for
thus making the greatest accuracy of spacing possible. Both instruments are found desirable in an ordinary dividers will naturally be used The set of tools.
drawing
circles,
while dividers are those tools which,
while of the same general form as
both legs
compasses, have ending in fixed points, and are used for used special form of dividers measuring spaces.
plain for larger and less particular work, while the hairIt frein the finer parts. spring dividers will be used
of dividers, set to difquently happens that two pairs ferent spaces, are convenient to have at the same time. of spacers, shown in Fig. 113, is almost
A
exclusively for setting off spaces, as in the divisions of
A
pair
Tool* inn!
23
use.
He will find indispensable in a pattern cutter's outfit. use for this tool, oven though possess! IILT advantageous
Imtli pairs of
in
common
A
heavier stick
is
used with
it
than
dividers described
above.
In size they
are
made
less
than that of the dividers.
The
points
with the beam compasses, and no other adjustment is provided than that which is all'orded by clamping In the illustration a carrier at the against the stick.
should be needlelike in their fineness, and should lie capable of adjustment to within a very small distance
sometimes desirable to divide a The given profile into spaces of an eighth of an inch. should be capable of this, as well as adapted spacers
of each other.
It
is
to spaces of threequarters of an inch, without being As will be seen from the engraving, this too loose. instrument is arranged for minute variations in ad
justment.
Beam Compasses and Trammels In Fig. 114 is a set of beam compasses, together with a portion of the wooden rod or beam on which they are used. The latter, as will be seen by the section drawn to one
shown
side (A), is in the shape of a f. This form has considerable strength and rigiditv, while at the same timr
it is
not clumsy or heavy. Beam compasses are provided with extra points for pencil and ink work, as While the general adjustment is effected by shown.
means
as
in
of the
tions are
made by the screw
shown.
clamp against the wood, minute variashifting one of the points, This instrument is quite delicate and when
side
is
Fig. 115.
Trammel.
good order is very accurate. It should be used only for line work on paper and never for scribing on metal. A coarser instrument, and one especially designed
for use
shown
in
which a pencil may be placed.
Some
trammels are arranged in such a manner that either of the points may be detached and a pencil substituted.
upon metal,
is
shown
in Fig.
115 and
is
called
A
to describe
in place
trammel, by careful management, can be made very accurate curves, and hence can be \ised
of
the
For
all
coarse
beam compasses in many instances. work it is to be preferred to the beam
for all short
compasses.
It is useful
sweeps upon
sheets of metal, but for curves of a very long radius a strip of sheet iron or a piece of wire will be found of more practical service than even this tool.
The length of rods for both beam compasses and trammels, up to certain limits, is determined by the The extreme length nature of the work to be done.
determined by the strength and rigidity of the rod It is usually convenient to have two rods for itself.
is
Fig. 114.
Beam
Compasses,
each instrument, one about 3$ or i feet in length and as long as the strength the other considerably longer In the case of the trammel, of material will admit.
n trammel. that the
to this
It
is
to
be remarked in this connection
name trammel, by common usage, is applied instrument and also to a device for drawing found described at another place. ellipses, which will be
There are various forms of this instrument, all being The engraving shows a form the same in principle.
by means of a simple clamping device, or, in lieu cf better, by use of common wrapping twine, the rods
may be
spliced
when unusual
length
is
required; but
a strip of sheet iron or a piece of fine wire forms a better radius, under such circumstances, than the
rod.
24:
The
New
Metal Worker Pattern book.
The Protractor is an instrument for laying down The instrument and measuring angles upon paper. consists of a semicircle of thin metal or horn, as represented in Fig. 116, the circumference of which is The princidivided into 180 equal parts or degrees. which the protractor is constructed and used ples upon
are clearly explained in the chapter on Terms and Defi" nitions (Def. 68 Degree "). The methods of employing
it
being
or, in
is
H inrhes
to the foot
J
and 3 inches
to the
fool,
other words, ^ and full size respectively. It essential that the pattern cutter should be familiar
with the various scales in
common
use, that
lie
may
Sev
be able to work from any of them on demand.
eral of the scales are easily read
by means
af
the com
mon
rule,
as,
for
example,
3 inches to the foot, in
in the construction of geometrical figures are
shown
which each quarter inch on the rule becomes one inch of the scale; also, 1J inches to the foot, in which
each eighth of an inch on the rule becomes an inch of the scale; and, likewise, f inch to the foot, in which each sixteenth of an inch on the rule becomes an inch
of the scale.
However, other scales besides these are occasionally required, which are not easily read from the common rule, and sometimes special scales are used, which are not shown on the instruments, especially calculated for the purpose. Accordingly, it is sometimes necessary for the pattern cutter to construct
his
Fig. 116.
Semicircular Protractor.
own scale. The method
is
of constructing a scale
of 1 inch to
the foot
in Chapter
IV among
the problems.
For purposes
of
accuracy, a large protractor is to be preferred to a small size, because in the former fractions of a degree
are indicated.
117, in which the diIn visions are made by feet, inches and half inches. such scales, it is usual to set off the diconstructing
illustrated in Fig.
visions representing feet in one direction (say to the right) from a point marked 0, while the divisions for
While a number
veniently solved by not one that is specially adapted to the pattern cutter's All the problems which are solved by it can be use.
of geometrical problems are conthe use of this instrument, it is
inches and fractions thereof are set off the opposite way (or to the left from 0) as shown in the illustra
In using the scale, measurements are made by placing one point of the dividers at the number of
tion.
worked out by other accurate and expeditious methods, It is one of the which, in most cases, are preferable.
instruments, however, every case of instruments sold, and the student will find
it
it,
feet required
the
the other point can then be moved to other side of the to the required number of
;
included
in
almost
inches, thus embracing the entire number of feet and inches between the points of the dividers.
advantageous to become thoroughly familiar with whether in practice he employs it
Inches
Besides scales of the kind just described, which
or not.
Besides the semicircular form of the
protractor shown, corresponding lines and divisions to those upon it are sometimes
.,,,
Feet
Ln
iilinn
Fig.
117.
Plain Scale
(1
inch to the Foot
)
put upon some of the varieties of scales
in use, as
shown
in Fig. 120.
Scales.
Many
of
the
that
pattern cutter works are mensions, etc.,
is,
drawings from which the from which he gets di
are termed plain divided scales, there are in common use what aBe known as diagonal scales, an illustration
of one of
what
being some
specified fraction of
are called scale drawings, the full size of the
which
is
is
shown
1j
in Fig. 118.
The
scale rep
resented
that of
inches to the foot.
The
left
object represented.
Architects' elevations and floor
hand unit
the
inches.
parts
of division has
lines
been divided by means of
plans are very generally made either J or J inch to the foot, or, in other words, 5*3 or fa full size. Scale details are also employed quite extensively by
architects, scales in
vertical
into
In width the scale
12 equal parts, representing is divided into 8 equal
very
common
use for the purpose
by means of the parallel lines running its entire Next the diagonal lines are drawn, as shown. length.
J)ra>ci>ig
7W< and
by
Materials,
Bv
a
moment's inspection
of these diagonal
it
will
bo seen
that,
Aflat scale
is
also
manufactured in both boxwood
means
lilies,
oneeighth of an inch
and multiples thereof are shown on the several horiA distanee equal to the space from A to zontal lines.
11.
and ivory. Fewer scales or divisions can be put upon it than upon the triangular scale, yet for certain purposes
as
marked on
'2
the scale, is read (first at the right for
to
feet)
feet (then
the left for inches
by means
of
be preferred to the latter. There are less divisions to perplex the eye in hunting out just what is required, and accordingly, there is less liait
is
to
Fent
Fig. US.
Diagonal Scale
inches to the foot).
lines ligured both at top and bottom) 6 inches (and last, by means of the diagonal line, figured at the end of the scale, for fractions) and threeeighths.
the vertical
bility to error in its use.
However, the limited numcontains greatly restricts
its
ber of scales which
usefulness.
it
The
top and bottom lines of the scale measure feet and inches only. The other horizontal lines measure feet, inches and fractions of an inch, each horizontal line
its own particular fraction, as shown. Such are frequently quite useful, as greater accuracy scales is obtained and, as the reader will see, may be con
having
120 shows another form of the flat scale, in use in the past, but now virtually disquite carded in favor of more convenient dimensions and This scale combines with the various divishapes. sions of an inch the divisions of the protractor, as
Fig.
common
shown around the margin.
of
The
fact that the divisions
structed by any one to any unit of measurement, and divided by the number of horizontal lines into any desired fractious.
an inch for purposes of a scale are located in the middle of the instrument, away from the edge, which
necessary to take off the dividers, renders the article
it
makes
all
A
scale
in
is
common
shown
is
use,
in
and known
as the tri
awkward
measurement with for use, and
angular scale,
this scale,
Fig. 110.
The shape
of
which
indicated
by
the name, and which
Fig. 119
Triangular Boxwood Scale.
is
also
shown
in the cut, presents three
sides for divi
sion.
dividing each of these through the center lengthways by a groove, as shown, six spaces for divisions are obtained, and by running the scales in
By
taking two scales, one of which is twice the size of the other, and commencing with the unit
pairs
that
is,
at opposite
ends
the
number
of scales
which may be
put upon one of these instruments is increased to This article, which may be had in either twelve. boxwood, ivory or plated metal, and of 6, 12, 18 or
24 inches in length,
is
probably the most desirable for
general use of any sold.
T/ie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern, Book.
required which can be better
pencil.
and ending
other
at
the hardest with
makes
of pencils are
H H II II H H, while marked by systems peculiar
has the choice
in all except the finest
made with ink than with
to their v manufacturer.
The draftsman
The drawing pen
Fig.
or ruling pen, as illustrated in
of round or
hexagon shape
grades,
being made exclusively hexagon. Whatever kind of pencil the draftsman or mechanic
the latter
uses, he
I
will require different
numbers
for different
The 123, is used for drawing straight lines. drawing pen, whether as a separate instrument or as an attachment to compasses or beam compasses for drawing curved lines, consists of two blades with steel
points, fixed to a handle.
For working drawings, fullsized details, on manila paper, a No. 3 (or F) is quite satisSome like a little harder lead, and therefore factory. a No. i (or II). For lettering and writing in prefer
miposes.
etc.,
The
blades are so curved
that a sufficient cavity is left between them for ink when the points meet close together or nearly so. The
connection with drawings upon manila or ordinary For detail paper, a No. 2 (II B) is usually chosen.
fine lines, as in
est possible
space between the points is regulated by means of the screw shown in the engraving, so as to draw lines of
developing a miter, in which the greatis
required, a No. 5 is very gene rally used, although many pattern cutters prefer the II II H. liner grade for this purpose and use a
accuracy
any required thickness. One of the blades is provided with a joint, so that, by taking out the screw, the blades may be completely opened and the points readily
cleaned after use.
The ink
is
H
H
put between the blades
quality and accuracy of drawings depend, in a considerable measure, upon the manner in which
pencils arc sharpened.
The
pen, or sometimes by a small hair In using the drawing pen it should be slightly brush. inclined in the direction of the line to be drawn, and
with a
common
A
pencil used for
making
fine
should be kept uniformly close to the ruler or
straiglit
Fig. IS?.
Pencil Sharpened to
a Round Point,
Fig. 121.
Two Views of
Pencil Sharpened to
a
Chisel Point.
Fig. 123.
Ruling Pen.
straight lines, as, for instance, in the various operations of pattern cutting, should be sharpened to a chisel
edge during the whole operation of drawing a line, but not so close as to prevent both points from touching the paper equally. Keeping the blades of the pen clean is essential If the draftsman is careless in this parto good work. ticular, the ink will soon corrode the points to such an
Pencils for general point, as illustrated in Fig. 121. work away from the edges of the Tsquare, triangle,
etc.,
should be sharpened to a round point, as shown
in Fig. 122. It facilitates work nomical to have several pencils at
and
it
is
quite eco
command, sharpened
extent that
it
will
ways any reason only one
ends
in different
for
different purposes. Where for pencil of a kind can be had, both
Pens
will gradually
be impossible to draw fine lines. wear away, and in course of
time they require dressing.
the blades of
a
To
dress
up the
tips of
may
be sharpened, one to a chisel point and the
other to a round point. For keeping a good point upon a pencil, a piece of fine sand paper or emery paper, glued upon a piece flat file, of wood, will be found very serviceable.
they are generally worn unequally by customary usage, is a matter of some small oil stone is most convenient for use nicety.
pen, since
A
A
The points should be screwed into in the operation. contact in the first place, and passed along the stone,
turning upon the point in a directly perpendicular plane
millsaw cut, is also useful for the same purpose. Sharpen the pencil with a knife, so far as the wood
part
is
upon
concerned, and then shape the lead as required the file or sand paper.
Xext they arc until they acquire an identical profile. to be unscrewed and examined to ascertain the parts
Drawing Pens.
cutter's
Although most of
the
pattern
The blades are, of unequal thickness around the nib. then to be laid separately upon their backs upon the
the points until they are It is well brought up to an edge of uniform fineness. to screw them together again and pass them over the
stone,
at
work
ally arise
done with the pencil, there occasioncircumstances under which the use of ink is
is
and rubbed down
desirable.
Tracings of parts of drawings are frequently
Tun/.*
mill Materials.
27
stone once or twice more to bring up anv fault ami t<> retouch them also at tin outer and inner side of each
1
absence of ware especially designed for the purpose, India ink can be satisfactorily mixed in ;ind used from
an ordinary saucer or plate of small size.
blade to remove barbs or framing, and linally to draw them across the palm of the hand.
India Ink.
.For
The
articles
made
especially for
it,
however, are convenient, and
tracing*,
i
and fur some kinds of
is
drawings, which the
])att(
occasionally. India ink is ('arc which is used for the greater part of his work, is to lie exercised in the selection of ink, as poor grades
arc sold as well
as
obliged to make niueh better than the pencil,
rn cutter
good
ones.
Some
little
skill
is
required in dissolving or mixing it for use. India ink is sold in cakes or sticks, of a variety of shapes. It is prepared for use by rubbing the end
1
Front with Cover On.
of the stick
upon the surface of aground
in
is
glass, or of a
porcelain slab or dish, water, until the mixture
a
very small quantity of siitlieiently thick to produce
a
of
black line as
1
it
Hows from the point
the ruling
Tin qualitv of ink may generally be determined pen. bv the price. The common si/e sticks are about 3
inches long.
Inferior grades
can be bought as low as
40 cents per stick, while a good quality is worth $(1.50 to *_' per stick, and the very best is still higher. However, except iu the hands of a responsible and experienced
dealer,
this
method
it,
satisfactorv.
To
a certain
by the brands upon
of judging is hardly extent ink may be judged although in the ease of the
Top with Cover
Fig. U4.
Off.
India Ink Slab.
higher qualities the brands frequently change, so that The quality of India this test may not be infallible. ink
is
is
and economical use worth the small price they cost. are well
in facilitating the care
of the ink
quite apparent the
a soft
moment
it is
used.
The
best
entire! v free
and has
from grit and sediment, is not musky, The feel when wetted and smoothed.
Several makes of liquid drawing ink are also to be had, which possess the advantage of being always ready for use, thus doing away with the rubbing
process.
color of the lines \Vith a poor ink
It will
may
it
also
be used as a
test of quality.
The ink
costs
about 25
cents
a
bottle,
be brown
impossible to make a black line. or irregular in color and will present
is
keeps well, and will answer almost every purpose
quite as well as the stick ink. Thumb Tacks or Drawing Pins, both
in
an irregular edge, as though broken or ragged, while an ink of satisfactory quality will produce a clean line, whether drawn very fine or quite coarse. Various shaped cups, slabs and dishes are in use
In many remixing and containing India ink. for mixing and holding used spects thev arc like those water colors. Indeed, in many cases the same articles The engraving (Fig. 1'24) shows what are employed. is termed an India ink slab, with three holes and one
for
slant.
names being
common
use, are
made
from those with heads
of a variety of sizes, ranging onequarter of an inch in diam
Fig. 125.
Thumb
Tacks, or
Drawing
Pins.
eter
up
to elevensixteenths of
to
an inch in diameter.
This
article
is
in
common
use
among draftsmen
and serves
used,
In order to retard a satisfactory purpose. in sets, is frequently evaporation, a kind of saucers, will form a cover to so constructed that one
be had of various grades and The best for general use are those of Gerqualities. man silver, about threeeighths to fiveeighths of an
They
are likewise
piece
the other, and which are known in the trade as cabinet sets or cabinet saucers. They are from 2 to 3 In the inches in diameter and come in sets of six.
inch in diameter, and with steel points screwed in and Those which have the points riveted only riveted
The heads should be flat, to are of the second quality. In the allow the "Tsquare to pass over them readily.
28
The New Metnl
Fig. 125, are
\\'<>rke,
Pattern
llonlc.
annexed
cut.
kinds and
sixes.
upper edges
underneath.
are
shown an assortment of Those which are beveled upon their preferable to those which are beveled
Fig
A Box
of Instruments.
126 shows a box of
in
any width, from 30 inches up to 54 inches, in rolls of 50 to 100 pounds each. It is ordinarily sold in (lie roll by the but can be bought at retail by the pound, There are dilVerent yard, although at a higher figure. thicknesses of the same qualitv. Sonic dealers indi
struments of
medium
grade, as
While it the trade general Iv. that the pattern cutter has no use for,
the principal tools he requires,
all
made up and sold by contains some pieces
it
also contains
in
them by arbitrary marks, as XX, XXX. XXXX; numbers 1, 2, 3; and still others as thin, medium and thick. The most desirable paper for tincate
others by
put together
com
pattern cutter's use
qualities.
It
is
one which combines several good
is
pact shape, and
in
a
convenient manner for keeping
should be just as thin as
consistent
The tray of the instruments clean and in good order. the box lifts out, there being a space underneath it in
which may be placed odd
selected, as
tools, pencils, etc.
with strength.
A
thick paper, like a
is,
still'
card, breaks
when
able.
folded or bent short, and
therefore, objection
Tools
required, may be dealers in drawing instruments. vantageous to the pattern cutter to singly as
of
the large It will be found adof
most
The ] taper should be very strong and tough, as the requirements in use arc quite severe. The surface should be very even and smooth, yet not so glossv as
to
buy
his instruments
be unsuitcd
hard
requires, them, by only what he requires for use, and will probably secure
he
as
so doing he will get
be
rather than
texture as to
spot without
hard pencils. It should and should be of such a withstand repeated erasures in the same
to the use of
soft
paper, which the pattern cutter has occasionally to use in connection with his work. can be had of almost every conceivable grade and in a
damage White drawing
to the surface.
The very best qualitv, and the kinds variety of sixes. suited for the finest drawing*, come in sheets exclusively, although the
cheaper kinds are also made
in
the shape of sheets as well as in rolls.
White drawing can be bought of different widths, ranging from 36 to 54 inches, and from a verv thin grade up to a very heavy article, and of various surfaces. It
paper
in rolls
is
sold
by the pound,
in rolls
pounds each, and
Fig. 126.
also at retail
ranging from 30 to 40 kind by the yard.
A
A Box
of Instruments.
known
as eggshell is generally preferred
bv
architec
tural draftsmen.
a better quality in the tools.
After he has made his
selection, a box properly fitted and lined should be provided for them and can be obtained at a small cost, or made if desirable. India Rubber. A good rubber with which to erase
Drawing paper in sheets is sold by the quire, and The sixes are generally at retail by the single sheet. indicated by names which have been applied to them. The following are some of the terms in common use. with the dimensions which they represent placed opposite
:
erroneous lines
outfit.
The
indispensable in the pattern cutter's several pencil manufacturers have put
is
their brands
upon rubber
as well as
upon
pencils,
and
Cap.
13
x 17 Elephant
I
The satisfactory quality can be had from any of them. shape is somewhat a matter of choice, flat cakes being the most used. very soft rubber is not so well
Demy
Medium
Eoyal Super Royal
Imperial
Still
15 x 20 Atlas
23 x 28 21! x 34
17 x 22 Columbier

A
adapted to erasing on detail paper as the harder varieties, but is to be preferred for use in fine drawings on
23 x 35 19 x 24 DoubleElephant. 27 x 40 1!> x 27 31 x 53 Antiquarian 22 x 30iKmpcror 48 x <is
is
good quality paper.
Paper.
another set of terms
used
in
designating French
The
principal paper that the pattern cutter
has anything to do with is or manila detail paper.
known as brown
It
detail paper, can be bought of almost
Different qualities of paper, both as drawing papers. regards thickness, texture and surface, can be had of
any of the
sizes
above named.
Drawing
Tracing
Tunis
//</
.Mni'ri<tk.
29
Paper
and Tracing Cloth.
Tin
pattern
ti
cutter has frequent use for tracing paper, and
article,
good which combines strength, transparency and
is
article comes exclusively in rolls, ranging in width from 18 to '2 inches. There are generally 24 yards to the roll, and prices are made according to the.
suitable surface,
sold both
Tracing paper is correspond to the draw. ing papers above described, and in rolls, to correspond in width to the roll drawing paper. It is usually
in sheets, in
very desirable.
size to
width, or, in other words, according to the superficial Two grades are usually sold, the contents of the roll. lirst being glazed on both sides and suitable onlv for
priced by sheets or single yards
the quire and
by
the
are
to
roll, although single be obtained at retail.
ink work, and the second on but one side, the other being left dull, rendering it suitable for pencil marks.
Upon
general principles, pencil
marks are not
satis
rolls, according to the kinds, contain from 20 to 30 yards. There are various manufacturers of this article, but it is usually sold upon its merits, rather
The
factory
little
upon
cloth,
prepared with
reference to them.
even upon the quality specially It is but a very
than by any brand or trademark. Tracing cloth, or is used in tracing linen, place of tracing paper where This great strength aiid durability are required.
more labor or expense to use ink, and a much more presentable and usable drawing is made. Tracing
paper
pen.
may be used
or satisfactorily with either pencil
CHAPTER
III.
In the production of all great constructive works If a piece the drawing plays a most important part. of machinery, a ship, an aqueduct or a temple is to be
built, verbal
from the observer, or
tion.
rear,
in
any oblique horizontal
direc
may be called front, xide, end or to the relative dimensions of the object, according
elevation
An
descriptions
would be
insufficient direc
tions to the
labor;
workmen who drawings become a
exactly what
is
are to perform the actual
necessity, because a draw
ing
meant, where words would Therefore, to everybody connected with utterly fail. the constructive trades, to artisans in whatever field,
tells
it represents. Any elevation or section gives two sets of dimensions i. e., and horizontal distance, which lie parallel to the hight face which it shows.
one of whose faces
vertical
A
section, as the
word
imlie;ites. is
a
view of a
the ability to read, if not to make, a drawing becomes a necessity; and to those in positions of authority the ability to make a drawing is the power to convey their
ideas to others.
cut or a view of what remains after certain portions have been cnt away for the purpose of showing more
That branch
of
drawing with which
The idea of a verticlearly the interior construction. cal section can best be described by supposing that a wire stretched taut, or any perfectly straight blade,
was passed vertically down through an object at a given distance from one of its ends or sides, indicated by a
the pattern cutter has to deal is of a purely geometrical nature and is properly termed orthographic projection.
The term orthographic (signifying right line) is well applied because it exactly describes the nature of the work, as will be seen further on.
geometrical drawings made use of in representing any constructive work, whether to a large or a viz. small scale, are of three kinds ELEVATIONS,
some other view or views, and the portion not wanted was removed. The view made of the section
line in
The
properly include only the parts cnt, or if made to include or show portions that would naturally appear
may
by the removal
of the parts,
it
:
a sectional elevation.
Sections
would properly be called may also be taken hori
SECTIONS and PLANS.
The term diagram
It
is
sometimes
is
used
in connection
with this class of drawing, but
zontally at any hight above the base or ground line, indicated by a line for that purpose upon one or more
of the elevations.
not of a specific nature.
means a drawing
of the
simplest possible character, usually strate a principle, and may partake of the properties of either of the above named drawings.
made
to
demon
Horizontal sections are properly classed with plans. Vertical sections are known as longitudinal or tranxriw,
An
elevation,
if
the word were judged
to
mon meaning, would be understood
of anything.
vertical
by show the hight
its
com
according as they are taken through the long way of, Elevations or sections may also or across, an object.
be constructed upon oblique planes
when necessary
to
It does this and more. It gives all the and horizontal measurements which appear in An elevation the front, side or end which it represents. the observer to be opposite to and on a level supposes
more
fully
show construction.
Sections of small portions or members drawn to a large scale or full size are called profiles. They are applied to continuous forms, as moldings, jambs, etc., and are drawn for the purpose of showing the peculiarities in
points at the same time, and is therefore an impossible view, according to the rules of pictorial art.
with
all
form of the parts which they represent.
gives
is
Being always drawn
to scale (including full
size),
it
The view which
in
all
the horizontal distances
gives exact dimensions of hight and breadth at any part of the view, but furnishes.no view of horizontal
surfaces and no
whatever direction
called
the plan.
The name
means
of
measuring distances to HIP
I
plan applies equally well* to a horizontal section or to a top view. In the plan, as in sections and elevations,
Drawing.
the observer
is
31
are also
supposed
at
to be opposite to
(i.e.,
di
to the elevation
shown dotted
in the engrav
rectly above) is the same as
all
same time. In idea it points a map, the difference between the two
the
ing.
A
vertical line terminates the elevation of the
mold
at the right or
terms being
In Fig.
in the
amount included
in the view.
absence of such a line at
end nearest the section, while the its left end indicates that it
1<S is given an illustration of the various views of an object, placed in their propel' geometrical relation one to another, showing the lines of projec
It would also extends indefinitely in that direction. be proper, upon that supposition, to finish the eleva
tion at the
left
with
a
broken
line.
upon which the different sections house placed upon a base has been selected as the most suitable object for purposes of It has been shown explanation in the present case.
tion
and the
lines
are taken.
A
Referring now to Fig. I''*, it is most likely that the front elevation would be next drawn after the plan.
'in
diagrammatic form
that
is,
denuded
in
of all cornices,
For this purpose the plan should be so placed upon the board that the part representing the front should be turned toward the bottom of the board, in which
position
it
trimmings or projecting parts
the principles of
possible.
It rests
so as to demonstrate
projection
the
clearest
manner
Place the
appears to be turned toward the observer. "["square so that the blade lies vertically
that
it
is,
upon the board
back
and
with the designer to determine which of the views shall be drawn first, all depending upon the
If a given facts or specifications in his possession. house is to be designed, it is most likely that the plan would be drawn first, as arrangement of rooms and
bringing points of the front side of the plan, draw a line vertically from each, through that portion of space upon
to
crossing it from front to the different angles or
amount
of
ground
to
be covered would be of the
first
If a molding be the subject of the deimportance. the profile would be the view in which to first sign,
The method of adjust the proportion of its parts. the elevation from the section or obtaining deriving
any one view from one or more other views is termed it a system of orthographic projection, because by
parallel lines is
Fig. 1S7.
Elevation Projected
from
Section.
made use
of for the
purpose of obtain
as the case ing the same hight (or width, in the different views, corresponding parts
may
be) in
the paper allotted to the elevation, all as shown by the Thus each point of the elevation comes dotted lines.
it in the plan, directly over the point which represents and the horizontal distance across any part of the new
In this connection
it is
to
be understood that each
is the angle or limit of outline in a sectional view In Fig. 127 is source of a right line in the elevation.
shown, at X, a sectional view or profile of a molding, which should be so drawn that all the faces or surfaces supposed to be vertical shall lie vertically on the
paper; that
board.
is,
elevation thus becomes exactly the same as that of the The question of bights is here a matter of deplan.
sign and is governed by specifications supplemented by the designer's judgment. With the plan and the
front elevation complete the drawing of any other elevations or sections is entirely a matter of projection, as new features might occur in those views
parallel to the sides of
the
this
drawing
To project an elevation, Y, from section, the Tsquare so that the blade lies horizontal place and bring" that is, crossing the board from side to side
the profile, it to the various angles A, The point E, though not drawing a line from each. is the lowest visible point or limit of that an
except
which would not appear
drawn.
If
in either of the views already
B, C, etc., of
an elevation of the right side
is
about to be conto the
angle, member of the
structed, lines
would be projected horizontally
mold when seen from the
in
front,
and
is,
therefore, entitled to representation Tn like manner the point a line.
the elevation
T>,
ject
in the front elevation of the obright from every point which would be visible when seen from the right
side, thus locating all the hights in the
by
being the
new view.
As
representation. upper limit of a curve, is entitled but being so situated as to be invisible when viewed
to
the horizontal distances in this view must agree with distances from front to back on the plan, they may best
lie
from a point
in front of
made
dotted,
The
properly lines of projection from the section
the mold, the line
is
obtained by turning the plan (or so
much
of itas nec
essarv to this view) onequarter around to the right, so
32
The
Sew
Metal
\\~uiker
I'atttni
il<><>k.
Linear Drawing.
tluit
33
is
tlic
side of \vliidi the
new
elevation
is
1<>
lie
drawn
tudinal section
for the
same reason placed
that
is,
it
at
the
left,
will
he toward
at (i
:
the bottom 'or near
side, o[
the lioanl.
of the transverse section
left
is
a view from the
as
after which lines inav lie projected with the Tsquare from the points of the plan into the eleva
shown
tion, intersecting
with corresponding lines, as shown.
The same
the
result
ma\ he accomplished hv projecting
right
shown
lel
plan, as the top view, until thev reach anv line paralPYoin this line tliev may be to the side, as II I.
in
lines to the
from
the
side of the
a quarter circle from any convenient N, arriving at a horizontal line, N M, and thence dropped downward, intersecting as before.
carried
around
when placed in the' position shown hv From the foregoing is to he understood, therefore, that when a view appears to the ri^ht of another it is supposed to show what would be seen when the object is viewed from the right hand end or side of what is shown in the other, the other (or front) view being at the same time a view of the left side of what is shown by the right side elevation.
of the house
the transverse section.
it,
center, as
In this class of drawings various kinds of lines are used, cadi of which possesses a certain significance.
It
will
hand side
the front
left.
of
thus he seen that the elevation of the right anv object comes naturally at the right of
left
elevation, and the
is
side elevation, at
its
The general outlines of the different views should be linn and strong enough to he distinctly visible, without being so broad as to leave any doubt as to the ex
This idea
in
best
illustrated
hv supposing
that
ad dimensions
of
the part
shown when the
all
rule
is
ap
the ohject question he placed in a glass box of the of the top view, and dimensions of the base II I J
K
plied for purposes of measurement. It is not always necessary that
the lines of
that thi' elevation of
cadi side of the object be pro
projection should be shown.
When shown
appear
as the finest possible
they may continuous lines,
or as dotted lines such as are
shown
in Figs.
Lines used in carrying 127, 128 and 129. points from a profile to a miter line, or from
lines of projection,
one line to another for any purpose, are rea v and for the pattern drafts1 1
man's purposes it may be said that the liner they are drawn the greater the accuracy obtained (see Chapter II under the head of Lead
LONGITUDINAL SECTION ON CD
Fig. 129.
TRANSVERSE SECTION ON
AB
Pencils).
Vertical Sections Derived
from
Fig. 128.
Dotted lines are also used to represent that is, back portions which are out of sight
of or underneath the other parts
jected
right
upon the adjacent
parallel
side of the
box
at
which constitute the
it
angles to the same, and that afterward all the sides (supposing them to be hinged at the corners) be
view under consideration, but which
show,
as,
is
necessary to
opened out into one plane, as shown by K L, II O and O 1' (the top face of the box being opened upward), thus displaying all the views in one plane as represented by Fig. 12S.
for instance, a portion of the chimnev in longitudinal section Fig. 129 and, points 1) and F in
the profile of the
mold
in Fig.
127.
to
This idea should not be carried so
the bottom
face
of the
far as to
open
show a change of position or an alternate position of some part, as, for L show that the side K example, the lines L K and
Dotted lines are also used
.J
.1
would produce a never done except
or
sollit.
box downward, because this as seen from below, which is plan
in
of the top view has been swung until it occupies the position
around on the point
K
shown by L K,
its
ex
when
it
the case of a design of a ceiling should be spoken of as an inverted
When it is necestremity J traversing the line J L. sary to use two kinds of dotted lines, those used for
one purpose
the others
Lilies
plan.
In Fig. 129 the transverse section is shown at the the view in right of the longitudinal section, because of the arrow in is from the right, or in the direction it
the longitudinal section,
if
may be made may be made a
in line
or short dots, while
series of short dashes.
showing the part
of a view
a
section
is
taken are composed of
series of dots
through which a. and
Fig. 12S,
showing what would he seen two on the line A B of the and the right hand portion removed. The longiplan
the house were cut
in
dashes, as
shown by
A
B,
is
(.'
1>,
etc., in
and
required may be made by two dots alternating with a short or long dash.
further distinction
when
34
The
Xcw
Metal
UW/yr
I \Mvrn
Book.
When
it is
desirable to omit the drawing of a con
necessary to indicate that some part of
it is
recessed or
siderable portion of any view it is customary to terminate the incomplete side of such view by an irregular in Fig. 128. line, as shown above the plan
raised, or that a certain edg'e is molded or chamfered, when it would not be necessary to construct an entire
G
sectional view for this purpose alo;ie.
is
To
this
end
it
views for the parts customary which are represented as being cut to be ruled or lined with lines running in an oblique direction, as in Fig.
It is
in all sectional
draw through such mold, chamfer or customary recess a small section, in which case, if tin depression
to
or
mold runs horizontally, the section
to
is
turned
i<>
the.
129.
When
the section
comprises several different,
pieces lying adjacent to one another, each different This rulpart should be lined in a different direction.
convenience, <>r if it runs left, according it is turned in the direction the mold runs. obliquely,
right or
In Fig. 129 the ing is understood to mean solidity. walls and base in the different sections are represented
as
plane surface also shows the direction of the cut across the
In
such a section the line which represents
or line
the.
mold
in
though made
of
some
solid
material, as
it
wood or
necessary
i:;n is
upon which the shown an elevation of
a
section
a
is
taken.
In Fig.
portion of a pediment,
G,
is
stone,
and ruled accordingly.
Where
is
which
small section,
A B
introduced to show
line
to represent different kinds of material in the same section, different systems or kinds of lines may be used
the profiles of the moldings.
The
B
C, which
for the purpose.
Thus
solid
and dotted
lines
may be
used alternately, as in the base. Coarse and fine ruling, or stippling, may also be employed, according to the size of the part, or very small parts may be shown
solid black, as
window weights, piping or hinges. A heavy line is the only way that a thickness of metal can properly be shown in a section. In the case of a
molding where nothing customary to make use of section lines close to the metal surface, but not to extend them clear across the space which should be filled if the moldings were of stone or other solid material. By this means a section may be distinguished
but the sheet iron appears,
it is
sectional view of a cornice or
from what might otherwise be taken for an elevation
of a return.
architect color
In the case of elaborate drawings prepared by an is frequently resorted to as a means of
different materials as they appear in the
Fig. ISO,
showing the
sectional
Elevation with Section of Parts.
view, yellow or differing shades of brown used for various kinds of wood, while blue is being generally used for iron, gray for stone, red for brick,
etc.
represents the profile of the stile around the panel, shows the line upon which, or the direction in which,
materials
In the case of drawings showing many different it is usual to place a legend in one corner of
the section
is
taken, said section being turned upon
the drawing showing what each color or style of ruling
indicates.
It is always advisable to keep the different views, which it is necessary to construct, separate and distinct from one another, drawing them as near together as circumstances will permit, but never allowing one view to cover any part of the space upon the
It is necessary to rule this line obliquely to the left. or line this section, the ruling being kept close to and
inside the outline or profile.
By
placing the ruling in
side the profile no doubt can exist as to are raised and which are depressed, for
which parts
if
at
D
the
ruling were upon shown the section
the other side of the line
from that
D
would indicate a depressed panel
instead of a raised one.
paper occupied by the other view if One notable exception to this rule
It frequently
it is
can be avoided.
to
be observed.
In the solution of the class of problems treated (Miter Cutting), confusion in Chapter VI, Section
1
surface, as a
occurs in drawing an elevation of a large pediment or side of a bracket, that it is
often arises in the
mind
of the pattern cutter as to the
proper position of a profile or of a miter line,
which
Linear
Drawing,
35
confusion could never occur
if all
were
lirst
drawn
In
accordance
with
the necessary views the principles
although simply u straight line, is properly derived from the elevation or plan used, the same as all points
which
file is
is written to explain. proa section, and a miter line is either a part always of an elevation projected from the section or part of
this chapter
A
and other
lines of the pattern.
Much
knowledge
trouble
is
experienced
through
lack of
another section bearing certain relations of hight or breadth to the first. pattern is likewise always prothat is, carried off by right lines from an jected
A
Drawing, which if thoroughly understood could never result in such mistakes as producing a face miter where a return
of the principles of Linear
elevation or plan the same as an elevation
is
projected
from
a
Jt
section.
was intended or using the piece of metal from the wrong side of the miter cut. Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the importance of thoroughly understanding the subject treated
in this chapter,
should also be remembered in this connection
that the operation of developing a pattern is not completed until its entire outline is drawn. The line form
as such
a
knowledge comprehends
within
itself
an answer to the
many questions continually
ing
its
termination at the end opposite the miter cut,
arising in the course of the pattern draftsman's labors.
CHAPTER
IV.
In presenting this chapter to the student no attempt has been made to give a complete list of ^cometrical problems, but all those have been selected which can be of any assistance to the pattern drafts
the other shall be in a direction oblique to the lines to be drawn, as greater accuracy is attainable in this
way.
man, and especial attention has been given in their solution to those methods most adaptable to his wants.
To Erect a Perpendicular at a Given Point in a Straight Line by Means of the Compasses and Straight3.
Edge.
In
Fig.
133, let
A B
represent
the
given
They are arranged' as far as possible in logical order and are classified under various subheads in such a
manner that the reader will have no difficulty in finding what he wishes by simply looking through the pages,
the diagrams given with each being sufficient to indicate the nature of the problem and, as it were, form a
sort of index.
straight line, at
the point
erect a perpendicular. convenient radius strike small
C in which it is required to From C as a center with any
arcs cutting
A
B, as
shown
\)y
D
and B.
With D and B
as centers, and
with any radius longer than the distance from each of
these points to C, strike arcs, as shown by x.rand // //. From the point at which these ares intersect, E, draw a
line to the point C, as
and
To Draw a Straight Line Parallel to a Given Line a Given Distance from it, Using the Compasses and StraightEdge. In Fig. 131, let C D be the given line
1.
shown.
Then E C
at or
will
be per
at
pendicular to
4.
A
B.
parallel to
desired to draw another straight and B, in the given Take any two points, as line. line as centers, and, with a radius equal to the given
which
it is
To Erect a Perpendicular a Given Straight Line by Means
StraightEdge.
First Method.
near the End of
A
Compasses and In Fig. 134, let A B be
of the
Draw a line, distance, describe the arcs x x and y y. Then E F will these arcs, as shown at E F. touching
be parallel to C D. 2. To Draw a Line Parallel
Triangles or SetSquares.
line parallel to
to
the given straight line, to which, at the point P, situated near the end, it is required to erect a perpendicB. Take any point (C) outside of the line ular.
A
Another by the Use of
which
it
B be the In Fig. 132, let is desired to draw another.
1
A
and with a radius equal to thr distance from C to P, strike the arc, as shown, cutting the
as center,
With C
B in the point P, continuing it till it also given line From E, through the cuts in another point, as at E.
center, C.
at F.
A
Place one side of a triangle or setsquare, F against While holding it, as indicated by the dotted lines. F firmly in this position, bring a second triangle, or any
,
1
draw the
Then from
line E F, cutting the arc, as shown the point F, thus determined, draw
straightedge, E, against out of
1
its
other sides, as shown.
a line to P, as shown. B. to
The
line
F P
is
perpendic nlar
A
Then, holding the second triangle firmly in place, slide the first away from the given line, keeping the edges
of the
two
triangles in contact, as
shown
in the figure.
5. To Erect a Perpendicular at or near the End of a Given Straight Line by Means of the Compasses and StraightEdge. Second Method. In Fig. 135, let B
A
Against the
same edge
of the
first
placed against the given line draw Then C 1) will be parallel to 1). shown by
In
triangle that was a second line, as
be the given straight
line, to which, at the point P,
it is
A
B.
From the point 1', required to erect a perpendicular. witli a radius equal to three parts, by any scale, describe an arc, as indicated
point, with a radius equal
drawing
parallel
to
lines
by
this
method
it
is
found
by
./
,r.
From
the
same
longest edges of the triadvantageous cadi other, and to so place the two inangles against struments that the movement of one triangle against
place the
to four parts, cut
the line
the point 0, witli a radius equal to live parts, intersect the arc first drawn by the
in the
B
A
point C.
From
Geometrical
Problems.
87
line
arc y
1)
?/.
P.
6.
From the point of intersection T) draw the line Then I) P will l.e perpendicular to H A. To Draw a Line Perpendicular to Another Line
1
sides of the given
A
B.
A
line
drawn through
these points of intersection, as shown by G H, will liiseet the line A 15. or, in other words, divide it into
by the Use of Triangles or Set Squares. In Fig. .">;. let (' I) be the given line, to which it is perpendicular Place one side of a required to draw another line.
triangle. R, against the given line, as shown. Rring another triangle, A, or any straight edge, against tinlong side or hypothenuse of the triangle R, as shown.
two equal parts. 8. To Divide a Straight Line into Two Equal Parts by the Use of a Pair of Dividers. In Fig. 13S, it is required to divide the line
to lind its
A R
into
two equal
parts, or
Then move
triangle
the triangle
as indicated
R
along the straight edge or
lines, until
A,
hv the dotted
(!
the
middle point. Open the dividers to as near half of the given line as possible by the Place eye. one point, of the dividers on one end of the line, as at A. Rring the other point of the dividers to the line,
as
at
opposite side of
R
crosses the line
1)
at the required
C, and
turn
on this point, carrying the
first
/',;/.
;?/
allel to
d'ifeti
j>ttfsr,es
To Draw a Straight Line Para Given Straight Line, and at a Distance from it, Using the, Comand a StraightEdge.
Fig.
To Draw a Line Parallel to 1.12. Another by the Use of Triangles or
Fig. 1S3
a
To Erect a Perpendicular at Given Point in a Straight Line,
the.
Set Squares.
Using Edgt.
Compasses and Straight
\
D/
^~
<
9
x
X
P
1 Parts
C
Fig. 1X6.
'iy.
To Erect a perpendicular at or near the End of a Given Straight Line, Using the
1;'4
To Erect a Perpendicular Fig. ISS. at or near the End of a Given
Straight Line.
To Draw a Line Perpendicular to Another by the Use of
Triangles.
Second Method.
Compassi x anil StraightEdge. First Method.
point.
When
is
against
to
it,
draw the
to
line
E
F, as shown.
Then K F
this rule
perpendicular
C D.
It is
evident that
around to D. Should the point D coincide with the other end of the line, the division will be correct.
I) fall within (or without) the divide this deficit (or excess) into two line, equal parts, as nearly as is possible by the eye, and extend (or contract) the opening of the dividers to this
is
adapted
point in the given line, the end.
Its use will
drawing perpendiculars at anv whether central or located near be found (specially convenient
Rut should the point
end of the
for erecting perpendiculars to lines to the sides of the drawing board.
7.
which run oblique
To Divide a Given Straight Line into Two Equal with the Compasses, by Means of Arcs. In Fig. 137, Parts,
let it
Thus, finding point and apply them again as at first. that the point D still falls within the end of the line, the
first
division
is
be required to divide the straight line A R into two equal parts. From the extremes A and R as centers, and with any radius greater than onehalf of R, describe
the deficit
I)
Therefore, divide evidently too short. R by the eye, as shown by E, and in
A
crease the space of the dividers to the of D E. Then, commencing again at
before,
amount
of
one
A,
the.
arcs
rf/and a
e,
intersecting each other on opposite
and finding that upon
turning
step off as the dividers
38
'Hie
New
Worker PnW'rn
Honk.
upon the point F the other point coincides with the end of the line B, F is found to be the middle point in In some cases it may be necessary to repeat the line.
this operation several times before the exact center is
obtained.
9. To Divide a Straight Line into Two Equal Parts by the Use of a Triangle or Set Square. In Fig. 139, let B be a given straight line. Place a Jsquare
A
/
Geometrical
I 'ml, I nun.
3'J
paper, rind by laving the paper across a scale, as shown in Fig. 141, mark the required dimensions upon it,
a straight
strip of
line
paper, as before.
2
the
as
first
and carry B
against
PlacJ A' against the fifteenth line,
divide the line
and afterward transfer them to a given line, than to itself by one of the methods explained
is
shown.
Then mark
divisions upon the edtre of the
for that purpose. It mav also occur that it to divide lines of different lengths into the
different
desirable
paper opposite each line of the scale, as shown. 12. To Divide a Given Angle into Two Equal Parts.
In
same num
Fig. 142, let
A
B
represent any angle which
it is
ber of equal parts, or the same lengths of lines into
numbers of equal parts. Such a scale as is shown in Fig. 141 is adapted to all of these purposes. The scale may be ruled upon a piece of paper or upon a sheet of metal, as is preferred. The lines may be all of one color, or two or more colors may be alternated.
them by the eye
in order to facilitate counting the lines or following In size, the scale across the sheet.
should be adapted to the special purposes for which it is intended to be used. By the contrast of two colors
Fig. US.
To Bisect a Given Angle.
From the vertex, or point C, as required to bisect. center, with any convenient raditis, strike the arc D E, From 1) and E as cutting the two sides of the angle.
centers,
with any radius
greater
than
onehalf
the
length of the arc
D
E, strike short arcs intersecting at
G, as shown. Through the point of intersection, G, draw a line to the vertex of the angle, as shown by
F
C.
Then F C
13.
will divide the angle into
two equal
parts.
To Trisect an Angle.
of solving this
No
strictly geometrical
method
Fig. HI.
To Divide a Straight Lin* into Any Number of Equal Parts by Means of a Scale.
problem has ever been discovThe following method, partly geometrical and ered. partly mechanical, is, however, perfectly accurate and can be used to advantage whenever it becomes necessary to find an exact onethird or twothirds of an
angle
:
in ruling the lines,
one scale
may be
adapted to both
if
coarse and fine work.
For instance,
Let
the lines are
ABC,
Fig.
143, be the angle of which
it is
ruled a quarter of an inch apart, in colors alternating red and blue, in fine work all the lines in a given space
may be
red or
mensions are not required
all
used, while in large work, in which the dito be so small, either all the
the blue lines
may be
used, to the exclusion
it
of those of the other color.
Let
be required to
1
di
B in Fig. 141 into thirty equal parts. vide the line B to one edge of a slip of paper, Transfer the length
A
A
Fig. 143.
To Trisect a Given Angle.
as
shown by
A B
1
1
,
and placing
A
1
against the
first line
Then mark of the scale, carry B' to the thirtieth line. the edge of the strip of paper opposite divisions upon
each of the several lines
it
Extend one of its sides required to find onethird. the vertex indefinitely, as shown by B E, and beyond
upon
this line
crosses, as
shown.
Let
it
from
B
as center with
be required to divide the same length A B into fifteen B to Transfer the length equal parts by the scale.
any convenient
radius describe a semicircle
of the angle.
A
cutting both sides Place a straight edge firmly against the
A
C D,
40
Tlie
Xew
Metal
Worker
Tiook.
On extended side as at F, and a pin at the point C. another straight edge (Ci) having a perfect corner at K, set oil' from one end a distance equal to the radius of the semicircle as shown by point x\ and placing
this straight edge,
15. To Find the Center from which a Given Arc is Struck by the Use of the Square. In Kig. u.v, let A B G be the given arc. Kstablisli the point B at pleas nre and draw two chords, as shown l>v A 15 and B C.
was
set
oil',
with the end upon which the radius against the other straight edge (F) and its
Misect these chords, obtaining the points E and D. Place the square against the chord 15 C, as shown in
edge near the other end, against the pin at the point C, all as shown, slide it along until the mark x comes to
the semicircle establishing the point 1). Draw the line I) B, then the D E B will be onethird of the angle
the engraving, bringing the heel against, the midd:point, D, and scribe along the Made
indefinitely.
Then
with
place the square, as shown by the dotted lines, the heid against the middle point, E, of the
in
angle
is
ABC,
and C D B
will be twothirds of
it.
second chord, and
blade, cutting the
like
manner
in
scribe along the
14.
To Find the Center from which a Given Arc
In Fig.
Struck.
U4,
let
A
B C
represent the given
the point F. ThenF' will be the center of the circle, of which tue are 15 C
first line
A
Fig.
To Find the Center 144. from which a Given Arc is
Struck.
Fig. 146
The Chord and Right of a Segment of a Circle Being Given, to find the Center from
which
the
Arc may
be Struck.
was struck being unknown and to be found. From any point near the middle of the arc, as B, with any convenient radius,
are,,
the center from which
it
Fig. 145.
To Find the Center from which a Given Are.
Struck, by the Use of the Square.
is
strike the arc
F G,
as
shown.
Then from
the points
is
and C, with the same radius, strike the intersecting arcs I II and E D. Through the points of intersection draw the lines K M and L M, which will meet in M. Then M is the center from which the given arc was struck.
taken at
A
a part.
all
This rule
will
use in
cases where the radius
be found very convenient for is less than 24 inches
of
in length.
and C being points the arc, which would be the extremities of
Instead of
the
A
16.
The Chord and Right
In Fig.
being Given, to
a Segment of a Circle Find the Center from which the Arc
14C.,
quite inconvenient in the case of a long arc, these, points may be located in any part of the arc which is
most, convenient.
may be
Struck.
let
A B
chord of a segment or arc of a
or hight.
Tt,
circle,
and
represent the 1) C the rise
A
and
B and
15
greater the distance between and C, the greater will be the accu
The
of this rule
The essential feature racv of succeeding operations. is to strike an arc from the middle one of
required to find a center from which if struck, will an arc, pass through the three points D and B D. Bisect A D, as A, D and B. Draw
is
A
the points, and then strike; intersecting ares from the other two points, using tiie same radius. It is not
shown, and prolong the line 11 L indefinitely. Bisect D B and prolong I M until it cuts II L, produced in
necessary that the distance from to C shall be exact! v the same.
A
to
B
and from
15
Then E, the point of intersection, will the point E. It will be observed that be the center sought. by and intersecting it by either L or producing DC,
H
41
I
M
prolonged, the same point
is
found.
Therefore,
18.
preferred, ihr bisecting of either A Dm 1.) 15 ma\ he dispensed with. A practical application of this
if
Points not in a Straight Line.
To Draw a Circle Through any Three Given In Kig. im, let A. Hand
not
in
a
K
lie
any three given points
it.
straight
Hue,
rule occurs quite frequently construction of window c:ips
to
lit
frames already made. ders from the master builder or carpenter to the cornice worker, it is quite customar\ to describe the shape of the head of the frames which the caps are to lit by
stating that the width is, for example. :;tl inches, and that the rise is 4 inches. To draw the shape thus deSet oil' A 1> equal to scribed, proceed as follows:
:'>('>
cornice work, in the and other similar forum, In the conveying of orin
through 'which
is
required to draw a circle.
Con
nect the given points by K. Bisect the line 1)
to
it,
as
shown.
drawing the lines A I) and 1) by F C, drawn perpendicular Also bisect D K by the line (! C, as
A
shown.
is
Then
the point C, at which these lines meet,
the center of the required circle. 19. To Erect a Perpendicular to an Arc of a Circle, without having Recourse to the Center. In Fig. 15o, let
A D B
be the arc of a circle to which
it is
inches, from the center of which erect a perpendicular, D C, which make equal to 4 inches. Continue D C in the direction of K indeiinitely. Draw A 1), which bisect, as shown, and draw 11 L, producing it until
erect a perpendicular.
With
A
as center,
required to and with
it
any radius greater than half the length of the given arc, describe the arc x x, and with B as center, and with the same radius, describe the arc y y, intersecting
the point E. Then with prolonged, center and K ]) as radius, strike the arc D B.
cuts
DC
17.
in
E
as
A
To Strike an Arc of a Circle by a Triangular Guide, the Chord and Hight Being Given. In Fig. 147, let
Fig. 14?.
To Strike an Arc of a
Circle by
a Triangular
B F the given hight. The determine the shape and size of the tristep and F, as shown. Connect From angular guide.
the given chord and
is
A D be
iirst
to
Fig. IfS.
A
To Describe a Semicircle with a Steel Square.
F, parallel to the given chord A D, it in length equal to F, or longer.
draw F
(1,
A
Then
A
making F (!. as
the arc
first
struck, as shown.
intersection
draw the
line
F
E.
Through the points of Then F E will be
shown
guide
the
in
the engraving,
to
be used.
is the angle of the triangular Construct the guide of any suitable
its
perpendicular to the arc, and if sufficiently produced will reach the center from which the arc B is drawn.
A
material,
making angle A F G.
the angle of two of
sides equal to
20. To
Draw a Tangent
to a Circle or
Arc
of
a
D.
Place the guide
will
Drive pins at the points A, F and as shown. Put a pencil at the
point F.
Shift the guide in such a
manner
that the
all
Circle at a given Point without having Recourse to the Center. In Fig. 151, let D B be the arc of a circle, to which a tangent is to be drawn at the point D.
A
pend!
move toward A, keeping
the Lruide at
With
points
D
as
center, and, with
any convenient radius,
and F. Then reversing, shift times against the pins so that the pencil at the point F will move the guide toward I), keeping the guide during this operation
atrainst the pins
A
describe the arc
A
A
F and
D.
By
this
means the pencil
Through shown by
will be
made
to describe the arc
A
F
D.
It
may
be
B, as parallel to be the required tangent. 21. To Ascertain the Circumference of a Given Circle.
1
and B. D draw
I ]
B, cutting the given arc in the Join the points and B, as shown.
F
A
a straight
line
A
II,
then
E
II
will
interesting to
lar
it
know that if made a right guide be
be a semicircle.
the angle F of the trianguangle, the .arc described by
In Fig. 152,
line.
let
ADB
tw:>
1)
C be
the circle, eqaal to the
circumference of
which
will
By
these means, then, a steel
circles, as
Draw any
required to draw a straight diameters at right angles, as
it is
square may in Fig. 148, the pins being placed at
be used
in
drawing
illustrated
shown by
A
B and
C.
Divide one of the four
ai'cs,
A, B and
C.
as, for instance,
D
1!.
into eleven equal parts, as
shown.
The
I'Yom
P>.
New
Mi'tal
MV/'vy
l\iU<,n
Hook.
!',
tlie
a.
second of these divisions from the point
perpendicular
!)
dividers arc placed
shall exist
let
fall
to
A
1>,
as
shown
l>y
''
I''.
upon the line, no perceptible curve between them, and, beginning at one end
the same, or so
tliat
To
three times the diameter of the circle
F,
(A
a
J5
or
DC)
of the curve, step to the oilier end of
very c.h>se to the length of the circumference. This approximation diameter of 1 foot, gives a length of about rule, upon
will
;\.
add the length
and the result
he
the remaining space shall be less than that between the points of the dividers, then beginning
at the end of
near the end
T T ths of an inch in excess of the actual length of the
3
circumference.
22. To Draw a Straight Line Equal in Length to the Circumference of any Circle or of any Part of a Circle 
any straight line step oil' upon it the same which add to them the remaining small space of the curve hv measurement with the This will be found the quickest and most dividers.
number
of spaces, after
accurate of any method for the pattern cutters' use.
Fig. 149,
To
Draw a
Circle
Through
in
Fig. 150.
any Three Given Points Not
Straight Line.
a
To Erect a Perpendicular an Arc of a Circle.
to
Fig. 151.
To Draw a Tangent
or Arc.
to
a
Circle
./ft
Fig. IBS.
To Ascertain the Circumfer
Fig. 15S.
ence of a Given Circle.
To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given Circle.
Fig. 154.
To Inscribe a Square ivithin a Given Circle.
Various approximate rules, similar to the one given in the problem above, for performing these operations are known and sometimes used among workmen, but cannot be recommended here because in using them considerable time and trouble is required to obtain a result
The most common
tion of
rules in use for the construc
polygons, whether drawn within circles or erected upon given sides, are those which einplov the Other instruments straightedge and compasses only.
may
which is not accurate when obtained, thus rendering such methods impracticable. The simplest and most accurate method for obtaining the length of any curved line is as follows Take between the points of the
:
also be employed to great advantage, as will be shown further on, leaving the student to decide which method is the most suited to any case he may have in
hand.
dividers a space so small that
when
the points of the
Accordingly, the construction of polygons will be treated under three different heads arranged according to the tools employed.
I
I!
THE CONSTRUCTION OF REGULAR POLYGONS.
I
BY THE USE OF COMPASSES AND STRAIGHTEDGE.
23. To Inscribe
Circle.
In
Fig.
i:.i;,
let
ABDK
is
F G
be any given
circle within
which
a
hexagon
to
be drawn.
From
A,
Given
Circle.
an Equilateral Triangle within a In Fig. Ij;;, let B D be any given
any
point in the
circumference of the
circle, as at
A
circle within
dr:iwn.
which an equilateral triangle is From any point in the circumference,
to
be
with a radius equal to the radius of the circle, describe the arc C B, cutting the circumference of the
circle in the point B.
as K,
with a radius equal to the radius of the circle, describe the arc D C B, cutting the given circle in iho points Draw the line D B, which will be one side 1) and B.
of
Then
AB
will
Connect the points A and B. be one side of the hexagon. With the
dividers set to the distance
A B,
A
step off in the cir
cumference of the
1)
circle the points
lines
(I
G, F,
the required triangle.
1)
From D
Draw
or
B
as center, and
with
B
as radius, cut the circumference of the
given
cirele, as
shown
at
A.
A
B and
A
D, which
G, F, B, thus completing the figure. By inspection of this ligure it will be noticed that the radius of a circle
is equal to one side of the regular hexagon which may be inscribed within it. Therefore set the dividers to
Draw the connecting
E and D. F E, E D and
will
complete the iignre. 24. To Inscribe a Square within a Given Circle.
In Fig. 154, let
A
C B
to
1)
bo any given circle within
which
it is
required
draw a square.
Draw any two
the radius of a circle and step around the circumference, connecting the points thus obtained.
Fig. 155
To Inscribe a Regular Pentagon within a Given Circle.
Fig.
15fi.To Inscribe a Regular Hexagon within a Given Circle.
Fig. 157.
To Inscribe a Regular Heptagon \uithin a Given Circle.
diameters at right angles with each other, as C D and and Join the points C B, B D, D C, which B.
2f.
Circle.
A
A
A
To Inscribe a Regular Heptagon within a Given In Fig. 157, let F A G B II I K L D be the
will complete the required figure. 25. To Inscribe a Regular Pentagon within a Given
Circle.
given
circle.
From any
point,
A,
in the circumfer
In Fig. loo,
it is
ADB
G
represents a circle in
which
any two A B and
D
Draw required to draw a regular pentagon. diameters at right angles to each other, as Bisect the radius C. II, as shown at E.
ence, with a radius equal to the radius of the circle, describe the arc cutting the circumference of the circle in the points B and D. Draw the chord B D.
BCD,
B
Bisect the chord
center,
D, as shown at E.
With
D D
as
A
With E
as center
and
E D
as radius strike the arc
D
F, and with the chord
strike the arc
D
F
as radius,
from
D as
center,
as radius, strike the arc E F, the circumference in the point F. Draw cutting F, which will be one side of the heptagon. With the
and with
D E
cutting the circumference of the Draw D G, which will G. given circle at the point With the one side of the required figure. equal to D G, step off the spaces in the dividers set equal circumference of the circle, as shown by the points
F G,
dividers set to the distance
F, set off in the circumference of the circle the points G II I and L, and draw the connecting lines F G, L II, II I, I K,
D
K
G
K
and L D, thus completing the figure. 28. To Inscribe a Regular Octagon within a Given
Circle.
I
K
and L.
Draw D
I,
I
K,
KL
and
L
G, thus com
In Fig.
158,
let
B
I
D FAGE
is
II
be the
pleting the figure. 26. To Inscribe a Regular Hexagon within a Given
given
circle within
which an octagon
to
be drawn.
Draw any two diameters
at right angles to each other,
44
as
15
The
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
Circle.
in
A
ami
13
1)
E.
Draw
the chords
D A
II.
and
Bisect
A,
as
shown, and draw
L
Bisect
A E. A K
In Fig. 101, let
regular
B D
A
L
which a
iignre
of
eleven
as
J>
ho any given circle sides is to be
and draw
K
1.
Then connect
llie
circumference thus obtained
I
liv
several points in the drawing the lines I) I,
drawn.
Draw any diameler,
E, G, A, complete the figure. 29. To Inscribe a Regular Nonagon within a Given
11,
B
II, II
K
G
A
F and F
D, which will
D G, at right angles to thus obtaining the point E. From E as center, and with K D as radius, describe the arc D F, cutting P> A
radius, as
in the point F.
A. and draw a B A. Bisect C A,
Circle.
!
n Fig. l.V., let
MK
F E
l>e
the given circle.
Draw nnv two
(}
to^ach other, as 1> From A as and draw the chord B A. C, to onehalf the chord center, and with a radius equal
radii at right angles
and
A
With D as center, and 1) F as radius, describe the arc F G, cutting the circumference in the Draw the chord G D and bisect it, as shown point. G. II C, thus obtaining the From D as by point K.
as radius, cut the circumference center, and with in the point I. Draw I D. Then I will be equal to one side of the required figure. Set the dividers to this space and step off the points in the circumference,
D K
A
D, strike the arc D E, cutting the B, as shown l>y Draw E, circumference of the circle at the point E. which will he one side of the nonagon. Set the di
A
D
A
viders to the distance
II,
as
K, G, I, F shown, thus completing the
and step off the points M, and L, and draw the connecting lines,
figure.
AE
as
shown by N, E,
S,
M, P, L, 0, T and V, and draw
the connecting chords, as shown, thus completing the
figure.
8
M
Fig.
1~>8.
To Inscribe a Regular Octagon within a Oinn Circle.
Fig. 159.
To Inscribe a Regular Nunagon within a Given Circle.
Fig.
160.
To Inscribe a Regular Decagon within a Given Circle.
30. To Inscribe a Regular Decagon within a Given
Circle.
in
32. To Inscribe a Regular Dodecagon within a Given
Circle.
In Fig. 100, let
DBE
to
which a decagon is diameters through the
other,
as
be any given circle be drawn. Draw any two
each
C, as
A
D
In Fig. 102, let
M
is
F
A
I
be any given
circle
in
which a dodecagon
to
be drawn.
From anv
circle at right angles to
shown by B
A
and
E.
Bisect
B
point in the circumference, as A. with a radius equal to the radius of the circle, describe the arc C B, cutting
shown
at^F,
and draw F D.
the chord
With F
as center,
and
the
circumference
P>,
in
the
point
B.
Draw
the
line
F D
and
as radius, describe the are
D
point G.
Draw
D
in the G, cutting B G. "With D as center,
A
chord
A
which bisect as shown, and draw the
D G
as radius, strike the are
G
II,
cutting the
cir
cumference in the point II. Connect D and ]I, as Bisect D II and draw the line C It, cutting shown.
the circumference in the point
I.
Draw C, cutting the circumference in the point D. which will then be one side of the given figure. D, With the dividers set to this space step off in the cir
A
Draw
the lines II I
cumference the points B, I, X, II, M, G, L, F, K and F, and draw the several chords, as shown, thus completing the Iignre.
33. General Rule for Inscribing
in
and
D, which will then be two sides of the required Set the dividers to the distance II and space figure.
I
I
oil'
the circumference of the circle, as shown, and draw
a Given Circle.
Through
the given circle
the connecting lines
NO
D K, M, L, L P, P E, E N, thus completing the ligniv. II, 31. To Inscribe a Regular Undecagon within a Given
and.
K
M
any Regular Polygon draw any
diameter.
radius.
O
At right angles to this diameter draw a Divide that radius into four equal parts, ami
outside the circle to a distance equal to three
prolong
it
< i,
nun triful
Problt in*.
45
of those parts.
Divide the diameter of the circle into
the same,
number of equal parts as the polygon is to have sides. Then mm lie end of the radius prolonged,
1 1
outside ihe circle to the extent, of three of those' parts, From as sho\vn 1^\ abe, thus obtaining the point
<:.
as
above described, through the second division
a line in
in
the
in the diameter, draw r, through the second division the line c II, cutting tlie circumference in the point
II.
diameter, draw
neet
this
point,
Concutting the ci renni ferenee. the circumference and the nearest
Connect
the
11
II
and K.
Then
JI
K
will
be one side
of
required ligure.
Set the dividers to the dis
end of the diameter.
side of
The
line thus
drawn
will lie
one
the required
oil
ligure.
Set
the dividers to this
eirclo
space and step
on the circumference of the
step oil the circumference, as shown, ihe points for the other sides, and drw thus obtaining the connecting arcs, all us illustrated in the ligurc.
tance
Hand
f,V,
To Iiixciibe a. Regular Un161. decagnn within a Given Circle.
Fig. 162.
To Inscribe a Regular Dodecagon within a Given Circle.
Fig. ItiJ.To Inscribe
a Regular Undecagun within a Given Circle by Ihe
General Rule.
Q
Fig.
M./. Ujiun a (liom Side lo Construct an Equilateral Tri
Fig. Via.
(liren.
To Construct a Triangle, Ihe Length of the Three Sides being
Fig.
166.
I 'pan
a
Givm
Side
to
draw
n
Regular Pentagon,
angle.
the remaining
number
of sides
and draw connecting
35.
Upon a Given Side
In Fig.
lf.4, let
to Construct
lines, which will complete the ligurc. 34. To Inscribe a Regular Polygon of Eleven Sides the General Rule. (Undecagon) within a Given Circle by
Triangle.
AB
an Equilateral represent the length
as
of the given side.
Through
the given circle,
E
as
I)
F
G
in Fig.
13,
have
draw any diameter, as K same number of equal parts
sides, as
to the
K. which divide into the
the dividers, and placing one foot upon the point C, describe the are K F. Then from D as center, with the same
equal to
A
B.
Draw any line, Take the length A
C
in
D, making
it
B
the ligurc
is
to
radius, describe the are
in
(i
II,
intersecting the
first
arc
shown by
diameter just
At right, angles the small figures. drawn draw the radius D K, which
Prolong the radius
the point K. Draw C and will be the required triangle.
K
K
D.
Then C D K
divide into four equal parts.
D K
36. To Construct a Triangle, the Length of the Three
Tlte
Xew
Metal
\\~orker Patlf.
i
Sides being Given.
In Fig. 165, let
A
B.
c D and K
ami
L.
of
the circle, obtaining the points
M
be the given sides from which it is required to conDraw any straight line, G II, makstruct a triangle.
F
Draw
A
let
M,
M
B
L and L
D, which
will
com
Take ing it in length equal to one of the sides, E F. in the the length of one of the other sides, as B, compasses, and from one end of the line just drawn, as G, for center describe an arc, as indicated by L
plete the figure. 38. Upon a Given Side to
A
In Fig. 167,
a regular
A
is
hexagon
Draw a Regular Hexagon. be the given side upon which to be erected. as center, From
A
and with
AB
as radius, describe
the arc
B
C.
From
M.
side,
first
Then set the compasses to the length C 1), and from the opposite end of
of
third
B
as center,
and with the same radius, describe the
the line
drawn, H, describe a second arc, as I K, intersectConnect G and H. ing the first in the point 0. G II will be the required triangle. Then
37.
arc C C, intersecting the first arc in the point C. will then be the center of the circle which will cir
A
Upon a Given Side
let
to
Draw
a Regular Pentagon.
represent the given side upon which a regular pentagon is to be constructed. With B as center and B as radius, draw the semicircle
In Fig. 166,
AB
A
cumscribe the required hexagon. With C as cent IT. and C B as radius, strike the circle, as shown. Set the dividers to the space A B and step off the circumference, as shown, obtaining the points E, G, F and D. Draw the chords A E, E G, G F, F D and D B, thus
completing the required figure.
Fig. 167.
Upon a (liven Side a Regular Hexagon.
to
Draw
Fig.
16$.l'pon a Giivji Side a lieyular Heptagon.
to
Draw
Fig.
KO.Upon
a Given Side
to
llmw
a Regular Octagon.
A D E.
A J3,
Produce A B to E. Bisect the given side shown at the point F, and erect a perpendicAlso erect a perpendicular ular, as shown by F C. With B as center, at the point B, as shown by G H.
as
39. Upon a Given Side to Draw a Regular Heptagon. In Fig. 168, B represents the given side upon which a regular heptagon is to be drawn. From B as as radius, strike the semicircle center, and with B
A
and F
B
as radius, strike the arc
F
pendicular
HG
and
in
the point G.
G, cutting the perDraw G E. With
A
E
D.
Produce
as
A AB
to D.
From
A
as center, ami
with
AB
D
radius, strike the arc
G
as radius, strike the arc E II, With E as cutting the perpendicular in the point H. as radius, strike the arc II D, cutting and E center, as center,
GE
semicircle in the point F.
B F, cutting the Through F draw F G per
pendicular to
A
H
From
as center,
B, which extend in the direction of C. and with radius G F, cut the semi
the semicircle
which
in the point D. Draw B, will be the second side of the pentagon. Bisect
ADE
D
the point E. Draw the line E B, which is the required heptagon. Bisect E B, and another side of
circle in
B, as shown, at the point K, and erect a perpendicular, which produce until it intersects the perpendicular F C, erected upon the center of the given side in
D
middle point, H, erect a perpendicular, which it meets the produce perpendicular erected upon the center of the given side B, in the point C. Then
upon
its
until
A
Then C is the center of the circle which point F. From C as cencircumscribes the required pentagon. and with C B as radius, strike the circle, as shown. ter,
Set the dividers to the distance
is
the center of the circle which will circumscribe
From the required heptagon. C B as radius, strike the circle.
the distance
C
as
center,
and with
Set the dividers to
the circumference, as
A
B and
step off the
AB
and step
off
Geometrical
Problems.
47
they intersect at the point C. the center of the circle which will circum
Draw shown, obtaining the points K, N, M and L. the connecting arcs A K, K N, N M, M L and LE,
thus completing the figure. 40. Upon a Given Side to
which
produce until
is
Then C
Draw a Regular Octagon.
From scribe the required nonagon. with C B as radius, strike the circle
C
as center,
and
Set
B
P A.
In Fig.
represent the given side upon a regular octagon is to bo constructed. which Produce A 13 indefinitely in the direction of D. From B as
10!>, let
1>
A
B and step oil the circle, the dividers to the space as shown, obtaining the points N, P, M, E, and L. Draw the connecting chords, N, P, P M, R,
A
A
N
M
center,
and with
A
H
AE
as
as radius, describe the semicircle
R
the point B erect a perpendicular to B, shown, cutting the circumference of the semicircle in the point E. Bisect the arc E D, obtaining the
D.
At
A
E, thus completing the figure. 0, 42. Upon a Given Side to Draw a Regular Decagon. In Fig. 171,
L and L
AB
is
the given side
upon which a
point F.
Draw F
15,
which
is
another side of the
re
Bisect the two sides now obtained and erect perpendiculars to their middle points, G and H, which produce tmtil thev intersect at the point C.
quired octagon.
Produce B indefiregular decagon is to be drawn. From B as center, and in the direction of D. nitely with B as radius, strike the semicircle D.
A
A
A H
Bisect
the
Through
dicular to
given side the point B
B, obtaining the point F. draw the line B G, perpen
A
H
(J
"then
is
the center of the circle that will circumscribe
A
B.
From B
as center,
and with
B F
as
Fig. 170.
Upon a Given Side a Regular Nonagon.
to
Draw
Fig. 171
I 'pan a Given Sid<: a Regular Decagon.
to
Draw
Fig. 172.
Upon a Given Side
to
Draw a Regtilar Undecagon.
the octagon. From C as center, and with C B as radius, Set the dividers to the strike the circle, as shown.
radius, strike the arc
H G in
D
dicular
the point G.
F G, cutting the perpendicular From G as center, and with G
space
arcs
AB
and step
off the
the points L,
A
K, M, L K, K M, L,
circumference, obtaining and N. Draw the connecting
as radius, strike the arc
D
HG
as
0, cutting the perpen
in the point 0.
From D
as
center,
and
M
0,
ON
and
N" F,
thus com
pleting the required figure. 41. Upon a Given Side to
Draw a Regular Nonagon.
it is
K, cutting the semicircle in the point K. Draw the line D, which bisect with the line B L, cutting the semicircle in the
with
D
radius, strike the arc
K
any given side upon which Produce A required to draw a regular nonagon.
In Fig. 170,
is
AB
point E.
Then E B
the
B in
gon.
Upon
be another side of the decamiddle points, F and M, of the
will
as center, From of D. definitely in the direction F D. as radius, strike the semicircle and with
B
B A
A
the point B B, cutting Draw the chord F D, the semicircle in the point F. which bisect., obtaining the point G. From D as center, and with D <! as radius, cut the semicircle in the
At
erect a perpendicular to
A
two sides now obtained erect perpendiculars, which produce until they intersect at the point C. Then C is the center of the circle which will circumscribe the
From G as center, and with C B required decagon. ;is strike the circle, as shown. Set the dividers radius, to the space B and step off the circle, obtaining the
A
Draw K B, which will be another side of the point E. From the middle points of the two required figure. sides now obtained, as H and K, erect perpendiculars,
several points,
I,
N,
S,
connecting
lines,
A
I, I
V, R, T and P. Draw the N, N S, S V, V R, B T, T
P and P
E, thus completing the figure.
New
43.
M'tnl
1
1
\,rker
Pattern Jlook.
Upon a Given
Kig. '6
Side to
V
13
Draw a Regular Undec
points of the two sides
now obtained,
'jutting
as
G
and
II, erect
agon.
In
IT,
represents the
perpendiculars,
as
shown,
each other at the
upon which a regular undecanon is to Produce A 13 indefinitely in the direction of D. From 13 as center, and with B A as radius, draw the semiB. Through the point B, perpendicular draw the line II D indefinitely. From 13 as B, center, and with B F as radius, strike the arc F G,
circle
AM
to
A
This point of intersectr:n, (J. then is the point C. center of the circle which will circumscribe the required From C as center, and with C 15 as radius, dodecagon. strike the circle, as shown. Set the dividers to the
distance
A
13
and space
oil'
the
cutting the perpendicular II
G G
in the point G. in the point
From
1)
1
G
D
as
center, and
GD
taining the points L, P. Draw the connecting lines
li
M,
circumference, thus obS, N, K. O, K and 1.
as radius, strike the arc
1
,
0,
K,
K
I
and
cutting the perpendicular II
as center,
H.
With
P, P M, S, S N, E. I E, thus completing the figure.
L
M
N
and
DH
45. General Rule by which to
as radius, strike the arc
which
cutting the semicircle in the point M. bisect, obtaining the point K, through which, from B, draw the line B K, and produce it until it
H M, Draw M D,
will
Polygon, the Length of a Side Being Given. radius equal to the given side describe a
Draw any Regular With a
semicircle, the
circumference of which divide into as
as the figure
cuts the semicircle in the point E. another side of the required figure.
sides
Then B E
be
is to have sides. which the semicircle was struck draw
many equal parts From the center bv
a line to the
Bisect the two
now
obtained and erect perpendicular lines, pro
N^
Fig. 173.
Upon a Given Side
to
Draw a Regular Dodecagon.
Fig. 174.
dueing them until they intersect, as shown bv F C and L C. Then C, the point of is the
intersection,
Upon a Given Side
to Construct a Regular Polygon of Thirteen Sides by the General Rule.
center of the circle which circumscribes the undec
agon.
From G
as
center,
and with C
A
as
radius,
shown. Set the dividers to the B and step off the circumference, obtaining space the points O, V, T, E, P, S, and I. Draw the chords O V, V T, T E, E P, P S, S N, O, I and I E, thus complcuing the figure.
strike the circle, as
A
N
second division in the circumference. This line will be one side of the required figure, and onehalf of tindiameter of the semicircle will be another, and the two will be in proper relationship to each other. There
A
N
and through their centers erect perwhich produce until they intersect. The pendiculars,
fore, bisect each,
44.
Upon a Given Side
let
to
In Fig. 173,
A
A
Draw a Regular Dodecagon.
tin;
is
B
represent
to
which a regular dodecagon
AB
given side upon be drawn. Produce
point of intersection will be 'the center of the circle which will circumscribe the polygon. Draw the circle, and setting the dividers to the length of one of the
sides already found, step off the circumference, thus obtaining points by which to draw the remaining sides
of the figure.
indefinitely in the direction of D.
From
13
as
center,
and with
B
A
as radius, describe the semicircle
F
D.
From D
as center,
13
and with
D B
as radius,
describe the arc
K,
I),
point F.
Draw F
cutting the semicircle in the which bisect by the line V 1!,
cutting the semicircle in the point E. another side of the dodecagon. From
Then E
the
15
is
46. To Construct a Regular Polygon of Thirteen Sides by the General Rule, the Length of a Side being Given. With 13 as In Fig. 174, let A 13 be the given side. center, and with 13 A as radius, describe the semicircle
middle
A
F
G.
Divide the circumference of the semicircle
Geometrical
Problems.
into
1,
tliirtec'ii
equal puns, as
2, 3,
4,
etc.
division in the
shown by the small figures, From B draw a line to the second circumference, as shown by B 2. Then
two of the
sides of the required figure,
A
line at
00 54
for
polygons having
6 sides.
5
45
figures on the inscribed circle
4
" "
radius of
distance
A B and
and are
B
in
'2
are
The
B
Bisect correct relationship to each other. B and B 2, as shown, and draw D C and E C through their central points, prolonging them until they inter
will designate the
A
measured from O.
The
from
B on any
horizontal line to the oblique line de
sect at the point C.
Then C
is
the center of the circle
Strike
which
will circumscribe the required polygon.
Set the dividers to the space the circle, B, and step off corresponding spaces in the circumference of the circle, as shown, and connect the several
as shown.
A
the figure. points so obtained by lines, thus completing 47. Within a Given Square to Draw a Regular Octagon.
D B E be any given square In Fig. 175, let within which it is required to draw an octagon. Draw the diagonals D E and B, intersecting at the point
A
A
C.
From A, D, B and E
as centers,
and with radius
C, strike equal to onehalf of one of the diagonals, as I and L O, cutting the the several arcs N, K, Connect the sides of the square, as shown.
A
H
G
M
points thus obtained in the sides of the square by drawing L and the lines G O, I, N, thus completing
H
K
M
the figure.
For general use a very convenient scale may be constructed, as shown in Fig. 176, from which half the length of one side of a polygon of any number of sides and of any diameter in inches and fractions of
tfr.it.le. for Fig. 176 Constructing Polygons of any Number of Sides, the Diameter of the Inscribed Circle Being Given in Inches. Half Full Size.
noting the required polygon will be half the length of a side of the polygon of the diameter indicated by the
figure at the
7B
distance from
end of the horizontal line assumed. O measured upon the oblique line
The
to the
H
assumed horizontal cumscribed circle.
line will be the radius of the cir
In the engraving three polygons are drawn showing the application of the scale.
M
H.
BY THE USE OF THE TSQUARE AND TRIANGLES OR SETSQUARES.
N
Pig. 175.
E
Octagon.
Within a Oiven Square
to
Draw a Regular
In the chapter upon terms and definitions under the word degree (def. 68) and in some of those immediately following the dimensions of the circle are described and their use explained; and in the chapter upon Drawing Tools and Materials (on page 21) the triangles or setsquares in common use are described and
illustrated.
inches
line
OB
may
Draw the vertical readily be obtained. and divide it into inches and parts of an inch.
;
From
from the point
these points of division draw horizontal lines O draw the following lines and at the
:
following angles from the horizontal line O P A line at 75 for polygons having 12 sides. " " 72 10 " " " 8
regular polygons depend, for their construction, upon the equal division of the circle, some explanation of the application of the foregoing
all
As
will serve to fix a
few
facts in the
mind
of the student
and thus prepare him for the use of the setsquare.
50
Tin
\>'/r
Mi'lal
Worker Pattern Bwk.
of the 45degree triangle, as
A wellknown and easily demonstrated geometrical
principle
is
that the
sum
of the three interior angles of a
triangle is equal to two right angles, or in other words, as a right angle is one of 90 degrees, if the three angles
E, is placed against the blade of the Tsquare, and the vertical division of the circle is drawn along the other short side C E.
In Fig. 178 the vertical and horizontal divisions of the circle, B and C D, are drawn as before, after
A
of
any triangle be added together their sum will equal 180 degrees. Hence, if one of the angles of a setsquare be fixed at 90 degrees (which is done for con
A
venience in drawing perpendicular lines) the sum of the two remaining angles must also be 90 degrees, and, if then the two other angles be made equal, each
will
If,
of the 45 degree triangle the Tsquare, and the long or oblique placed against side E F is brought to the center of the circle and
is
which one of the shorter sides
be 45 degrees, which
is
the half of 90 degrees.
G I is drawn. By reversing the position of the triangle the last division II is drawn, thus dividing the circle into eight equal parts.
another division
K
however, one of the other angles is fixed at 30 (onethird of 90 degrees), the remaining angle must be 60 60 degrees, as 30 90.
C D
+
=
In Fig. 179, after drawing the divisions B and as before, the 30 X 60degree triangle is placed in
its
A
the position shown at
By means, then, of the 45degree and the 30 X 60degree triangles, the draftsman has at his command
drawn along
F, and the division hypothenuse or oblique side.
still
AE
E N is Bv re
versing the position of the triangle,
keeping the
Fig.
177. Circle Divided into Four Equal Parts by the Use of a Triangle
Fig.
178. Circle Divided into Eight Equal Parts by the Use of a 45degree
Fig.
170.
Circle
Divided
into
Twelve,
60
Equal Parts by the Use of a 80 x
degree Triangle.
or SetSquare.
Triangle.
the means of drawing lines at angles of 90, 60, 45 and
side
A
J
F
30 degrees, and by combination 75 degrees (45 ) 30) and 15 degrees (90 With the 45degree 75). he can bisect a right angle, and with the 30 and angle 60degree angles he can trisect it.
sion
K
against the blade of the Tsquare, the divimay be drawn. Changing the position of the
triangle now so that its shortest side comes against the blade of the Tsquare, as shown dotted at F, the
GH
The pattern draftsman sometimes finds it convenient to have a setsquare in which the sharpest angle is one of 22 degrees (onehalf of 45) for use in
drawing the octagon in a certain position which be referred to later.
In Figs.
will
drawn, and again reversing its posistill keeping its shortest side against the Tsquare, tion, the last division I L may be drawn, thus dividing the
division
is
G
M
circle into
twelve equal parts. In Fig. 180 the circle is divided into eight equal
parts,
177, 178, 179 and 180 are illustrated
but differing from that shown above in this respect that, while in Fig. 178 two of the divisions lie
parallel with the sides of the drawing board, in the latter case none of the divisions are parallel with t lie
the application of the foregoing, in which the circle is divided, by the use of the triangles above described,
into four, eight and twelve equal parts. In Fig. 177 the horizontal division B of the circle is drawn by
sides of the board or can be
A
means
of the Tsquare placed against the side of tindrawing board, after which one of the shorter sides
but if this method is shown dotted in Fig. 180, four of the sides of the octagon can be drawn with the Tsquare illR l tue other
drawn with the fsquare; used in drawing an octagon, as
Geometrical
51
pendicular
four with the 45degree triangle.
The
2$
X
67idegree
is
triangle in
at
the circle
shown
A
15
(..'
drawing and I.)E C, while the posi
tlie
position of the divisions of
C
I,
completing the division.
The
follow
ing are a few of the problems to
which these principles
may be advantageously
Circle.
circle.
tion of the 45degree
triangle in
is
sides of an octagon figure
drawing the oblique shown at F. It will thus
is
applied. 48. To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given
tiT^degree triangle in drawing accurately the miter line for miters.
be seen that the 22
X
available
all
octagon
con
In Fig. 183, let D be the center of the given Set the side E F of a 30degree setsquare the Tsquare, as shown, and move it along against
As
structed
a triangle in whatever form
is
it
may be
the blade of the T^quare.
intended to be used by sliding it against, "11 the angles above men
tioned are calculated with, reference to the lines drawn by the Tsquare. In practical use it will be found inconvenient in drawing such lines to actually bring the
point of a setsquare to the center of a circle. better method, and one which makes use of the same
principles,
is
A
shown
in
Fig. 181.
The
blade of the
Fig. 181.
D
F
Proper Method of Using a 45degree Triangle.
until the side
EG
touches D.
Mark
the point
B upon
the circumference of the circle.
Eeverse the setsquare
to the right of the side
so that the point
E
will
come
F G and move it along in the the side E G again meets the
point C.
reversed position until point D, and mark the
Now move the Tsquare upward until it touches the point D, and mark the point A. Then B and C are points which divide the circle into three
A
equal parts.
The
triangle
may be
lines
easily
completed
B, B C but greater
from
this stage
by drawing
connecting
rule,
A
and C A, with any straightedge or
accuracy
Fig.
ISO.
Circle
Use of
Divided into Eight Equal Parts by the a 1S&% x Vt^degree Triangle,
obtained by the further use of the setPlace the side F G of the setsi [uare, as follows against the Tsquare, as shown in Fig. 184, square
is
:
Tsquare B. by
is
A
One
placed tangent to or near the circle, as shown side of a 45degree triangle is placed
against it, as shown, its side C F being brought against the center. The line C F is then drawn. By reversing
the trrangle, as
D
is
drawn
at right
shown by the dotted lines, the line E angles to C F, thus dividing the
circle into quarters.
A
shown
similar use of the 30
in Fig. 182,
X
by which
a circle
60degree triangle is is divided into
Fig. 182
six equal parts. Bring the blade of the Tsquare B. Then tangent to or near the circle, as shown by
Method of Using a 30
Dividing the
x 60degree Triangle in
Circle.
A
place the setsquare as shown by G B M, bringing the side G B against the center of the circle, drawing the
line
and move it along until the side E G touches the points A and C, as shown. Draw A C, which will be one
side of the required triangle.
D
L.
Then
place
it
as
bringing the side line F E. Then,
the side
G
M
against the center, scribing the by reversing the setsquare, placing against 'the straightedge, erect the per
AH
shown by the dotted
lines,
Set the side
E F
of the
until setsquare against the Tsquare, and move it along Then the side F G coincides with the points C and B. draw C B, which will be the second side of the triangle.
52
Place the side
The
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
coincides with the points B and H, and draw B H. In a similar manner draw C A, thus completing the figure.
50. To Inscribe a
FG
of the setsquare against the T
square, with the side
E F
to the
right,
and move
it
along until the side and B. Then draw
E G
A
coincides with the points B, thus completing the figure.
A
Hexagon within a Given
Circle.
circle.
The same
by
first
results
may be accomplished
with less work
In Fig. 187, let Place the side E
be the center of the given
F
of a 30degree setsquare against
the point by bringing the the center, and then using the setTsquare against The different methods square, as shown in Fig. 184.
establishing
A
Move the setsquare along the Tsquare, as shown. until the side E G meets the point 0. Mark the points and B. Reverse the setsquaiv, and in like manner
A
are here given in order to use of the tools employed.
more
clearly illustrate the
mark
the points
C and
D.
1
With
square,
the side
F G
of the
setsquare against the
move
it
along until
Fig. 183.
Fig. 185.
Fig. 184.
Fig. 186.
To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a
Given
Circle.
To Inscribe a Square within a Given
Circle.
49. To Inscribe a Square within a Given Circle Let D, in Fig. 185, be the center of the given circle. Place the side E F of a 45degree setsquare against the Tsquare, as shown, and move it along until the side E G meets the point D. Mark the points and
the side
E F
Then A, H, D, B,
proposed hexagon.
meets the point 0, and mark I and H. I and C represent the angles of the
A
B.
Eeverse the setsquare, and in a similar manner mark the points C and H. The points A, H, B and
From this stage the figure may be finished by drawing the sides by means of these readily a simple straightedge; but greater acpoints, using is attained in completing the figure by the curacy
further use of the setsquare, as shown in Fig. 188. With the side E F of the setsquare against the f square, as shown, draw the line II D, and by moving the Tsquare upward draw the side C I. Reversing the setsquare so that the point F is to the left of the H, and also, by shifting the point E, draw the side
C
are corners of the required square. Move the Juntil it coincides with the and square upward points and draw H, as shown in Fig. 186. In like man
A
H
A
ner draw
against
With the side E F of the setsquare the Tsquare, move it along until the side G F
C
B.
A
Geometrical
Problems.
53
With the edge Tsquare, the side I B. the Tsquare, move it setsquare against
side
E F
up
of the
B
until the
ners of the octagon.
and D, and draw like manner draw A C, thus comIn the side B D. In this figure, as with the triangle, pleting the figure. the same results may be reached by establishing the points H and I, by means of a diameter drawn at right
coincides with the points
GF
B
Then A, H, G, F, E, D, C and B are corThe figure may now be readily completed by drawing the sides, by means of these
and F.
points, using
any rule or straightedge for the purpose,
angles to the Tsquare, as shown in the engravings, and, using it as a base, employing the setsquare, as
shown
in Fig. 188.
The
first
method shown
is,
how
Fig. 189.
To Inscribe a Regular Octagon within a
Given Circle.
all
as
and
B A,
shown by A H, H G, G F, F E, E D, D C, C B or by means of a 22 X 67^degree set
Fig. 18?.
Draw an Equilateral Triangle upon a Given In Fig. 190, let B be the given side. First B at right angles to the blade of the bring the line Then set the edge C B of a 30degree setTsquare.
Side.
square. 52. To
A
A
square against the Tsquare, and move it along until the edge B D meets the point B, and draw the line B F. Reverse the setsquare, still keeping the side
C B
against the Tsquare, and
move
it
along until the
Fig. 188.
To Inscribe a Regular Hexagon within a Given
ever, to be preferred in
its
Circle.
many
instances,
on account of
great accuracy. 51. To Inscribe an Octagon within a Given Circle.
In Fig. 189, let be the center of the given circle. Place a 45degree setsquare as shown in the engraving, bringing its long side in contact with the center, and
K
mark the points E and A.
sition,
Keeping
its
it
in the
same poside
Fig. 190.
To Draw an Equilateral Triangle upon a Given Side.
move
it
along until
vertical side is in contact
and mark the points D and II. Reverse the setsquare from the position shown in the engraving, and mark the points C and G. Move the Tsquare upward until it touches the point K, and mark the points
with
K
B D meets the point A, and draw the line F, thus completing the figure. 53. To Draw a Square upon a Given Side. In Fig.
191, let
A
AB
be the given side drawn at right angles
54
to the blade of the Tsquare.
Tin
\'
:
/C
M'lttl
II
//''/
Pntt'ni
ttouk.
Set the edge
E F
of a
as shown, 45degree setsquare against the Tsquare, and move it along until the side E G meets the point
Still keeping the the center of the required figure. G of the setsquare against the Tsquare, move edge it along until the perpendicular edge I II meets the
H
B, and draw
B
I indefinitely.
Reverse the setsquare,
and, bringing the side
EG
against the point
A, draw
A
With point O, and through O draw F C indefinitely. the setsquare in the position shown in the engraving slide it along until the edge I G meets the point
B, and draw
B
F C
in the
C, producing it until Reverse the point C.
it
meets the line
still
setsquare,
keeping the edge G H against the Tsquare, and draw the line C D, producing it until it meets the line A D in the point D. Slide the setsquare along until the side I meets the point D, and draw the line D E,
H
meeting the line
BE
in the point E.
Move
the set
meets the point A, and square along until the edge I the line C F in the point draw the line F, meeting
G
A
F.
Now
bring the setsquare to
its first
position and
Fig. 191.
To Draw a Square upon a Given
Side.
F indefinitely. Bring the Tsquare against the point B and draw B F, producing it until ,it meets the line A F in the point F. In like manner draw A I, meeting the line
I in the point I. Then, with the setsquare placed as shown in the engraving, connect I
B
and F, thus completing the required figure. 54. To Draw a Regular Hexagon upon a Given Side. In Fig. 192, let A B be the given side in a vertical
position.
of a 30degree setsquare Set the edge G the Tsquare, as shown, and move it along against
Fig. 193.
H
To
Draw a Regular Octagon upon a
Given Side.
slide it along until the
edge I G meets the points F and thus completing the required figure. E, E, 55. To Draw a Regular Octagon upon a Given Side. In Fig. 193, let C D be the given side, drawn perpen
and draw F
Place one of the dicular to the blade of the Tsquare. of a 45degree setsquare against the short sides
Tsquare, as
shown
in the engraving.
Move
the set
square along until its long side coincides with the Draw the line C B, and make it in length point C.
the Tsquare draw the line B, Reverse the setsquare, also in length equal to C D. II and bring the edge against the point A. Draw Still keeping a short side in length the same as C D.
equal to
C
D.
With
A
Fig. 192.
To
Draw a Regular Hexagon upon a
Given Side.
A
until the edge I
G
coincides with the point
indefinitely.
A, and
set
draw
the line
still
A D
keeping
Reverse the
of the setsquare against the Tsquare, slide it along until the other short side meets the point H, and draw
square,
Tsquare, and move
it
against the until the side I coinalong
the
edge
G H
H
G
side
G, also of the same length. of the setsquare, draw
Then, using the long
G F
E
of
corresponding
cides with the point B, and draw B E indefinitely. These lines will intersect in the point 0, which will be
length.
By means
of the Tsquare
draw F E, and by
reversing the setsquare draw
D, both in length
Geometrical
equal to the original side, C D, joining it in D, thus completing the required octagon.
56.
Circle.
circle.
tin;
point
To Draw an Equilateral Triangle about a Given
In Fig. 194, let Place the edge
() lie
the other end being indefinite. Then, placing the edge F E of the setsquare against the Tsquare, bring its edge E G against the circle in the point C, and draw
the center of the given
of a 30dcgree setsquare
E F
against the Tsquare, !IS shown, and move it along until the edge F G meets the center O, and mark the upon the circumference of the circle. Reverse point
D in the point L and I in the The first part of thus completing the figure. point K, tins operation is not really necessary. The sides of the
L K,
intersecting I
K
A
setsquare simply can be brought tangent to the circle, as in Fig. 195.
57.
the setsquare,
still
keeping the edge
E F
against the
Tsqnare, and
in
like
manner mark
tin
point B.
Move
Fig.
1
96, let
To Draw a Hexagon about a Given Circle. In be the center of the given circle. Place
Fig. 191.
Fig. 196.
Fig. 195.
Fig. 197.
To
Draw an
E<iuilateral Triangle about
a Given
Circle.
To
Draw a Hexagon about a Givtn
of a 30degree
Circle.
the Tsquare upward until it meets the point O, and mark the point C. The required figure will be described by drawing lines tangent to the circle at the points A, B and C, which may be done in the manner
the edge
E F
setsquare
against the
Jsquare, and slide it along until the edge F G meets the point 0, and mark the points B and A. Reverse the set
square,
still
keeping the edge
EF
against the Tsquare,
Place the edge following, as indicated in Fig. 195 E of the setsquare against the Tsquare, and slide it
G
along until the edge F G touches the circle in the point B. Draw I Reverse the setsquare, indefinitely.
manner mark the points C and D. Bring the edge of the Tsquare against O, and mark the points Then C, A, K, D, B and I are six points in and K.
and
in like
1
K
keeping the same edge against the T S(luare, and move it along until its edge F G touches the circle in the
point A, and draw
I L, intersecting I
the circumference of the circle, corresponding to the six sides of the required figure. The hexagon is com
pleted
by drawing
a side tangent to the circle at each
K
in the point
I,
of these several points,
which may be done by using
56
Tin'
\*
//'
Worker Pattern Book.
In this problem, as in the previous one, if care be taken the first part of the operation can be dispensed with bv
the setsquare as follows, and as shown in Fig. 197. With the edge E G of the setsquare against the Tsquare, bring the edge F G against the circle at the
Reindefinitely. point C, as shown, and draw L verse the setsquare, and in like manner bring it against the circle at the point A, and draw N, cutting L
M
simply placing the triangle in proper position and drawing the sides of the figure tangent to the circle, as
shown
M
M
in Fig. 197. 58. To Draw an Octagon about a Given Circle.
let
In
in the point M, and extending indefinitely in the direcSlide the setsquare along until the edge tion of N. E F meets the circle in the point K, and draw N P, N in the point N, and extending in the intersecting
Fig. 198, the edge
O
E F
be the center of the given circle. With of a 45degree setsquare against the T
M
square, as shown, move it along until the side E G meets the point O, and mark the points and B. Reverse the setsquare, and in like manner mark the
A
points
C and D.
vertical side
G
Slide the setsquare along until the F meets the point 0, and mark the
and I. points the point 0, and
I,
H
Move
the Tsquare
points
mark the
K
up
until
it
meets
and L.
are points in the circumferD, L, B, H, C and ence of the given circle corresponding to the sides of
K
Then A,
Fig. 198.
Fig.
00.
To
Draw a Square
about a Given Circle.
the required figure.
The octagon
is
then to be com
pleted by drawing lines tangent to the circle at these several points, as shown in Fig. 199, which may be
Fig. 199.
To Draw an Octagon about a Given
Circle.
direction of
its
P
indefinitely.
slide
it
With the
first
position
along until
setsquare in the edge F G
D, and draw R P, cutP in the point P, but being indefinite in ting the direction of R. Reverse the setsquare, and in
meets the
circle in the point
N
like
manner draw
R S
tangent to the
circle
in the
done by the use of the setsquare, as follows With the edge E F of the setsquare against the Tsquare, as shown, bring the edge E G against the circle in the point D, and draw M N indefinitely. Sliding the setuntil the vertical edge F G meets the square along circle in the point L, draw N P, cutting M N in the point N, and extending in the opposite direction inReverse the setsquare, and bringing the definitely. E G against the circle in the point B, draw P R, edge cutting N P in the point P, and extending indefinitely
:
in point B, cutting of S indefinitely. the direction Slide the setsquare along until its edge E F meets the circle in the point R S in the point S and L I, and draw S L, cutting
PR
in the point R,
and extending
in the direction of R.
til it
meets the
circle
S R, meeting P
R
in
upward unin the point H, and draw the line the point R, and extending inthe Tsquare
Move
M
in the point L, thus completing the required figure.
Then, with the definitely in the opposite direction. as shown in the engraving, move it setsquare placed
Problems.
until its edge
E
(f
meets the circle in the point C, and
draw S T, meeting
S R
in the
point S,
and continuing
Place one of the shorter side of the drawing board. of a 45degree setsquare against the Tsquare, as edges
placed for drawing the given side, and slide it along until the long edge touches the point A, and draw the
diagonal line
that
as
its
the setsquare indefinitely in the direction of T. With in the same position, move it along until its edge G F
meets the
K, and draw T U, cutting and extending in the opposite diS T Reverse the setsquare, and bringrection indefinitely. the circle in the point A, draw ing its long side against
circle in the point
A
C
indefinitely.
in the point T,
head comes against the
left side of
Place the Tsquare so the board,
shown by the dotted
lines in the engraving, and,
U
V, cutting
T U
in the point
U, and continuing
in
direction. definitely in the opposite the circle in the point I, against
square
connecting
UV
and
MN
in
Bring the Tand draw V M, the points V and M re
D inbringing the blade against the point A, draw Then bringing the blade against the point definitely. draw B C, stopping this line at the point of interB,
section with the line
A
A
C, as
shown
at C.
Tsquare back
line
to the original position
Bring the and draw the
the figure. The above rule spectively, thus completing will be found very convenient for use, although, as the student may discover, the first part of the operation
is
C
D, thus completing the figure.
In the case of
a large drawing board, unless the figure is to be located very near one corner of it, or in the case of a drawing
not absolutely necessary. 59. To Draw a Square about a Given Circle.
In
board of which the adjacent sides are not at right angles, it will be desirable to use the right angle of the
setsquare, instead of changing the Tsquare from one side to the other, as above described. The object of the diagonal line C is to determine the drawing
Fig. 200, let
be the center of the given
circle.
Place
A
This also may be done by the length of the side C B. use of the compasses instead of the setsquare, as follows
:
From B
as center, with
B
A
as radius, describe
the arc
AO
C.
Place the Tsquare as shown by the
it
dotted lines, and, bringing
C, producing The remaining steps are then to be taken the point C. in the manner above described.
ffl.
B
until
it
against the point B, draw O C in intercepts the arc
it
A
BY MEANS OF THE PROTRACTOR.
Fig. SOL
To
Draw a Square upon a
Given Side.
the blade of the Tsquare against the point 0, and draw the line O B. With one of the shorter sides
and
protractor, which has been already described illustrated (see Fig. 116, Chapter II), is an instru
The
A
ment
E
F, of a 45degree setsquare against the T sc[ uare
?
The usual form of this for measuring angles. instrument is a semicircle with a graduated edge, the
divisions being
and with the other short side against the point 0, draw Move the Tsquare upward until it the line DOC. Move strikes the point C, and draw the line II C I. draw the line it down until it strikes the point D, and
more or
less
numerous, according to
its
In instruments of ordinary size the divisions are size. 5s or by 10s, while in single degrees, numbered by sizes the divisions are made to fractions of larger
degrees.
ED
K. With the side E F of the setsquare against the Tsquare, as shown in the engraving, bring the side In like II. E G against the point A, and draw E
Since the protractor by
its
construction affords the
A
B I, against the point B, and draw It is to be observed that thus completing the figure.
manner bring
it
K
means of measuring or of setting off any angle whatsoever, it is especially useful in circumscribing or inor of erecting them upon a given
scribing polygons,
side.
the several lines composing the sides of the square are C B and D retangent to the circle in the points
A
spectively.
diameters
A
The only object served by drawing the B and C D is that of obtaining greater
of infrequent occurrence among a few problems in inscribing pattern draftsmen, only will be sufficient to enable the will be given, which it in other cases that may arise. reader to
As
its
use
is
apply
accuracy in locating the points of tangency. B 60. To Draw a Square upon a Given Side. Let be the given side placed parallel to one o.f Fig. 201
61. To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given
;
A
Circle.
circle.
In Fig. 202,
let
be the center of the given
as
Through
draw a diameter,
shown by
58
T/ie
New
Metal
ll'w/r/
I '(/<;
COD.
Place the protractor so that
its
center point
II.
Then E, G, F and
which
is
II are the angles of
the required
shall coincide with O,
and turn
it
until the point
mark
Then mark I). ing 60 degrees falls upon the line C points in the circumference of the circle corresponding
to
(zero)
be completed by drawing the sides figure, E G, G F, F and II E. Since the circle is composed of 360 degrees, one side of an inscribed square must
to
H
and 120 degrees of the protractor, as shown
represent onefourth part of 360 degrees, or 90 degrees.
by B and E respectively. Draw the lines C E, E B and B C, thus completing the required figure. The
reasons for these several steps are quite evident.
circle consists of
The
360 degrees. Then each side of an equilateral triangle must represent onethird of 360 Assume the point C for one degrees, or 120 degrees. of the angles, and draw the line COD. Then, by the nature of the figure to be drawn, D must, fall opposite the center of one side. Therefore, since 60 is the half of 120 (the length of one side in degrees), place 60 opposite the point D, and mark and 120 for the other
angles, then complete the figure
Hence, in setting the protractor, the point representing 45 degrees was placed opposite the point in which it is desired the center of one of the .sides shall fall, or, in other words,
is
The
half of 90 degrees
45 degrees.
upon the line COD. Then, having marked points 90 degrees removed from each other, or, as explained
above, opposite the points
tractor, as
0,
90 and 180 of the pro
shown by F, G and E, the fourth point was It is evident that II obtained by the diagonal line. must fall opposite G, upon a line drawn through the Or the protractor might have been mo veil center.
around, and a space of 90 degrees measured from either
by drawing
the lines
Fig. 202.
To Inscribe an Equilateral Triangle within a Given Circle.
Fig. SOS.
To Inscribe a Square within a Oiven
Circle.
shown. Since in many cases the protractor is much smaller than the circle in which the figure is to be constructed, it becomes necessary to mark the points at
as
or E, which, as will be clearly seen, given the same point, H.
F
would have
63. To Inscribe an Octagon within a Given Circle.
the edge of the instrument, and carry them to the circumference by drawing lines from the center of the
circle
Through the center
draw a diameter,
one side
that
its
is
A
of the given circle, Fig. 204, which the center of B,
upon
through the points, producing circle is reached.
62.
them
until
the
Place the protractor so required to fall. shall coincide with the center O, center point
it
To Inscribe a Square within a Given Circle. In be the center of the given circle. Fig. 203, let draw a diameter, as shown by Through
and turn
so that the point representing 22 degrees O B. Then mark points in shall fall on the line
A
COD.
Place the protractor so that its center point coincides with 0, and turn it until the point marking 45 degrees Mark points in the circumfalls upon the line COD.
ference of the circle corresponding to 0, 90 and 180 degrees of the protractor, as shown by F, G and E respectively.
the circumference of the circle corresponding to 0, 45, as shown 90, 135 and 180 degrees of the protractor,
by E, G, H, I and like manner mark
points
F.
Reverse the protractor, and
in
the points
M, Land K; or
lines
these
I, II
may
be obtained by drawing
from
and
G
center O, cutting the respectively through the
H,
the center 0, draw G O cutting the circumference of the circle in the point
From G, through
circumference in M,
L and K.
The
figure is to be
I
completed by drawing the sides
F
I,
H,
II
G,
G
E,
Geometrical
Problems.
no
E M,
M L,
L
K
and
K
F.
Since the circle consists
of 360 degree's, one side of an octagon must represent The half of 45 is 45 degrees, or oiieeiglit.li of 360.
!!}>.
the circumference in the points M, N, P, R and S, which are the remaining angles. The figure is now to be completed by drawing the sides, as shown. In a do
Hence, the point of the protractor representing
degrees was placed upon the
line
22
A
B, which
decagon, or twelvesided figure, each side must occupy a space represented by onetwelfth of 360 degrees, or
center of one side of the required figure. represents the thus established the position of one side, the Having other sides of the figure are located by marking points
in the
30 degrees of the protractor. As the side F E was required to be located in equal parts upon opposite sides of A B, the middle of one division of the protractor
representing a side (that
is, 15 degrees, or onehalf of 30 degrees) was placed upon the line A O B. Having thus established the position of one side, the others
circumference of the circle opposite points in the
at regular intervals of protractor
45 degrees.
To Inscribe a Dodecagon within a Given Circle. In Fig. 205, let O be the center of the given circle.
64.
are
measured
off in
manner above described.
p
R
Circle.
Fig.
04.
To Inscribe an Octagon within a Given
Circle.
Fig. t05.
To Inscribe a Dodecagon within a Given
draw the diameter A O B, at right angles Through one of the sides of the polygon is required to to which
be.
Set the protractor so that the center point of it coincides with the center O, and revolve it until the
In making use of the protractor to erect a regular polygon upon a given side, the exterior angle, or angle formed by an adjacent side with the given side exin Figs. 168, 170 and 171, is found 360 degrees by the number of sides by dividing while the interior angle, or in the required polygon two adjacent sides on the inside of angle between any
tended, as
E B D
line B. point marking 15 degrees falls upon the the protractor in this position, mark points in With
A
;
the circumference of the circle opposite the points in the protractor representing 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and and L. 180 degrees, as shown by E, F, G, H, I, Then these points will represent angles of the required
K
the polygon, as
E B A
in the
same diagrams,
is
the
The remaining angles may be obtained by polygon. in like position in the opposite placing the protractor half of the semicircle, or they may be determined by
lines from the points F,. G, H, I and the center O, producing them until they cut through
supplement of that angle, or, in other words, is found by subtracting the exterior angle from 180 degrees. Thus to find the exterior angle by means of which to
construct a regular decagon, divide 360 degrees by 10, which gives 36 degrees; while the interior angle is
drawing
K
equal to 180 degrees less 36 degrees, which
grees.
is
144 de
THE
to
ELLIPSE.
If,
For a definition of the ellipse the reader is referred It may also be Chapter I, definitions 78 and 113. described as a curve drawn with a constantly increasor as similar to a circle, but ing or diminishing radius,
having one diameter longer than another, the diameters referred to being at right angles to each other.
upon one
of
two
lines intersecting each
other
at right angles, half of the long
diameter be set off each
way from their intersection (A A, Fig. 206) and upon the other line half of the sh'ort diameter be set off each
way from
the intersection (B B, Fig. 206), four principal points in the circumference of the ellipse will thus
60
T/ie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
line, their
be established; and through these four points only one perfect ellipse can be drawn, onequarter of which
is
sums
will
the sums of
P F and P
be found equal. G, A F and
A
shown by the
solid line
from
A
For example, G, C F and
is
to
B
in the illustra
C G, B F and B G,
this
are all the same.
It is true that other curves having the appearance of an ellipse can be drawn through these points, as shown by the dotted lines, but, as stated above, there is only one curved line existing between those
tion.
an ellipse. points which can be correctly termed There are several methods of producing a correct
on account of the stretchof the string. The same result can be obtained ing by means of a trammel constructed for the purpose, which is shown in Fig. 208. E is a section through
liable to error
Although method is
correct so far as theory
concerned,
and pencil, by a trammel conellipse, as by a string the purpose and by projection from an structed for
oblique section of
the arms, showing the groove in which the heads of the bolts move. and G are the bolts or pins by which
H
the
movement
is
controlled
and regulated.
In the
which
will
be
a cylinder or of considered in turn.
a cone, each of
engraving the bar
tances, through
K
is
shown with holes
at fixed dis
The
ellipse
is
its major properly generated from two points upon the foci, and its circumference is so drawn axis, called that if from any point therein two lines be drawn to
An
which the governing pins are passed. improvement upon this plan of construction cona device that will clamp the pins firmly to the
sists of
the two foci, their
sum
shall
be equal to the
sum
of
bar at any point, thus providing for an adjustment of the most minute variations.
Fig. 206.
Defining an Ellipse.
Fig. SOT.
To
Draw an
Ellipse by
Means of a String and
Pencil.
two
lines
drawn from any other point
to
in the circum
66. To
Draw an
Ellipse to Given
Dimensions by Means
ference to the foci.
65.
To Draw an Ellipse
Specified Dimensions
with a String and Pencil. In Fig. 207, let it be required to draw an ellipse, the length of which shall be B, and the width of which shall equal to the line
A
B
In Fig. 208, let it be required to describe an ellipse, the length of which shall be equal to B and the breadth of which shall be C D. Draw
of a Trammel.
A
and C
D
A
be equal to the
line
D
C.
Lay
off
AB
and
DC
at
dle points. of the arms shall graving, so that the center
at right angles, intersecting at their midPlace the trammel, as shown in the en
come
right angles to each other,, intersecting at their middle Set the compasses to onepoints, as shown at E.
half the length of the required figure, as E, and from either D or C as center, strike an arc, cutting B in the points F and G. These points, F and
A
First place the rod along the directly over the lines. so that the pencil or point I shall coincide line B, or B. Then place the pin G directly with either B and C D. Next place over the intersection of
A
A
A
A
G,
the rod along the line
point I to either
intersection of
C D,
then are the two
foci, into
which drive
pins, as shown.
C
or D, and put the pin
bringing the pencil or over the
H
Drive a third pin at C. Then pass the string around the three points F, G and C and tie it. Eemove the
substituting for it a pencil, pass the same pin as shown at P, keeping the string taut. If around,
AB
and C D.
The instrument
is
then
C and
ready for use, and the curve is described by I moved by the hand, and controlled by the pins working in the grooves. When a trammel
substitute
is
is
the pencil
the combined lengths from F and G to the several points in the boundary line be set off upon a straight
not convenient, a very fair afforded by the use of a common steel
Geometrical
Problems.
Gl
method
This square and a thin strip of wood, like a lath. of drawing an ellipse is useful under ordinary
circumstances
when only
a part of the figure
is
re
placed upon a board, and a line drawn around it, the resulting figure will be a circle. If now the pipe be cut obliquely, as in making an elbow at any angle, and the
quired, as in the shape of the top of a window frame to which a cap is to be fitted, in which half of the
would be employed, or in the shaping of a of a molding in which a quarter, or less than a quarter, of the figure would .be used. 67. To Draw an Ellipse of Given Dimensions by Means of a Square and a Strip of Wood. In Fig. 209, set off the length of the figure, and at right angles to draw a line representing it, through its middle point, Place a square, as shown by the width of the figure.
figure
end thus cut be placed upon a board and a line drawn around it, as mentioned in the first case, the figure drawn will be an ellipse. What has thus been roughly
member
done by mechanical means may be also accomplished upon the drawing board in a very simple and exThe demonstration which follows peditious manner.
of especial interest to the pattern cutter, because the principles involved in it lie at the root of many
is
AEG,
its
inner edge corresponding to the lines.
Lay
which he is called upon to perform. For example, the shape to cut a piece to stop up the end of a pipe or'tube which is not cut square across,
practical operations
the strip of wood as shown by F E, putting a pencil at the point F, corresponding to one end of the figure,
the shape to cut a flange to fit a pipe passing through the slope of a roof, and other similar requirements of
Fig.
SOS.
To Draw an Ellipse by Means of a Trammel.
Fig. 209.
Fig. 210.
To Draw an Ellipse by Means of a Square and a Strip of Wood.
and a pin
at
E, corresponding to the inner angle of the
Then place the stick across the figure, as square. shown in Fig. 210, making the pencil, F, correspond with one side of the figure, and put a pin at G, corre
almost daily occurrence, principles here explained.
68.
Secti
depend entirely upon the
Now the square. sponding with the inner angle of one position to the other, letting move the stick from the points E and G slide, one against the tongue and
the other against the blade of the square. curve. point will then describe the required
The
pencil
To Describe the Form or Shape of an Oblique to Draw an Ellipse as the Oblique Projection of a Circle. The two propositions which are stated above are virtually one and the same so far as concers the pattern cutter, and they may be made quite the same so far as a demonstration is conn
of a Cylinder, or
In draw
cerned.
The
explanation of the engraving
is
confined
be changed in position ing the figure the square must As shown in the enthe curve. for each quarter of
gravings, resented
correct for the quarter of the curve repby F D, Fig. 209. It must be changed for each of the other sections, its inner edge being brought
it is
to the idea of the cylinder, believing it in that shape to be of more practical service to the readers of this
as shown. against the lines each time,
One
definition of an ellipse is
by
a regular curve, which section of a cylinder."
a figure bounded corresponds to an oblique
"
This can be practically illustrated by assuming a
tlie representative of the cylinpiece of stove pipe as If the piece of pipe is cut square across, the end der.
any other. In Fig. 211, let G E F H represent any cylinder, and A B C D the plan of the Let I K represent the plane of any oblique cut same. It is required to to be made through the cylinder. draw the shape of the section as it would appear if the cylinder were cut in two by the plane I K, and either piece placed with the end I K flat upon paper and a line scribed around it. Divide onehalf of
book than
in
the plan
parts, as
ABC into any convenient
shown by the
number
of equal
figures 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
Through
Tin'
\t:ir
Metal
\Vbr/,i.
r
litjok.
these points and
tit
right angles
to the diameter
A
UK lino
1
'J'
K
C draw
lines
the circle.
shown, cutting the opposite side of Also continue these lines upward until
as
tance
1'
shall
be drawn at such an angle that the disbe equal to its long diameter.
they cut the oblique line I K, as
etc.
shown by
1
I
,
2', 3',
Draw
I'
K',
making
it
parallel to I
K
Another definition of the ellipse is that "it is a liinire bounded by a regular curve, corresponding to
an oblique section of a cone through
It is this definition of
its opposite sides." the ellipse that classes it among what are known as conic sections. It is generally a matter of surprise to students to find that an oblique
for con
venience in transferring spaces.
set at right angles to I against the points in it,
With
the Jsquare
1
K, and brought successively draw lines through I' K
,
as
stown by
1", 2",
3
a
,
etc.
the distance across the
With the dividers take plan A B C 1) on each of
section of a cylinder,
its
and an oblique section of a cone through opposite sides, produce the same figure, but such is the case. The method of drawing an
ellipse
upon
this definition of
it is
given in the follow
H
H
Fig.
tlS.The
Ellipse as
an Oblique
Section of
a Cone.
Fig. 211.
The Ellipse as on Oblique Section of a Cylinder.
ing demonstration.
rule
is
The
principles
upon which
this
last
based, no
less
than those referred to in the
the several lines drawn through it, and set the same distance off on corresponding lines drawn through
1
I
K
1
.
measurement measurement
In other words, taking C as the base for in the one case and I as the base of
1
A
demonstration, are of especial interest to the pattern cutter, because so many of the shapes with which he
has to deal
K
1
owe their origin to the cone. 69. To Describe the Shape of an Oblique Section of a
its
in the other, set off
from the
latter,
on
Cone through
a
Opposite Sides, or to
each side, the same length as the several lines measure on each side of A C. Make 2" equal to 2, and 3"
equal to 3, and so on. Through the points thus obtained trace a line, as shown by I' and the opposite side, thus completing the figure.
M K
1
represent the plan at the base. Let I represent any oblique cut through its opposite Then it is required to draw the shape of tinsides.
cone, of which
a Section of a Cone.
In Fig.
Draw an 212, let B A C
Ellipse as
E D G F
is
H
section represented
l>v II I,
which
will be
an
ellipse.
To make
this
problem of practical use
it is
neces
At any
sary that the diameter of the cylinder shall be equal to the short diameter of the required ellipse, and that
convenient place outside of the figure draw a duplicate of IF I parallel to it, upon which to construct
1
the figure sought, as
II' I
.
Divide onehalf of
the;
Geometrica /
plan, as E D G, into any convenient number of equal From the center parts, as shown by 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. of the plan draw radial lines to these points. From
each of the several cross lines 2
measurement, with the dividers take the distance on s J 3 3 , 4 5 etc., from
s
, ,
,
M
each of the points also erect a perpendicular line, which produce until it cuts the base line B C of the cone.
one side of the plan of the obi:'que cut just described, and set off the same distance on each side of
to
1
E G
II'
I
on the corresponding
lines.
A
line
traced
From
lines
the base lino of the cone continue each of these
through the points thus obtained will be an ellipse.
toward the apex A, cutting the oblique line H I. Through the points thus obtained in H I, and at right
angles to the axis
A.D
'/7r XV" 5 , '
.

of the cone,
draw
lines, as
shown by
angles to
1', 2', 3', 4', etc.,
cutting the opposite sides
V^" \ Vs

of the cone.
From
draw
the same points in
1
H
as
\Ax
^
7~~
\s'^..
I,
at right
it, cutting = a 4 etc., thus transferring to r, 2", 3 divisions as have been given to other parts of the figAfter having obtained these several sets of lines, ure.
, , ,
lines
II' I
shown by it the same
Fig. 214.
To
Draw an
Ellipse within
a Oiven Rectangle by
Means of
Intersecting Lines.
the
first
step
is
to obtain a plan
view of the oblique
:
With the diwhich proceed as follows cut, take the distance from the axial line A D to viders one side of the cone, on each of the lines I 2 3', 4', etc., and set off like distance from the center of the
for
1 1
70. To Construct an Ellipse to Given Dimensions
the Use of
Two
,
,
213, let
it
by and Intersecting Lines. In Fig. be required to construct an ellipse, the
Circles
length of
which
shall equal
plan
etc.
M on the corresponding radial lines 1, 2, 3, 4, A line traced through the points thus obtained
shown by
This result
which
shall equal
H
F.
Draw
A B and the width of A B and H F at right
From
will give the plan view of the oblique cut, as the inner line in the plan.
angles, intersecting at their middle points, K. as center, and with onehalf of the length
K
radius,
describe the circle
A
C B
D.
II
From
AB K
as as
may
be verified by dropping lines
center, and with onehalf of the width
F
as radius,
from the points in H I across the plan, intersecting them with the radial lines in the plan of Thus a line dropped from corresponding number.
vertically
describe the circle
into
E F G
II.
Divide the larger circle
any convenient number of equal parts, as shown bv the small figures 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. Divide the smaller
point 4 on
H
I
should intersect the radial line
M
4 at
same number of equal and correspondshown by figures. By means of the from the points in the outer circle draw Tsquare, vertical lines, and from points in the inner circle draw horizontal lines, as shown, producing them until they
circle into the
ing parts, as also
intersect the lines first drawn.
A
line traced
through
K
sG
sB
these points of intersection will be an ellipse. 11. To Draw an Ellipse within a Given Rectangle by Means of Intersecting Lines. In Fig. 214, let E D B
A
struct an ellipse.
be any rectangle within which it is required to conBisect the end A E, obtaining the
Fig. SIS.
To Construct an Ellipse from Two Circles by
Intersecting Lines.
from which erect the perpendicular F G, the rectangle horizontally into two equal pordividing Bisect the side tions. B, obtaining the point H, and draw the perpendicular II I, dividing the rectangle
point F,
A
the same point (4 ) established the distance upon line 4' from
by measuring A D to B. Having thus obtained the shape of the oblique cut as it would is to set off upon the appear in plan, the next step drawn through II' I' the width of the lines previously upon
it
s
A
The lines F and vertically into two equal portions. F represents II I are then the axes of the ellipse.
G
G
the major axis, and II
I
the minor axis.
into
Divide the
spaces
F
E,
F A, G D and G B
any convenient
oblique cut
sponding
lines of correplan as measured upon G as a basis of number. Therefore, with E
in
j
number of equal parts, as shown by the figures 1, 2, 3. From these points in V K and G 1) draw lines to I, and from the points in F A and G B draw lines to the
11,
>
New M<
/>//.
\Vn,ki'r
I'lttfcnt
Book.
point H.
Divide
F C and G C
also into
the same
ellipse,
and with four or
five centers to
each quarter,
number
from
of equal parts, as
shown by the
figures,
and
and I through each of these points draw lines, continuing them till they intersect lines of correspond
H
the curve thus produced can scarcely be distinguished from the perfect ellipse.
72.
To Draw an Approximate Ellipse with the Comto
ing traced through the several points of intersection between the two sets of lines, as shown in the engraving,
will
number
in the other set, as
indicated.
A
line
passes, the Length only being Given.
A
be any lepgth
figure.
which
it
is
In Fig. 215, let desired to draw an
elliptical
Divide
as
be an
ellipse.
From
3 as center, and
into four equal parts. with 3 1 as radius, strike the arc
center,
A
C
Besides the above methods for drawing correct ellipses there are several methods for drawing figures
BID,
and from
1
and the same radius,
approximating ellipses more or
less closely,
but com
B 3 D, intersecting the arc first struck in the points B and D. From B, through the points 1 and 3, draw the lines B E and B F indefinitely, and
strike the arc
from D,
in like
manner, draw the
lines
DG
and
D
II.
the point 1 as center, and with 1 as radius, strike the arc E G, and from 3 as center, with the same
radius,
From
A
or
its
equivalent,
3 C,
strike the arc strike the arc
II
F.
From D as
and from
center, with radius
D G,
E
G II,
B as center, equivalent, B E, strike
with the
the arc
same
radius, or its
F, thus completing
the figure.
figure of different proportions may be drawn in the same general manner as follows Divide the length C into four equal parts, as indicated in Fig. 216.
:
A
A
Fig. 215.Firat Method.
From
line
circle 1
2 as center, and with 2 1 as radius, strike the E 3 F. Bisect the given length C by the
A
B
D, as
and F.
lines
shown, cutting the circle in the points E From E, through the points 1 and 3, draw the
E G
1 as
and
E
H
indefinitely,
the same points, draw similar lines,
and from F, through F I and F K.
as radius, strike the
From
center,
and with
1
A
arc I G, and from 3 as center, with equal radius, From E as center, and with strike the arc K C H. radius E G, strike the arc G D H, and from F as center,
A
with corresponding radius, strike the arc I
Fig. 216.Second Method.
B K,
thus
completing the
73.
figure.
To Draw an Approximate
In Fig.
217, let
Ellipse with the
Com
To
Draw an Apprcximate
Ellipse with, the Campasteg, the Length only Being Given.
passes to Given Dimensions, Using
First Method.
Two
Sets of Centers.
A B
represent the
posed of arcs of
circles,
which
it is
sometimes necessary
to substitute for true ellipses for constructive reasons.
The
ellipse has
been described above as a curve drawn
length of the required figure and D E its width. Draw A B and D E at right angles to each other, and At the point A intersecting at their middle points. the perpendicular A F, and in length make it erect
with a constantly changing radius. If, instead of using an infinite number of radii, some finite number
equal to
C
D.
Bisect
A
be assumed, it will appear that the greater the number assumed the more nearly will it approach a perfect Thus, a curve very much like an ellipse can ellipse. be drawn, each quarter of which is composed of arcs
N D. From F draw N D in the point G. Bisect the line G D by ting line H I, perpendicular to G D and meeting D E in
Draw
point
ino'
I.
F, obtaining the point N. a line to E, as shown, cut
the the
In the same
I,
to
G
as
manner draw lines correspondshown by L I, M O and li 0. From I
drawn from two
centers.
If the
number
of centers be
and
arcs
as centers,
increased to three, the curve
comes much nearer a true
GD L
and
M
and with I G as radius, strike the E R, and from K and P as centers,
Problems,
65
with
K
74.
(!
as radius, strike tin arcs
<i
A M
ami L
1>
R,
(enter, with
F L
as radius, describe a circle, as
shown,
thus completing the liguiv.
To Draw an Approximate
Ellipse with the
Com
thus establishing the points M, and O, which, with are the centers from which the ellipse is to be struck. L,
N
passes to
Given Dimensions, Using; two Sets of Centers. Second Method. In Fig. 21s, lot C D represent the length of a ro<iiiro<l ellipse and A P> the width. Lay
these two dimensions
at
From M, draw
a similar
L Q and M manner () L P and
M
N S indefinitely, and in N R. With as center,
arc P D R, cutting O P similar manner, and with
oil'
right angles to (>aeh other,
eiiial
and and
the
O D as radius, strike the O R, as shown. In a
same radius
as
shown.
On C D
lay off a space
to the
width
of the required figure, as remainder of I) C, or the
parts, as
shown by
V.
1)
E.
Divide the
(', space With a radius equal to the cut. t\vo of these parts, and from \\ as center, strike the Then with V and G as centers, and V circle G S F T.
into three equal
(or which is the same, with M E as and as center, describe the arc Q E S. radius) With L and N as centers, and with L 15 or N C as
M
shown
in
radius, strike the arcs pleting the figure.
Q B P
of
and
RC
S, thus
comel
G
The above methods
drawing approximate
attempt
as radius, strike the arcs,
as
shown, intersecting upon
A
1?
prolonged at
()
and P.
points
G ami
F, draw
OL
and
From 0, through the M, and likewise from
lipses are only available within certain limits of prois made portion, as will be discovered if an
to
draw them very much dongated, the
limit being
e~
Fig. 217. First Method.
Fig. 218.
f
Second Method.
Fig. 219.
E
Third Method.
To
Draw an Approximate
Ellipse with the Compasses, Using
Two
Sets of Centers.
P, through the same points,
draw
P
K
and P N.
as radius, strike the arc From O as center, with O L M, and with the same radius, and P as center, strike N. From F and G as centers, and with F the arc
A
when the long diameter is about equal to two times the shorter diameter. Beyond this limit in the
reached
if the final arc be drawn with the 217 and 218), it will not reach the end of the long diameter, but will strike it at a point
first
two methods,
K
radius
G
K
(Figs.
D
and
GC
as radii,
strike
the arcs
NM
and
KL
re
the figure. spectively, thus completing Draw an Approximate Ellipse with the Com15. To passes to Given Dimensions, Using Two Sets of Centers. Third Method. In Fig. 219, let B C represent the length
of the required figure and
inside of
DE
its
width.
BC
and
DE
the long about 2f times the shorter, the point L (Fig. 219) will fall at the extreme limit of the long diameter (B), thus completely cutting
if
A
or C.
By
the third method,
it
diameter be increased until
is
out the small arc
P
Q.
are
at right angles to each other, intersecting at The next step in describing their middle points at F.
drawn
cases be left to the
must, therefore, in extreme judgment of the draftsman to
It
the figure is to obtain the di (Terence in length between the axes F D and F B, which can be done as indicated
adjust or vary the lengths of the radii of the two arcs so as to produce the result which will look the best.
76.
To Draw an Approximate
Ellipse with the
Com
by the
(
arc
D
G.
'rom the center
J, then
F
II
F.
draw
This difference, G B, is to be set off on F B and F D, as shown by F H, J and set off half of J to L, as
H
passes to Given Dimensions, Using: Three Sets of Centers. In Fig. 220, let B represent the length of the reand D E the width. Draw B and D quired figure
A
A
L. The object of the operation by the arc to secure the point L. From F as so far has been
indicated
K
E
at right angles
to
each other, intersecting at their
at C.
middle points, as shown
From
the point
A
draw
66
The Xew Metal Worker Pattern
to B, and in length equal to C Divide F the points F and D, as shown. Join D. into three equal parts, thus obtaining the points Z and and I D. Divide C into I, and draw the lines Z
A
F v perpendicular
A
of
to
A
X K
(),
draw P
R, perpendicular to
X O and
parallel
M.
78.
Then
N
(.)
and
P K
are tho axes of the
ellipse.
D
A
In a Given Ellipse, to Find Centers by which an
three equal parts, as
G
and E Z D and
Bisect
shown by Y and G, and draw E Y, prolonging them until they intersect with
I
Approximate Figure may be Constructed E B D be any ellipse, in which it let
In Fig.
is
222,
A
required to
D
respectively,
in
the points J and
II.
J D, and draw
KL
H
point, intersecting
DE
J L and
H
J.
dicular to
its
and draw M N perpenDraw central point, meeting J L in N.
Bisect
J,
perpendicular to its central prolonged in the point L. Draw
find centers by which an approximate Jigure may be drawn with the compasses. Draw the axes A B and E D. From the point A draw A F, perpendicular to A B, and make it equal to C E. Join F and E.
Divide
to
A F
four.
into as
many
equal parts as
it is
desired
in
N
II, cutting center of the arc J
A B
D
in the point 0.
L
K.
then
is
the
have
sets of
centers
for the figure.
In this
Divide
J,
and
is
P, the center of the arc
to
N
is
the center of the arc II
stance
Therefore,
A
F
is
divided
(i.
into four
HA
The
points
to
equal parts, as shown
into
by P<) and
A
('
S and U, corresponding
N
and 0, from which
the same
number
of equal parts, as
shown by R
BP
Fig.
220.
To
Draw
an
Approximate
Fiij. %%1.
Ellipse with the Compasses, Using Three Sets of Centers.
To Find the True Axes of a Given Ellipse.
Fit/.
222.
In
a Given
Ellipse,
to
Find
Centers by which mi Approximate Fiyure may be Constructed.
upper part of the figure, Havbe obtained by measurement, as indicated. may drawn so much of the figure as can be struck from ing
strike the remainder of the
S T.
to E.
From the points of division in A F draw From D draw lines passing through the
lines
divi
sions in
lines
A
C, prolonging
them
until they intersect the
these centers, set the dividers to the distance
J, will be
L P
or
L
drawn from
and placing one point at E, the remaining center found at the other point of the dividers, in the line E D prolonged, as shown by X.
11. To Find the True Axes of a. Given Ellipse.
and D W. and from the center of each erect which prolong until they intersect
line perpendicular to
shown by D U, Draw the chords U V, V and
A
F
to E, as
W
W E,
DV
a
perpendicular,
:
as follows
In
P Fig. 221, let to find the quired
any
lines,
N
R
be any
ellipse, of
which
it is re
E D
in
the point
AB
these two lines
two axes. Through the ellipse draw and D E, parallel to each other. Bisect and draw F G, prolonging it until it
ellipse in the points II
the perpendicular to
WE D. Now V W W
The
intersects the
center line
draw
it
D
W and
D
till
intersects
W
C
prolong
in
K,
and draw
till it
cuts
K V. Prolong the perpendicular K V in L and draw L I', cutting A
U
to
U V
in the
meets the sides of the
Bisect the line
and
I.
H K
I,
obtaining the point C.
From C
as
center, with any convenient radius, describe the arc
Then D is the center of the arc E W, K is point S. the center of the arc V, L is the center of the an; and S is the center of the arc N. By these
VU
(A
K
L M,
and M.
Bisect
cutting the sides of the ellipse at the points K and Join by a straight line, as shown.
centers
to
it
will
lie
M
E)
may
0, perpendicular to it. by which will also be found to be the center Through C,
M K
seen that onequarter of the figure be struck. By measurement, corre
the line
N
sponding points
the figure.
may
be located
in
other portions of
If correctly
done the points U, V and
W
dreamt /na.tl Problems.
67
will
be found to
the arcs
fall upon the ellipse. consequently drawn between those points from the centers
obtained cannot deviate
79.
To Draw
the correct ellipse. Lines of an Elliptical Arch. the Joint
much from
First Method.
In a circular arch the lines representing the joints between the stones forming the arch, or the voussoirs as they are properly called, are drawn
radially from the center of the semicircle of the arch.
In
Draw A I) parallel to C B, and D B parallel to and draw the diagonals B and C D. From C, each of the points 1, 2, 3, etc., representing the joints, From their interdrop lines vertically, cutting C D. sections with C D carry them at right angles to B,
line.
A
A
A
cutting the springing line
figures
1",
2",
3%
etc.
C B, as shown by the small From the points in C B draw
an' elliptical
dillicuit,
arch this operation is somewhat more as the true ellipse possesses no such single
B
C
Fig 223. First Method. the Joint Lines of an Elliptical Arch.
To
Draw
as has been explained. course must be pursued Therefore, following From any point upon the ellipse at which it is desired to locate a joint, as A, Fig. 223, draw a line to each of the foci, as A B and A C. Risect the angle
point, but, instead,
two
foci,
the
:
3'
4"
5'
B
Fig. 224,Second Method.
To
Draw
the Joint Lines of
an
Elliptical Arch.
BAG
lines
(Prob. 12 in this chapter), as shown at D, and extend outside the ellipse, which will be the joint the line D
as 1' 1,
through corresponding points in the arch A B, 2" 2, 3' 3, etc., and continue them through
A
the face of the arch which will be the joint lines
line required.
80. To
Second
the Joint Lines of an Elliptical Arch. R is onehalf the curve Method. In Fig. 224,
Draw
A
sought. In the case of an elliptical curve made up of arcs of circles, the joint lines would be drawn radially from
the centers of the arcs in which they occur.
of the arch,
A
C
its
center line and
C B
its
springing
THE VOLUTE.
metrical nature based
an architectural figure of a geoupon the spiral, and is of quite in one form or another, consefrequent occurrence different methods of quently some remarks upon the
The volute
is
ducing
it
it
From 4 draw
until
it
it cuts the line 2 4 in the point 4. a line perpendicular to 3 4, producing In like meets the line 1 3 in the point 5.
until
manner draw
etc.,
5 6
and 6
7.
The
points 1, 2, 3, 4,
be out of place. drawing Let D A, in Fig. 81. To Draw a Simple Volute. be the width of a scroll or other member for 225,
it
will not
thus obtained are the centers by which the curve of the volute is struck. From 1 as center, and with 1
D
as radius,
which
it
is
desired to
draw a volute termination.
to three times
from 2
as center,
Then describe the quarter circle D C. and 2 C as radius, describe the
Draw the line D 1, in length equal A, as shown by D A, A R and B 1.
1
D
quarter circle
C
F, and so continue using the centers
From
that
line
the point
to two
in their numerical order until the curve intersects with
draw
1 2 at right angles to
D
1,
and
in length equal
is,
to twothirds the
width of the
scroll
and struck from the the other curve beginning at same centers, thus completing the figure, as shown.
82.
A
thirds of
D
A.
From
and
2
draw the
2 3 perpen2
To Draw an Ionic Volute.
Draw
the line
A
dicular to 1 2,
1
2.
in length equal to threequarters of
Draw
line perpendicular by 2 4, indefiFrom 3 draw a line perpendicular to 2 3, pronitely.
the diagonal line 1 3. to 1 3, as shown
From
draw a
B, Fig. 226, equal to the hight of the required volute, and divide it into seven equal parts. From the third
division
line at
and from a point on this any convenient distance from A B describe
draw the
line 3
C,
:i
68
The Xcw Mdal Worker
I'allcnt
Book.
the diameter of which shall equal one of the This circle forms B. seven divisions of the line In order to show its dimenthe eye of the volute.
circle,
the circle
first
drawn.
the
To
obtain the centers
is
by which
its
c,
A
the
inner
line of
volute
struck, and which
sions, etc.,
it
is
enlarged in Fig.
227.
A
square,
D
gradually approaches the outer line throughout Produce the line 3 course, proceed as follows
:
E F G, is constructed, and the diagonals G E and F D are drawn. F E is bisected at the point 1, and the
line 1 2 is
Fig. 227, until
it
intersects
1
2 in the point I
1
,
which
drawn
parallel to
G
E.
The
line 2 3 is
then 'drawn indefinitely from 2 parallel to F D, cutto the The distance from ting G E in the point II.
H
center of
parts, as
the circle
shown by
H
divided into three equal 1 is The triangle 2 a b O.
is
formed.
On
the line
H H
set off a point, as
c,
at a
distance from
equal to
onehalf of one of the three
From has been divided. equal parts into which to 1 O, producing it until c draw the line c 3 parallel From 3 draw the line 3 4 it cuts 2 3 in the point 3.
E indefinitely. From the point c draw a parallel to line c 4 parallel to 2 0, cutting the line 3 4 in the
point 4, completing the triangle c 3 4. the line 4 5 parallel to F D, meeting 1
5.
G
From 4 draw
in the point
From
5
draw the
line 5 6 parallel to
G
E, meeting
line,
the line 2
in the point 6.
From
6 draw the
c 3 in
6
7 parallel to
F
D, meeting the line
the point 7.
Fig.
S26.To Draw an
Ionic Volute.
mark. This operation gives also the points ',)' and 5* of intersection with the lines parallel to 1 2, whidi also mark. In like manner produce 4 c, 1 O and 2
O, as
points
shown by the dotted
of intersection
1
lines,
and mark the several
lines.
formed with the cross
Then
the points I , 2', 3', 4', etc., thus obtained are the centers for the inner line of the volute, which
use in the same manner as described for producing the outer line.
83.
To Draw a
the
Spiral from Centers with Compasses.
Divide
Fig. 225.
circumference of
the primary
some
To
Draw a Simple
Volute.
times called the eye of the spiral into any number of equal parts; the larger the number of parts the
Proceed
in this
8, 9, 10, 11
manner, obtaining the remaining points, and 12. These points form the centers
more regular
will
be the
spiral.
Fig. 228
shows the
is
primary divided into six equal parts.
enlarged view of
this portion of the
Fig. 22!
an
by which the outer line of the volute proper is drawn. From 1 as center, and with radius 1 F, Fig. 226, deThen from 2 as center, scribe the quarter circle F G.
and with radius 2 G describe the quarter circle G D, and so continue striking a quarter circle from each of the centers above described until the last arc meets
preceding figure. Construct the polygon by drawing the lines 1 2, 2 3,
3 4, etc.. producing
shown by A, B, D,
with 2
center,
1 as radius,
F,
them outside and E.
of the primary, as From 2 as center,
describe the arc
A
B.
From
3 as
and 3
B
as radius,
describe the arc
B D;
and
(li'iinn
C,!)
with 4 as center, witli radius 4 D, describe the arc D F. In this manner the spiral may be continued iiv
;(
toj),
K A
at
the bottom and
A B A
at the side, the
length of
scroll,
A
B,
which determines the width
of the
nuiuber of
revolutions.
Jn
the resulting ligure the
various revolutions will be parallel. 84. To Draw a Spiral by Means of a Spool and Set the spool as shown bv Thread. D B in Fig.
A
Bisect being given. B, obtaining the C. Let the distance between the beginning point and ending of the first revolution of the scroll, shown by a c. l)o established at pleasure. Having determined
Fig. 231.
To
Draw a Scroll
to
a
Specified Width.
Fig. 233. The Center SSI Enlarged.
of Fig.
this
Fig. 227.
Eye.
distance, take oneeighth of
it
and
set it off up
of the Volute
in Fig.
226 Enlarged.
230 and wind a thread around it. Make a loop, E, in the end of the thread, in which plaee a pencil, as Hold the spool firmly and move the pencil shown.
around
it,
ward from C on the line A B, thus obtaining the point From draw a horizontal line of any convenient b. With one point of the comlength, as shown by b h.
l>
unwinding the thread.
A
curve will be deof the figure
as radius, describe an arc passes set at b, and with b In like manner, the line b h in the point 1. cutting from the same center, with radius b B, describe an arc
A
scribed, as
ing.
shown
in the dotted
lines of the engrav
It is evident that the proportions
erect a square, as
cutting the line b h in the point 2. shown by 1 2 3 4.
Upon
1 2 as a
base
1 as
Then from
Fig. 228.
To
Draw a
Spiral
from
Centers.
Fig. 129.
Enlarged View of the Eye of the Spiral in
Fig. 228.
Fig.
SSO.To Draw a
Spiral
by
Means of a Spool and Thread.
Hence a determined by the size of the spool. is to be used, as circumstances larger or smaller spool
are
require.
center,
with 1 a as radius, describe an arc,
as center, with 2 b as radius,
ab; and
from 2
b
c.
describe the arc
85. To
Draw a
Scroll to a Specified Width, as for a
arc c
From 3 as center, with radius 3 e, describe the From 4 as center, with radius 4 d, describe d.
e.
Bracket or Modillion.
In Fig. 231, let it be required to construct a scroll which shall touch the line D B at the
the arc d
If
the curve were continued from
it
e,
being
struck from the same centers,
would run
parallel to
70
Tin' \rir
MI
ti/l
\Vnrlfl
1'iilli'i'n
linn/..
but as the inner line of the scroll runs parallel to the outer line, its width may be set off at pleasure, as shown by a a', and the inner line may be drawn by the same centers as already used for the outer, and conitself;
equal to onehalf of the space from 4 to 1, making 4 to 8 equal the distance of 5 to 1. Make 5 to 6 equal the distance from 8 to 5. After obtaining the points
5, (!, 7, etc., in this manner, so many of them arc i<> be used as are necessary to make the outer curve inter1
tinued until
find
by the centers from which
it is
intersected
the outer curve.
To
to complete the outer
sect the inner one, as
shown
at
<j.
Thus
5
is
used as
curve, construct upon the line of the last radius above used (4 e) a smaller square within the larger one, as
a center for the arc e/, and (i as a center for the are f g. If the distance a a' were taken less than here given, it is easy to see that more of the centers upon the small square would require to be used to arrive at
shown by
5678.
Thi?
is
better illustrated
by the
larger diagram, Fig. 232, in
which
sent the same points.
Make
like figures reprethe distance from 5 to 8
the intersectiou.
p
x_/
CHAPTER
V.
To any one wishing
a profession it is to solve a large number of intricate problems, but that he understand thoroughly the principles which underlie
to pursue pattern cutting as essential not only that lie know how
I.
The
first
of these embraces moldings,
pipes
and
r/'ijnhu
continuous forms, and
may
be called forms
of parallel lines, or as a shorter name to use, parallel forms.
II.
and more convenient
such operations.
It is, therefore, appropriate, be
The second, which
will
fore introducing pattern problems, that some attention should be given t<> the? explanation of such principles
ing forms, comprehends all or pyramids, or from solids
be called regular tapershapes derived from cones having any of the regular
order that the reasons for the steps taken in the demonstrations following mav be readily understood.
in
geometric figures as a base and which terminate in an
apex.
III.
Underlying the entire range of problems peculiar to sheet metal work are certain fundamental principles,
which, when thoroughly understood, make plain and simple that which otherwise would appear arbitrary,
if
The
third class will be called irregular forms,
and
will include everything not classified
under either
of the
two previous heads.
Many
of
these might be
not actually mysterious.
is
ing
risked in
So true is this that noththat any one who thoroughly asserting
the steps in connection with cutting is able to cut any miter what
that is, pieces which properly called transition pieces have figures of various outlines placed at various
comprehends
all
angles as their bases, and have figures with differing outlines variously placed, as their upper terminations,
a simple square miter Since almost soever.
any one can cut a square miter, the question at once arises, in view of this statement, why is it that he cannot cut a raking miter, or a pin
thus forming transitions, or connecting pieces between the form which lies next them at one end and the
adjacent form on the other end. While pieces of metal of any shape necessary to form the covering of a solid of any shape may properly be called patterns, the shapes of pieces necessary
to
The nacle miter, or any other equally difficult form? answer is, because he does not understand how he cuts
He may perform the operation square miter. as he has been taught, and produce results entirely just satisfactory from a mechanical standpoint, without bethe
form the
joints
angle are
known
between moldings meeting at an This name distinctively as miters.
He does ing intelligent as to all that he has done. not comprehend the w\\y and wherefore of the steps Hence it is that when he undertakes some taken.
other miter he finds himself deficient.
applies equally well in sheet metal work if the two arms of the moldiag are not of the same profile, or to
face.
There
is
a wide difference between the skill that
arm coming against any plain or irregular surThese forms comprise the first class referred to above and, so far as principle is concerned, come under the same general rules, which will be subsequently
a single
given. Conical
produces a pattern memorv and that
steps.
by
rote
by a mere
effort of the
One
its
is
which reasons out the successive worth but very little, while the other
renders
It is with a desire possessor independent. to put the student in possession of this latter kind of as to every operation skill, to render him intelligent to be performed, that the present chapter is written.
forms, with very little taper, coming other forms are also said to miter with them. against In fact, the word miter has come into such general use
often applied to any joint between pieces of metal ; but the term can scarcely be considered as correct when the forms have very much taper. The
that
it is
the pattern cutter has to for convenience of deseription, deal may be divided, into three general classes
:
The forms with which
principle involved in the development of such patterns, however, is the same as that applied to the develop
ment
of the surfaces of
all
other regular tapering forms,
Tin:
.\in
Mitnl
\\'i>//,rr
I'atl'fii
I in, I,.
referred to above as the second class,
istics will
whose character
This
ter
is
one of the instances
in
which the pattern cut
be considered in their proper chapter.
for developing the patterns
triinii/nlii
The method employed
tion,
required to be draftsman, and to this
is
something of an architectural end a chapter ofi Linear Draw
for forms of the third class has been termed
and is adopted on account of its simplicity, as it does away with the reduction or subdivision of an irregular form into a number of smaller regular forms, each one of which would have to be treated separately
ing (Chap. Ill) has been introduced, in which attention is given to this phase of the work, and to which the student
is
referred.
The arrangement
of the
problems
in each of the
and perhaps by a different method. In fact, there are some shapes which have arisen from force of circumstances which it would be impossible to separate into regular parts, and even if they could be so separated such a course would result in tedious and complicated
operations.
sections of the succeeding chapter will be made with reference to these two conditions, the simpler ones
being placed before those in which preliminary drawing
is
required.
Parallel
Forms.
After principles have been thoroughly explained
the problems in this work will follow in three sections or departments of the final chapter, arranged according to the above classification.
(MITER CUTTING.)
Since in sheet metal work a molding is made by bending the sheet until it fits a given stay, a molding may be defined mechanically as a succession of paral
Fig. 23S.
Profile
of a Molding.
Fig.
XS4.A
Stay.
Fig. 235.
A
Reverse Stay.
Two
conditions exist in regard to
all
the work of
lei
developing patterns of
of the three classes
yifxt
forms, no matter to which
above defined they
may belong
:
many cases a simple elevation or plan of the intersecting parts, together with their profiles, is all that is necessary to begin the work of developing
In very
the pattern
forms or bends to a given stay, and, so far as the mechanic is concerned, any continuous form or arrangement of parallel continuous forms, made for any purpose whatever, may be considered a molding and treated under the same rules in all the operations of
pattern cutting.
lel
Keeping
this fact in
mind
all
paral
may
be,
the plan or elevation, as the case shows the line (either straight or curved)
that
is,
forms will be considered as moldings and that word will be used in the demonstrations, remembering
that a difference in
profile,
which represents the surface against which another in other words, the much sought part is to be fitted for " miter line."
;
In numerous other instances, however, no view can be drawn either in elevation, oblique or otherwise, or in plan, in which the miter or junction
X'miul
of the parts will appear as a simple straight or curved In such line against which the points can be dropped.
molding may be defined theoretically as a form or surface generated by a profile passed in a straight or curved line from one point to another, this profile at being the shape that would be seen when
its
A
name simply means a difference of but not a difference in treatment or principle.
looking the molding were cut off square. practical illustration of this may be given as follows: In
end
if
A
cases
it
becomes necessary
to
do some preliminary
to the actual
Fig. 233, let the form
shown be the
profile of
tin
some
in order to prepare the of laying out the pattern.
work
way
A
view of
be developed by means of intersections will show it as it appears in connection with the
tion or plan to be used in developing the
work the joint must of lines which
elevapattern.
molding.
If
this
shape be cut out of
sheet iron, as shown in Fig. 234, it is For the purpose of this illustration, as will appear further on, a stay, the reverse of the one shown in Fig.
plate or called a stay.
234, or, in other words, the piece cut from the face or
i
if Pull, iil
Cull! inf.
outside of the shape represented
in
that
figure,
as
shown in Fig. !''>>, Having made
as
it
will
a
required. reverse stav, or
:>:>;>,
!>
To cut such a pattern by means of a straight line drawn from a point corresponding to the end of the
longer side of the mold, to a point corresponding to the end of the shorter side of it, would not be right,
evidently, because certain parts of the covering, when formed up, fold down into the angles of the molding, and therefore would require to be either longer or
shorter, as the case
" outside
take
stay,
plastic
is
sometimes
called, Fig.
some
material
smooth
as potters' day and, placing it against any as of a hoard, place the stay against surface,
in
the board near one end
tical lines
such a position that
its
ver
move
are parallel with the ends of the board, and this reverse stav in a straight line along the faee
a
might be, than
then, that
if
cut as above de
scribed.
It is plain,
some plan must be
of the board until
continuous form
to
is
obtained in the
all
dav corresponding
illustrated
in
the profile of the stay,
as
devised by which measurements can be taken in all these angles or bends, and at as many intermediate
points as
Fig.
!'!<>.
Bv
this operation will
be
may be
all
produced a molding in accordance with the second The purpose in introducing definition above given. this illustration is to show more dearly than is otherwise possible the principles upon which the different
length at
necessary, in order to obtain the right This can points throughout its width.
:
be done quite simply as follows Divide the curved parts of the stay into any convenient number of equal parts, and at each division
cut a notch, or affix a point to it. Replace the stay in the position it occupied in producing the
molding shown in Fig. 236 and
pass
it
again
to
over
the
entire
length of the model.
fastened
leave
points the stay will then tracks or lines upon the
The
surface of the
molding.
Now,
by means
of
measurement upon
the different lines thus produced, the length of the molding at all of
Firj. 236.
Generating a Molding in Plastic Material by Means of a Reverse Stay
the several points established in the stay may be obtained. All
this is clearly illustrated in Fig.
parts of a molding tern cutting.
are
measured
in
the process of pat
In the upper right hand corner of the illustration is shown the stay prepared with points, by
237.
Suppose that the form produced as illustrated in be completed, and that both ends of the Fig. 23 It is evident, upon inbe cut off square. molding
(5
moving which
as
above described
lines are left
upon
the face of the molding, as shown to the left Now, upon a sheet of paper fastened to a draw
spection,
that the length of a piece of sheet metal will be necessary to form a covering to this molding the length of the molding itself, and that the width of the piece will be equal to the distance obtained Inaround the outline of the stay which was
B in ing board, draw a vertical line, as shown by and upon that line set off with the dividers Fig. 237,
the width of each space or part of the profile or stay that is, make the space 1 2 in the line B equal to
A
A
measuring used in giving shape to the molding.
thinbladed knife, or
Now
with a
the space 1 2 in the stay, and 2 3 in the line B to 2 3 of the stay, and so continue until all the equal
A
by means
of a piece of fine wire
stretched tight, let one end of the clay molding just constructed be cut off at any angle. By inspection of when thus cut, as clearly shown in the upper the form
it is evident that the end of a pattern part of Fig. 237, to form a covering' of this model must have such a
and from the points thus obspaces are transferred B draw lines at right angles to it indefitained in
A
nitely, as
shown to the
left.
The
lines an dspaces
upon
the paper will then correspond to the lines and spaces upon the clay molding made by the points fastened to
shape as will
oblique end
make
it
when formed up conform
to
the
the stay. Next, measure with the dividers the length of the molding upon each of the lines drawn upon it,
of the
molding or model.
and
set off the
same lengths upon the corresponding
T/IC
l
\\'<nl,rr
J'iitti'iil
lines
drawn upon the paper.
a.
This gives
lie
:i
scries of
line,
points through which
line
may
traced which will
required
which represents the surface against which it is to' miter, the same results can. he accom
shape to the oblique end of the molding. B on the line on the paper the Thus, set off from length of the molding, measured from its straight end
correspond
in
A
1
plished, care only being necessary that the relative positions of the parts lie correctly maintained.
is illustrated in Fig. 23s, which is to be with Fig. 237, and shows First, that the compared is drawn in correct Next, that profile position.
:
This
upon the line produced by point 1 of the stav upon its face: and upon each of the other lines on the paper set off the length of the molding on
to its oblique end,
A
from
it
the elevation
F C D G
of the
molding
is
pro
the corresponding line on its face, measuring from the square end each time,
which
is
represented by the line
A B
of
the drawing. By this means are obtained points through which, if a line be traced, as shown by C D, the pattern of the covering will be described.
The
line
A B,
containing measurements from the profile, is called the "stretchout line,"
and the lines drawn through the points in it and at right angles to it arc mathematically known as ordinates, but will in
this
work be called " measuring lines." Now, what has been done in Fig. 237 illustrates what is called " miter cutting," which in other words consists in
describing upon a flat surface the shape of a given form or envelope, so that when the envelope is cut out of the flat surface and
its
formed up
will
fit
to the stay
from which
stretchout was
molding
derived, the finished against 'a given surface at
a given angle previously specified. The pattern shown in the lower part
of Fig. 237, which has been obtained by means of a clay model, and measurements
for which were obtained from the lines drawn on the surface of the clay model mav be obtained just as well from a drawing.
Fig.
SS7.The Use of Lines
in Obtaining the Envelope of a Molding from a Model
The question then
results be obtained
is,
how
can the
jected,
of the Same.
same
surface as were obtained
by lines drawn upon a flat by measurements on lines
as follows:
I'se in
position
shown by B
the Tsquare in the general the engraving, bringing it
drawn along the surface of a molding? In moving the stay along the clay molding, certain lines were made by means of the points affixed. If the reader will carefully examine Fig. 237 he will
notice that the lines
against the several points in A. in order to draw the Draw a line for each of the angles in the profile lines.
also one corresponding to each of the intermediate points in the curved parts of the stay. Draw line F G, representing the oblique cut, and the the
A, and
upon the molding made by this means corresponded in number and position with the points in the profile when it is laid flat on its side, in a
C D, representing the straight end. Then it will be seen that F C D G of Fig. 238, so far as lines are
line
position exactly opposite the end of the modef, as shown. Hence, if the profile be drawn upon paper and in
line
concerned,
of clay,
is
shown
exactly the same as the molding made in Fig. 237. The line F G, bv the
a miter.,
is
with
it,
the elevation terminated
by the oblique
definition of
the
"miter line"
of
this
Principles nf
molding.
stretchout
scribed
II
in
It represents
is
the surface against which the
to
lit.
a,
in the position
shown by the dotted
end of the molding
Next lay oil' supposed in the same manner as deof the profile A, eiiiiiieetion which Fig. 'I'M, all as shown hy
Therefore,
follows
:
instead of
lines in Fig. 238. the dividers proceed as using
Place the Tsquare as shown at E, and,
it
bringing
successively against the points in
F
G, cut
Fig. 23s, through the points in which draw measuring lines at right angles to it, or, what is the
in
K
measuring
lines of corresponding
a dot or short dash placed across
number by means of the line. Then a line
Now, same, parallel make each of these lines equal in length to the line of
to the lines
of the moldings.
traced as before through the points of intersection thus obtained, as shown from L to M, will be the shape of the
pattern necessary to make it fit against a surface placed at the angle represented by the miter line F G. By this illustration
may
all
that the T sc uare be used with great advantage in
it
is
shown
l
transferring measurements under almost
circumstances.
is
Since
now
the T
square
to
be used instead of the
dividers to locate the points in the patterns, the stretchout line is not needed
as a starting point
from which
to
meas
ure lengths and located at will.
may, therefore, be For convenience, it
should be placed as near to the miter line as possible. Hence, in practical
work, supposing that the molding represented
by F C
D G
is
not a very
short piece, the stretchout line, instead of being opposite the end C D, would
be placed somewhere near the
line of the
blade of the Tsquare when in its posiShould the arm required be tion at E.
short, a line
drawn opposite the square
double purpose of a and of the outline of
end
will serve the
stretchout line
Fig. 23S.
Obtaining the Envelope of a Molding from a Drawing of the Same by the Use of the
the square end of the pattern. By further inspection of Fig. 238, it will be seen that, instead of drawing
corresponding number drawn across the elevation from C D to F G.
that If, as suggested in the previous illustration of dividers to measure the length of bv using a pair
A
all
the lines from the points in the profile the entire length of the molding, as there shown, that is necessary to the operation is a short line
the profile, The use of
is,
corresponding to each of the points of extending only across the miter line F G.
the molding from C D to F G on the several lines these lengths be set off on corresponding lines drawn from the stretchout line II K, a pattern will be obtained in
all
these lines, it is evident, is only to locate intersections upon the mitfcr line. In other words, all that is needed
the points in the profile transferred to the miter F G. The operation of transferring these points by short lines, as above described, is termed dropfrom the profile to the miter line. ping the points
is
A
respects
corresponding
to
the
pattern
line
shown
in Fig. 237, already referred to.
By
' '
of the result thus obtained,
however, it that each point in L M is directly under the point of that the same corresponding number in line F G, and be accomplished by using the Tsquare placed thing may
inspection will be seen
' '
If,
irAtead of the molding terminating against a
plane surface, as shown by F quired to develop a pattern to
G
in Fig. 238,
it
be
re
fit
against an irregular
76
surface, the
The New Mckd
II
Hook.
method
of procedure
same, simply substituting for the straight
would be exactly the Hue F G a
would be
problems.
difficult
New
to compile a complete list of miter combinations of shapes and new con
From this it will Inrepresentation of that surface. seen that all that is required to develop the pattern of any miter is that a correct representation (elevation or
plan) of the molding be made, showing the angle of the miter, and that a profile be so drawn that it shall
ditions are continually arising. The best that can be done, therefore, in a book of this character, is to present a selection of problems calculated to show the
most common application
of principles
fully studied, will so familiarize the student
which, carewith them
be in
line with the elevation of the
molding
its
face
that he will have no difficulty afterward in working
out the patterns for whatever shapes may come up in his practice, whether they be of those specifically illustrated or not.
foregoing the following summary of requirements, together with a general rule for cutting all miters whatsoever, are derived
:
From
the
fig. 239.
Comparison Between a Butt Miter and a Miter Between Two Moldings at Any Angle.
Requirements. There must be a plan, elevation or other view of the shape, showing the line of the joint or surface against which it miters, in line with
being so placed as to agree with the face of the molding and that points from the subdivisions of the pro
which must be drawn a profile or sectional view of same, and this profile must be prepared for use bv having all its curved portions divided into such a
be carried parallel to the molding, their intersections with the miter line being marked by short lines.
file
In order to more clearly indicate the point desired
this summary of requirements, suppose that upon each of two pieces of molding made of wood, miters at the same angle be cut (right and left) by means of a
by
in Fig. 239.
saw, and that they be then placed together, as shown Now, if a piece of sheet iron, for ex
ample, be slipped into the joint, as shown by A, and then one arm of the miter be removed what is left will
be exactly what is shown in Fig. 238. In other words, a miter between two straight pieces of molding of the same profile is exactly the same as a miter of the same
mold against
cutting
a plane, and, hence, the operation of the pattern in such a case as shown in Fig.
239
238.
is
identical with that described in Figs.
237 and
From this it is plain to be seen that the central idea in miter cutting is to bring the points from the profile against the miter line, no matter what may be
shape or position, and from the miter line into a Inasmuch as all stretchout prepared to receive them.
its
Fig. 24D.
Usual Method of Cutting a Square Return Miter.
is
moldings,
if
they do not
cates of themselves,
against
some
or miter with duplieither terminate square or dissimilar profile, it follows that the two
member
number
It
must
of spaces as convenience.
consistent with accuracy and
may be remarked
here that the division of the
illustrations given cover in principle the entire cata
profile into spaces is
only an approximate method of
logue of miters.
The principles here explained are the fundamental principles in the art of pattern cutting, and It their application is universal in sheet metal work.
As theoretically the straight obtaining a stretchout. distance from one of the assumed points to another
upon a curved line is less than the distance measured around the curve, and the shorter the radius of the
Principles of Pattern
Cutting.
77
curve the greater
the arc which
it
is
this difference (a
chord
is le.s.s
than
subtends,) hence the greater the number of points assumed the greater will be the accuracy, and a curve of short radius should be divided more
does not employ a miter line, Yet it and, therefore, appears to be an exception. has been remarked that a thorough understanding of
building, for example
how
The profile thus closely than one of longer radius. a succession of plane surfaces. represents practically Rule. 1. Place a stretchout of the profile on a
line at right angles to the direction of the molding, as
a square miter is cut comprehends within itself the science of miter cutting. The square return miter for such is the distinctive name applied to the kind
of square miter in question is an exception to the rule only in the sense that it admits of an general
shown
1
in the
plan, elevation or other view, through the points in which draw
L
abbreviated method.
usually the
first
i
t
The short rule for cutting it is thing a pattern cutter learns, and the
measuring
lines parallel to
2.
N
I
\ii
nor,CM p PROFILE
the molding.
Drop
lines
from the points
in the profile
operation is very generally explained to him without any reason being given for the several steps taken. In many cases it would bother him to cut the pattern
to the miter line or line of
joint, carrying them in the direction of the molding till
by any other than
is
the short method, even after he had
obtained considerable proficiency in his
that, to all
art. Hence it who have any previous knowledge of
they intersect said
line.
3.
Drop
lines
from the
inter
pattern ciitting the rules above set forth seem inadequate, or, to put it otherwise, are a formula to which.
there are exceptions. To clear up these doubts in the
sections thus obtained with
the miter or joint line on to the measuring lines of the
stretchout, at right angles to the direction of the molding.
mind
of the stu
dent an illustration of the short method of cutting a square miter is here introduced, and afterward the long
method, or the plan which is in strict accordance with the rule above given, will be presented, combined with
the short method, thus showing the relationship and correspondence between the two.
In making the application of this rule the student
must not forget that the word profile covers a vast
2iO shows the usual method of developing a square return miter, being that in which no plan lino
Fig.
is
into
B is divided employed. The profile convenient number of spaces, as any
by the small figures in the enThe stretchout E Fis laid off at
A
indicated
graving.
PA
right angles to the lines of the moldings, and, through the points in it, measuring lines are drawn parallel to the lines of
From the points established in moldings. the profile lines are dropped cutting corresponding measuring lines. Then the pattern
Fvj. ^41.
Comparison Between
Short or Usual Method of Cutting a Square Miter and the Method Prescribed by the Rule.
the.
or miter cut
line
II is obtained by tracing a these points of intersection. through In this operation it will be noticed that
G
line range of outlines, varying from a simple straight to an entire section of a roof or even more, where large
the stipulations of the
fully complied with
part of the rule have been that is, the stretchout line has
first
curved surfaces are to be treated, and that a rule that to the others equally applies to one can be applied
well.
gives careful attention to these rules will at once 'remark that the operation of cutting that is, a miter between the a common square miter
The student who
been drawn at right angles to the lines of the molding, and measuring lines have been drawn parallel to those lines, but it would seem that the second and third parts of the rule as given are not applicable. Apparently no miter line has been employed, but the points have been dropped directly from the profile into the measuring lines.
moldings running across two adjacent sides of a square
78
Sete M'tai
H "(,//(/
Pattern
in order to make this clear Fig. 241 is hero introduced in which the proper relation of parts is shown
as given,
is
that of getting the miter line in a
profile.
wrong
which the pattern is developed according to and in which is also shown the short method and rule, how it is derived from the long method.
in
and
For example, instead of drawing a complete plan, as shown bv L II F K M in Fig. i>41, by which the miter line is located to a certainty, and in connection with which it is a
simple matter to correctly place the profile,
it
position with reference to the
As the angle of a return miter can only be shown a plan, the plan becomes the first necessity accordby F M ing to the rule and is shown in the cut by
is
not
H
K
L, F G showing the lino upon which the two anus of the molding meet that is, the miter line. The B appears duly in line with one arm of the profile
G
attempt the operation by drawing the miter line only, placing it either above, below or at one side of the profile. The mistake is made bv havto
uncommon
A
F G L. This arm, then, is the part of which plan the pattern is about to be developed accordingly the stretchout line is then drawn at right angles to this
;
H
ing the line at the side of the profile when it should be either above or below it, and vice versa. Fig. 242 illustrates a ease in point. The engraving was made
L
.
B
,
arm, as
shown
at C'
I)',
and the measuring
lines
drawn
parallel to the arm.
The second
that
is,
lines are
AB
part of the rule is now carried out; dropped from the points in the profile
to the
miter line
II into the
F G and from
measuring
lines,
angles to
F
thence at right thus obtaining
the pattern C' F/. In the upper part of this figure another stretchout, C D, is introduced into which lines have been dropped
directly from the points in the profile, thus producing the pattern at C E, making this part of the figure a
reduplication of the
figure.
method employed
in the previous
By comparison it will be E and C' E' are identical.
seen that the two patterns Since the two arms of
the miter are identical and at right angles to each other, the miter line must bisect the angle II F and be at
K
an angle of
45
and
F K.
From
degrees to either of the two faces II F this it appears at once that the pro
jection of any and all points upon L toward II is exactly the line
F G from
G
the plan same as from the
and that the relationship between C E and the miter line, and C' E' and the miter line, is, therefore, the same. Dropping points from a profile against a line inclined 45 degrees, as F G, and thence on to a stretchout, gives the same result as dropping them on the stretchout in the first place. Hence it is that the portion of the operation shown in the lower part of the engraving may be dispensed with. This relationship could never occur were the angle of
plan line
the miter anything else than a right angle.
is
G
M toward K
Fig. 24%
A.
Squure Face Miter Produced Where a Square Return Miter ivas Intended,
from the drawing of a person who attempted to cut a square return miter by the rule, using a miter line
only. By placing the miter line E F at the side instead of below the profile, a square face miter such
molding running around a panel or a picture frame was produced in place of what was desired.
as
would be used
in the
In order to avoid such errors the reader
this
1
is
recom
Another and perhaps simpler explanation of given in connection with Problem 3, in Section
of
Chapter VI.
pei'usal of the chapter on Linear Drawing (Chapter III), where the relation existing between plans, elevations and sections or profiles is thor
mended
to a careful
A
very
to
common mistake made by
attempting
beginners in the general rule for cutting miters apply
ough explained.
as :hown
It is better to
241,
draw a complete plan.
in Fig.
thus demonstrating to a eer
Principles uf Pattern
Cuttinij.
tainty the
save
a little
correct relationship of the parts, than labor and run the risk of error.
to
Whereas
various [mints
line
in
parallel
forms the distances of the
a straight the miter for that near
in a
miter are measured from
As remarked in the earlier part of this chapter, some labor is often neeessarv before the requirements
mentioned above
fulfilled.
drawn through the mold
as
purpose,
C
D, Fig.
23.8,
the
distances
of
all
in
connection with the rule can be
Sometimes a miter line must first be developed, and sometimes the profile of a molding must undergo a change of profile known as raking. It is
believed that the principles underlying these operations arc made sufficiently dear in connection with the
points the intersection of
in the surfaces of
tapering solids
some other surface
lines
from the apex upon
produced by measured therefrom and radiating
are
;
problems
pecial
in
which they are involved not
to
need
es
say
that, in
Suffice it to explanation in this connection. many instances, half the work is done in
the getting ready.
(FLARING WORK.)
This subject embraces" a large variety of forms of frequent occurrence in sheet metal work, and the development of their surfaces comes under an altogether
different set of
rules
than those applied to parallel
forms.
it
will
Before entering into the details of these methods be best to first define accurately what is here
Fig. 244.
A Bight Cone with Thread Fastened at the Apex to which are Attached Points Marking the Upper and Lower Bases of a
Frustum.
These forms include included by the use of the term. such solid figures as have for a base the circle or only
any
of the regular polygons,
as the square, triangle,
whereas the distance across parallel forms (the stretchout) is measured upon the profile, the distance across
tapering forms
base.
is
measured upon the perimeter
of the
Patterns are more frequently required for portions of frustums of these figures than for the complete figures themselves and the methods of obtaining the pattern of coverings of said frustums is simply to develop the surface of the entire cone or pyramid and by a system of measurements take out such parts as
are required.
As
Fig.
.
A
Right Cone Generated by the Revolution of a RightAngled Triangle about its Perpendicular.
ular line erected
the apex of a cone is situated in a perpendicupon the center of its base, it must
also figures though of unequal sides hexagon, etc. that can be inscribed within a circle, and all of which terminate in an apex located directly over the center
;
of necessity be equidistant from all points in the circumference of the base.
In works upon solid geometry the cone
scribed as a solid generated
is
de
by
the revolution of
a
of the base.
While the treatment
of these forms has
been said
to be altogether different from that of parallel forms there are some points of similarity to which the student's attention is called that may serve to fix the
rightangle triangle about >ts vertical side as an axis. This operation is illustrated in Fig. 243, in which it will be seen that the base E 1) of the triangle C K 1)
is
the radius which generates the circle forming the base of the cone, and that the hypothenuse C D in
like
methods
of
work
in his
memory.
manner generates
its
covering or envelope.
80
The Xcw Metal Wurkvr
I'aW_/n Book.
If a plane bo passed through u 00110 parallel to the base and at some distance above it, the line which
the pin as a center Fig. 24(5,
upon a sheet of paper, as shown in the thread be carried around the pin, keep
produces by cutting the surface of the cone must also be a circle, because it, like the base, is perpenit
The portion cut away is simply another perfect cone of less dimensions than the first.
dicular to the axis.
ing it stretched all the time, the track of the points fastened to the thread will describe upon the paper the shape of the envelope of the frustum, as shown by
(J
D E
F.
By
two
will
omitting the line produced bv the
points, the envelope of the
upper of the
cone
<i
!'
GC F
complete
be described.
described by the point A may be determined by measuring the circumference of the base of the cone by any means most available.
length of the arc attached to the thread
The
The
usual method is to take between the points of the dividers a small space and step around the circumference of the circle of the base and set olf upon the circle
of the pattern the
same number
of spaces.
Fig. S45.
Frustum of a Right Cone, the Dotted Lines Showing the Portion of the Cone Removed to Produce the Frustum.
while the portion remaining is called a frustum of a cone. Fig. 244, is a cone, and B D E C, Fig. The line B E, Fig. 244, shows 245, is a frustum.
AFC,
where the cone
is
cut to produce the frustum.
If, having a solid cone of any convenient material, as wood, a pin be fastened at tlie apex C of the same,
as
shown
in Fig.
244, and a piece of thread be tied
Fig. 2y/.
Unfolding the Envelope of a Right Cone.
The development
of the envelope of a cone
may
be further illustrated by supposing that, in the case of the wooden model, it be laid upon its side upon a sheet of paper and rolled along until it has made one
complete revolution; a point having been previously
marked upon the line of its base by which to determine the same. The base B, Fig. 247, thus becomes
Fig. 246.
Envelope of the Cone and Frustum, Described by the Pin
and Thread
thereto, to
in Fig. 244.
it were, describing the line C D upon while the apex A, having no cireumferthe paper, The lines ference, remains stationary at the point A'.
stretched out as
which are fastened points B and A, correin distance from the apex to the upper and sponding lower bases of the frustum, and the thread, being drawn straight, be passed around the cone close to its surface,
the points upon the thread will follow the lines of the If then. liases of the frustum throughout its course.
C A' and
tion.
DA
1
cone at the beginning and at the
represent the contact of the side of the finish of one revolu
As
forms,
in
in
the case of dividing the prolilc in parallel
this
method
is,
taking the thread and pin from the cone, and fastening
accuracy, but the difference that it is not worth considering.
theoretically, only approximate is so slight practically
Of course, the shorter
Principles
<</"
Pattern
O/////y.
81
of points
the
spaces
are
the
greater
is
the
accuracy.
This
the same
lias, however, another significance which will bo pointed out later on, which will help to simplify
method
of the base of the
and spaces upon the edge wooden cone, and from each of these points draw upon the sides of the wooden cone straight
lines
number
the solution of
all
tapering forms.
running to
its
apex.
A
correct elevation of these lines
upon the draw
ing may be obtained by carrying lines from the divisions or points in the plan of the base vertically till they strike the line of the base B C in the elevation, as shown
in Fig.
250, thence to the apex A, cutting the line
G
H.
Fig. 24$.
A
Cone Truncated Obliquely.
Now, if by means of a saw the upper part of the wooden cone be removed, being cut to the required angle as shown by the oblique line G H in the drawing,
required that the cone should be truncated obliquely, as shown in Fig. 248, it will be seen that all the points in the upper line of the .frustum are at
If
it is
an opportunity
is
given,
by
the lines
upon the
different distances
from the base,
or,
what amounts
to
the same thing, from the apex of the original cone, hence some method of measuring these distances must
be devised.
To
explain
the
principles
here involved more
H
Fig. 250.
Method of Obtaining
the Lines
upon
the Elevation.
part of the cone cut away, of measuring accurately the distance of each point of the curve thus produced from the apex.
Then
r
if
as all points in the base
to lay
B C
are equidistant
from the apex A,
first
out the pattern of this frustum, describe an arc of a circle whose radius is equal to
Fig. 249.
Plan and Elevation from which to Construct a Wooden Cone for Purposes of Illustration.
the length of the side (or slant hight) of the cone B, Make this arc in length equal to the cirFig. 250.
A
cumference of the base
B C
of the cone
by means
of
suppose that a cone be cut from a solid block of wood and of a hight and width to agree with some particular drawing, as, for instance, the one shown in Fig.
clearly,
249.
To avoid conthe points, as previously described. fusion number these points 1, 2, 3, etc., from the starting point B, and from each of these points draw lines
to the center of the arc, all as
Divide the
circle of the base
E F upon
the drawing
into a convenient
number
of parts or spaces
and mark
shown in Fig. 251. replacing that portion of the cone which was cut away so as to identify the lines upon its siites
Now,
82
T/ie Xeic Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
;
by the numbers at the base, the length of each line from the apex down to the cut can be measured by the dividers and transferred to the lines of the same numbers in the diagram, Fig. 251, as shown between G and H. All this no doubt is quite simple when the model It is at hand upon which to make the measurements. is quite evident that it will not do to measure the disto tance upon the drawing, Fig. 250, from the apex because the the points of intersection on the line G
This
which
is
is
operation is fully shown in Fig. 252, to added the development of the pattern, which
exactly the same as that shown in Fig. 251, the distances of the points between G and II from being obtained in this case from the points upon the line
A
A
on
B, instead of from the model, as before. The points B are transferred to lines of corresponding num
A
ber in
the
A
pattern by means of
a
the
compasses, as
is
shown.
H
Should the frustum of which
pattern
required
sides of the cone having an equal slant of flare all around, the lines upon the drawing do not represent
the real distances except in the case of the two outside lines; the slant hight of a cone or any part of a cone being greater than the vertical hight of same part.
But
as these
two outside
lines
do represent the correct
G
B
9
Fig. Sol.
Method of Deriving
the Pattern
of a Frustum from the
Wooden Model.
slant of the cone
on
all sides, either
one of them
may
be taken as a correct line upon which to measure these distances that is, as a vertical section through the cone upon any or all of the lines drawn upon its sides. To make it a perfect section upon any one of
;
these lines, say line 5, it is simply required that the position of the point of intersection of line 5 with the
line
Fig. %52.
Method of Deriving
the Pattern
from
>/ic
Dm winy.
G
H
be shown, which
till
is
it
done by carrying
this
point horizontally across
strikes the side of the
cone
as
AB
at 5, as illustrated in Fig. 250.
The
result
is
of repeating this operation
upon
all
the other lines
though a thread or wire were stretched from the apex down along the side of the cone to the point B in the base and the cone were turned upon its axis, and as each line upon the side passes under the thread,
the point where
inft)
it
upper and lower faces oblique to the assumed at a convenient distance below the lower face of the frustum from which the circumference can lie obtained and then both the upper and lower faces of the frus
have both
its
axis of the cone a level base can be
tum can be developed by
the
method
elliptical
just described.
A
in
right cone having an
base might seem
to belong in the
same
class with regular tapering forms,
cuts the intersecting
all
where marked thereon, thus collecting
one section as
it
plane <! II the points
but as the distance from
were.
its apex to the various points the perimeter of its base is constantly varying, it is therefore placed in the class with irregular forms in
Principles
tin
<y
Pattern
83
following section of this chapter, where
diseiisseil.
it
will
be
duly
tapering articles of elliptical shape are of frequent occurrence, and as the circle is much easier made use of than the ellipse, such articles
But
as
it
the dimensions, then, of such cones necessary to construct a diagram such as that shown in Fig. 254, which is in reality a section upon the line E D of the plan, in which P and P E
is
To determine
are
usually designed with approximate ellipses comThis method is in inanv cases posed ul arcsol circles.
especially
desiralile,
ol
are respectively
At
to
as articles so
designed have an
equal
cones.
I
amount
It will
is
Hare,
if
or
would not he the case
hat
taper on all sides, which they were cut from elliptical
article,
equal to E D and E F of the plan. and R, Fig. 254, erect perpendicular lines J and K Z indefinitely. Upon O J set off OS equal the straight hight O K of the frustum, Fig. 253, and
points
thns he seen that an
designed
in
manner
the envelope of a solid
composed
of as
portions of frustums of right cones as there were arcs of circles used in drawing its plan.
many
In Fig. 2.~>:> is shown the usual method of drawthe plan and elevation of an elliptical flaring aring C B D being the ticle, the outer curve of the plan at of the elevation, while the inner curve shape
A
MN
is
I
the plan at the top L. As many he employed in drawing the curves of the plan of such an article as desired, all of which is explained in the chapter on Geometrical Problems (Chap.
A'
G
J
K
centers
may
V. ), Problems 73, 70 and 78. To simplify matters only two sets of centers have been employed in the present drawing, all as indicated by the dotted lines drawn from
I
the various centers and separating the different arcs of circles. Keference to the plan now shows that that
portion of the article included between the points
E
Fiy.
2J4.Diayram Constructed
to
Determine the Dimensions of the
to
Cones, Portions of which are Shown in Fig. 253.
Combined
Make up
the Article
draw S U to D H.
will then as
it
P, which make equal in length parallel to line drawn through the points P and represent the slant or taper of the frustum,
O
A
U
shown
at
M K of
J.
the elevation, and
if
continued
till
intersects with the perpendiculars from O and P will determine the respective hights of the two cones, as
shown by Z and
if
Then P
its
JO
is
the triangle which,
revolved about
vertical side
J 0,
is
will generate
is
the cone from which so
much
of the figure as
struck
from the centers
Fi'j. 253.
C and D
in Fig.
253
cut
;
and
PZR
Usual Method of Drawing an Elliptical Flaring Article.
is
is
Z C
a position of the envelope of a cone the radius of whose base is 1) C and whose apex is
located at a point somewhere above D and likewise that that portion included between the points B II I J is part of a cone the radius of whose base is
;
W V G II
the triangle which if revolved about its vertical side R will generate the cone from which the end pieces
XA
To present this before the reader in a more forcible manner, several pictorial illustrations are here introduced in which the foregoing
of the article are taken.
F and whose apex is somewhere upon a line erected Thus four sectors cut from cones of two differat F.
ent sizes go to
Article
A
In Fig. 255 is operations are more clearly shown. shown a view of the plan of the base C B D of Fig. 253 in perspective, in which the reference letters are
A
the same as at corresponding parts of that plan, and
make up
253
the entire solid of which the
is
upon which
is
represented, in
shown
in Fig.
a frustum.
sector of the larger cone
correct position, a from which the side portions
its
The Xvw Mini
of the frustum are taken. faces.
\Vnrkcr Pattern Buok.
the triangular sursections of the cone AV, being through its axis, correspond to the triangle J () P of In Fig. 256 two additional the diagram, Fig. 254.
Tims
F D E and F D
which stands over the space F Such a B, Fig. 256. cut might be begun upon the line F H, and passing would finish vertically through the points L and
H
M
sectors from
the smaller cone previously referred to
through the curved surface of the further or curved side of the sector. The cut thus made between the
points
bola.
are represented as standing upon the adjacent portions of the plan from which their dimensions were derived.
L and
M
is
is
shown
Fig. 257, and
by
at D C in the other view, virtue of the conditions a hyper
Thus C F and
II
D, the center lines of their bases,
correspond respectively to
Fig. 253, and the triangles
A
F and
Y
B
of the plan,
L F G and
MH
K,
being
The piece necessary (See Def. 113, Chap. I.) to complete the solid would then be a duplicate of the shape remaining after making the above described cut,
the outer surface of which
Fig. 257.
is shown by A B C D of The complete solid would then have the appearance shown in Fig. 258.
radial sections of the cones,
correspond with the triIn Fig. 257 is presented angle Z R P of the diagram. the opposite view of the combination seen in Fig. 250,
Fig. 255.
Perspective View of the Plan in Fig. 253, with the Larger Cone in Position,
a Sector of
Fig. 256.
The Same Plan Showimj Two Sectors of the Smaller Cone in Position Joining the Larger One.
showing
at
C B and D
A
the joining of their outer
surfaces or envelopes.
As previously remarked, two sets of centers only were employed in constructing the plan, Fig. 253, for
the sake of simplicity.
thus resolving the solid from which the ordinary elliptical flaring article is cut into its component elements the process of developing its pattern may be
By
Had
a third set of centers
been made use of the arrangement of sectors of cones shown in Figs. 256 and 257 would have been supplemented by a pair of sectors, cut from a cone of intermediate
size,
more readily understood. This process may now lie easily explained by returning to the string and pin method which was made use of in connection with the
simple cone in the earlier part of this section. In Fig. 257 is shown a line some distance above
the base representing the top of the frustum shown by L in the original elevation, Fig. 253. It also
side of the large sector
ones,
all
which would have been placed on either between it and the smaller being joined together upon the same general
Reference to Fig.
22<)
K
principle as before explained. in the chapter on Geometrical
P,
P S
W and AV
IT
Y
Problems shows at .1 L what the relative position of
shows a pin fastened at the apex of the middle conical sector to which is attached a thread carrying points G and II representing the upper and lower surfaces of the frustum. Now, if the siring be drawn tight and
passed along the side of the larger sector of the cone
their bases
solid,
would be. If it be desired to complete the which has been begun in Fig. 256, it will first be
from
.necessary to cut
away
that portion
of the middle sector
the points will lower bases of the frustum.
to
A
B
follow the upper AVhen the point
and
B
is
Principles
/'
/'"//</'/'
Cull! HI/.
85
of
reached,
if
the finger be placed
upon the thread
at
at
the
scribed,
making the length
the
additional
arcs
apex
of the lesser emie,
shown
C, and the progress
equal to those of
their corresponding arcs
H
I
J and
of the thread be
eontinued, the points will still follow If the pin and the lines of the bases, of the frustum.
K
A X
As
of the original plan. the lengths of the sides of
the larger and
Fig. 259.
The Pin and Thread taken from Fig. 257 and
Describing the Envelope.
Used in
Fly. S7.
Opposite View of Parts
to
Attached
a Pin
(it
the
Shown Apex of
in
the
Larger
Fig. 256, with String Sector.
smaller cones above
made use
of are
by construction
thread be taken from the cone and transferred to a sheet of paper, as shown in Fig. 250, the pin A being
equal to
angles,
J
P and Z
used as a center and the thread as a radius, the points
will describe the envelope of
the frustum.
First, the
Fig. 254, be taken at generated, those distances may therefore the compasses once from that diagram by means of
P, the hypothenuses of the triby whose revolution they were
radius
arcs
is
used
full
length, as
are
shown by
A
L K, and
and used as shown
in Fig. 259.
L
M
and
K H
drawn
Reference has been
made above
to the difference
in lengtlTrespectively
between the circumference of the circle of the base
obtained by means of the points and spaces (which method becomes a necessity to the pattern cutter) and
Fig. 260.
An Arc Compared with
its
Chord.
the real circumference.
ence wilt lead to the
figures
Fii/.
:
An explanation of this differnext class of regular tapering
258.
The Completed Solid of which the Ordinary Elliptical Flaring Article in a Pnrt.
II
viz. pyramids. In the accompanying diagram, Fig. 2t'.(), of a circle of which the straight line represents the arc
ABC
equal to their representatives the original plan, Fig. 253.
and E C \\ Then a second pin
(T
V
of
is
A
put through the
string, as
shown
at B, thus
reducing
the radius to the length of the side of the lesser cone,^ and ares are struck in continuation of those first de
C is the chord, being the shortest distance between and C. Therefore, when dividing the two points means of points for purposes of measurea circle by a number ment, the pattern cutter is in reality using subtend. of chords instead of the arcs which they
A
Tin'
New
Metal
1
1
War
Pattern
Boole.
In the practice of obtaining the circumference or stretchout of a circle the space assumed as the unit of
article,
while
in
conical shapes
a
all
lines
running with
s<>
the form tend toward
common
center or vertex,
measure should be so small that there is no perceptible curve between the points and, of course, no practical
difference between the length of the chord and length of the arc.
that the distances between such lines at one end of the
article' (provided it does not reach to the vertex) bear a regular proportion to the distances between them at the other end. Hence, in the development of the
the
It will thus be seen that the circle representing the base of a cone has in reality become in the hands of the pattern cutter a many sided polygon and that
pattern of an irregular form
drop ceed
all
it becomes necessary to described systems and simply propreviously
to
measure up
its
sided pyramid. As one of the conditions in describing a regular polygon is that the cone
is
to
him
a
many
adding one portion to another has been covered.
surfaces, portion by portion, till the entire surface
its
angles shall all lie in the same circle, so the angles or hips of a pyramid must lie in the surface of the cone whose base circumscribes the base of the pyramid and
To accomplish
this
of all geometrical problems is made use of, to the reader is referred (Chap. IV., Problem 36)
end one of the most simple which
viz.
:
whose apex coincides with the apex of the pyramid. Viewed in this light then, the lines which were drawn upon the outside of the wooden cone for the purpose of measurement in the illustration used above become the angles or hips of a pyramid and may be used for that purpose in exactly the same manner.
In developing the pattern of a frustum of a cone the line connecting the points between G and II, Fig.
251,
is
To construct a
given.
triangle, the
lengtlts
of
the three sides
//</'//</
As from any
three given
dimensions only one
triangle can be constructed, this furnishes a correct means of measurement; and the solution of this prob
lem
in connection with a regular order
and method
of
obtaining the lengths of the sides of the necessary triTo carry out angles constitutes the entire system.
supposed, of course, to be a curved
line,
while
pyramid (the points or angles of the pyramid being further apart and the sides of a pyramid being flat instead of curved) the lines of the pattern
connecting the points would be straight from point to
point.
in the case of a
system it simply becomes necessary to divide the surface of any irregular object into triangles, ascertain the lengths of their sides from the drawing, and rethis
produce them in regular order in the pattern, and hence the term TRIANGULATIOX is most fittingly applied to
Irregular
Forms.
(TRIANGULATION.)
In some classes of sheet metal work certain forms
development of surfaces. In all articles whose sides lie in a vertical plane, distances can be measured in any direction across their sides upon an elevation of the article, but when the
this
method
of
sides
line
become rounded and
upon the elevation
slanting
the length of a
running parallel with the form cannot be measured
or the plan.
which patterns are required, but which cannot be classified under either of the two previous subTheir surfaces do not seem to be generated divisions. by any regular method. They are so formed that although perfectly straight lines can be drawn upon them (that is, lines running parallel with the form), such straight lines when drawn would not be parallel with each other neither would they slant toward each
arise for
;
either
The
elevation
gives the distance from one end of the line to the other vertically or as it appears to slant to the right or left, but the distance of one end of the lino forward or back
of the other can only be obtained from the plan which while supplying this dimension does not give the hight. Consequently the true length of any straight line lying
in the surface of
other with any degree of regularity. While in the systems described in the two previous portions of this chapter distances between lines fanning
tained
by whose base
any irregular form can only be ascerthe construction of a rightangle triangle
with the form measured at one end of an
article
govern
is equal to the horizontal distance between the required points, and whose altitude is equal to the vertical distance of one point above the other, the
those at the other end, in the forms considered in this department these distances are continually varying and
hypothenuse giving the true distance between the
points, or, in other words, the required length of the
line.
bear no such relation to each other.
Thus
forms (moldings) the distance between running with the form is the same at both ends of the
in parallel any two lines
For

illustration, Fig.
261 shows an article which
may
be called a transition piece, the base of which,
l'ril<l!l>ll:i
I!/'
I'l/llrill
Cl/tlilll/.
87
A
15 ('
D
of
the
plan,
II
is
(
t
a
perfect
circle
Its
is
lying
in
a
horizontal plane. K face, however. N
lie eli!\
ation.
<>
I'
<^
of the plan,
upper surelliptical in
1
perimeter at the top. top, is greater than
plan), the
As F
(!.
the distance across the
shape and besides being placed at one side of the <1 center is also in an inclined position, as shown by
I'
(its apparent width in the evidently does not give the correct distance around the top, and therefore a correct view of the top must btained. The method of
X P
P
curve X
(
)
Q
1
of tlin elevation.
tin
T<> the right of this plan
is
another
accomplishing
this
docs not
in
dill'er
from
manv
similar
same, A' IV C' I)', turned onequarter drawing of around from which, and the elevation, is projected another view, J' K' L M, whieh may be called the
operations described
connection with parallel forms
and N <)
is
I*
<i
clearly shown in the drawing. Considering as a correct plan or horizontal projection of
,ft .i !
ML
/ /
/
/$
1
fin"
/
1
t
,
1
2
:i
4
5
for
10 8
DIAGRAM OF
DOTTED
LINES
B
Fig. 382.
Fi(r. 261.
Plans, Elevations,
etc.,
of an Irregular Shaped Article, Ittustratinij the Principles of Triangulati on
.
front
and which
will assist in obtaining a
article.
more perfect
comparison
the top, onequarter of
it,
as
O N, may
be divided by
conception of the shape of the
of the three views
A
shows that the slant of the sides is different at every point, and that the only dimensions of the article which can be measured directly upon the drawing arc the circumference of the base and the slant hight, as given at E F, H G and L M.
will
any convenient number of points and their distances P set off upon the parallel lines drawn from from
N
N"
P", thus obtaining
It is
O" N",
onequarter of the cor
likely, however, that the correct shape of the top N"" O" P" would be given, from which it would be necessary to obtain its correct
rect curve.
more
Before a pattern of its side can be developed it be necessary to ascertain its width (or distance
to
appearance in the plan, which would be accomplished by drawing the normal curve in its correct relation to
the line
from base
top)
at frequent intervals
and also
its
F
G, as shown by
N" O" P", when
the raking
88
could be reversed,
M<tl
thereby developing
the
process
curve
onehalf of the plan of top. Preparatory to obtaining the varying width of the
ON P
pattern of the side, a number of points must upon in the curves of both top and bottom from which
be fixed
Thus, in the space bounded by the lines 4 4' and 5 5', it is plainly to be seen that there would be greater advantage and less liability of error in connecting of the bottom curve with 4' of the top than in crossing the
.">
line
I ;
from
i
of the
bottom
to 5' of the top, for the rea
to take the measurements.
is
As
onequarter of the top
son that
in
the former
case
the
triangles
produced
P, already divided into spaces, another quarter, may be divided into the same number of spaces (also If dividing 0" P" into the same space as 0" N").
is the normal curve of the top it would very be divided into equal spaces by the dividers, naturally as is usual in such cases, while the spacing in N O P
would be
less scalene or acute.
The next step is to devise a means of determining the true lengths which these lines represent or, in other
full size
N"
O''
P"
words, their real length as they could be measured if a. model of the article were cut from a block of
would be the result of the operation of raking. It advisable to have the spaces in N"0"P" all equal
is
to
wood or clay upon which these lines had been marked, as shown upon the drawing. The lines upon the plan, of course, "only show the
horizontal distances between the points which they connect. The vertical hight above the base of any of
each other, as it is from this curve that the stretchout of the top of the pattern is to be derived, the convenience of which will
is
become apparent when the pattern
is
developed.
the points in the upper curve can easily be found by measuring from its position upon the line F G of the
elevation perpendicularly to the base E H. Therefore, having both the vertical and the horizontal distance
The quarter O P
ter
used
in
connection with the quarof
O
N, because these two combined constitute a half
C of the top curve lying on one side of the line the plan which divides the article into symmetrical
being only necessary, when the shape of an article permits, to obtain the pattern of onehalf and
halves,
it
A
given between any two points, it is only necessary to construct with these dimensions a right angle triangle,
and the hypothenuse will give their true distance apart. Thus in Fig. 262 a b is equal to the line 4 4' of the
plan, while a c is
c b
then to duplicate other half.
by any convenient means
to obtain the
made equal
to 4 4' of the elevation.
The corresponding
therefore, ABC, must number of equal spaces as were used at the top, all as shown in the drawing, and both sets of points should be numbered alike, beginning at the same side.
half of the plan of the base, also be divided into the same
Consequently represents the true distance between the points 4' of the top and 4 of the base. Therefore, to obtain all of these hypothenuses in the simplest
possible manner, it will be necessary to construct one or two diagrams of triangles. To avoid confusion it
is
better to
make two
;
Having thus fixed the points from which measurements across the pattern of the side are to be taken, next draw lines across the plan connecting points of
like
represented by the full plan and the other for those of the dotted lines.
one for obtaining the distances or solid lines drawn across the
To
do
this
extend the base line
at the left, at
E
II of
the elevation, as
number, as shown by the
This
lines in the plan. divides the entire side of the article into a numfull
ber of foursided figures; but as it is necessary, as shown above, to have it divided into triangles, each
foursided figure
any convenient points, in which, as R and S, erect two perpendicular lines. Project lines horizontally from all the points in F G, cutting these two lines as shown, and number the points of
intersection.
shown
through
its
triangles.
redivided by a line drawn opposite angles, thus cutting it into two In other words, each point in the base
may now be
(Some
equal
of the figures are omitted in the
drawing for lack of space.)
line
From
the
R
set off
on the base
the
solid
distances
to
lengths
of
should bo connected with a point of the next lower number (or higher, according to circumstances) in the
curve of the top, and these lines should be dotted instead of full lines for the sake of distinction and to
lines of the plan 1 1', 2 2', 3 3', etc., numbering the points!, 2, 3, etc., as shown, and connect points of
number upon the base with those upon From S set off on the base line perpendicular.
similar
the
dis
Thus
0' of
avoid confusion in subsequent parts of the work. 1 of the base is connected by a dotted line with
the top, 2 of the base with
1'
tances equal to the lengths of the dotted lines of the plan 1 0', 2 1', 3 2', etc., and number them to corre
of the top, etc.
spond with figure upon the
line of the base
ABC.
In respect to which is the best way to run the dotted lines, common sense will be the best guide.
Thus make
2 1' of
S equal to 1 0' the plan, 3 S equal
1
of the plan, 2 S equal to to 3 2', etc., and connect
Pri.
of Puiii
m
< 'nit!
in/.
eacli point in tlie
number upon the perpendicular by
<>n
base with the point of next lower dotted line, ;is
;i 1
etc.,
can
now be
tin
base with
ii
nu the perpendicular, 2 with
1,
3
representing the bottom, each with solid line which it represents, at the
of each to the corresponding
cut out and placed upon the portion its base upon the
with
2, etc.
The
entire surface of the piece for
which
apex These can be fastened in place by bits of sealing wax, or if cut from metal the whole can be soldered
together.
same bringing the number on the top.
The hypothenuses of the various triangles will thus represent the true distances across the pattern upon the solid lines of the plan, while the distances
lines can be represented by pieces of thread or wire, placed so that each will reach from the point at the base of one of the triangles to the point at
upon the dotted
the top of the one next
it.
If
constructed of metal
two or three
model and the remaining points can be connected by pieces of wire, using a different kind of wire to represent the distances on the dotted lines.
triangles will suffice to give the
sufficient rigidity,
In Fig. 264,
a
63.
is
shown
as
a pictorial representation of
model constructed,
above described, from the draw
Fig.
Top,
Back and Bottom for a Model of Onehalf Article Shown in Fig. 201.
ings
the
shown
angles 2,
in Fig. 261. In the illustration the tri5 and 8 only are shown in position, their
a pattern
is
of triangles,
line
required has thus been cut up into two sets one set having the spaces upon the base
hypothenuses connecting points of similar number in the upper and lower bases. The other points are represented as being connected by wires or threads representing both the solid and the dotted hypothenuses in the diagrams of triangles in Fig. 261. Such a model if constructed will give a general idea of the shape of the entire covering, and at the same time >f the small
pieces, or triangles, of
equal, for their bases, and the other set having the spaces in the curve N" 0" P" of the top, also equal to each other, as their bases, and
ABC,
which arc
all
each separate triangle having one solid line and one dotted line as its sides.
the student's powers of mental The shape of the surconception are called into play. face, which is yet to be developed, has been spoken of
which the covering
is
composed,
the spaces
filled in
In
all
of this
work
with
all
the dimensions of each.
If all of
formed upon
this skeleton surface could
be
as
if it
really existed
in fact, it
must
exist in the
or imagination of the operator in order to
mind make him
If this fails him, intelligent as to what he is doing. can easily be conhe can resort to a model which structed (full size or to scale, according to convenience)
as follows
:
Describe upon a piece of
cardboard or
metal the shape E F G II, Fig. 261, to which add on its lower side, E H, onehalf of the plan of the bottom, P and the solid lines conwith the curve
ABC,
add on
N
Fig. 264.
necting
it
with the outside curve traced thereon.
Also
Perspective View of Cardboard Model of Onehalf the Article Shown in Fig. 261.
upper side, F G, onehalf the shape of top, P", marking the points 1, 2, 3, etc., upon its Now cut out the entire shape in one piece, as edge. shown in Fig. 263, and bend the same at right angles, on the lines F G and E H. Small triangles of the in the shape and size of each of the triangles shown
its
N" 0"
Avith pieces of
cardboard or metal just the size of each
and the whole removed together and flattened out (each
piece being fastened to its neighbor at the sides), it would constitute the required pattern, the same as will
diagram
of solid lines, Fig. 261, as
K,
1 1
K, 2 2 E,
be subsequently obtained by measurements taken from the drawing, and as shown in Fig. 265.
90
Tlir Xrtr
Mital
HW.vr
1'ntlnn
Ifovl:
Having by means
Fig. 261 obtained the lengths of
to construct
of the diagrams of triangles in all the sides it is now
a stretchout, while
if
the spaces were too small error in
successively eaeh triangle only necessary in the manner described in Chapter IV. Problem 36,
transferring their lengths might result, which would be increased as many times as there were spaces.
I nder the head of transition pieces may be included a large number of forms having various shaped polygonal or curved figures as their upper and lower
remembering that the last long side of each triangle used is also the first long side of the next one to be
constructed.
Therefore, at any convenient place draw
line,
any straight
AN
of Fig. 265,
to the real distance
from
A to
which make equal N, Fig. 261, which has
surfaces, placed at various angles to each other, sometimes centrally located as they appear upon the
plan
and sometimes otherwise.
surface or termination
It often
happens that one
of the diagram of been found to be the distance To conduct this operation with the greatsolid lines. est economy and ease it is necessary to have two pairs of dividers,
is entirely outside the other in that view, forming an offset between pipes of differing
which
shall
remain
upon the plan of the base ABC, spaces upon ~S" O" P", and a third
set, one to the spaces and the other to tin
and shapes. Sometimes such an offset takes a curved form, constituting a curved elbow of varying section throughout its length, in which case it consists
sixes
pair for use in
of a
number
From of Fig. 265 taking varying measurements. 1 of the plan, Fig. with a radius equal to as a center, as a center, with 261, describe a small arc, and from
A
either end.
of pieces, each with a different shape at With such forms may be classed the ship
N
a radius equal to the true distance from
N
to 1 of the
found plan, which has been
of dotted lines,
to be
1 of the
diagram
one as shown
describe another arc, cutting the first The triangle at the point 1, Fig. 265.
thus constructed represents the true dimensions of one Next from indicated by the same figures of the plan. as a center, with a radius equal to N of the pattern
N"
arc,
1 of true profile of top, Fig. 261, describe a small which cut with one struck from point 1 of pat
tern as a center, with a radius equal to 1 1 of the diagram of solid lines, thus locating point 1' of pattern.
This triangle is, in turn, succeeded by another whose sides are next in numerical order, that is 1 2 of the base
and 1 2
of the
is
diagram of dotted
lines.
Thus the
Fig. 265.
continued, always letting the spaces of the operation circumference of base succeed one another at one side
Onehalf Pattern of Side of Article Shmvn in Fig.
261.
and the spaces upon the true'profile of succeed one another at the other side of the pattop have been laid out as tern, until all the triangles
of the pattern,
ventilator,
zontal and
whose lower end whose upper end
is
is
usually round and hori
and stands
in a vertical position, the
enlarged and elliptical whole being com:
shown by
A N
P
C, Fig.
265, which will complete
all
onehalf the entire pattern. It is not necessary to draw
In such cases, when the posed of five or six pieces. shape and position of the two terminating surfaces onlv
are given,
of the dotted or
solid lines across the pattern, as the points where the small arcs intersect are all that are really needed in
it is often obtaining the outlines of the pattern, but to draw them as well as to number each new advisable order to avoid confusion and point as obtained, in insure the order of succession.
many
it becomes necessary to assume or draw as intermediate surfaces as there are joints required,
each of such a shape that the whole series will form a
suitable transition between two extreme shapes. It, be remarked, that what have been spoken of may
here as "surfaces" do not necessarily mean surfaces of metal forming solid ends to the pieces describe) I.
In dividing the curves of top and bottom into of points should be taken as spaces, such a number
will
but simply outlines upon paper to work often the "surface" is really an opening.
Still
to,
as
more
insure the greatest accuracy, as in the case of Thus too few would give too short dividing a profile.
another class of forms demanding treatment by triangulation result, from the construction of arches
Princijlles of Pntlirn
Cnttinrj.
91
cut through ciirvwd walls, as when an arch of either round or elliptical form, as a door or window head, is
placed
in a
subject in hand admits of treatment
by any regular
method without
is
circular wall in such a manlier
1
hut
its
sides
Triangulation not introduced as an alternate method, but as a last
too
much
subdivision.
or jambs are radial, or tend toward the center of the It will l>e seen that the sofht of curve of the wall.
such an arch
tion piece,
similar in shape to the sides of a transihaving what might be called its upper and
is
when nothing else will do. Besides the various forms of transition pieces, another class of forms is to be treated under this head,
resort,
which might almost be considered
articles.
as regular tapering
lower surfaces curved and placed vertically. In such cases it. is best to consider the horizontal plain; passing through the springing, line of the arch as the base from
They include shapes, or frustums cut from shapes, which terminate in an apex, but whose bases cannot be inscribed in a circle, as irregular polygons,
figures
which
to measure the hights of the outer and inner curves.
all
points assumed in
composed
fect ellipse.
A
of irregular curves as well as the persolid whose base is a perfect ellipse
It is believed that a sufficient
number
of this gen
and whose apex
its
is
located directly over the center of
base (in other words, an elliptical cone) is perhaps the best typical representative of this class of figures. If the base of such a cone be divided into quarters by
its all
major and minor axes,
it
will
be seen at once that
of the points in the perimeter of any one quarter will be at different distances from the apex of the cone,
because they are at different distances from the center of base or the intersection of the two axes. This is
clearly shown in Fig. 266, in which are shown the two elevations and the plan of an elliptical cone. The side
K E to be the distance of the apex from the point P in the plan of the base, while the end elevation shows K' D to be the distance of the apex from the point D of the base, or the true distance repelevation shows
of the plan. If onequarter of the plan of the base, as P, be divided into any convenient number of equal spaces and lines be drawn to the center X, as shown, each line
resented
by
XD
D
will represent the horizontal distance of a point in the
perimeter from the apex ; and if a section of the cone be constructed upon any one of these lines, as, for inFig. S66.
Elevations
and Plan of an
Elliptical Cone.
stance, line 4
X,
or,
in other words,
if
a right angle
triangle be drawn, of which 4
X
is
the base and
EK
be found in the third section problems of the chapter on Pattern Problems to enable the careeral class of
will
ful student to
apply the principles here explained to that might present themselves for his consideration, remembering that any form may be so turned as to bring any desired side into a horizontal
the altitude, the hypothenuse will be the true distance of the point 4 from the apex. Therefore, to ascertain the distances from the apex to the various points in the
of triangles, as
any new forms
circumference of the base construct a simple diagram shown in Fig. 2G7, viz. Erect any
:
perpendicular line,
of the elevation;
as
X
M,
position to be used as a base, or that an upper horizontal surface can be used as a base as well as a lower.
from X, on
equal in hight to a horizontal line P, as
E K
X
a base, set off the various distances of the plan,
X
1,
operations of triangulation undoubtedly remore care for the sake of accuracy than those of quire any other method of pattern cutting, for the reason that
there
stretchout, at once,
The
X
numbering each point, and from each draw a line to M. These hypothenuses will then point
2,
3, etc.,
X
no opportunity of stepping upon any line, either straight or It is therefore not to be recommended if the curved.
is
off
a continuous
represent the distances of the various points in the perimeter of the base from the apex of the cone; or, in other words, the sides of a number of triangles forming
the envelope of the cone, the bases of which triangles
92
will
Tlic \i'n
f'uftirn
Book.
be the spaces
these
1 2, 2 3, etc.,
upon the
of
triangles instead of laying out each one separately to form a pattern, as in the case of an article of the type
terminate at a
As plan. common apex
all
or
at the base of the envelope, and envelope of onequarter of the cone.
A P M
will
be the
center,
In Fig. 26S
face
is
shown
in
a
in
frustum of the cone shown*
shown
in Fig. 261, the simplest
method
is
as follows
:
A B
N
O.
perspective view of the Fig. 26f>, the upper sur
being shown
If
Fig.
266 by the
lines
G
II
and
the envelope of such a frustum is desired the cut which its upper surface would make through the envelope of the entire cone could lie obtained in exactly the same manner as that of its lower base, because the upper surface of the frustum is in reality the
base of the cone, which remains above after the lower But as part of the operation part has been cut away. has already been performed in obtaining the cut at the
base,
it is
most
easily accomplished as follows
:
First
draw
radial lines
from the point
M
of the diagram of
Fig. S67.
/'('</.
260, to
Diagram of Sections on the Radio] Lines of the Plan in which in Added the Pattern of Onequarter of the
Envelope.
From M,
267, as a center, with radii correto points on P X, as the distances from sponding to 3, etc., describe arcs indefinitely, as 2, 1,
of Fig.
M
M
M
M
then taking the space used in stepbetween the points of the dividers, plan ping place one foot upon the arc drawn from point 8, as at D, and swing the other foot around till it cuts the arc drawn from point 7; from this intersection as a center swing it around again, cutting the arc from 6; or in
shown
to the left;
off the
other words, step from one arc to the next till onequarter of the circumference has been completed. As the spaces in the base are equal, it is clearly a
Fig. S6S.
Elevation of the Frustum of an Elliptical Cone.
matter of convenience whether this
last
operation
is
triangles, Fig. 267, to each of the points previously obtained in the cut at the bottom of the envelope,
between
A
and D;
also
draw a horizontal
equal to
line at a
hight above the base ting the hypothennses
XP
R
G
M 1, M 2, etc., as shown by H. Now place one foot of the dividers at the point M, and bringing the other foot successively to the
various points of intersection of the liiie G II with the various hypothenuses, describe arcs cutting the radial lines in the envelope of corresponding number. line
L, Fig. 266, cut
Fig. 268.
Frustum of an
Elliptical Cone.
A
begun upon
arc 8, stepping first to arc 7, then to arc or whether it is begun upon arc 1, stepping 6, etc., line first to arc 2, then to 3, etc., till complete.
traced through the points of intersection, as B C, will give the cut at the top of the envelope of the frustum,
of
which
If
AD
is
the bottom cut.
is
A
the cut at the top of the frustum
to
be oblique
for
traced through
these points, as
A
D,
will give the cut
instead of horizontal, a
means must be devised
of Pattern Cutting.
measuring the distance from the apex
at
which the
diagram they
of the
ing.
If the
may
be transferred to the various radial
from M' as a center, by the use
oblique plane cuts each of the hypothennses, or in otlier words, eacli of the lines drawn from the apex of the
lines in the envelope,
compasses
as before, all as
shown
in the draw
cone to the various points
in its liase.
In Fig. 269,
is
K ST F
is
the elevation of an oblique frustum of an
apex of the cone were not located directly
elliptical cone,
whose apex
266.
is
at
in
K, and whose base
the
the same and
that
lias
been divided
same manner
as
over the crossing of the two axes of the ellipse that is, if the cone were scalene or oblique instead of right
shown
in Fiji.
Erect lines from each of the points iu the curve of onehalf the plan P 1) to the base line K F of the
A
method of obtaining its "envelope, or parts of the Lines same, would not differ from the foregoing. drawn from the points of division in the circumference
the
of the base to the point representing the position of the apex in the plan will lie the horizontal distances
elevation, thence carrv
;
them toward the apex K,
cut
ting the line S T the vertical liight of the points upon S T can then most easilv lie measured 1>\ carrying them
horizontally, cutting the center line
used
in constructing a
diagram of triangles, which
connection with
the
dis
R K
of the cone,
tances can be used
in
vertical
where
to
avoid confusion they should be numbered to
hight of the cone, as before, in obtaining the various If the apex of a scalene cone be hypothenuses.
located over the line of either axis of the ellipse, either within the perimeter of the base or upon one of those
continued outside the base, onehalf the pattern of the entire envelope will have to be obtained at one
lines
operation but if the apex of those lines in the plan,
;
is
not located upon either
then the entire envelope
one operation, as no two quarters or halves of the cone will be exactly alike.
at
must be obtained
The method of obtaining the envelope of any scalene cone, even though its base be a perfect circle, is governed by the same principles as those employed in the above dernonstiations.
be well to remember that any horizontal section of a scalene cone is the same shape as its base, which fact can be used to ad vantage in determining the
It will
Fig. 270.
Diagram of
Sections on the Radial Lines of the
Plan in
Fig. 269, with the Pattern of Onehalf the Envelope.
best
of
correspond with the points of the plan from which each
These points may now be transferred in body by any convenient means to the vertical line X' M' of the diagram of triangles, Fig. 270, seeing that each point is placed at the same distance from M' that
was derived.
a
it is
be employed in obtaining the envelope any irregular flaring surface that may be presented. the plan of any article, whose upper If, for instance, and lower surfaces are horizontal, shows each to conto
sist of
method
two
circles or parts of circles of different
diame
ters not concentric, it is evident that the portion of the envelope indicated by the circles of the plan is part of
of Fig. 269. A horizontal line from the point from any one of the points on the line X' M' extended to the hvpothenuse of corresponding number will then give the correct distance of that point from the apex
K
the envelope of a scalene cone.
is
An illustration
of this
given in Fig. 271, which shows a portion of an
article
cf the cone.
The diagram M' X'
and
MX
P
of Fig. 267,
a duplicate of the lower outline of the enI)' is
having rounded corners and flaring sides and but with more flare at the end than at the side. ends, The plan shows the curve of the bottom corner A B to
It will velope is the same as that shown in Fig. 267. be noted, however, that half the stretchout of the base is iiecessarv in this case to give all the essentials of the
be a quarter circle with its center at X, and that of the top C D to be a quarter circle with its center at Y.
The rounded
pattern of the envelope, while onequarter was suiiicient When all the points in for the previous operations. the uppei line of the frustum have been obtained in the
cornet A B I) C is then a portion of the envelope of a frustrum of a scalene cone, and the method of finding the dimensions of the complete cone
is
Z
First draw a line, quite simple and is as follows: N, through the centers of the two circles in the plan,
T/ie
Xew
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
of irregular shaped figures
which project an oblique elevation, as shown below, making the distance between the two lines E F and G H equal to the hight of the article. Lines from X arid M of the plan of the bottom fall upon G H, locating the points X' and H, while lines from Y and N of the top locate the points Y' and F in the upper line of the oblique elevation. A line drawn through Y' and X', the centers of the circles, will then represent the axis of the cone in elevation, which can be continued to meet a line drawn through the points F and H, representing the side of the cone, thus locatat right angles to
is
sufficiently clear to
make
the demonstrations of this class of problems, given in Chap. VI, Section 3, easily understood by the student,
as well as to enable
!
forms that
to apply them to any new themselves for solution. may present This chapter is intended to present, under its three
him
different heads, all
the principles neccssarv to guide the student in the solution of any problem that may
The point Z' can ing the apex Z' of the scalene cone. then be carried back to the plan, as shown at Z, thus
As the line Z replocating the apex in that view. resents the horizontal distance between the point F and
the apex Z' of the cone, so lines drawn from Z to any number of points assumed in the curve of the base
N
CD
will give the horizontal distances between those points and the apex, to be used as the bases in a dia
gram gram
of triangles similar to that shown in Fig. 267, while Z' gives their hight. Having drawn a dia
V
of triangles the pattern follows in the
manner
there shown.
For greater accuracy in the case of a very tapering cone, the circles of the. plan can be completed, as shown dotted, and their points of intersections with the line Z N can be dropped into oblique elevation, as seen at S arid T, through which a line can be drawn to meet a line through F and H with greater accuracy than one through Y' and X', as the angle in the former
case
is
twice as great.
In the above methods of obtaining the envelopes of what may be termed irregular conical forms, it will
be clearly seen that the operation of dividing the curve of the base into a great number of spaces really re
solves the conical figure into a many sided pyramid, and that the lines connecting the apex with the points in the base, which have been referred to as hypothen uses, are
It
is
really the angles or hips of the pyramid. therefore self evident that any method of de
Fi(j. ~'71.
Elevations
is
and Plan of an Article the Corner of which a Portion of a Scalene Cone.
velopment which is applicable to a many sided pyramid is equally applicable to one whose sides are fewer
in
number, with the only difference, however, that the lines representing the angles or hips in the case of a
pattern of the envelope, while in the case of the conical envelope the bends arc so slight as to mean only a con
pyramidal figure mean angles or sharp bends in the
tinuous form or curve.
believed that the foregoing elucidation of the principles governing the development of the surfaces
It
is
Its aim is to teach principles rather than rules, and the student is to be cautioned against arbitrary rules and methods for which he cannot clearly understand the reason. His good sense must govern him in the employment of principles and in the choice of methods. There is hardly a pattern to be cut which Under cannot be obtained in more than one way. some conditions one method is best, and under other
arise.
conditions
another,
and careful thought before the
of Pattern
Outliu*/.
95
drawing
pose
in
is
begun
will
show which
is
best for the pur
hand.
list of problems and demonstrations "in the which follows is believed to be so comprehen
sive that therein will be found a parallel to almost anything that may be required of the pattern cutter, and
it is
The
rhapttr
them
believed that he will have no difficulty in applying to his wants.
CHAPTER
VI.
Every
effort has
been put forth
in the preceding
part of the
book without previous study
of the other
chapters of this book to prepare the student for the all important work which is to follow viz., the solution
of pattern problems. It is always advisable in the study of any subject to be well grounded in its funda
chapters. Tn the demonstrations, onlv the scientific phase of the subject will be considered; consequently, all al
lowances for seams,
joints, etc., as well as
determining
mental principles. For this reason a chapter on Linear has been prepared to meet the requirements of Drawing the student in pattern cutting, which is preceded by a
description of drawing materials and followed bv a solution of the geometrical problems of most frequent But the most important occurrence in his work.
chapter is the one immediately preceding this, in which the theory of pattern cutting is explained, and which,
where joints shall be made, arc at the discretion of In some of the problems it has been the workman. to assume a place for a joint, but if the joint necessary is required at a place other than where shown, the method of procedure would be slightly varied while the principle involved would remain the same. Each demonstration will be complete in itself. Although references to other problems, principles, etc., will be made where such references will be of.advnntage to the student.
the preceding chapter, the problems will be classed under three different heads according
thoroughly understood, will render easy the solution of any problem tlic student may chance to meet.
if
selection of problems here presented is made sufficiently large and varied in character to anticipate, so far as possible, the entire wants of the pattern cutter,
The
As
stated in
to
the
forms
which
thev
embodv
viz.
:
First,
and the problems are so arranged
as to be con
Parallel
venient for reference by those
who make
use of this
Forms; Second. Regular Tapering Forms, and Third, Irregular Forms.
1.
SECTION
(MITER CUTTING).
The problems given
in this
section are such as
in
such a manner that no view can be drawn
in
which
occur in joining moldings, pipes and all regular continuous forms at. any angle and against any other form or surface, and in fact include everything that may
legitimately be termed Miter Cutting. In the problems of this class two conditions exist,
the miter line will appear as a simple straight line. Hence it becomes necessary to produce by the intersection of lines a correct elevation of the intersections
of the various
members
the
of the molding,
which when
done results
in
much sought
miter
line.
Or it may
which depend upon the nature
ing to
t\\e first,
of the work.
Accord
a simple elevation or plan of the intersecting parts shows the miter line in connection with Uie profile, which is all that is necessary to begin at
once with the work of laving out the patterns. It frequently happens, however, that moldings are brought obliquely against sloping or curved surfaces
be necessary to develop a correct profile of some oblique member or molding in order to effect a perfect miter. Thus some preliminary drawing must be done before the work of laying out the miter patterns can be properly begun, which constitutes the wr</m/ condition above
referred to and forms the great reason
whv
the patten.
draftsman should understand the principles of projec
Pattern Problems.
97
is
lion,
which have been simplified
III.
for his
benefit in
knowing the kind that
it
Chapter
fulfill
with
little difficulty.
It will also
wanted, will be able to find be to his advantage
In the arrangement of the problems those which the first condition will precede those of the
before reading any of the problems in this chapter to read carefully the Requirements and the general Rule
second, and
sible,
be
of a similar nature will, so far as posplaced near together, so that the reader,
all
governing
this class of
problems given in Chapter
V
on pages 76 and 77.
I.
PROBLEM
A
Let
Butt Miter Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Elevation.
A
B L in Fig. 272 be the elevation of a of a cornice, of which C is the portion profile and A B the angle or inclination of the surface against
A
K
D
which the cornice
is
required to miter.
Divide the
curved parts of the profile into spaces in the usual manner, and from all points in profile draw lines parallel
B. On any conK, cutting the miter line venient line, as E F, at right angles to the cornice, lay off a stretchout of the profile C D, space by space as
with
A
A
they occur, through the points in which draw the
measuring
lines,
all
as indicated
by
the small figures.
Placing the Jsquare at right angles to the lines of the cornice, or, what is the same, parallel to the stretchout
line,
bring
it
successively against the points in the
A B and cut measuring lines of correspondingnumber, as indicated by the dotted lines. A line traced through these points, as indicated by H G, will be
miter line
the pattern required.
Fig. 272.
A Butt Miter Against, a Plain Surface
Oblique in Elevation
PROBLEM
A
2.
Butt Miter Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Plan. R
Let
A
B L
K
in Fig.
273 be the
plan of the cornice which is required to miter against a vertical surface standill.
iliih
B
ing at any angle with the lines of the B. cornice, the angle being shown by
A
in position corresponding to the Draw the profile C lines of the cornice, all as indicated. Space the profile in
D
the usual manner, and through the points draw lines direction of the cornice, cutting the miter parallel to the
line
A
C
B.
On any
convenient line at right angles to the
lines of the cornice lay off the stretchout
file
E F of the
pro
D, through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual manner. Placing the Tsquare at right to the cornice, or, what is the same, parallel to angles
the stretchout line
E
F, bring
it
successively against the
the corresponding measuring lines. points in A B and cut A line traced through the points of intersection thus obFig. 171.
A.
Butt Miter Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Plan.
tained,
shown by
H
G, will be the pattern required.
98
The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
A
Square Return Miter, or a Miter
at
3.
Right Angles, as in a Cornice at the Corner of a Building.
In Fig. 274, let B D C be the elevation of a cornice at the corner of the building for which a miter at right angles is desired. As has been explained in the
chapter on the Principles of Pattern Cutting (page 77), the process of cutting a miter for a right angle admits of certain abbreviations not employed when other
A
through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual manner, parallel to the lines of the cornice, producing them far enough to intercept lines dropped Place the 7 s( l U!llv :if vertical! v from points in A B.

right angles to the cornice, or, what
to the
is
the same, parallel
stretchout line, and, bringing it successively all the points in the profile A B, cut measuring against Then a line traced Hues of corresponding numbers.
through these points, as shown by
pattern the angle of this miter cannot be
G
is
.11,
will
be
tin
sought. The reason
for this
as follows:
in
As
view than a plan, the plan
is
any other the correct view from
as
shown
which
to derive the pattern;
having drawn which,
Fig.
75.
Plan of a Square Return Miter.
shown
iu ,Fig.
275,
pattern becomes exactly the same problem (Fig. 273). In Fig. 274,
Fig, 274.
the operation of developing the as in the previous
A
Square Return Miter, as in a Cornice at the Corner of a Building.
B represents B repthe elevation of a portion of a cornice, while resents the profile of the return or receding portion B D C is required to miter, against which the piece
A
DC
A
A
angles are required. duced is calculated to
The demonstration here introshow the method of obtaining
or, in
other words, the miter
line.
As
the profiles of
the pattern for a square miter with the least possible B into any convenient Divide the profile labor.
the face piece and of the return piece are of course the B becomes at once the profile and same, the outline
A
A
of parts, as shown by the small ligures. At to the lines of the molding, and in conright angles venient proximity to it, lay off the stretchout E F,
number
the miter line; therefore that portion of the rule which " drop the points from the profile on to the miter says,
line,"
must be omitted.
All that remains then
is
to
drop the points at once into the stretchout.
PROBLEM
A
Return Miter
at
4.
Other Than a Right Angle, as
in
a Cornice at the Corner of a Building.
In Fig. 276,
let
A
B C D
be the elevation of
a
the plan
by drawing the
lines
E F and F
L, inter
portion of cornice, and
let G II K be the plan of any around which the cornice is to be carried, a pattern angle Complete being required for an arm of the miter.
secting at F, giving the correct projection of the moldand K, and then draw the miter line ing from G
H
H
between the points
H
and F.
It will
be observed that
Pattern Problems. the
99
arm
GHFE
has been projected directly from the profile B, thus
A
placing profile and plan in correct relation to each other.
Divide the profile
A
B
in the usual
man
ner into any coiiven
F
100
The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.
fig.
tfS.Thc
Patterns for a
Hip Finish in a Curved Hansard Roof,
the
Angle uf the Hip being a Right Angle.
Pattern Problems.
101
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a Hip Finish in a
6.
Curved Mansard Roof, the Plan of the Hip Being a Right Angle.
roofs,
problems concerning mansard and especially those in which the roof surface is curved, calls for much good judgment on the part of
solution of
all
The
the inside line of the fascia strip. ornamental corner piece from L
The
1
points in the
1
to
D
are
to
be
the pattern cutter, for the reason that the original designs that come into his hands are seldom drawn
obtained from the elevation, in case a correct elevation is furnished the pattern cutter, by measurement along
the lines
in
mathematically correct. dome, such as is shown in Fig.
The upper
part of a mansard
as
it
L
drawn horizontally through the several points D, which are transferred to the measuring
.
278,
curves
away from the
eye,
appearance that, if but an expert draftsman, create a false impression of the design intended hence the original drawing must often be taken for what it means rather than for what
;
becomes so much flattened in drawn correctly, it might, to any
corresponding number in the stretchout already referred to. Or the shape from L to D may be described arbitrarily upon the pattern at this stage of
lines of
1
1
the operation, according to the finish required upon the roof. The latter method is the preferable one. The
method by
the
of constructing the elevation,
is
by working back
clearly indicated
it
says.
from the outline thus established,
represents an elevation of a curved
The engraving
dotted
lines
in
the
is the hip molding occurring in a roof, of which E 3 The first step is a section. and M" vertical hight
D
several points in the profile
H K
From the engraving. horizontal lines are
K
to
be described
is
the
method
of obtaining the pattern
drawn, as shown, and from the intersections of the inside line of the pattern of the fascia piece with the
various measuring lines, as above described, lines are dropped, cutting these horizontal lines of corresponding numbers.
For this purpose is of the fascias of the hip molding. shown in the drawing such a representation of it as
would appear if the two fascias formed a close joint upon the angle of the roof, supposing that the hip molding or the bead is to be added afterward on the
Then a
line traced
The part to be dealt with may outside over this joint. be considered the same as though it were the section of a molding, instead of a section of a roof, and the
operations performed are identical with those employed into in cutting a square miter. Space the profile II
L, To cut the flange strip piece in elevation. bounding the fascia and corner piece, commonly called
fascia
shown from
M
to
will
through these points, be the inside line of the
K
the sink strip, an elevation of which is shown in the section from M" to D", the following method will be the simplest, and at the same time sufficiently accurate
for all
purposes
:
Draw
the line
G F
approximately
any convenient number of parts, introducing lines in the upper part in connection with the ornamental
corner piece,
parallel to the upper part of the section M" D', making it indefinite in length, which cut by lines drawn from
shown by L D,
at
such intervals as will
to
the several points in
M'
D
a
,
make required From this describe the shape of it in the pattern. means of the points just indicated, lay off a profile, by and through the points , stretchout, as shown by H'
it possible to
take measurements
shown.
From F G, upon
at right angles to it, as the several lines drawn at
right angles to it, set off spaces equal to the distance upon lines of corresponding number from D E to the
line
K
1
M L of the elevation.
draw the usual measuring
sponding lines
described.
as
lines.
in against the several points
H
Bring the Tsquare K, and cut the correthe
these points, as indicated
file
of this flange strip.
it,
Then a line traced through M* L', will constitute a proby In like manner set off in contin
drawn
ing not along the measuring lines of the stretchout, as would be indicated by A' C. Then a line traced
will be the outside line of the For the inside line take the given width of the fascia. fascia and set it off from this line at intervals, measurat right angles to it, as indicated by A B', and
1
Then shown by H" K",
stretchout just a line traced through these points,
through
the lengths measured from points in the ornamental corner piece to D E, all as shown by L'D 1 F.
uation of
From
shown by M*
measuring
this profile lay off a stretchout parallel to F, as the points in which draw D', through
lines
G
in
the
usual
manner.
Place
the
Jsquare parallel to the stretchout line, and, bringing it successively against points in both the inner and the
outer lines of the elevation
of
the
flange
through these points, as
shown from M'
to L', will
be
shown from
M
strip,
as
3
D", cut the
measuring
lines of
corre
102
The Sew Metal Worker Pattern Book.
spending number.
points of
Then lines traced through these intersection, as shown from M to D", will be
s
the pattern of the flange strip bounding the edge of the fascia.
PROBLEM
Miter Between
7.
Two Moldings
of Different Profiles.
To
construct a square miter between moldings of
profiles requires two distinct operations. The miter upon each piece is to be cut as it would apLet A B pear when intersected by the other molding. and A' B in Figs. 279 and 280 be the profiles of two moldings, between which a square miter is required. As, of course, the two arms of the miter are different, it will be necessary to draw an elevation of each showthe proper outline against which it is to miter. ing
dissimilar
1
against the F. For the other piece proceed in the same profile From its manner, reversing the order of the profiles. B' produce the elevation profile L, Fig. 280,
fit
through these points, as shown by F' E B to shape of the cut on the piece
1
,
will give the
A
E
A
1
K MN
completing same by means of the molding, A B, as shown by M N.
the usual manner.
profile of the first
Divide A' B'
m
B, project Beginning, therefore, with the profile from it an elevation, as shown by F C D E, Fig. 279, terminating such elevation by the profile of the other
A
N. ting stretchout
in
M
Through the points draw
to
1
lines cut
At right angles O P of the profile
this piece lay off the
A B M
which draw measuring
lines,
through the points as shown. With the
,
1
molding,
A
1
B', as
shown by F E.
case of Problems 1 and 6, the line
Then, F E becomes the
as in the
or Js uare at right angles to the line L, and the points in cut corresponding brought against N, line traced measuring lines drawn through O P.
KM
N
A
Fig. S79.
Fig. 280.
Miter between Two Moldings of Different
Profiles.
miter
line,
and the method of procedure
is
the
same
B into any convenient Divide as in those problems. in the usual manner, from which carry number of parts
right angles to the lines of the molding lay off a stretchout, Gr II, of the B, through the points in which draw the profile
lines horizontally against
A
through these points, as shown by M' N', will be the shape of the end of the piece required to fit against the
profile
M
N.
F
E.
At
A
spacing the profiles points in the profiles
In the event of the points obtained by B not meeting all the B and
A
A
1
1
F E and
MN
necessary to be
usual measuring lines. Bring the Tsquare against the points of intersection in the line E F, and cut the
marked in the pattern, then lines must be drawn backward from such points in profiles M N and E F, cutting the profile
A'
B
1
or
corresponding measuring
lines.
Then a
line traced
Corresponding points
are
B, as the case may be. then to be inserted in the
A
Pdttmt
stretchouts, through
Pro/items.
103
which measuring
ID
In
linos
arc to
1>\
In
stretchout
ing line
is
O
P, also marked
in
6,
from which a measur
drawn, which,
in
turn, ;nv
intersected
lines
dropped from the points. An illustration of this occurs in Fig. 280, where it will be seen that no point obtained by
the dividing of the profile A' B strikes the point of the miter line, which is absolutely to the necessary shape of the pattern. Therefore, after spacing the
1
X
the same manner as through the other points in the stretchout, upon which a point from is dropped, as shown by X'. In actual practice such
drawn
X
profile, a line is
drawn from
X back to A
is
expedients as this must be resorted to in almost every case, because usually there is less correspondence between the members of dissimilar profiles, between which
a miter
is
1
B', foring the
required, than in the illustration here
profiles,
given.
joined.
point
No. 6.
In turn this point
transferred to the
By
this
means
however unlike, can be
PROBLEM
A
Let
8.
Butt Miter Against an Irregular or Molded Surface.
B A in Fig. 281 be the profile of a cornice, which a molding of the profile, shown by G H, is against to miter, the latter meeting it at an inclination, as indi
ner into any convenient number of parts, and through the points draw lines parallel to the lines of the inclined molding, cutting the profile B A, all as indicated by the dotted lines. At right angles to the lines of the molding, of which a pattern is sought, lay off a stretchout,
M N,
which
in the usual manner, through the points in draw measuring lines. Place the Tsquare at
right angles to the lines of the inclined molding, or, what is the same, parallel to the stretchout line, and,
bringing it against the points of intersection formed by the lines drawn from the profile G II across the profile B A, cut the corresponding measuring lines. In the
B
event of any angles or points occurring in the profile which are not met by lines drawn from the points
A
G
in
H, additional
lines
from these points must be
drawn, cutting the profile
G
H,
in order to establish
Thus the corresponding points in the stretchout. points 3 and 13 in the profile G II arc inserted after spacing the profile, as described in Problem 7, because
the points with which they correspond in the profile B E are angles which must be clearly indicated in the
Fig.
814
Butt Miter arjainst an Irregular or Molded Surface.
cated by
C D.
profile
molding, as
shown by C
Construct an elevation of the oblique D F E, in line with which
Having thus cut the measuring profile B A, draw a line through the points of intersection, as shown by O P. Then O P will be the shape of the pattern of
lines corresponding to the points in the
pattern to be cut.
draw the
G
II.
Divide
&H
in the usual
man
the incline cornice to miter against the profile
A
B.
104
77;e
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a
9.
Rectangular Flaring: Article.
In Fig. 282, let
the article, of
C which F
A B E be the side elevation of I K M is the plan at the base
Let
it
The
points
F and G
are then dropped into their
I'
respective measuring lines, thus locating the points
and
G
II
L
1
N
the plan at the top.
1
1
be required
to produce the pattern in one piece, the top included. of L in all respects equal to II L Make
H
1
N G
NG
1
the plan.
Through the
center of
it
likewise draw
EP
LLE AT ON.
1
indefinitely, and through the center in the opposite S indefinitely. From the lines H L direction draw and S respectively, each in and G N set off T
1
1
W
1
length equal to the slant hight of the article, as shown or E B of the elevation. Through O and S by C
A
,
respectively draw
1
I
K
1
and F
M
1
,
parallel to
H L
1
1
and
G N
1
1
and
in length equal to the corresponding sides in
the plan I
K and F M, placing onehalf that length and S. In like manner set from the points way off V P and U E, also equal to C A, and draw through E and P the lines F" I' and K'' M", parallel to the ends of the pattern of the top part as already drawn, and in length equal to I F and K M of the plan. Draw I' H K L K' L', M N M N', F G F 1 G and I' H In the same thus completing the pattern sought. general way the pattern may be described, including the bottom instead of the top, if it be required that
each
1
PATTERN.
,
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
,
,
,
,
way.
Considering this problem in the light of miter cut
G F and F G may be regarded as ting proper, I C is the the plan of two similar moldings of which
H
NM
A
profile, I
is
H,
I
1
GF
and and
NM
H
1
being the miter lines.
at
the stretchout line,
drawn
right angles
to
T F
Fig. S82.
M, while
profile.
representing
L' are the measuring lines of the the points C and respectively
K
1
The Pattern of a Rectangular Flaring Article.
A
and H'
L
1
one end of the pattern, while points and N at the other end. are derived from
at
K
1
and
M
PROBLEM
10.
Patterns of the Face and Side of a Plain Tapering Keystone.
283 be the elevation of the and G E' F* K of Fig. 284 a secface of a keystone, tion of the same on its center line. Sometimes problems occur which are so simple
Let
in Fig.
ABD
C
so designated, will be sufficient excuse for a brief refThis problem is generally erence to first principles. " true face " of the referred to as finding the keystone,
not apparent that their solution is an exThat this, with others in emplification of any rule.
that
it
is
because, the face being inclined, the elevation D does not represent the true face " or " true dimensions of the face. To state the case, then, in con' ' ' '
ABC
which plain surfaces form the largest
factors,
may
be
formity with the rule,
A
B and C D
are the upper
and
Pattern Probkms.
105
lower lines of a molding, of which
the profile, and
AG
and
B D
F* of Fig. 284 is are the surfaces against
E
a
only one space, as shown by the points E' and F draw the hori; through zontal lines A' B' and C' D', which are none other than
in this case consists of
E' F'
1
the measuring lines. Then, with the Tsquare placed parallel with the stretchout line, drop the points from the miter lines C and B D into lines of correspond
A
ing
letter,
which connect, as shown by
A
1
C and B D
1
1
1
,
which completes the pattern.
F
3
K
In developing the pattern for the side, G and are the lines of the molding, B D of Fig. 283 its
W
profile
and E" F the miter
a
line.
Hence upon any
all
vertical line, as
L
K', lay off the stretchout of profile
as
B
L
D, locating the points M' and H*,
MH K
1
shown by
1
,
through which points draw the measuring
then, with the Tsquare placed parallel to L K', 1 J drop the points E and F into lines of corresponding 3 As the vertical lines at Grletter, as shown by E F'.
lines;
and
represent the position of surfaces against which the side is required to fit at the back, bring the Tsquare against each, thus locating them in the pattern at G
1
K
and K', as shown.
Fig. 284.
As the side must also fit over the molding of the arch
an opening must be cut in it corresponding in shape to the profile of the arch molding N, which is given in
the sectional view.
therefore only necessary to transfer this profile to the pattern, placing the top at and the bottom at the measuring the measuring line
It is
Patterns of the
Face and Side of a Plain Tapering Keystone.
Therefore, to lay miters, or the miter lines. out the pattern, draw any line, as E' F , at right angles
which
to
it
1
B for a stretchout line, upon which lay off the stretchout taken from the profile E' F', Fig. 284, which
A
M
line H', all as
shown
at
N
1
.
PROBLEM
Patterns for the Corner Piece
of
II.
a Mansard Roof, Embodying: the Principles Upon Which All Mansard
Finishes are Developed.
of the first steps in developing the patterns for trimming the angles of a mansard roof is to obtain
One
appear
In
if
swung
into a vertical position,
:
which may be
accomplished as follows
In other a representation of the true face of the roof. words, inasmuch as the surface of the roof has a slant
equal to that shown in the profile of the return, the length of the hip is other than is shown in the eleva
mansard
profile
tion.
E F C be the elevation of a Fig. 285, let be the as ordinarily drawn, and let roof
A
A G
1
showing the pitch drawn in
1
line
with the eleva
dimensions extends in a provarious parts formportionate degree to the lines of the Not only are the vertical and oblique ing the finish. dimensions different, but, as the result of this, the is different from that shown in a normal eleangle at
tion,
and
this difference in
A
1
Set the dividers to the length G, and from as center, strike the arc G G letting G' fall in a
,
A
1
1
vertical line
from
A
1
.
From
G' draw a line parallel to
the face of the elevation, as shown by the several points in the hip finish,
G C
as
1
,
and from
shown by
1 1
A
vation.
tain a
Hence, it is of the greatest importance to ob" true face " or elevation of the roof as it would
drop lines vertically, cutting G C in the C and K', as shown. From these points carry points lines to corresponding points in the upper line of the
C and K,
1
106
elevation, as
The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.
shown by
C'
A
represents the pattern of F E of the elevation. In cases where the whole hight of the roof cannot be put into the drawing for use, as
E
Then A C' F the surface shown by A C
and K'
1
h.
draw the horizontal line, as shown by B B 3 and from B drop a vertical line cutting this line, as shown,
B'
1
,
in the point
inspection of the engraving it will 3 be seen that the point B falls in the line C' obtained
.
B
s
By
A
Elevation
Fig. $85.
The Plain Surfaces of a Mansard Roof Devetoped.
above described, the same result may be accomplished by assuming any point as far from A as the size of the
drawing will permit, as B, and treating the part between A and B as though it were the whole. That is, from
in the
previous operation, thus demonstrating that the
by which to proportion the several parts results the same as the method first described, and therefore may be used when more
latter
method
of obtaining the angle
A,
in a vertical line, set off
AB
1
,
equal to
A
B.
From
convenient.
PROBLEM
A
Face Miter
12.
Molding Around a Panel.
at Right Angles, as in the
In Fig. 286, let A B D C represent any panel, around which a molding is to be carried of the profile The miters required in this case are of at E and E'. " face " to discalled
the nature
correct elevation of the be shown in a plan view. A B D C, with the lines of the molding carried panel
A
around the same, determines the miter
lines
A
commonly
miters,
G
C, which,
in connection with the profiles at
F and E and E'
tinguish them from other square
miters, which can only
are all that
is
necessary to the development of the pat
Pattern
Problems.
107
tern.
The two
profiles are here
tin
ing an entire section of
drawn, thus constitutpanel. Keeause it is usual,
for constructive reasons, to cut the
two moldings with
B lay off a pattern o[ tin side corresponding to stretchout at right angles to it, as shown by II K, through which draw measuring lines in the usual manner.
A
the intervening panel in one piece where the width of
Place the Tsquare at right angles to
is
A
B,
or,
the same, parallel to the stretchout line K, and, bringing it successively against the several points in the miter line F, cut measuring lines of corre
what
H
A
Then a line traced through these sponding number. as shown by L M, will be the pattern sought. points,
The other
pattern
is
developed
in like
manner.
It is
1 II and usual to draw the stretchout lines, across the lines of the moldings which they represent, beginning the stretchouts at the inner lines of the mold1
K
K H
ing, thus
:
Point 10 of profile
1
while point 10 of profde
is
E would be located at V, E would be at W. While this
V.M+H
X4I+
1
apt to produce some ^confusion of lines in actual practice, it gives the entire profile in one continuous
that of stretchout for the purpose alluded to above the entire width of the panel in one piece. cutting Should it be desired to make one of the moldings
separate from the rest, an additional point for the purpose of a lap is assumed at one of the moldings, as 11
of profile E'.
The
pattern for the end piece,
A
C,
may be derived without drawing an additional profile, as its profile and stretchout are necessarily the same as
that of the other
two arms
;
on
a line at right angles to
A C,
therefore reproduce as shown by
HK N O,
through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual manner, producing them sufficiently far in each direction to intercept lines dropped from the
Place the "["square at points in the two miter lines. to C, and, bringing it successively right angles F and C G, cut measuring against points already in
A
A
Then lines traced of corresponding numbers. the intersections thus formed, as shown by through
lines
P R and S
end piece.
It
T, will be the shape of the pattern of the
Fig. 286.
A
Face Miter at Right Angles, us in the Molding Around a Panel.
noticed in the last operation that dropF, ping the points from either of the miter lines, as into the measuring lines is, in fact, only continuing in
may be
A
the same direction the lines previously drawn from the the line F; and that in reality the shape profile E to
A
Divide the two profiles in the metal will permit it. manner into the same number of parts, from the usual which points draw lines parallel to the lines of the For the as shown. molding, cutting the miter lines,
of the cut at
P R
of the miter line,
developed without the assistance thus giving another instance of the
is
fact that
any square miter can be cut by the short
relation of the parts
is
method when the
understood.
108
The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
of the Moldings Bounding;
13.
a Panel Triangular in Shape.
In Fig. 287,
let
D E F
be the elevation of a
triangular panel or other article, surrounding which is a Construct andG molding of the profile, shown at
of the three sides, at convenient points, draw stretchout lines, as shown by I and IP P, through I,
H
H
1
1
G
1
.
an elevation of the panel molds, as shown by ABC, and draw the miter lines A D, B E and C F. For the
the points in which draw the usual measuring lines. With the Tsquare parallel to each of the several stretchout lines, or, what is the same, at right angles
to the respective sides, bringing the blade successively against the points in the several miter lines, cut the
Draw patterns of the several sides proceed as follows a profile, Or, placing it in correct relative position to Divide it into any conthe side D F, as shown.
:
corresponding measuring
lines, all as indicated
by the
Fig.
tS7.The
Patterns of the Moldings Bounding a Triangular Panel.
venient
number
of
parts in
the usual manner,
and
through these points draw miter lines F C and D.
lines, as
shown, cutting the
A
In like manner place the
Then lines traced through the points of intersection thus obtained will describe the patterns A' C' F' will be the pattern for the side required.
dotted lines.
D
1
profile G' in a
side
E
F.
corresponding position relative to the Divide it into the same number of parts,
A D F C
F
3
of
the
is
the
pattern
E' elevation, and likewise C' B for the side described by similar
a
and draw
profile
lines intersecting those drawn from the first in the line F C, also cutting the line E B.
letters.
By
this operation
points
are
obtained in the three
D, E B, F C, from which to lay off the in the usual manner. At right angles to each patterns miter lines
A
Placing another profile in the molding A B D E would, if divided the same as the others, only result in another set of intersections at the points already
existing on the lines
A D
and
B
E, as occurred on
Pattern Problems.
109
that
the line
case
is
F
all
C,
hence to save labor one
is
profile in this
carried around from
and dropped into the three
that
really
necessary, the points being
stretchouts respectively.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
of a Molding Mitering
14.
Around an Irregular FourSided Figure.
in these several stretchouts
In Fig. 288, let B C D be the elevation of an irregular foursided figure, to which a molding is to be
the profile shown by K. Place a duplicate the side opposite, as shown, from which profile against
fitted of
A
draw measuring
lines in the
usual manner, producing them until they are equal in is length to the respective sides, the pattern of which to the to be cut. Placing the Tsquare at right angles
Fig.
tSS.The Patterns of a Molding Mitering Around an Irregular FourSided
lines of the several sides, or,
Figure.
to complete the elevation project the lines necessary the molding as it would appear when finished, all as of B F G H. Draw the several miter lines shown
what
it
to the stretchout lines, bring
the same, parallel against the points in
is
by
B F C
G,
DH
and
A
E.
Divide the two profiles into
the miter lines, cutting the corresponding measuring Then the lines. lines, all as indicated by the dotted
the same
of parts in the usual njanner, through the points in which draw lines parallel to the lines of the molding in which they occur, cutting the miter
number
right angles to each of the several sides lav off a stretchout from the profile, as shown by 3 3 L' M', L' M', L L Through the several points
lines, as
shown.
At
through these points of intersection will Thus E II' D' the several patterns required. give of the side E H I) A of the elevawill be the pattern 3 D" C G' will be the pattern ot the side tion;
lines traced
1
A
1
H
1
HD
A'
C G
3
;
G F
a
1
B' C' that of
F B C G
;
and F' B
J
M,
M
.
E
that of the remaining side.
110
The Xcir
\\'<>rkur
Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
15.
of Simple Gable Miters.
B be the angles and 15 In Fig. 289, let 'A B Draw of the miters at the foot and peak of a gable. in correct relation to profiles of the required molding
both the horizontal and inclined moldings, as shown
K
K
the profile through the points in which draw the Place the fdqu&ro usual measuring lines, as shown.
1
H
,
parallel to
this stretchout line,
and, bringing
it
suc
and H', through the angles of which draw the other parallel lines necessary to complete the eleTheir intersection at the base of the gable vation.
at
H
produces the miter line
the top of the gable sides of the gable,
pitch.
is
B
C,
while the miter line at
a vertical line, because the
K B
II
is
and
K
R,
are of the
two same
The
the
profile
at
sent
return
the
so placed as also to represide at its proper distance
from B. Divide the profile 11 in the usual manner into any convenient nuinPlace the Tsquare ber of equal parts. horizontal parellel to the lines in the
A
bringing it successively the points in the profile, cut the against At right miter line B C, as shown.
molding, and,
i
144.4
1
angles to the lines of the hori/.oiital cornice draw the stretchout E K, through the points in which draw the usual
measuring
lines,
as
shown.
Reveoe
the ^square, letting the blade lie parallel to the stretchout line E F, and, bringing it against tile several points of the profile
H,
cut
the
corresponding
measuring
lines.
Then
a line traced through these
points of intersection, as shown from G to V, will be the pattern of the end of
the
horizontal
cornice inhering
with
the return.
in
In like manner, with the
Fig. 289.
the same position, bring it Tsquare the points in the miter line B C, against
The Patterns of Simple Gable Miters.
and cut corresponding measuring lines drawn tli rough Then a line traced through the the same stretchout. of intersection thus obtained, as shown by T U, points will be the pattern of the end of the horizontal cornice
inhering against the inclined cornice.
file
cessively against the points in
B C
and
K
L. cut the
corresponding measuring by the dotted lines. the points thus obtained trace Through
lines, all
as indicated
lines, as indicated
by
MN
and
O
P.
Then
MN
will
Divide the pro
indicated
any convenient number of equal parts, all as by the small figures. Through these points draw lines cutting the miter line B C, and also the
H'
into
be the pattern for the bottom of the raking cornice inhering against the horizontal, and O P will be the
The pattern shown pattern for the top of the same. will also be the pattern for the return miterat G
V
miter line right angles to the top. lines of the raking cornice place a stretchout, E' F , of
at
1
K L
the
At
ing with to reverse
AD
it
of the elevation,
it
being necessary only
and
to .establish its length.
Pattern Problems.
ill
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a Pedestal of
16.
Which
the Plan
is
an Equilateral Triangle.
should be drawn so as to show one side in profile and the plan placed to correspond with it. Draw the miter
lines
E
and
G
0.
Divide the profile
B D into
spaces
of convenient size in the usual manner, and number them as shown in the diagram. From the points thus
obtained drop lines, cutting E and G O. as shown. P at right angles to the side Lay off the stretchout E G, and through the points in it draw measuring lines.
N
E G, and, bringthe points in the miter lines ing successively against E and G 0, cut the corresponding measuring lines. line traced through these points will be the pattern,
Place the Tsquare at right angles to
it
A
as
shown by H L M K. The principle involved
is
in this
and several follow
exactlv the same as that of the preceding problems In this case and irregular shaped panels. ing regular the shape of the article is shown in plan instead of ele
Fig. 290.
The Pattern for a Pedestal of which the Plan
is an.
Equilateral Triangle.
290 be the elevation of a or other article of which the plan is an equipedestal This elevation lateral triangle, as shown by F E G.
Let
in Fig.
A
BD C
and the profile is too large to permit of its being drawn within the plan, as were the profiles of the panel moldings in their elevations.
vation,
112
The Xew Metal Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a Pedestal
17.
Square
in Plan.
In Fig. 291, let A B D C be the elevation of a pedestal the four sides of which are alike, being in G F, Fig. 292. Since the plan plan as shown by E
H
a rectangular figure the miters involved are square miters, or miters forming a joint at 90 degrees.
is
A
square miter admits of certain abbreviations, the reasons for which are explained in Problem 3, as well as
in
Chapter V, under the head of Parallel Forms.
is
The
abbreviated method which
used.
The plan
of the article,
always introduced only to show the shape and is not employed directly in cutting
is
here illustrated
is
Fig.
S92.The Plan of Square
Pedestal.
the pattern.
tion
Space the
profiles,
shown
in the eleva
by
A
C and B D,
in the usual
manner, numbering
the points as shown. Set off a stretchout line, L R, at right angles to the base line C D of the pedestal,
through the points in which draw measuring lines. Place the Tsquare parallel to the stretchout line, and,
successively against the points in the two profiles, cut the corresponding lines drawn through the line traced through these points, as stretchout.
bringing
it
shown by L
A M N
K,
will
be the pattern of a
side.
Fiy. 291.
The Pattern for a Pedestal, Square in Plan.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 293,
vase, the plan of
let
18.
for a Vase, the Plan of
Which
is
a Pentagon.
S C
is
K
T
be the elevation of a
ner that one of the sides will
be shown in
C
a
B
P.
The
a pentagon, as shown O C' elevation must be drawn in such a man
which
the plan in line and in correspondence with it. Divide the profile into spaces of convenient size in the
Draw
Pattern Problems.
113
usual
manner and number them.
1
Draw
the
miter
lines C' II
the plan, and, bringing the Tsquare successively against the points in the profile, drop lines across these miter lines, as shown by the
in
and C* IF
ferent
the case of a complicated profile, or one of many difmembers, to drop all the points across one sec
tion of the plan C' H'
IF C would
in
a
result in confusion.
Therefore
it
is
customary,
dotted lines in the engraving. Lay off the stretchout 1ST at right angles to the piece in the plan which
M
pattern in sections, pieces of which it is
practice, to treat the describing each of the several
composed independently
of the
Fig. 294.
Pattern for the Base.
Fig. 293.
Pattern for the
Upper
Part.
The Patterns for a
Vase, the Plan of which is
a Pentagon.
corresponds to the side shown in profile in the elevation. Through the points in it draw the usual measur
others.
divided
In the illustration given the pattern has been at the point II, the upper portion being
Place the Tsquare parallel to the stretching lines. out line, and, bringing it against the several points in the miter lines which were dropped from the elevation
developed from the profile and plan, as above, while the lower part is redrawn in connection with a section
of the plan,
letters in
upon them, corresponding measuring drawn through the stretchout. A line traced through
the points thus obtained will describe the pattern.
cut the
lines
In
Kig. 294. Corresponding each of the views represent the same parts, so that the reader will have no trouble in perceiving Instead oi redrawing a povjust what has been done. as
in
shown
114
Worker Pattern
a
tion of the elevation and plan, as has been done in this case, sometimes it is considered best to work from one
to redraw a portion of it, as tha profile rather than results in more or less inaccuracy. Therefore, always after
1
piece of clean paper
this
ing
plan plan is drawn, from which the second section of (J reat care, the pattern is obtained. however, is necessary
in
and
pinned on the board, coverpattern, upon which a duplicate
is
using
as
the
plan
and describing a part of the
redrawing
portions
of
the
plan
to
insure
pattern,
shown
in the operation explained above.
accuracy.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
19.
for a Pedestal, the Plan of
Which
is
a Hexagon.
sides,
drawn so
it.
that one of the sides will
be shown
in
profile.
with
into
Place the plan below it and corresponding Divide the profile shown in the elevation
any convenient number of spaces in the usual manner, and, to facilitate reference to them, number them as shown. Bring the Tsquare against the points
in
the profile and drop lines across one section of the
shown bv II M. At right angles to this section of the plan layoff the stretchout line .N >. through the points in which draw the usual measplan, as
<
X
Place the T' sc uare parallel to the uring lines. stretchout line, and, bringing it successively against the points in the miter lines II X and X, cut the
l
M
corresponding measuring by the dotted lines. Then a line traced through the points
lines,
as
indicated
Fig. 205.
The Pattern for a Pedestal, the Plan of which
is
a Hexagon.
In Fig. 295, let C D F E be the elevation of a pedestal which it is desired to construct of six equal
P S T
thus obtained will be the required pattern, as shown by E.
Pattern
115
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for
20.
is
a Vase, the
Plan of Which
sides will be
plan, placing
a Heptagon.
in
shown
it
profile.
it
In line with
it
draw the
so that
shall
correspond with the
in the
elevation.
Spaee the profile
in it
L P
usual manner,
and from the points
as
drop
lines
crossing one secIt
tion of ihe plan, cutting the miter lines
S and
II
V,
shown.
Lay
oil'
a,
stretchout,
A
H, at riirht anules
to the side of the plan corresponding to the side of the
vase
shown
in it
in profile
in
the elevation.
Through
the,
usual measuring lines. Place the points to tins stretchout line, and, ""s(iiare parallel bringing it successive] v against the points in the miter lines,
tin;
draw
line traced through
cut the corresponding measuring lines, as shown. these points, as shown by
A K O
Fig. 296.
The Pattern fur a Vase,
the
Plan nf which
is
a Heptagon.
In Fig. 296, let E L P G be the elevation of the vase, constructed in sneh a manner that one of its
W
;
U,
will
be the pattern of one of the sides of the
vase.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
21.
an Octagonal Pedestal.
Let II L in Fig. 21)7 be the elevation of a pedestal octagon in plan, of which the pattern of a section is required. This elevation should be drawn
in
profile.
it will appear iu Place the plan so as to correspond in all Divide the profile G W, from which respects with it.
K
G
W
draw the usual measuring
parallel to the stretchout
lines.
line,
Place the Tsquare and, bringing it suc
such a manner that one side of
cessively against the points dropped upon the miter lines from the elevation, cut the corresponding measur
A line traced through the points thus ing lines. obtained will describe the pattern of one of the sides
of which the article
profile
is
is
the plan of the side desired is projected, in the usual manner, and from the points in it drop points upon in the plan. each of the miter lines F T. and P Lay
composed.
In eases
where the
U
and where
as
complicated, many members, it is verv long, confusion will arise if all
consisting of
off a stretchout,
B
E,
at right
angles to the side of the
plan corresponding to the side of the article shown in in it profile in the elevation, and through the points
the points are dropped across one section of the plan, above described. It is also quite desirable in many cases to construct the pattern in several pieces. In
116
The New Mdal Worker Pattern Book,
the pattern is cut 'by means of a part of the plan redrawn above the elevation, thus allowing the use
of the
such cases methods which are described in connection with Problem 18 may be used with advantage. case the pattern is constructed of two In the
present
!
same
profile for both.
The same
letters refer
t
Fig. 297.
The Patterns for an Octagonal Pedestal.
to similar parts, so that the reader will
pieces, being divided at the point 8 of the profile. The lower part of the pattern is cut from the plan drawn below the elevation, while the upper part of
culty in ferent views.
have no diffitracing out the relationship between the dif
l'nttt'1n
PnJ'li
nis.
it;
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 298,
tion of a
in
22.
of
for
a Newel Post, the Plan
Which
is
a Decagon.
let
\V
US
is
1
I
<>
H
T V
be the eleva
newel post which
required to be constructed
the plan, as miter lines (i
ten parts.
shown.
The
Draw the plan below the elevation, as elevation must show one of the sections
C D
at right
shown by <i X II, and cutting the two X and II X. Lay oil' tin stretchout line to G II, and through it draw the angles
lines.
Place the Tsquare parallel and, bringing it. against the several and points in the miter lines G X, cut the corre
customary measuring
to the stretchout,
w
sponding measuring
lines.
X A
H
line traced
through the
points thus obtained will describe the pattern. In order to avoid confusion of lines, which would result from dropping points from the entire profile across onesection of the plan, a duplicate of the cap is drawn in
A
1
W
Fig.
299 in connection with a section of the plan, as shown
Fiy. 299.
Pattern of Cap.
Plan
Fig. 298.
The Patterns for a Newel
Post, the
Flan of which
1 1
is
a Decagon.
or sides in profile, and the plan must be placed to corSpace the molded parts of respond with the elevation. the profile in the usual manner, and from the points in
by G X' H which are employed in precisely the same manner as above described, thus completing the pattern in two pieces, the joint being formed at the point num,
them drop
lines crossing the corresponding section of
bered 11 of the profile and the stretchout.
118
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
23.
is
an Urn, the Plan of Which
the
several
a
Dodecagon.
in
urn to
In Fig. 300, let X A <! II l>e the elevation of an The elevation 1)0 constructed in twelve pieces. l>e drawn so as to sliow one side in Conmust profile. struct the plan, as shown, 1o correspond with it and
points
the
miter lines
X X and OX.
cut
A line measuring traced through the points thus obtained will describe
the
corresponding
lines.
ihe
pattern sought.
In
this
illustration
is
shown
a
method
sometimes
resorted to
by
pattern cutters to
avoid the confusion resulting from dropping all tinpoints across one section of the plan. The points from
1:5
to
The stretchout C
20 inclusive arc dropped upon the line OX. D is drawn in exactly the middle of
the pattern that is, it is drawn from X, the central of the plan. Points are transferred liv the Tpoint to the measuring lines on one side of s<{uare from ()
X
V
Plan
Fig.
SOO.T'he
I'ritlrrns
for an Urn, the Plan of
wltiih is a
Dodecagon.
draw the miter
lines.
]>ivide the
prolile
A S
(!
into
the stretchout, the points on
spaces in the usual manner, and from the points thus obtained drop lines across one section, X 0, of the Lav off the stretchout C D at right angles to the plan.
tained
lines.
by duplicating
the other side being obdistances from C Don the several
X
The
side
points stretchout E F
The
1
to
is
13 are dropped on
laid
off
NX
only.
to the
side
NO
of the plan.
Place the Tsquare parallel
it
to
MNfrom
to
the stretchout, and, bringing
successively
against
parallel
E
right angles the point X, and, the J^piare being set to the F, the points are transferred
at
119
measuring
lines on
one side of
off
E
F, while the distances
as de
scribed
in
the
in
lirst
instance.
This plan will be found adprofiles.
on the opposite side are set
by measurement,
vaiitagcons
complicated and very extended
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a
24.
of a Bracket.
Drop Upon the Face
In Figs.
I'.ol
and
'.}o2,
a.
methods
of obtaining tlie
II
K. as shown bv
O
P, and on
in
P
lay off a stretch
return strip lifting around
tin
1
face of a
bracket
an,'
drop and mitering against Similar letters in shown.
I
out,
through
the
points
which draw the usual
the two liguivs represent similar parts, and the follow
From the points in the profile F G measuring lines. carry lines in the direction of the molding that is,
The Pattern for a Drop upon
the
face of a hracket.
ing demonstration Let A 15 I) both.
face of the bracket,
may be
C
and
II
considered as applying to be the elevation of a part of the
Iv
parallel to
N
to
M.
the
intersecting the face of the bracket .Reverse the T s quare, placing the blade parallel
KM
a portion of the side, the connection between the side strip of the showing E F (1 aiul the face of the bracket. To state the
dr.>p
L
case simply,
the miter the profile and 1ST the surface against is the outline of line, because which the side strip miters. Then, following the rule,
F
G
is
M
line O P, and, bringing it sucthe points in cessively against M, cut the coras indicated bv the responding measuring lines,
stretchout
N
dotted lines.
points
of
Then
a line traced through these several
as
NM
intersection,
shown by O
fitting
R
P,
will
be the pattern of the strip
the bracket face.
around
E F G
divide
F
G
into
usual manner, as
any convenient number of parts in the shown by the small figures. Produce
and mitering against the irregular surface
N M
of
120
The
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
Let
of a Boss
Fitting:
25.
Over a Miter in a Molding".
out line K' K", and, bringing it against the several points in N 0, cut corresponding measuring lines, as
AB
KG
E D
pediment, as
miter and
boss,
in Fig. 303 be the part elevation of a in a cornice or window cap, over the against the molding and fascia in which a
C
F
H,
is
required to be
fitted, all
as
shown
be con
by N
of the side view.
The
outline
F
K G H
of the boss
is
to
sidered as the profile of a molding running in the direction shown by D E in the side view, and mitering E. against the surface of the cornice shown by
N
For the patterns proceed
as follows: Divide so
much
comes against the cornice, shown from K to F, into any convenient number of parts, and from these points draw lines that is, to the direction of the moldparallel to D E under consideration until they intersect the ing miter line N O E, which in this case is the profile of
of the profile of the boss
as
K
F
HG
the cornice molding. As the boss is so placed over the angle in the cornice molding that the distance from to F is the same as that from to G, the part of
K
K
the boss
K G will
may be
be an exact duplicate of duplicated from the pattern of
K
K F and F without
another side view drawn especially for it, which would have to be done if the boss was otherwise placed. Therefore, extend the line N D upon which to lay off
a stretchout of
into the spaces tion
K
F
H
G, dividing the portion
profile,
K
1
F
1
shown at K F of the. which draw the usual measuring lines.
through
por
Pig. SOS.
The Pattern of a Boss Fitting Over a Miter in a Molding.
Make the
F G
1
1
equal in length to the part
FUG
and,
lastly, the portion
G
1
K"
a duplicate of
F K'
1
reversed,
Then lines traced through these points of tersection, as shown by K L M K will be the
shown.
1
inre
s
,
as shown.
Place the Tsquare parallel to the stretch
quired pattern.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 304,
let
26.
for
a Keystone Having: a Molded Face With Sink.
E
AB
F be
the front elevation
and from the points thus obtained carry
lines across
of a keystone, as for a window cap, of which L P is a sectional view, S the profile of the moldgiving
K
M
R
The P, over which it is required to fit. sink in the face extends throughout its entire length,
and
is
ing M N O
At right angles in the face of the keystone, as shown. the top of the keystone lay off a stretchout of R, as
K
shown by K"
measuring
lines.
R
1
,
through which draw
it
the
usual
shown by
GHD
Placing the Tsquare parallel to the
C,
its
the line
K
depth being shown by
T
of
the section.
thus become moldings, of
parallel lines,
E F which E
and
a
lines
K R
and
F, H, C D and the profile. Likewise
E
G
H G and A B D C A and F B are the A B the miter lines, C G H D becomes
D
are
stretchout line, and bringing the points in the lines C D and
strip,
AB
successively against bounding the face
Then a cut the corresponding measuring lines. line traced through these points, as shown by C" A" B"
D
1
,
molding,
of
which
G H
and C
the miter
K
will be the pattern for this part. In developing the pattern for the sink the usual
to
T
the profile.
pattern of the face pieces, divide the profile into any convenient number of face
Therefore, to obtain the of the
spaces,
method would be
carrying lines
divide
K
T
into
across
the face, and
equal spaces, thence into the
K R
stretchout; but since this
would
result in confusion of
Pattern Problems.
121
same points as were established in R have been used, which arc quite as convenient as the others mentioned, save that the points in K T must be obtained from the points in K R, bv oiirrviiig lines back to K T, as shown, and in laying off the stretchout each individual space must be measured bv the dividers.
lines, the
K*
K
For the pattern pattern of the required sink piece. of the piece forming the sides of the sink in the
keystone, K R T becomes the elevation molding running in the direction of R T, of which K R and K Tare the miter lines and C 1) the profile. Hence, at any convenient place above or below the
face of
the
of a
sectional view, lay off the stretchout of the line C D, as determined by the lines drawn across it, in the first
K
operation,
all
as
indicated
a by C
D".
Through the
points
ner.
lines
draw measuring lines in the usual manThe next operation, in course, would be to drop from the points in the profile to the miter lines;
in ('"
D"
but as
first
this has
already been done
by the
lines of the
operation, it is only necessary to place the Tsquare at right angles to the measuring lines, and bring it successively against the several points in the
lines
KR
and
ing lines, as
K T, and cut the corresponding measurshown. Then a line traced through these K
3
R' and points, as indicated by pattern of the piece required. For the side of the keystone,
the face of a molding, of which B R the miter line at one side, and
K
3
T', will
be the
KL
is
S
R
becomes
A
K
L
the profile and and P S the
M
miter lines at the other.
From
this point
forward the
problem is, in principle, the same as Problem 10. For convenience, and to avoid confusion, it is best to again make use of the same set of lines instituted in the
Therefore, lay off the part of the demonstration. stretchout A' B' equal to B, putting into it all the
first
A
points occurring in ing lines in the usual
A
B, through which draw measurmanner. Place the Tsquare at
right angles to these measuring lines, and, bringing it R, and successively against the points in the line
K
likewise against
L
M
1
and
PS
of the back, cut corre
Then a line sponding measuring lines, as shown. traced through these points of intersection, as shown R2 S P' 0', will be the outline of the L by N' required pattern, with the exception of that part lying
M
1
1
K
4
S'
Fig. $04.
The Patterns for a Keystone Havinij a Molded Face
with Sink.
between N' and O', which make a duplicate of N O. By examination of the points in A B and the lines drawn through the same and making comparison with
1
1
At right angles to the line II D of the keystone lay off a stretchout of T, as shown by T', through the
K
K
1
the points in B, it will be seen that in order to locate the position of the profile of the window cap accurately
A
points in which draw the usual measuring lines. Place the Tsquare at right angles to the lines across the face of the keystone, and, bringing it successively against
the points in the lines G and C D, forming the sides of the sink, cut the corresponding measuring lines
H
1
molding M N O P, two additional points, as shown by a; and '/', have been introduced, corresponding to x and y, the points of intersection between the extreme lines of the cap molding itself and the side of the keystone
1
A
B, as shown in the elevation by the curved lines of
drawn through K'
T'.
Then
lines traced
1
through these
will
points, as indicated
by
G H
and
C" I)
1
,
form the
In practice it is frequently necessary to that molding. introduce extra points in operations of this character.
122
The New Mdul Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a
27.
Fit
Square Shaft
to
Against a Sphere.
In Fig. 305, let
HAA K
1
be the elevation of a
square shaft, one end of which is required to fit against the ball D F E. Draw the center line FL, upon which
locate the center of the ball G.
Continue the sides of
the shaft across the line of the circumference of the
ball indefinitely.
From
1
the points of intersection be
tween the sides of the shaft and the circumference of
draw a line at right angles to the , sides of the shaft, across the ball, cutting the center B as radius, Set the dividers to line, as shown at B.
the ball,
or
A
A
G
and from
G
as center, describe the arc
1
the sides in the points C and C be the pattern of one side of
against the given ball.
.
C C Then II C C
1
,
cutting
1
K
will
fit
a square shaft to
Fi(j. SOS.
The Pattern of a Square Shaft
to Fit Aijainst
a Sphere.
PROBLEM
To Describe the Pattern
Let
28.
of an Octagon Shaft to Fit Against a Ball.
H
F
K in
this
Fig.
300 be the given
ball, of
which
G
is
the center.
Let D' C"
is
the octagon shaft which
ball.
represent a plan of required to fit against the
line
C D" E
3
Draw
plan
in
with the center of the
E. From the angles of tlte plan project lines upward, cutting the circle and conFrom the point stituting the elevation of the shaft. or where the side in profile cuts the circle, draw a
ball, as indicated
by F
A
A
1
,
line at right angles to the center line of the ball
F
E,
cutting it in the point B, as shown. Through B, from the center G by which the circle of the ball was
struck, describe an arc, from the inner angles C 2
C and C
side of
ball
1
.
;.a
H
F
will be the pattern of one shaft inhering against the given octagon K. If it be desired to complete the elevait
Then
M
cutting the two lines drawn C 3 of the plan, as shown at
C C
1
N
tion of the shaft meeting the ball,
may
be done by
carrying lines from C and C' horizontally until they meet the outer line of the shaft in the points I);md
D
1
.
Connect C and
1
D
1
,
also
C and D, by
a
curved
line, the lowest point in which shall touch the horizontal line drawn through B. Then the broken line
DCC D
1
1
will
be the miter
line
in
elevation
formed
Fig.
by the junction of the octagonal shaft with the ball.
S06.The
Pattern of
n.i (M.iij.,
Shaft
to Fit
Against n Ball.
123
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 3<l~
shaft
is
29.
is
of
is
an Octagonal Shaft, the Profile of Which
Curved, Fitting over the Ridge of a Rool.
of
shown
tin
elevation
:iinl
plan of the
:>(>S.
shaft of a finial of the design
shown
anil
if
in
it
Kig.
The
to
the plan, into any number of parts in the usual manner, and from these points carrv lines vertiI'
'i
K
octagon throughout,
were designed
cally crossing the miter lines
(!
K ami
to
<i
K.
From
the
stand upon a level surface, the method of obtaining its patterns would be the same in all respects as that de
center
line
G
draw
oil'
K'
lay
a
right angles stretchout of the profile.
M'
at
K
F,
I
upon which
L, drawing measuring lines through the Plaee the {"si" "' points.
1
parallel to the stretchout line,
and, bringing it successively against the points in G E and
(1
V, cut
corresponding meas
M 1
uring
as shown, and through the points thus oblines,
tained trace lines, all as indicated in the drawing. This
pattern for the sides of the shaft.
shaft
gives the general shape of the By inspection of the
plan and elevation together, it will be seen that to fit the over the roof some of the sections composing it
will require different cuts at their
lower extremities.
the
Two
of the
sections will be
cut
same
as
to
the the
pattern already side marked A 1> and
described.
They correspond
in
K
'
I
1
the plan.
1)
Two
will
others,
indicated
lit
in
the
plan by
C
and
II
1,
be cut to
over the ridge of the roof, as shown in the elevation /// The remaining four pieces, shown in plan a. by B 0, D E, F I and bv II, will be cut obliquely to fit
//
A
against the pitch For the sides elevation.
of
the roof, as
shown bv n
o in the
D
it
center of the elevation,
and II I, shown in the will be seen that the line
drawn from 4 touches the ridge in the point m, while the line drawn from:! corresponds to the point at which
pitch of the roof. Therefore, in the pattern draw a line from the center of it, on the measuring line 4, to the sides of it, on the
the side terminates
against
the
measuring
Pig.
3(17.
line
:>,
all
as
shown by m'
n'
and m'
n'.
Plan, Elevation and Patterns.
Octar/imtil Shaft,
nri'r
tt
Then
Curved
in Profile, Fitting
The Patterns of an
Rtdyp.
these are the lines of cut in the pattern correBy further sponding to in a and /// //of the elevation.
it will be seen that for the inspection of the' elevation, four sides it is necessary to make a cut in remaining
scribed in Problem
'1\
.
As shown by
is
the line
K
/
K,
however,
its
lower end
designed to
tit
over the ridge
of a roof or gable, to obtain the patterns of
which pro
ceed as follows
:
the pattern from one side, in a point corresponding to the other, in a point corresponding :? of the profile, to all as shown by ////. to 1 of the profile, Taking corre
Construct
tion, as
a
plan of the shaft at
shown bv
A B
lines,
I)
which draw miter
as
K shown by
.1
largest secfrom the center of K.
its
<1
sponding points, therefore,
in the
it,'
measuring
lines of
B'and
G
F.
Divide the profile of the shaft
L.
corresponding to
Then the the pattern, draw the lines o', as shown. modified by cutting upon these lines, original pattern, will constitute the pattern for the four octagon sides.
124
'ihe
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
To Construct a
Ball in
30.
Shape of Gores.
against
;lie
any Number
of Pieces, of the
Draw
a circle of
a size corresponding to the re
quired ball, as shown in Fig. 309, which divide, by any of the usual methods employed in the construction of
polygons, into the number of parts of which desired to construct the ball, in this case twelve,
it is
bringing it miter lines
successively
points
in
the
R E
measuring
lines,
and R F, as shown.
cut the
corresponding
traced
A
line
through
all as
these points will give the pattern of a section. If, on out the plan of the ball, the polygon had been laying
shown by E,
radial lines,
F,
Gr,
H,
etc.
From
the center draw
drawn about the
in
circle, instead of inscribed,
it
as
shown
F, etc., representing the joints between the gores, or otherwise the miter lines. If the polygon is inscribed, as shown in the illustration, it will
RE
and
R
the engraving,
is
quite evident that a quarter of
be observed that the joint or miter lines will
lie in
the
surface of the sphere and that therefore the middle of will fall inside the pieces, as shown at W, C and ', the surface of the sphere a greater or less distance
according to the number of gores into which the. sphere has been divided, and that therefore it becomes
necessary to construct a section through the middle of one of the sides for use as a profile from which to
be well to distinguish here between absolute accuracy and something that
obtain
a stretchout.
It will will
do practically just as well and save
profile,
if
much
labor.
This
made complete, would have
for
its
width the distance
W
u\ while
its
hight or distance
through from R to a point opposite would be equal to the diameter of the circle, or twice the distance R U. As onequarter of this section will answer every purpose, it may be constructed with sufficient accuracy as
Supposing R E F to be the piece under consideration, draw a line parallel to its center line R C
follows
:
conveniently near, as
points
A V
lines.
1
,
upon which
locate the
as
A
and
V
by projection from C and R,
shown by the dotted
the line
From
BV
perpendicular to
V
the point
V
erect
A, and make B
V
equal to the radius of the circle, or
R V
;
then an arc
will complete of a circle cutting the points B and This can be done by taking the radius the section. R between the points of the compasses and describ
A
U
Fig. 309.
ing an arc from the point
is
V,
whose distance from
V
the circle
To Construct a Ball in any Number of Pieces, of the Shape of Gores.
To develop the patequal to the distance n' U. tern divide B into any convenient number of equal and from the divisions thus obtained carry parts,
A
would have answered the purpose
of a profile.
These points, with reference
observed
illustration
to the profile, are to be in determining the size of the ball. In the
lines across line
the
section
its
P]
R F
at
right angles to a
presented,
if
the ball produced
will corre
drawn through lines, all as shown
center line
R
C, as
center, and cutting its miter in R E and R F. Prolong the shown by S T, and on it lay off
spond down, while
center of
its
in its miter lines to the diameter of the circle laid
sections
measured on lines drawn through the it will be smaller than the circle.
a stretchout obtained from
in
B A,
which draw measuring
lines in the usual
through the points manner.
The
having
patterns for a ball
made up
found
of zones or strips
in
parallel sides will be
Section
"2
of
Place the Tsquare parallel to the stretchout line, and,
this chapter (Regular
Tapering Forms).
Pattern Problems.
125
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a
31.
Round Pipe
to
Fit
Against a Roof of One Inclination.
126 measuring
lines, as indicated.
I.
Tin
Ne
1'iiti'in
Ik HI/..
these points, as shown by l\ In the illustration pattern.
ellipse, or
A M
line
traced through
tin sliurl
diameter
Q
lie
.
will lie ilie reiiiirc(l
ilie prolile
should
crossing tin roof. In such ca.e turned sn that Q F is across the
I''
the
long diameter of the
the the
roof.
roof, or jiarallel
jeete.l
to
E
method
of
shown as crossing G, procedure would be exactly
is
The
if
from
it.
The pipe migbl with equal
the
D, and the elevation duly profacility be
lie
same
that
the
placed
that
long diameter should
at an
pipe were placed iu the opposite position
is.
with
oblique angle desired.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of
33.
an Octagon Shaft Fitting Over the Ridge of a Roof.
the roof,
G
I
In Fig. 312, let E the elevation
A B
C be
the section and
shaft
I)
II
G. representing
the
ridge of
lines.
all
cut the corre
of an
octagon
mitering
sponding measuring
Then a line traced through
as
against a roof, represented by the lines F <i and (! K. Place the section in line with the elevation, as shown,
the points thus obtained,
shown by P
()
N"
M
L
and from the angles drop
lines,
W
giving
T V and
back on
I
of
the
elevation.
Drop
the point
G
to
the section, thus locating the points i) and 4. the end of the shaft, and at right angle's to stretchout line, as shown points iu
ner.
it
Opposite
it,
bv S
lines
right,
li,
draw measuring
it
in
draw a and through the the usual man
Place the Tsquare at
and, bringing
angles to the shaft, successively against the points in the
Fig. 312.
The Pattern
f an
Ortar/nn Shaft Fitting Over the Kir/i/r of n Roof.
roof
line
formed by the intersection with
it
<>f
the
'
in the
engraving, will be the lower end of the pattern
angle lines in the elevation, and also against the point
required.
/'illti I'll
I'rnlil,
///.v.
127
PROBLEM
The Pattern
Let
1>
34
Over the Ridge
of a Roof.
of a
Round Pipe
1
to Fit
A
1']
I>
(J
iii
Kin'.
:i:;
lie
tin.'
\\
section of tin roof and
againsl
S
15
T
an elevation of
pipe.
111
the pipe
(j
1'raw a profile of hue, as shown hv !'
out of the
at
lie
of the roof, and lay off the stretchsame upon the stretchout line I K, drawn right angles to the lines of the pipe, which may
one slope
\\.
Since,
are.
both iiielinations
to the
duplicated
in a
reverse order for
lines
the other
half,
of the roof
same
angle,
as .shown.
Draw measuring
in the
through these points usual manner. Place the
of
Tsquare parallel to the sides
\K
the pipe, and, bringing it against the points in the prolile, cut the roof
line, as
shown from
B to T.
Reverse
Tsquare, placing it at right angles to the lines of the pipe, and,
successively against the points dropped upon the roof line, cut the corresponding measuring
the
bringing
it
/Y,/.
Jl3.The Pattern
../
.1
/.'..ii.irf
Pipe
t,,
Fit Oner the
J}i,(,,e ,./
.1
through the
l!,,of.
points,
as
halves of the pattern will be the same. Therefore space oil' the half of the which miters profile
I
Kit
I
i
P, will form the roof.
that
end of
shown by L M N O the pattern which meets
PROBLEM
An Octagon
Shaft Mitering
35
of a Roof.
Upon the Ridge and Hips
In Fig. :> 14 are shown the front and side elevations of a hipped roof, below which are placed plans, each turned so as to with the elevation above it.
Before the pattern of the shaft can be developed it will be necessary to obtain a correct elevation of its intersection with the roof.
correspond
Therefore, considering the plan
l
128
The New Metal Worker Pattern Book.
the elevations.
oblique sides cross the hips of the roof, as shown by The next step is to project the small figures 1 to 11. lines upward into the elevations from each of these
and
8,
and
8, 9,
Lines connecting these points (o, 6, 7 10 and 11) will complete the elevasides of the roof have the same pitch a regular octagon, all the angles of the and 11 will intersect the roof at the
tions.
In case
is
~2
all
them till they intersect the lines of points, continuing From the roof, as shown by the vertical dotted lines.
each of these intersections in either view lines can be
to the other view projected horizontally
till
and the shaft
shaft except
they in
Thus the tersect with lines of corresponding number. 9 and 10 cut the line of the hip in the front elepoints vation at the point B, which, being carried across to
the side view and intersected with lines from points 9 and 10 from the plan below it, give the correct position of those points in the side view. the intersection of lines from points tj
In like manner
and 7 in the side
same hight, in which case it will only be necessary to draw the front view. But should the slope of the front of the roof be different from that of the sides, it will be to follow the course above described. To necessary the pattern, draw any horizontal line, as E F, develop upon which place the stretchout of the octagon shaft obtained from the plan, as shown bv the small figures, through which draw the usual measuring lines at right angles to it, and intersect the measuring lines with
lines
view, with the hip line at D, give the correct hight of Points 5 and 8, being those points in the front view. the hips, must appear in the elevations at points upon
of corresponding
numbers drawn
from the intersections
in the elevation.
A
horizontally line traced
where
the vertical lines
from them cut the hip
lines in
through these intersections, as shown by be the desired pattern.
XY
Z, will
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a Flange to Fit
36.
of a Roof.
Around a Pipe and Over the Ridge
In Fig. 315,
let
AB
C be
the section of the roof
against which the flange
is to fit,
and
let
OPS
B.
be
the elevation of the pipe required to pass through the Let the flange in size be required to extend flange.
from
A
to
C over
the ridge B.
Since both sides of the
pitch, both halves of the opening B will be the same. Therefore, for from the point convenience in obtaining both halves of the pattern at one operation, the line B C may be continued across the pipe toward A and used in place of B>A, the dis
roof are of the
same
1
,
tance from
B
on either
line to the
side
same.
Under these conditions
it will
O li being the be seen that the
process of describing the pattern is identical with that Make B 1 equal to B A, in the previous problem.
A
and proceed in the manner described in the problem Divide the profile D E F G into any just referred to. number of equal parts in the usual manner, and from
the points so obtained carry lines vertically to the line
A' C, and thence, at right angles to it, indefinitely. Also carry lines in a similar manner from the points A' and C. Draw II L parallel to A' C. Make II I the width of the required flange, and draw I K parallel to H L. Through that part of the flange in which the center of the required opening is desired to be draw the line A* C', crossing the lines drawn from the proFrom each side of this line, on the several file.
Fig. SIS.
The Pattern of a Plunge to Fit Around a Pipe and Over the Ridge of a Roof.
Pattern Problems.
set oil the
measuring
lines,
same distance
as
shown
the
corresponding lines between D F and I) E F, as shown. A line traced through the points thus obtained, as shown by D' E F' G', will be
upon
the
center, across
required opening to fit the pipe. Through the the flange, draw the line M, which
N
1
represents the line of bend corresponding to the ridge B of the section of the roof.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of
37.
a Flange to
Fit
Around a Pipe and Against a Roof
of
One
Inclination.
Let
the
roof
L M,
and
Fig.
P R T S.an
316, be the inclination of elevation of the
N then represents pipe passing through it. the length of the opening which is to be cut
in the
flange, the
width of which will be the
Let
same
as
the diameter of the pipe.
A
B
it
D C
in
be the size of the flange desired, as
would appear
line
viewed in plan. with the pipe draw the
if it
Immediately
profile
GH
I
K, putting
flange
in the center of the plan of the
A B D
Divide onehalf of
C, or otherwise, as required. the profile in the usual
to the line
manner, and carry lines vertically
L M,
representing the pitch of the roof, and
thence, at right angles to it, indefinitely. Carry and B. points in the same manner from
A
1
Draw
to
C'
A
1
equal or the width of the required flange, C,
D
1
parallel to
1
1
L M.
Make C
A
1
and draw
A B
be
1
B D
1
will
1
Then C parallel to C the pattern of the "required flange.
1
1
1
D
.
A
1
Draw E F through
to
it
E F
of the
plan,
at a point corresponding crossing the lines drawn
1
from the profile. From E F' set off on each lines crossing it, side, on each of the measuring width of opening, as measured on correthe
sponding lines of the plan, measuring from
E
Through the plan to the profile. thus obtained draw a line, which will points give the shape of the opening to be cut, all as
in
F
the
shown by
Fig. 316
G H
1
1
I
1
K
1
.
The Pattern of a Flange to Fit Around a Pipe and Against a Roof of One Inclination.
130
Tlie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for
38.
a TwoPiece Elbow.
In Fig. 317, let A C B D be the profile of the pipe which the elbow is to be made. Draw an elevation of the elbow with the two arms at right angles to each other, one of which is projected directly from the proin
line
shown by E G I H K F. Draw the diagonal K, which represents the joint to be made. Divide the profile into any convenient number of equal
file,
as
G
parts.
Place the Tsquare parallel to the lines of the
arm of the elbow, opposite the end of which the profile has been drawn, and, bringing the blade successively against the several pojnts in the profile, drop correG, as shown sponding points on the miter or joint line the end of the same the dotted lines. Opposite by arm, and at right angles to it, lay off a stretchout line,
K
N, divided in the usual manner, and through the Place the divisions draw measuring lines, as shown. blade of the Tsquare at right angles to the same arm of the elbow, or, what is the same, parallel to the
stretchout line, and, bringing it successively against the points in G, cut the corresponding measuring
M
K
lines, as
shown.
A
KP
as indicated
by
through these points, N, will form O, together with
line traced
M
the required pattern.
Fig. 317.
The Pattern for a TwoPiece Elbow,
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
39.
a TwoPiece Elbow
in
an
Elliptical
Pipe.
Two
Cases.
The only difference
to
be observed
in cutting the
patterns for elbows in elliptical pipes, as
compared with
the same operations in connection with round pipes, The section is to be lies with the profile or section.
positions of the profiles. Although the results in the two cases are different in consequence of the position of the profiles, the method of procedure is exactly the
same.
Similar parts in the two drawings have been
placed in the
same position as shown cutting elbows in round pipe, but it
in the rules for
is
to
be turned
given the same reference letters and figures, so that the following demonstrations will apply equally well to
either
broad or narrow side to the view, as the requirements In Figs. 318 and 319 are shown of the case may be.
elevations and
profiles of
Let A C E elbow and II G K
:
F D B be
I
its
the elevation of the
section.
i:;
Draw C D,
the
elbows in
of
elliptical pipes.
two right angled twopiece In Fig. 318 the broad side
miter line.
as of
Divide the
profile
the usual manner,
indicated
by
the
small
figures,
and by means
the ellipse is presented to view, while Fig. 319 shows the narrow side, as indicated by the respective
the Tsquare placed parallel lo the "arm, drop Opposite the, points upon the miter line, as shown.
Pattern
Problems.
131
end of the arm lay
tin
oil'
points
in
it
a stretchout, M N, and through draw the usual measuring lines.
points in the miter line, cut the corresponding measline traced through these points, uring lines.
A
Fig. 318.
Fig. 319.
A
TwoPiece Elbow in Elliptical Pipe.
liVverse the Tsquare, the arm, and, bringing
placing it at right angles to it in contact with the several
as
shown by L P O,
will
constitute
the required
miter.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
40.
a ThreePiece Elbow.
In Fig. 320,
vation
of
let
E
M
L
I
HKN
F be
the eleof a
both.
.arms,
Make
its
diameter the same as that of the two
lines
a
threepiece
elbow.
The drawing
and draw the miter
MN
and
L K.
Draw
threepiece any angle whatever, should be so constructed that the middle section or portion bears
elbow, at
the profile
pattern
AB
C
in line
with the arm from which the
the same angle with reference to the two arms. Since the two arms in the present instance are at right
be taken, as shown, and divide it into any convenient number of equal parts. Place the blade
is to
it
angles (90 degrees) to
each other, the middle section must therefore be drawn at an angle of 45 degrees to
arm of the elbow, and, the points in the profile, drop coragainst bringing At right responding points upon the miter line L K.
of the Tsquare parallel to this
132
The
Xew
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
angles to L I draw a stretchout, as R S, through the divisions in which draw measuring lines in the usual
drop like divisions upon
M
X.
At
right
angles
1<>
1.
M
lay off a stretchout of
the profile
in
manner.
miter line
Placing the Tsquare at right angles to
it
L
I,
by P 0, through the points
lines in the usual
A 15 0, as shown which draw measuring
and bringing
L K,
successively against the points in the cut the corresponding measuring lines,
manner.
its
Reversing the position of
the setsquare so that
long side shall come at right
Fig. 310.
A
ThreePlece Elbow.
as shown.
Then
the line
T
U V,
traced through the
points thus obtained, forms in connection with S the pattern of an end section.
R
L, or, what is the same, parallel to the angles to stretchout line, bringing it successively against the and L K, and several points in the miter lines
M
MN
Place the 45degree set square against the blade
of the Tsquare so that its oblique or long side shall coincide with the lines of the middle section of the
Then lines cut the corresponding measuring lines. traced through these points, as shown by D X
Y
and
G
W
Z, will be the pattern of the middle
elbow, and, bringing
it
against the points in
L K,
section.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In constructing the elevation
elbow,
first
41.
for
a FourPiece Elbow.
off the
of
a
fourpiece
other arm of the elbow.
M
T.
X
T.
continuing
line
C, from profile one of the arras of the elbow, as shown ject
draw the
AB
which proby the lines
the lines of each until
they intersect.
Through the
a
d.
A
points
of
intersection
draw the diagonal
F and C
G, Fig. 321,
At
right angles to this lay
Establish the point a on this diagonal line at con
Pattern
Problems.
133
venienee, and
from
right, angles to the
I and a draw the lines at two arms of the elbow respectively.
it.
<t
c.
From
are
l>
ii
as center, and with a
I*
as
radius, describe the
angles to /a, draw L K, meeting M L in the point L, and stopping on the line '/ at the point K. Through ', and at right angles to e a, draw a line, commenc</
f e r,
as shown,
parts, thus obtaining the points
which divide into three equal /and e. Through /'
ing
in
the point
K and
(1.
meets the line
E
of the inner side of
G where it manner draw the lines the elbow, as shown by F H
terminating in
In
like
w
and H I. Draw the miter or joint lines F G, H K and L 1, as shown. For the patterns proceed as follows Divide the profile into any convenient number
:
of equal parts. Place the Tsquare parallel to E G, the blade against the points in the proand, bringing file, drop corresponding points upon the miter line F
G.
Change the Tsquare so that
it
its
blade shall be
parallel to the lines of the second section of the elbow,
and, bringing
against the points in
II
F G, cut
corre
sponding points on
Opposite the end of and at right angles to the lower arm of the elbow, lay off the stretchout line O P, as shown, through the divisions in
K.
which draw the usual measuring
lines.
Place
the Tsquare at right angles to the arm of the elbow, and, bringing it successively against the points in the
miter line
G, cut the corresponding measuring lines. Then a line traced through the points thus obtained, as shown from R to T, will with O P constitute
the pattern of one of the arms. Produce a e, reprethe middle of the second section in the elbow, senting
F
shown by V "W, upon which lay off a stretchout, and through the points in the same draw measuring lines. Placing the Tsquare parallel to a e, or, what is
as
Fig. SSI.
A
FourPiece Elbow.
the same, at right angles to the second section of the elbow, bring it against the several points in the miter
,
the center a, draw the lines f a and e which will represent the centers of the middle sec
and
e,
to
tions of the elbow, at
of the
same
right angles to which the sides are to be drawn. Through/, and at right
and F G, and cut the corresponding measurThen lines traced through the points thus ing obtained, as shown from X to Z and Y to S, will give
lines II
lines.
K
the pattern.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a
42.
FivePiece Elbow.
To
first
construct the elevation of a fivepiece elbow,
profile, as
sired the
to the
draw the
ABC,
Fig. 322, from
which
elbow shall have, and from it, at right angles two arms of the elbow respectively, draw a b and
project one of
left
the arms of the elbow, as shown at the bv K S H 0, continuing its lines indefinitely. At
a
a as center, with ab as radius, describe the nrcbfedc, which divide into four equal parts, thus
c.
From
right angles to this lay off the other arm, continuing its lines till they intersect those of the horizontal arm, or their outer lines intersect, as at g. angle of 45 degrees to either arm, upon
till
obtaining the points d, e and/ and draw d a, c a and / a. Then these lines represent center lines of the several sections of
Draw g a
at an
the point a with reference to
which establish the curve which it is de
angles to
It
which the elbow is composed, at right which their sides are to be drawn. may be here remarked that the number of
134:
The
\/ii>
Mi'tnl
\YoiL'' i
I'altfrii
JSouk.
center lines
I c
made use of in dividing the quarter circle represents the number of pieces in the elbow.
Therefore, to draw an elevation of an elbow in any number of pieces, construct the quadrant ale as above
described, then divide b c into such a number of parts that the number of lines drawn to a (including a b and
shall equal the number of pieces required. Thus c) the five lines a 6, a/, a c, a d and a c are the center lines of the five pieces of which the elbow shown in
through the points in which draw the measuring lines usual manner. Placing the Tsquare at right, angles to S T, or, what is the same, parallel to the
in the
stretchout line, bring
it
against the several points in
a
Fig. 322 lines a b
is
constructed.
Although the two extreme
speaking, center lines,
and a
c are not, strictly
their relation to the adjacent miter lines is the same as that of the other lines radiating from a. Through/,
draw V S, joining the side arm E S in the point S, and joining a corresponding line drawn through e in the point V. In like manner draw the line T E, representing the inner side of the same section. The remaining sections are to be obtained in the same way. As but one section is
and
at right angles to fa,
of the
necessary for use in cutting the patterns, the others may or may not be drawn, all at the option of the
Draw the miter or joint lines S E, Divide the profile (or onehalf of it) in the T, Place the Tsquare parallel to the lines usual manner.
pattern cutter.
V
etc.
of the arm, and, bringing the blade against the several
points in the profile, drop corresponding points upon Shift the Tsquare so that the the miter line S E.
S E T, and transblade shall be parallel to the part For the patfer the points in S E to T, as shown. tern of the arm, at right angles to it lay off a stretch
V
V
out of
AB
which
C, as draw the
shown by F G, through the points
usual
in
measuring
lines.
Place the
Fig. SSS
Tsquare at right angles to the arm, and, bringing it S, cut the corresponding measagainst the points in
A
FivePiece Elbow.
E
uring lines, as shown.
Then a
line traced
these points, as shown from For the pattern of the piece
H
through
the lines
E S
and
T V, and
to I, will be the pattern.
a/, as
shown by L
S V T E prolong the line which lay off a stretchout, K, upon
Then measuring lines. thus obtained, all as shown by
pattern sought.
cut the corresponding lines traced tli rough the points
NP
M,
will be the
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 323, let
pipe, of
for a
43.
Pipe Carried Around a Semicircle by Means of Cross Joints.
which a
F E D be the semicircle around which A C B is a section, is to be carried by means of any suitable number of cross
Divide the semicircle
shown by D, 0, P, E, S, E, etc., and draw lines from As there are to be ten joints there each point to Z. must necessarily be eleven pieces, therefore, according
to the directions given in the previous problem, the semicircle must be divided into such a number of
joints, in this instance ten.
FE
D
be
into the
same number
joints, which, as just stated,
of equal parts as there are to is to be ten, all as
equal parts that the
number
of lines radiating
from Z
Pntlvnt
135
shall
be eleven, all as shown, each line serving as the From L> toward the center Z center line <>f a piece. set off the diameter of the pipe A B. as shown l>v tlie From Z as eenter, with the radius Z A point A'.
1
corresponding to the
full
of the pipe. For the pattern of the ceed as follows Divide the profile
:
sections composing the body end section pro
AC
1
B
in the usual
,
manner
at
into anv convenient
number
of equal parts,
lines
draw the dotted line representing the inner line of the pipe, and cutting the radial lines previously drawn in and 0' draw lines the points 0', P etc. Through Z and continue them in either at right angles to
1
and from the points thus obtained carry
right angles to
upward
Z D.
,
line
Z
profile
A
D. and upon it C B, perpendicular to which draw measurto
cutting T T. Prolong the place a stretchout from the
drawn P and P on the one side and through D and through Each pair of lines is to be drawn at A' on the other.
direction
till
they
1
intersect
with
the
lines
ing lines in the usual manner.
placed
parallel
With Z D, and brought
the Tsquare successively
against the points in T' T, cut the measuring lines of
Fig.
StS.A
Pipe Carried Around a Semicircle by Means of Cross Joints.
right angles to its respective radial or center line. Through the points of intersection draw the lines T T ,
1
U', etc., or miters.
It will
U
which
will represent the lines of the joints
Then a line traced through corresponding numbers. the points of intersection thus obtained, as shown by I L, will be the shape of the miter cut, and G I
K LH
K
will
is appear by inspection that the point from P and O, and that U' is also equidisequidistant tant from P' and 0', and that therefore the lines U', T T , etc., if continued inward must arrive at the
U
pieces. as
U
U', lay off a stretchout of center line extended, as shown by
UV
V
be the complete pattern for one of the end For the pattern of one of the large pieces,
A
C B upon
its
M
1
the points in
ner.
it
it
draw measuring
lines
N, and through, in the usual man
center Z.
must
Thus the joint lines, like the center lines, radiate from the center of the semicircle.
Place the Tsquare parallel to and, bringing cut the line the points in V. Next , against
UV
UU
1
V
C B directly below the profile of the pipe end of the pipe, all as shown in and in line with one As may be seen by inspection of the the engraving. Draw
one corresponding diagram, two patterns are required, to the half section occurring at the end, and the other
A
l uare parallel to the stretchout line, place it against the several and, bringing points in the miter and cut the corresponding measlines V,
the
T' S(
U U
1
V
uring lines,
tern.
all
as
shown, thus completing the pat
136
The
New
Metal
Worker Pattern
Book.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
44.
at
an Elbow
Any
Angle.
it
LetDFHKLIGE
tion,
of a pipe in
angles.
in Fig. 324 be the elevawhich elbows are required at special In convenient proximity to and in line with
Jsquare, placing
parallel to the
second section, and,
bringing
it
them upon
H
against the several points in I. At right angles to the
as
F G, drop
first
section
lay off a stretchout of
in
AB
C,
shown by T U, through the
which
draw
the
lines.
points
customary
measuring
Placing the Tsquare at right angles to this section of the
pipe, and bringing it against the several points in F G, cut
the corresponding measuring Then the line lines.
ELS
traced
will,
through these points with the line T U, be the
pattern sought.
The
pattern
for the opposite end is to be obtained in like manner, all as shown by P, and
MN
therefore need not be
described in
detail.
For the pattern of the middle section
lay off a stretchout,
W V,
it,
at right angles
to
with the cusPlacing the
at
r
i
tomary, measuring
lines.
Tsquare
gh
t.
angles to the section, bring it successively against the points in G F and I H, and cut the correspondThen lines traced ing measuring lines, as shown.
through these points, as shown by Y X Z Q, will be the pattern sought. The positions of the longitudinal joints in the several sections of this elbow, as well as those of all others, are determined by the
order in which the measuring lines drawn through the stretchout are numbered. In the present instance the joints are allowed to come on the back of the
pipe,
Fig.
or,
in
other
to
words, upon
D F
II
K, which
Sij.An Elbow at Any Angle.
one end of the pipe draw a profile, as shown by A B C, which divide in the usual manner. Placing the
Tsquare parallel to the first section of the pipe, and, bringing it against the several points in the profile, Shift the drop corresponding points upon F G.
the point 1 in the profile. corresponds Hence, in numbering the measuring lines in the several stretchouts, point 1 is placed at the commencement and
ending,
while
if
it
were desired to have the joint
side, or at a point
in either piece
come on the opposite
corresponding to 9 of the profile, the stretchout would have commenced and ended with that figure, the
Pattern
Problems.
137
figure 1 in that case
now
occurs.
The
effect of
coming, in regular order, where 9 such u change upon anv of
if
were cut in two upon the line 9 and the two halves were transposed.
the patterns here given would be the same as
they
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a Bifurcated Pipe, the
45.
Two Arms Being
the
the
Same Diameter
as the Main Pipe, and Leaving:
It at
Same
Angle.
shown an elevation of a bifurcated In this pipe, all arms being of the same diameter. as in many others, it becomes necessary to problem,
In Fig. 325
is
of the miter lines will at once be determined.
Thus
the intersection of the three bisecting lines at E gives the point at which the miter lines starting from the
points P,
first
a correct drawing of the intersection of the after which parts showing the miter lines correctly
;
make
E and
K
must meet.
In line with the upper end of the pipe draw a
Fig.
MS.
The Pattern for a Bifurcated Pipe.
method of laying out same as that employed
the
of the miter patterns is the in several other problems
profile of
it,
as
in
shown by
A
C
B.
A
profile will also
If. in this case, each arm immediately preceding this. of the pipe be divided longitudinally into two equal as shown by the center lines, and each half be
one of the oblique arms, a half only shown at A' C' B' on account of the limited being For the pattern of the upper portion of the space.
be needed
parts,
pipe, divide the profile
considered as a separate molding the correct position
any number of of the same on equal spaces, and place the stretchout
into
A
C B
138
The
line
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
concerned, from the original profile, by simply continuing the lines through to the miter line J F, as shown. For simplicity, therefore,
any
the continuation of
as shown by and draw the usual measuring lines. Next drop the points from the profile C B parallel with S P till they cut
drawn
at right angles to
S P,
by
C'
B' on profile
is
S
D
to the left,
A
the miter line
then placing the Tsquare at to S P, drop the points from the miter right angles
line
PEE;
the profile A' C' B' is divided into the same number of equal parts as the original profile, and a stretchout of
it is
P E
into measuring lines of corresponding
to P', will give the miter cut
num
placed upon any line, as T U. drawn at right angles to E F. The points are then dropped from the profile
ber.
A line traced through these points of intersection,
DE
on the onehalf of which only P,
as
shown from E"
lower end of the pipe S
is
shown
E FJ
K is obtained
The pattern for the piece in the engraving. in exactly the same manner, and
so
far
both ways, cutting the miter lines K R E and J F, after which, with the Tsquare placed parallel to T U, they can be dropped into the measuring lines of the stretchout. Lines traced through the points of intersection will constitute the required pattern, as
might be obtained,
as
the
half
indicated
by K' R' E' R"
K" X
W V.
shown
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
46.
the Top and Bottom of a "
Common "
Skylight Bar.
represents a portion of the prothe ridge bar, or of the ventilator forming the file of top finish of a skylight, against which the upper end of a "common" bar is required to miter; and C
In Fig. 326,
AB
"hip
in
" bar will be given later among those problems which the development of the miter line and the
D
represents the profile of the curb or finish against which the lower end of the bar miters. The parallel oblique lines connecting the two show the side elevation of the bar
shown at E F F As the profile consists of two symmetrical halves, either half, as E F or E F may be chosen to work
whose
1
profile is
1
.
,
from, and
as
it
contains
no curved portions
it
is
simply necessary to number all of its points or angles, and then to place a complete stretchout of the same upon any line drawn at right angles to the lines of the
molding, as
lines, all
Gr
H, and
to
draw the usual measuring
a properly drawn elevation shows the intersection of the points of the profile with
as
shown.
As
the two miter lines
AB
and C
D
1
,
it
is
only neces
sary to place the Tsquare parallel
lines
to the stretchout
G
in
A
B and C D
lines,
H, and bring it successively against the points and cut corresponding measuring as shown at I J and K L. Straight lines con1
,
necting the points of intersection will complete the The length of the pattern, as shown at I J L K.
pattern,
which
is
here
1
shown
indefinite,
must be
rise
determined by a detail drawing, in which the B and the run D are correctly given.
M
the
" Fig. 32fi.The Patterns for a
Common
"
Skylight Bar.
M
raking of the profile are necessary, with which they
for
The
patterns for the
"jack"
bar
and
are properly classed.
1'atkrn
I'rMems.
139
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
47.
a TJoint Between Pipes of the
Same
Diameters.
Let
tion of
D FG
II
M
F
K
ft
in Fig.
327 be the elevameeting
at right
two
]>i])cs
of the
same
size
D', of the piece G I the points B and B' from the By projecting profiles through their respective elevations the point L is found, which being connected with the points F and
D, will miter with onehalf, B'
C
1
M
H.
Space the profile A B C D into any number of equal parts and lay off the stretchout 1ST O ut right angles to the pipe of which
K gives
the miter lines.
ABC
D is the profile,
as shown,
through the points in which draw the usual
measuring
lines.
Set the
Tsquare at right angles
to this pipe, and, bring
ing the
the
blade
against
points on the rniter lines, cut the
several
corresponding measuring
lines
drawn through the
stretchout, as indicated by the dotted lines. Then
N
F
1
UV
WO
A
will
be
As both halves of the pattern for the upper piece. this piece (dividing now upon the line C) will be alike only onehalf of the profile (A B C) has been
For divided, but the stretchout is made complete. the pattern of the other piece, divide its profile into
any convenient number of equal parts and lay off the stretchout on the line R T, drawn at right angles
Tsquare parallel with the miter lines from that the pipe drop points upon portion of the profile (B C' D') which comes in line
to
the
pipe.
Placing
the
1
with them
;
then place the blade of the Tsquare at
it against the right angles to the pipe, and, bringing several points in the miter lines, cut the corresponding measuring lines, as shown by the dotted lines.
A
line,
Fig. 327.
X Y Q
A
T Joint
between Pipes of the
Same Diameter.
bound
lower
B'
Z, traced through points the opening to be cut in the pattern for the From the points 1 in the stretchout pipe.
will
these
angles and forming a T, of which As (J D' are profiles drawn in line with either piece. the two profiles are alike, and as the end of one piece (D E F K) comes against the side of the other piece
1
A
B C D and A'
draw the
length of the pipe.
and T S, in length equal to the. Connect P S. Then P R T S The seam iji the pipe will be the required pattern. may be located as shown in the engraving, or at some
lines
RP
(G
I
M
H), both halves of
D E F
K,
B
AD
and
B C
other point, at pleasure.
140
The
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
48.
a Square
Pipe Describing a Twist or
Compound Curve.
As problems
connection
this
of this nature frequently occur in
with
hot
air
pipes,
grain
chutes,
etc.,
problem is given as embodying principles which The upper opening of the can often be made use of. in a horizontal pipe in this case is required to be
is in a vertical position plane, while the lower opening and placed at a given distance below and to one side of the top, the pipe describing a quarter turn when viewed from either the top or the front.
and C' J of cutting the two miter lines D' the plan, as shown (the figures of the plan 2 to 11 have no reference to this part of the operation). Upon 8, drawn at right angles to the direction of the mold,
tically
M
R
lay off the stretchout of the usual measuring lines.
ABE,
With
through which draw
the Tsquare placed
8 and brought against the several points parallel to in the two miter lines cut lines of corresponding num
R
To more
lem, a perspective which the pipe is the pipe
the probfully illustrate the nature of view of it is shown in Fig. 328, in
ber; lines traced through the points of intersection, as shown by R T and S, will give the pattern of the top It will be noticed that owing to the contrary piece.
U
represented
as
being
contained
relation of the
within a cubical shaped solid.
The
solid, of
which
is represented as forming a part, is shown in the pipe itself being shaded to show its form, outline, while upon the front and lower side of the solid are
necessary to have the points of the profile occur more frequently near B than E, as otherwise they would intersect the miter
it
two curves
is
and plan of Thus G F T C represents the front view of the pipe. a solid just large enough to contain the pipe, in which A B C D shows the position of the lower opening, and A B E FD C shows the curve of the pipe as seen from G II S B is the top of tin solid in which the front.
shown
in dotted lines the front elevation
1
P S R is situated. The curve of the upper opening in plan has been projected to the lower face the pipe of the solid by vertical lines, R L, and others not
shown, and
is
N
shown by C J
K
L
M
D.
To
state the
is the case simply, then, profile of the piece of L and the top of the pipe, while 1) metal forming of the are the two miter lines, or the plans C J
ABE
M
K
is the profile of the intersecting surfaces, and lower side of the pipe intersecting the same miter
CDF
lines.
it is
pieces being developed, only necessary to reverse the operation and con
The top and bottom
sider the lines of the plan I) front and back profiles of the
ML
and C J
K
as the
Fig. SS8.
while
ABE
and
CDF
pieces respectively, become the miter lines or
line D'
Perspective View of
a Pipe Describing a
Curve.
Twist or
Compound
elevations of the intersecting surfaces. part of these operations are
A
carried
out
in
M
detail in Fig. 339,
where the elevation and the plan
are
drawn
points
directly in line with each other; the various being represented by the same letters in the
occur more frequently than there is no curve from A to
of the pattern from
too far apart near D', while they would is necessary near M. As
B
R
to
S
will
of the profile, that part be a duplicate of the
two
illustrations.
its profile
divide
points (1, 2,
3,
For the pattern of the top piece by any convenient number of from which drop lines veretc.),
plan
view, consequently the
line
ABE
measuring
plan.
curve from R to the drawn from S may be traced from the The development of the pattern for the lower
/'a ttcni
Problems.
HI
Q 1 and brought against D F cut corresponding
not given, but it would be accomthe same manner as that of the top exactly plished F as the profile instead of B E. piece, using C D
Mile of
the pipe
is
in
A
the Tsquare placed parallel to the various points' in B E and
measuring
lines.
For the pattern
divide
its
of the front piece
of the pipe,
profile
L
M
intersection, as
shown by
Lines traced through the points <>f Q P and N, will give the
D' by any convenient
number
required pattern.

/
512
Pig. iS9.
3
t
5
6
1
Patterns for a Pipe Describing a
Compound
Curve.
of points 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., from which drop lines verlines 1) F and B E, as tically, cutting the two miter
pattern of the back piece not given in the illustration can be developed in exactly the same man
The
shown.
tion of
Upon Q
1,
drawn
at right angles to the direc
place the stretchout of L through which draw the usual measuring lines.
the mold,
M
D',
'
by using C' ,T K and proceeding otherwise the same as
ner as that of the front going.
as the profile
in
the fore
With
T/ic
yew
Metal
IFcr/ar
Patient
Jlwk.
PROBLEM
The Construction
of
49.
a Volute for a Capital.
It is
large size of metal cut
sometimes desirable in designing capitals of to construct the volutes of the same of strips
and soldered together. The principal characteristic entering into the design of the volute,
the nine spaces on the upper side of the line. Drop lines vertically from each of these points intersecting the upper line of the side of the scroll in plan. Place
the Jsquare parallel to the stretchout line B K, and bringing it successively against the points in the plan, drop lines cutting corresponding lines of the stretch
and that which distinguishes it from an ordinary scroll, consists in a pulling out or raising up of each successive revolution of the scroll
beyond the former, thus
This feature of its deproducing a ram's horn effect. is also frequently embodied in the construction of sign
scrolls
Then a line traced through the points of intersection, as shown from I to J, will give the shape of
out.
blocks, such as
used to finish the sides of large brackets or head may be seen by reference to Fig. 87 on
the side of the strip to cover the space between the and G of the elevation. A similar course is points
H
As all volutes, except those of the Ionic page 12. order, always occur under the corners of the abacus and project diagonally from the bell of the capital, their forms can only be correctly delineated in a
diagonal elevation. In Fig. 330 is
be pursued in obtaining the outside cover or strip This stretchout consists of extending from F to G.
to
fourteen spaces, and is shown on the lower side of the center line K, the pattern being shown from L to The pattern for the remaining strip consists of a M.
A
shown
portion of the bell and C B shows volute. Immediately below the same, D of the plan of the capital, turned to correonequarter
a diagonal elevation of a abacus of a capital with the
tween
stretchout of seven pieces taken from the profile beG and the termination of the scroll line. Points
from
this part of the profile are
intersected with two
A
miter lines in the plan, one forming the outer line of the strip, or its finish against the more projecting part
spond with the elevation, in which the various curves of the volute have been carefully projected from the As the patelevation, as shown by the dotted lines.
dependent upon the drawing of the plan for his miter lines, considerable care must be given to this part of the work. On account of the small scale
tern cutter
is
and the other forming its finish against the lower scroll or inner edge of its first or outer curve. In Fig. 331 the lines showing the projection of the
of the scroll,
inner part of the volute beyond the outer curve are In the lower half the lines correspondclearly seen.
ing to the points 1 to 7 of the profile are shown by corresponding numbers. Lines dropped from the points on
drawing Fig. 330, an enlarged view of the of the helix of the volute, as seen from below, is plan shown in Fig. 331, in which the various curves can be
necessary in
both these lines to corresponding lines of the stretchout
will give the pattern as
shown from
M
to
N.
followed throughout their course. The volute as here given consists of two side pieces or scrolls, an outside cover or face strip, an inside cover
inspection of the drawing it will be seen that the outline of the volute, as given in the elevation,
By
and two narrow strips to rill the space where the second curve of the scroll projects beyond the first. The outside cover or face strip extends from F of tinelevation to G, where
it is
does not represent exactly the "true face" of the As the variations in the angle of the side of the scroll.
central part or helix of the scroll are only such as can be produced by the springing of the metal necessary to
which begins
at
H.
To
inside face strip, obtain the pattern for the in
met by the
bring
it
into shape, no allowance need be
made
for such
the profile from II to G into any convenient number of equal spaces, and lay off a stretchout of the same upon the center line of the
side cover, divide
variation in cutting the pattern directly from the elevaCareful measurements of the stern or lower tion.
show part of the volute, as shown in the plan, however, 9 to points a and i, if laid that, the distances from point
olf
volute in plan,
A
B, extended toward K, as shown bv
on a
line parallel to
A
B, would reach to points
a'
Pattern
143
and b\
locate
These points projected back into the elevation them in that view at a and V. Therefore the
stem will have to be ex
and need not be repeated here. The correct outline, from
G
to
b' is
outline of the back of the
To avoid
omitted to avoid confusion with the figures. confusion of lines in dropping the points
profile to the miter liues
tended as shown by the dotted line from
F
to a'.
This
from the different parts of the
Fig. S3 1,
Enlarged, View of Helity
PATTERNS
Fig. 330.
The Construction of a Volute for a Capital.
outline can be accurately obtained, if deemed necessary, by the raking process described in connection with a
and thence to the stretchout, only the first and last of each series or stretchout have been shown by dotted
lines in the drawing.
number
of other problems in this section of this chapter,
144
Tin
Sen
Miiul
Wvrhr
I'ntim,
/;<,/,;
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a
50.
Its
Pyramidal Flange to
Fit
Against the Sides of a Round Pipe Which Passes Through
Apex.
pictorial illustration of the flange fitting against the sides of the pipe, as stated above, is shown in Fig. In Fig. 333 L 332. represents the elevation of
A
K
M
be used in obtaining the pattern. Therefore, divide I into any C&nvenient number of parts and carry vertical lines to L M, which represents one side of the
G
pyramid, and then, from these points and the points L and M carry lines at right
angles to it indefinitely, as shown. in the elevation represents the
L
M
complete
length of one side of the pyramid, as it would be if not cut by the pipe. Lav olT
on the
line
from
M
the length of one side
of the base of the in the pyramid, as B as shown by Biseet plan,
D
MM
1
.
M M
1
at F, from
to
L
E.
and
M
which point draw F E parallel M, cutting the line from point L at The lines from K to the points M
of
1
would give the pattern
if
one side of the
be cut by the pipe. It pyramid simply remains now to measure the width of the pat tern at the various points of the curved portion, which
it
were not
to
Fig. 332.
Perspective View of
Pyramidal Flange.
can be done by measuring the distance of each point in the profile G I, from the center line of the side B D in
off these distances upon lines of number drawn through the pattern from corresponding the line L M, measuring each time from the center line E F. Thus the distance of point 4 from the center
plan,
and setting
Fig. 333.
Pattern for a Pyramidal Flange to Fit Against a
Round
Pipe.
pyramid, and
pass through As the pyramid has four sides, each side will mid. miter or fit against onequarter of the profile oj the
pipe, as will be seen by reference to the plan. Again, as each side consists of two symmetrical halves, as
P K T S elevation of the pipe that is to it, A B D C being plan of pipe and pyra
from the center line of the patway upon lino 4, and coincides with this point as previously established by the lines drawn from E to M and M'. The distance of the point 3 frcm the
line in plan
is
set off
tern each
center line in the plan is set off from the center line of Point '1 pattern each wavMipon line 3 of the pattern.
is
established
in
the
same manner.
A
line
traced
the dotted line dividing the side B D, oneof the profile of the pipe (as G I) is all that need eighth
shown by
through the points
tern.
4321234
completes the pat
145
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a
51.
Square Pyramid to Fit Against the Sides of an
Elliptical Pipe
Which Pisses Through
Its Center.
Fa Fig.
pyramid, whose
F
II
1
shows the plan of a square completed, would be at E. J shows the horizontal section of an elliptical
:>:i,
;i]ic.\,
if
AB
C
D
B G S to fit patterns will be necessary, one for the broad side of the pipe, and another for against
B G T C
edge
or
to
iit
A
against what
might be termed the
pipe.
pipe, against, the sides of which the sides of the pyramid are required to be fitted. From the side B (or
narrow side of the
To
obtain
the
A
pattern of the side of the pyramid
shown by B
G
T C
1
D
Fig. SS4.
C
The Pattern! for a Square Pyramid
C1
to Fit
Against the Hides of an Elliptical Pipe.
D C)of the plan is projected a front elevation, K L M N shows the broad side of the pipe.
in
which
the
(or
To
in which right another or side elevation is projected, P Q li. the narrow view of the pipe is shown by
B E C, if the pyramid were complete), first divide that portion of the profile of the pipe from G to by any convenient number of points, as shown
H
An
will inspection of the plan
show
at
once that two
by the small figures, from which, together with B and E, project lines vertically to the elevation above, cut
146
The
New
Metal
1
Worker
I'utl'rn
lion!..
At ting that side in profile as shown from E' to B right angles to E' B carry lines from each of the points At any convenient distance indefinitely, as shown.
. 1
away, cut these lines by any line, as E V, drawn Upon each of the lines drawn from parallel to E B'.
3
1
K B of tin complete pyramid'), whose profile is shown bv B E of the side elevation, showing the narJ The pattern is shown at A B" row view of the pipe. G S*, and the operation is clearly indicated by the
1
(or
A
3
J
4
2
lines of projection.
If it is desired to
the points in
E
1
B', set off
from
E
3
V
3
the distances
complete the elevations bv show
upon
lines of
ured from
off either
E V.
corresponding number in the plan measThus upon line 5 of the pattern set
its
ing the lines of intersection of the sides of the pipe with the sides of the pyramid shown respectively in
way from
intersection with the line
E V
1
3
each elevation, as from
c to b
and
<.
toy',
it
can be ac
a length equal to the distance of point 5 of the plan from the line E V. Upon line 4 of the pattern set off
complished as follows
vertically
:
To
obtain the
line c i, erect lines
distances equal to that of point 4 from
ct..
EV
3
of the plan,
Also make
of the plan.
V
3
C and
3
V B
s
1
3
equal to
VB
3
Lines drawn from
C and
V C and B toward
3
from points ti. T and S (not shown), passing the space between c and b in the front elevation, through upon each of which set off the hight of each point as
measured upon
C" to
tion
;
lines of corresponding
<?,
number from B
2
E will meet the points previously set off on line 5 of the pattern, indicated by T" and G , and will constitute the sides or hips of the pattern, and a line traced
through the points set
will give the
off
B E
3
3
,
as
shown from R toward
in the side eleva
then a line traced through the points thus obtained In the same manner lines from tinwill give the line ci.
a a points 1, 2, 3 and 4 can be carried at right angles to B C into the side elevation, upon which to set off hights of
on
lines 1
and 5 inclusive
fit
shape of that portion of the pattern to
is
against the pipe.'
An
exactly similar course
to be
taining the pattern of the side of the
pursued pyramid A S
in
ob
corresponding points as measured from A' 15' to B E in the front, elevation; then as shown between <i and
1 1
,
1>
GB
a line traced through the points will give the line ef.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
52.
for a Rectangular Pipe Intersecting a Cylinder Obliquely.
In Fig. 335,
let
AB M
C
or cylinder, and B E D the profile of which is pipe, L OPQ the elevation, J represents the drum, and n O the angle at which the rectangular pipe,
drum
represent the plan of a C the plan of rectangular shown by F G II I. In
1', and, bringing it successively against the points in the miter lines N n Q q, cut the corresponding measuring lines, as indicated
parallel with the stretchout line 1
K
N
K
they are to intersect.
circular
Draw
the end view, or plan, of
lines. Lines traced through the points thus obtained, as indicated by ihgfi', will give the desired pattern. It will be observed that 1 II li i is a
by the dotted
drum
in
line
with the elevation, as shown.
duplicate of
cate,
O P Q N,
and that
G
F///
is
Also extend
C
n
q so a line dropped from point will cut them, as shown by and Q. of plan Then N" q is the joint between the drum and pipe, as
n and
P
only
in a reversed position.
The
also a duplipoints in h >/ of
in
tin
N
Q
pattern arc derived from Q y, as the points If the size of pattern are derived from N //.
is
f
i'
of
work
For the pattern of rectangular Divide B C of plan into anv pipe proceed number of equal parts, and from these convenient Also from points carry lines horizontally cutting E D.
shown
in
elevation.
as follows:
it inconvenient to drop points the elevation to the pattern by means of the Tfrom square, the stretchout line I I' can be drawn where
such as to render
the points in On O.
N
C B drop lines vertically cutting Q P and P extended lay off a stretchout of profile
1
distances from
convenient, the usual measuring lines erected and the O P to points in N and (.) */ transferred
/
F G
II I, as
ED
to
HG
shown by 1'. transferring the spaces in and F I', and through the points in it draw
Place the "Tsquare
by means drawn from
of
the dividers to lines of similar
number
the stretchout line.
the usual measuring lines, as shown.
For the pattern or shppe of opening in drum, proceed as follows: On L M extended, as R U, la} off a
fit//'
/;.
I'rnlilems.
147
of
stretchout of
BO
tainc"! erect the
of plan, and from the points thusobusual measuring lines, as shown. Place
in.tr
lines
corresponding
number.
points thus obtained trace the lines
V
W and
Through the
YX;
PLAN
i
Fig. 335.
Patterns for Rectangular Pipe Intersecting a Cylinder Obliquely.
the Tsquare parallel with cessively against the points
M
N
L, and, bringing it sucn and Q q, cut measur
then
V
WXY
will
be the shape of the required open
ing in the side of the
drum.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
lor the Intermediate Piece of a
53.
Double Elbow Joining:
Two
Other Pieces Not Lying in the
Same
Plane.
In Fig. 33fi
is
shown
a front and side view of a
somewhat complicated arrangement of elbows such as sometimes occurs when pipes have to be carried around
the drawing will show that once the correct angle of the different elbows is ascertained the development of
the miters will be quite simple, and is the same as those occurring in several of the problems preceding
beams or through limited openings.
An
inspection of
148
this.
Tin
Sf.w Metal
Worker Pattern B<>k.
section of the pipe rises vertically to elbow, B, from which it must be carried upward a distance equal to C M, to the left a distance
The lower
the
first
equal to B M, as shown in the front view, and back a distance equal to o C, as shown by the side view.
methods employed in drawing the two views shown in Fig. 336 will be of assistance to the pattern cutter. According to the principles of projection each individual point must appear at the same hight in both elevations, and at the same distance right or left and for
Fig. a38.
Diagram Used in Obtaining Correct Side View of Upper Elbow.
Fig. 337.
Correct Side View of
Lower Elbow.
2.
s
FRONT VIEW
Fig. 836.
SIDE VIEW
Elevations of Double Elbow.
1
2
Fig. 339.
Correct Side View of Upper Elbow.
Fig. 840.
Method
of Obtaining the Pattern of Middle Portion in One Piece.
The Pattern for the Intermediate Piece of a Double Elbow Joining Two Other Pieces Nut Lying
in the
Same
Plane.
From
front,
the elbow C it then rises vertically, as seen in but really toward the observer as shown by the
ward or back, with reference to the center lines of the As front and side views are here required, plan.
begin by first placing the given plan in two positions, turning those sides of it to the bottom which corre
side view.
The problem then
really consists in find
ing the correct angles of the elbows, and becomes a question of draftsmanship rather than of pattern cutting.
Some
suggestions
then
with regard
to
the
spond to the sides required in the elevations, and proceed by erecting the center lines of the differ
Pattern
Problems.
149
ent pieces in their proper positions and building the The plan being pipe around them, so to speak. a circle, the different sides can only lie indicated by
C
of the elevations,
and the distance C P
will
be
its
numbering the
points,
as will
be
seen
by referring
in
Since, now, its vertical distance cap easily be obtained from either front or side elevation, a new diagram can now be easily constructed
horizontal distance from B.
to the plans, point 2
appearing
in front
the front
elevation, and point 3 appearing in front in the side The plans having been so arranged and elevation. corresponding parts in both given the same number,
which shall contain the proper dimensions to obtain a correct side view of this elbow. Proceed, then, to
construct diagrams shown
in
Fig. 337,
equal to
proceed
tion,
now
to erect the center line of the lower sec
making
this
both
views, as indicated
it its
the bight of the first bend, B, the same in by the dotted horizontal line.
is
Fig. a line connecting the represent the center line of the intermediate portion of the pipe and give its true relation to the vertical por
C M,
;
336, M
B
equal to
Fig. 336
making C M C P of the plan, points C and B will
From
point the center line
continued in both
proper inclination to the left in the views, giving front view, and to the right in the side view, all according to the specified requirements, thus establishing the
agree in bight in both views. From this point the pipe appears inclined only in the side view, which means that it leans toward the observer point C,
represented by B H, Fig. the outlines of the pipe at the reBy drawing quired distance on either side of the center lines B and B C, a correct side view of the miter is obtained.
tion
whose center
line is
337.
H
making
it
Since, as has been referred to above, the upper portion
of the pipe appears vertical in one view and inclined in the other (see Fig. 336), a correct side view of the
in the front view.
Next draw
the outlines of the pipe
at equal distances from the center line and on either side of it throughout the entire course of the pipe in
While upper elbow is more difficult to be obtained. methods may be devised for obtaining it, the different
following is perhaps the simplest As the upper section of the pipe, as shown by Fig. 336, is of indefinite
:
both views, deriving them from the points of plans 1 and 3 in the front view and 2 and 4 in the side view.
length, any point
to take
may be assumed,
as D,
from which
Their intersection in the front view will give definitely
the positions in the miter of points 1', 1", and 3', 3", J As and in the side view of points 2', 2', and 4', 4 3' has been established in the front view, if a line point
.
measurement
upper elbow.
for obtaining the angle of the Since the true length of the line C B of
either elevation has already been obtained and given in Fig. 337, and since the true length of the part C D
be carried horizontally across from point 3 of the side view,
point
3' in
till it
intersects the line
can be derived from the side view of Fig. 336,
it
is
the miter, as shown same manner a horizontal line from
give the hight of in the front view. In the
it
will
necessary only to obtain the true distance between the and B of the elevations to obtain the proper points
D
1' in front, inter
secting the perpendicular f?om point 1 in plan of side, will give the true hight of point 1' in the side view.
angle at the point C. By dropping a vertical line from the point D to a horizontal line drawn from the point C
in the side view, Fig. 336, the horizontal distance be
A careful
make
inspection of the dotted lines of Fig. 336 will the subsequent operations necessary to the com
pletion of the elevations clear to the reader without Since neither of the views gives further explanation. a true side view of the intermediate piece, one must
be obtained. By tranf erring this the plan of the front view, and locatdistance, o C, to ing its distance from C, as indicated by D. this point will give the true position of the point D in the plan,
tween C and
D may
be constructed from the facts now known, so as to get the true angle of the elbow B. By dropping a vertical
and the line 1) P will give the true horizontal distance In Fig. 338 let the between the points D and B. to the line D P of Fig. 336. C be equal At distance
point tance
from the point C of the front view into the plan it appear that the horizontal distance between the points C and B would be measured by the line K P of
line
will
O erect a perpendicular, O O D equal to o D of the side
D, making the diselevation, Fig. 336.
the plan; but bv further reference to the side elevation the position of the point C is found to be to the to B C' right of its center line by a distance equal
of the plan ; therefore, if this distance be set off on the vertical line from the point E in the plan below the
the point C drop a perpendicular, C B, making distance equal to the vertical hight between the that
From
points
C and B,
as
measured on
line
C
M
of the front
view
;
will readily
and B a diagonal line connecting the points be seen to give the true distance between
D
indicated front view, which C, the point C will determine the true position in the plan of the point
is
by E
Proceed the points bearing those letters in Fig. 336. construct the triangle shown in Fig. 339, maknow to ing C B equal to C B of Fig. 337. From C as a center,
150
with a radius equal to
Xf/r
.!/<'/"/
Worker Puttcm
IlooL:
C D
as obtained
from the side
means
of a line
drawn
parallel to the center line of the
it
in Fig. 336, draw a small arc. which intersect with the arc drawn from the point R, with a radius equal to B D as obtained in P'ig. 338 this will give the
view
middle portion, intersecting
at,
the
point
ij,
from
;
correct angle of the upper elbow at C. complete view of the miter may be obtained by further adding
outlines of the pipe at equal distances on either side of the center lines, and connecting their angles, as shown
side by the line bf. Having now obtained two correct views of the two elbows, the problem of obtaining the patterns for the same can be solved by the regular
A
which point it can be carried vertically to the plan, as shown by Z, where its distance from other points can be measured with accuracy. The position of the point a in Fig. 337 will readily be seen to be at point in
//
the plan of the front view, Fig. 336. By transferring the point Z from the plan of the side view to the plan of the front view, which can be done by measuring its distance from either of the points 2 or 3, the relative position of the points h and Z upon the same circle will
Fig. 340 shows a diagram, in which a correct side view of the two elbows is shown, giving
method.
be apparent.
obtain the pattern for the middle portion in further calculations, however, will be re
To
one piece
the
,
quired. This, of course, could be obviated by making a slip joint in the middle portion of the pipe, by means of which the two elbows could be made separate, and
proper distance between the points B and C. Considering the lower one to be in its proper and lixed
position, the profile is constructed and divided into points for the purpose of obtaining a stretchout and
then simply turned upon each other
is
till
the required

might be desirable to angle make the pattern of the middle portion in one piece some means must be employed of ascertaining just how far one elbow would have to be turned upon the other
obtained.
as
it
But
stretchout
j
the miter pattern according to the usual method, the being shown upon the line E F in the
will readily be seen to correspond h in the plan of the front view. with point The position of the point Z in the same plan can be obtained
profile
and point 8
As the seam in pipe conwere they made separately. elbows is usually made at either the shortest or taining the longest point of the miter, it may be easily seen, by
an inspection of Fig. 336, that a line from the shortest in point, or throat, b of the upper miter of the piece
point, or point a, of the other end, and some Fig. 337, in the miter means must be devised for obtaining the real position
by measuring
it
its
to Fig. 340, as indicated
distance from point h and transferring by M. As the point I of
the upper elbow is in relation to the highest point, or is to the of the lower elbow as the point point 8 in the profile, it becomes necessary to place the point
,
M
question,
would not meet the longest
8 in the stretchout of the
upper elbow
as far
from the
point 8 on the stretchout of the lower one as the disin the profile, which is shown by tance from 8 to
M
of these points, of which the following is perhaps the or B, Fig. 339, From either of the points simplest
:
m
in the stretchout.
is
The
stretchout
of
the upper
D
draw a
line through the point i, continuing it to the further side of the triangle, as indicated by the line B X. Lay off the distance D upon the line D C of
thus moved, as itwere, in its relation to the stretchout of the lower elbow, that portion of it which
elbow
X
extends beyond the point
to the other so as to
1 at the left
end being added
make
the
seam continuous.
The
the side view, Fig. 336, thereby locating the position line connecting this of the point x in that view. with point B must intersect the miter line 2", 4:', point
A
points are then
rniter lines,
dropped from the profile to the two and thence into measuring lines of corre
in this view at the
same point which
it
does in Fig.
339, thereby locating its position just as much as This point having been obtained, its in Fig. 339. equivalent upon the lower miter may be found by
Lines traced sponding number in the stretchout. the points of intersection, as shown by Y I* R through X, will be the required pattern. The miters for the
upper and lower sections would, of course, be inverted duplicates of the adjacent ends of the middle piece.
Pattern ProU<inx.
151
PROBLEM
A
Let
Joint
54.
at Other
Between Two Pipes
_\l
of the
Same Diameter
Than Right Angles.
In the illustration the
LF D E K
I
II
elevation of two pipes of the
of Fig. 341 represent the same diameter meeting at
in the stretchout.
seam
in the
arm
the angle I, for which patterns are the profile or section A' B' C' in line with the branch pipe, and the section
M H
required.
located in the shortest part, or at a point corresponding to 1 of the profile. Accordingly, in numberis
Draw
ABC
side of
in line
with the main pipe.
As
both pipes are of the same diameter, and the end of one piece comes against the
the other piece, both halves of the branch pipe (dividing at the point B)
will miter with onehalf,
B D,
of the
main
through the By projecting elevations of each piece from the points B or 4 of their respective profiles the point
pipe.
lines
G is obtained, which, being connected with
points
line.
F and H,
Space
gives the required miter both the profiles into the
same number of equal divisions, commencing at the same point in each. For the pattern of the arm proceed as follows
:
Lay
opposite the end of the arm and draw the usual measoff
the stretchout
ON
uring lines at right angles through it, as Place the Tsquare at right shown. with the arm, or, what is the same, angles
line, and, the blade successively against the bringing points in the miter line F G H, cut the corresponding
parallel
with the stretchout
Through the points thus obtained PEST, which will form the end of the For the pattern of the main pipe pattern required.
measuring
lines.
trace the line
proceed as follows
stretchout, as
:
shown by
Opposite one end lay off the V Y, and opposite the other
end lay Connect
off
UV
a corresponding line, as shown by X. and Y. From so many of the points
U
X
in the stretchout line
half of the profile
lines.
BAD draw
VY
as represent points in the
With the Tsquare placed
I,
the usual measuring parallel to the mold
ing
D
drop the points from
the
it
miter line
then, placing the molding, drop lines from the points in the miter line intersecting the corresponding measuring lines.
F G H;
profile onto the at right angles to
lY
Fig. S41
A
Joint between
Two Pipes of the Other than Right Angles.
Same Diameter
at
A
F'
is
line traced
through these points of intersection, as
will describe the
Z
H W,
1
position of the
seam
in
The shape required. both the arm and the main pipe
ing
the
placed
is
first.
divisions of the stretchout, that number is In like manner the seam in the main pipe
determined by the manner of numbering the spaces
located at a point opposite the arm.
Therefore, in
152
The
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
during the operation of describing the pattern wherever desired. It is not necessary, as prescribed at the outset of this problem, that both profiles should be spaced off exactly alike. Any set of spaces will answer quite
as well, provided there
numbering the spaces in the stretchout commence at 1, which, as will be seen by the profile, represents If it were desirable to make the seam the part named. come on the opposite side of the main pipe from where that is, come directly through the it has been located made to receive the arm the numbering of the opening In that case stretchout would have been begun with 7. F IT Z would appear in two halves, and the opening the shape of the pattern would be as though the present pattern were cut in two on the line 7 and the two By this explapieces were joined together on lines 1. that the seams may be located nation it will be seen
1
W
be points in each exactly half between A and B of either profile that is, where way points 4 are now located. They are spaced alike in this
case to
show that lines dropped from points of the same number in each profile arrive at the same point on the miter line, and that therefore when both pipes are the
same diameter and
their axes intersect, one profile be used for the entire operation.
may
Note. In the nineteen problems immediately following, the conditions are such that it will be necessary to obtain the miter line from the data given by the operation of raking before the straightforward work of laying out the patterns can be begun. However, as certain parts of the work of raking the miter line and of laying out the pattern are common to both operations, the two are usually carried along together, and therefore such points and spices should be assumed upon the profiles at the outset as will be required in the final stretchout.
PROBLEM
To Obtain the Miter Line and Pattern
for a Straight
55.
Molding Meeting a Curved Molding of Same Profile.
represent a piece of a curved mold, G I J, straight molding joining the profiles of the straight and curved molding being
let
In Fig. 342,
F G J
K
H
the same.
Gr J,
910
To
proceed as follows the straight molding, as
:
obtain the miter line or line of joint, Draw the profile in line with
shown by C D E, and divide From the diviinto any convenient number of parts. sions in the profile draw lines parallel to F G in the
miter indefinitely, and also in the opposite direction, cutting the vertical line C E of the small figures, which correprofile, as shown by the
direction
of
the
K/
910
spond in number to the divisions on the profile. From B, the center from which the curved molding is struck, draw the line B A through the molding, as shown.
Transfer the hights of the various points of the profile as obtained on the line C E to the line B, placing the E at the point o of the intersection of the lower point
A
line of the
from the divisions on the line X o, intersecting lines of corresponding numbers drawn from the profile
lines of the straight molding. parallel to the traced through these intersections, as shown
will
shown by
X
curved molding with the line A B, all as o. Then, with B as a center, draw arcs
A
line
Gr J,
by
be the required miter
not a straight line.
To
line, and, as will be seen, is obtain the pattern for the
Pattern
/'/otilems.
153
straight molding,
draw the
line
L
N
at right angles to
place the stretchout of the profile C D it, upon which At right angles to K, as shown by the small ligures. the stretchout line L X. and through the points in it,
the points forming the miter line G ,], and cut lines of Then a line corresponding number in the stretchout.
traced through these points of intersection will form the miter end of the pattern shown by L N O. The
M
draw the usual measuring
placed
at
lines.
With the Tsquare
methods employed
right angles to
K J, bring it successively against
obtaining the patterns for the curved portions are treated in Section 2 of this chapter.
in
PROBLEM
A
In Fig. 343
angles between
it
56.
TJoint Between Pipes of Different Diameters.
a joint at right and the larger
is
required to
pipe
make
used in both operations the following course will be
tin smaller
DFGE
most economical.
At a convenient distance from the end of the smaller pipe in each view draw a section of it. Space these sections into any suitable number of equal parts,
commencing at corresponding points in each, and setting off the same number of spaces, all as shown by A
B C and
points in
A B C A B C draw
1
1 1
.
From
lines
the
downof
ward through the body
the
From the large pipe indefinitely. B' C' drop point onto points in the profile of the large pipe, as
A
1
shown by the dotted
lines.
For
the pattern of the smaller pipe the B' requirements are its profile
A
C
is
1
and the
line
F
1
G',
which
the outline of the surface against which it miters, and therefore its miter line. Therefore, take the
stretchout of A'
B C
1
1
and lay
it
off at right angles
W. Draw opposite the end of the pipe, as shown by the measuring lines, as shown. Then, with the Tsquare set parallel to the stretchout line, and brought successively against the points between F' and G' upon the profile of the large pipe, cut corresponding measuring Then a line traced through these lines, as shown.
points, as
pattern.

V
shown from
X
to
Y,
will
form the end of the
b

6
7


e
9
Fiij. 3(3.
A
1Joint between Pipes of
For the pattern of the larger pipe the stretchout is taken from the profile view F G' L' and laid off at right angles to the pipe opposite one end, as shown by "N P. A corresponding line, M O, is drawn opposite the other end, and the connecting lines M N and P
1
Different Diameters.
are. drawn,
pipe
H K L I. For this purpose both a side and an end view are necessary. As the two pieces forming the J are of different sections this problem really consists of two separate operations, but as certain steps can be
thus completing the boundary of the piece through which an opening must be cut to meet or miter with the end of the smaller pipe. According to
the rule given in Chapter V, a profile and a rniter line
L' has already been but no line has yet been drawn in the elevation stated,
are necessary.
The
profile F'
G
1
154
The Neiv Metal
\Vorker Pattern
Book.
of the larger pipe which shows its connection with the This can only be found l>v projecting smaller pipe. line's from the points dropped upon K' (}' through the elevation till they intersect with lines previously drawn from the 'profile B C, as shown between F and G.
into
measuring
lines of corresponding
number, when
a
line traced
through the points of intersection, as shown
by
R S T
It
U,
will give
the pattern of the opening
required.
A
F G
then constitutes the miter
line.
For economy's
miter
may be line F G
noticed that the development of the is not really necessary in this case, as
sake, then, the spaces 1 to 4 previously obtained in the profile are duplicated upon the stretchout, as shown, to
the points are really dropped from the profile right, through the elevation till they intersect
ABC
the
which are added as many more (4 to 10) as are necesAs the points 1 to 4 have already been dropped sary.
measuring
lines.
This happens
in
consequence
of the
upon the miter
necessary to
line in its
development
it
is
now only
or smaller pipe being at right angles to the larger Different conditions are shown in Problems 57 one.
arm
drop them
parallel to the stretchout line
and 58 following.
PROBLEM
The Joint Between Two Pipes
57.
of Different Diameters Intersecting at Other
Than Right Angles.
Let
pipe, and
II
ABC, Fig. Y N Z the
1
344, be the size of the smaller size of the larger pipe, and let
L
M
be the angle at which they are to meet.
Draw
an elevation of the pipes, as shown by
GK1
N M L H,
placing the profile of the smaller pipe above and in line with it, as shown, also placing a profile of the larger In this pipe in line with its elevation, as shown.
problem the profiles of the moldings or pipes are given, but the line representing their junction must be obtained before going ahead. To obtain this miter line,
first place a duplicate of the profile of the smaller pipe in position above the end view of the larger pipe, as shown by B' C , the cen
A
1
1
both being on the same vertical line, C' Divide both profiles of the small pipe into the same
ters of
1
N
1
1 1
.
II II
H
i
i

i
number of spaces, commencing at the same point in each. From the points in A B' C project lines indefinitely through the elevation of the arm, as shown. From the points in A' B' C drop lines on to the profile of the
1
II ii
1
1 1 i 1
i 1
i 
large pipe, and. from the points there obtained carry lines across to the left, producing them until they intersect
corresponding lines in the elevation.
A
line traced
through these several points of intersection gives the miter line L, from which the points in the two
K
patterns are to be obtained. small pipe proceed as follows
:
For the pattern of the Opposite the end lay off
a stretchout, at right angles to it, as shown by Through the points in it draw the usual
lines, as
E
F.
measuring
In the developing of the line L the points have already been dropped upon the miter It therefore only remains to carry them into the line.
shown.
K
stretchout,
which
is
done by placing the
square at
Pattern Problems.
155
right angles with the pipe, and, bringing
against
tin
1
]iDints
iii
the miter line
lines,
K
successively L, cut the correliy
it
sponding measuring
lines.
as
shown
the
dotted
the case of the smaller pipe, and also avoiding conThe other points in the profile arc taken at fusion. Draw a convenience, simply for stretchout purposes.
through the points thus obtained will give the pattern of the end of the ami, as indicated.
line traced
A
corresponding line, P T, opposite the other end, and In laying off the stretchout connect P R and T S. R S, that number is placed first which represents the
For the pattern of the large pipe proceed as follows: Opposite one end, and at right angles to it, lay off a stretchout line, as shown bv K S In spacing off
this stretchout
For point at which it is desired the seam shall come. the shape of the opening in the pattern, draw measuring lines from the points 4, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 4, as shown, and
intersect
u
is
l>est to
to
result
4 as they which
exist, as
will
by
transfer the spaces from 4 so doing measuring lines will
them by
lines
dropped from corresponding
correspond with points already exist
points in the miter line. tained trace the line
UV
Through the points thus obX, which will represent
W
ing in the miter line
K
L, thereby saving labor, as in
the shape of the opening required.
PROBLEM
The Joint Between an
Elliptical
58.
Pipe and a Round Pipe of Larger Diameter at Other Than Right Angles.
Two
Cases.
In Fig. 345 J K L round pipe and E F G
M
II
is
the side elevation of the
that of the elliptical pipe the larger pipe at the angle F G J. In the joining
B C D and P Q, pipe whose profile is shown at in the side and end views. From an inrespectively,
spection of the drawings it will be seen that the side elevation shows the narrow view of the elliptical pipe, while the end elevation shows its broad view, or in
A
N
WJ
other words, that the profile of the elliptical pipe is so placed that its major axis crosses the round or larger
pipe.
In Fig. 346 the elevations show
the same pipes intersecting at the same angle,, but with the difference that the
profile of the elliptical pipe is so placed
ioQ
that
its
minor axis crosses the round
pipe. are the
The
same
reference letters and figures in the two drawings and
the following demonstration will apply equally well to either:
By way of getting ready to lay out the miter, it will first be neeessarv to obtain a correct elevation of the miter
line or intersection
pipes, as sliown,
this divide the
between the two from H to G. To do
profiles
two
AB
C D
and
Fig. 345
The, Joint between an Elliptical Pipe and a Round Pipe of Larger Diameter at Other than Right Angles. First Case. The Major Axis of the
NOPQ
in
equal parts,
same number of commencing at the same
into the
Elliptical Pipe Crossing the
Round
Pipe.
points in each.
points
Draw
Q,
lines
from the
end elevation
pipe and
UR
T S S T
I shows the profile of the round the intersection of the elliptical
T, cutting
definitely
T
S.
parallel with In a similar manner draw lines
in
NOP
U
in
from the points
AB
C D,
parallel with
156
II
The
Nno
Mni<il
Worker Pattern
Hook.
which produce until corresponding lines from the two profiles intersect. Through the intersection thus obtained draw the several points of
.],
E, as shown. parallel with
From
the points in
T S draw
linos
M
angles with H E, or parallel with V W, and brought successively against the points in the miter line II G, cut line corresponding measuring lines. traced through the points thus obtained, as shown by
right,
A
Fig. $46.
Second Case.
The Minor Axis of
the Elliptical pipe Crossing the
Round
Pipe.
miter line
as follows
H
:
G.
For the pattern of
extended, as
E F G
II
proceed
off
X Y Z,
will give the miter cut required,
and
V "W X Y
On E F
V W,
lay
a
Z shows
the entire pattern.
of obtaining the shape of the openpipe is exactly similar to that de
stretchout of profile B C I), through the points in which draw the usual measuring lines at right angles to the stretchout line. With the Tsquare placed at
A
The method
ing in the round scribed in the several preceding problems.
PROBLEM
A
59.
TJoint Between Pipes of Different Diameters, the Axis of the Smaller Pipe Passing: to One Side of That of the Larger.
The
principle here involved and
the method of
procedure are exactly the same as in Problem 5<>, but the whole of the profiles must be used instead of the
halves, because the two axes or center lines of the pipes do not intersect.
as
pipe being set to one side of the axis of the large pipe, Draw an elevation, as indicated in the end view.
shown by
1
DF
I
L
MK
G
E.
Place a profile of the
small pipe above each, as shown by C , both of which divide into the same
parts,
ABC and A' B'
number
in
of equal
In Fig. 347, let
1 1 1
AB
C be
the size of the small
commencing
at the
same point
each.
Place
pipe and F H M be the size of the large pipe, between which a rightangled joint is to be made, the smaller
i
the Tsquare parallel to the small pipe, and, bringing it successively against the points in the profile B'
A
1
Pattern
Problems.
157
In the illustration
giv.
.
drop lines cutting tin profile of the large pipe, as shown, from F to II'; and in like manner drop lines from the points in the profile A B C, continuing them
C',
1
pipe.
the
seam
lias
been
located at the shortest part of the pipe, or, in other words, at the line corresponding to the point 10 in the
section.
lines
through the elevation of the larger pipe indefinitely. For the pattern of the small pipe set off a stretchout
Therefore commence numbering the stretchout
with 10. Place the Tsquare at right angles to the small pipe, and, bringing the blade successively against the points in the profile of the large pipe from F toH', cut
1
Ai
the corresponding measuring lines, as shown. line traced through the points
A
thus obtained, as shown by X Z, will end of the required pattern. form the
Y
For the pattern
lay off a stretchout
of the large pipe,
from the
profile
shown in the end view, beginning the same at whatever point it is desired to
locate the seam,
instance will
which in the present be assumed on a line
file.
corresponding to point 13 in the proAfter laying off the stretch
out opposite one
as
end of the pipe,
shown on R, draw a corresponding line opposite and P the other, as shown by P, and connect thus completing the outline of the pattern, through R,
N
N
which an opening must be cut
to miter with the
end
of the smaller pipe. In spacing the profile of the large pipe, the spaces in that portion against which the small
pipe
fits
are
made
lines
by dropping upon it, as shown by
to correspond to the points obtained from the profile of the small pipe
1 to 7 inclusive.
This
is
done
in order to furnish points in the stretchout correspondC, as ing to the lines dropped from the profile
AB
other measuring lines than those which the portion of the pipe which the small pipe represent Accordfits against are required in the stretchout.
shown.
No
R, ingly the lines 1 to 7 inclusive are drawn from as shown, and are cut by corresponding lines dropped
from
ABC.
A line
traced through the several points

12
13
R
of intersection gives the shape S T U, which is the If it be necessary for any opening in the large pipe. bepurpose to show a correct elevation of the junction
Fig.
.Itf.A tJoint between Pipes of Different Diameters, the Axis of the Smaller ripe Passing to One Side of that of the Larger.
tween two pipes, the miter line F H G is obtained by with corintersecting the lines dropped from lines carried across from the .same points responding obtained on the profile F IF, by dropping from A' B'
ABC
5.S,
1
line,
and opposite the end of the pipe, and draw the measuring lines, as shown. These measuring lines are to be numbered to correspond to the spaces in the profile, but the place of
at right angles to
V W,
C',
explained in Problems shown by the dotted lines.
;">(>,
;">7
and
and
is
all
as
As remarked
in
Problem
.">'.,
this line
not abso
beginning determines the position of the seam
in
tin
in illustratlutely necessary, but is of great advantage and principles of the work to be done. ing the nature
158
TIte
Xcw
Metal
\\'u/L,'f
I \iltrn,
!',<>,,
I.
PROBLEM
A
Joint at Other
60.
of the
Than Right Angles Between Two Pipes of Different Diameters, the Axis Being Placed to One Side of That of the Larger One.
1
Smaller Pipe
In Fig. 348, let C' B A' be the size of the smaller pipe, and D' E I the size of the larger pipe, between
1 1
desired.
The spaces of the profile between D' and K' should be transferred to the stretchout point by point
by
so doing
required at an angle represented In \V F K, the smaller pipe to be placed to the side of the larger. Draw an elevaa joint
is
which
as they occur, as
measuring
lines will
be
tion of the pipes
joined,
as
shown by
VDGH IK
F W.
As
in the preced
ing problems, the miter line or line giving a correct elevation of the junction of
the pipes must be developed before the actual work of laying out the miter patterns can be begun, therefore place a
profile or section of the
it,
arm
in line
with
as
shown by C B'
of
1
A
1
,
and opposite
as
and
D'
in line with
the end of
it,
pipe draw a section
the main shown by
E
1
1
I
.
draw a second
as
Directly above this section profile of the small pipe,
relative
shown by C B A, placing the center
it
of
in the required
position
to the center of the profile of the large Divide the two profiles of the pipe.
small pipe into the same number of equal spaces, commencing at the same point in each. From the divisions in C' B' A' drop lines parallel to the lines of
the
arm
indefinitely.
From
the divisions in
profile of
C B
A
drop lines until they cut the
as
shown by the points
in the arc D'
E
1
the large pipe, From these
.
points carry lines horizontally to the left, producing them until they intersect the corresponding lines from
C'
B
1
A
1 .
A
line traced
tersection, as
shown by
pipes.
:
DE
between the two
angles to
through these points of inF, will be the miter line For the pattern of the arm
off
proceed as follows
Lay
a
stretchout
at
right
and opposite the end of the arm, as shown R P, and through the points in it draw the usual by Place the Tsquare at right angles measuring lines.
the arm, and, bringing it successively against the points already in the miter line, cut the correspondto
ing
measuring
as
lines.
points,
pattern.
shown by
A line traced through these UTS, will form the required
Fig. 348
A
Jnint at other than Right Angles between
Two Pipes
of
lt>
For the pattern of the main pipe draw a stretchout line Opposite one end of it, as shown by M 0, numbering the divisions in it with reference to locating the
Different Diameters, the Axin of the Smaller Pipe being Placed One Side of that of the Lartjtr One.
seam,
which can
be placed at any point
obtained which will correspond to the points already Draw a line corresponding to the in the miter line.
Pattern
I'roliterns.
159
stretchout
line opposite the
shown by L N, and connect L
1
other end of the pipe, as M and N 0. Through
ing the blade against the points in 1) K K successively, cut the measuring lines of corresponding number, all
as
the points in the stretchout line corresponding to the points between D and E' of the profile draw measuring
lines, as
shown by the dotted
lines.
A
line traced
through
shown by
10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and
1.
Place
these points of intersection, as shown near the middle of L 0, will give the shape of the opening to be
M
N
the Tsquare at right angles to the main pipe, and, bring
cut in the pattern of the main pipe.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig.
34!), lot
61.
Elbow Through One
of the Miters.
for a Pipe Intersecting a FourPiece
A B
C
1)
E E
1
U
1
C'
13'
sent the fourpieced elbow in elevation,
F G
A' repreII J its
the pipe draw the profile of sftme, as indicated by P R S. Extend F of the profile of elbow, upon which
H
draw another profile of the small pipe, as shown by 0' P' R' S Divide both profiles of the small pipe into the same number of parts, commencing at the same points in each, as S and S Now parallel to F P of the profile draw lines from the points in O' P R' S intersecting the profile F G II J. as shown. A profile should properly be drawn in its correct relation to the part of which it is the section. As the
as a center line
1
.
1
.
1
1
1
part
file
C D D
1
C'
is
about to be considered
first,
the pro
should be pjaced with its center line F H at right but as in a regular elbow of any numangles to C D ber of pieces the miter lines all bear the same angle
;
with the sides of the adjacent pieces, the profile may for convenience be placed in proper relation to one of the end pieces, after which lines may be carried from
it
parallel to the side
it
represents to the miter line,
thence from one miter line to another, always keeping parallel to the side, continuing this throughout the
entire
elbow
if
necessary.
Therefore parallel to
1
DE
from the points in G H of the profile, cutting the miter line D D, and continue these lines parallel to D C and C B. From the points
of the elevation
draw
lines
P S draw lines parallel with in the profile lines of corresponding numbers drawn intersecting
R
L
K
from
G
II.
A
line traced
through these intersections will
Z N. From the point Z in give the miter line the miter line carry a line back to the profile of the This gives, upon the propipe, as indicated by Z a.
file
K
of the pipe, the point at which the rniter line crosses the rniter line of the elbow C C , so that it can
1
KN
be
located
'.
upon the
stretchout
line,
where
it
is
marked
Fig. S49.
Pattern for the Pipe Intersecting of the Miters.
an Elbow
Tliroiigh Our.
follows:
For the pattern of the pipe K L M N proceed as At right, angles to K L draw the line
as
M' M",
the elevation of the pipe which prolile, In line with intersects the elbow through a miter joint.
and
K
L
MX
1!
S.
upon which lav shown bv the
oil'
the
stretchout
of
()
I'
smiill
figures,
points in which, and at right angles to
through the it, draw the
100
The
\'t'tn
Mini
\\~vrkcr
Pattern
liuuk.
which numbers drawn corresponding
usual measuring lines,
the pipe
line of
intersect with lines of
at
profile
is'
and Stretchout
of
the piece alivadv developed
,
right angles to the
L
K
from the intersections on the
line traced through the inter
5, properly designated by the figures 1, '2, 3, while that of the piece next to be considered
(i,
is
miter line
K
Z N.
A
sections thus obtained, as shown by M", will be the required pattern for the intersecting pipe. To avoid confusion of lines in developing the
M N K N
1 1
1
2
properly designated by the figures 1, 2, 3, ia, 5, 6, the point 4 not occurring in the first piece at all, while the
points i and a both
fall
out of the second piece,
upon the same line in the stretchall of which is clearly shown.
patterns of the intersected duplicate of those parts, as
is
pieces
of
the
elbows a
D'
shown by B C
D
also
given in Fig. 350, in which the miter line shown. The profiles F G H J and O' P' K'
K
C B Z N is
1
1
,
Z is pattern of the cut on the miter line obtained in the same manner as for Z N. At right angles to B C draw the line R' S', upon which place
the
stretchout
of
The
K
S' are
V H
of
the
profile,
as
shown.
presented merely to show the relationship of parts, as Z N, the patterns are obtained from the miter line
K
in connection with the stretchout of as
profile as
is
much
It
of the
is
s
1
covered by the intersection.
not
necessary to include in this operation the entire elbow such a part of the pattern will pattern, therefore only to H. be developed as is contained in profile from
V
For the pattern for that portion of elbow shown or II of profile, proceed as Z in elevation by
U
N
V
C D of elevation draw which lay off the stretchout of V H upon of the profile, as indicated by the small figures, through which draw the usual measuring lines at right angles to it, which intersect with lines of corresponding numbers drawn from the intersections on the miter line
follows
:
At
right angles to
the line
R S,
Z
N
at right angles to
C
D.
Trace a
line
through the
B
1
intersections
thus obtained, as shown by Z 3 Z s represent the pattern for that part of Then will 3 be the elbow shown in elevation by Z, and Z
1 .
U
3
3
N
ELEVATION
Fig. S50.
D
U
U
N
1
Patterns for the Pieces of an Elbow Intersected by the
Pip*.
1
on the miter line Z pattern for the cut tern for the other half of opening shown
is
N.
The
by
N X
VS
pat
simply a duplicate of the half just obtained reN' Z" shows the shape to be cut out Then versed. of what would otherwise be a regular elbow pattern.
Through the points in the stretchout and at right angles to same draw the usual measuring lines, which
intersect with lines of corresponding
X
numbers drawn
The point a in the profiles O' S' and V II is so near the line drawn from the point 4 that separate lines are not shown, and on this account when obtaining
the shape of
from the intersections on the miter line K Z, at right Trace a line through the intersections angles to B C.
K
1
Z' the points 4
and a are shown on the
is
Then will thus obtained, as shown by K Z' U'. Z' U' represent the pattern for that part of elbow shown in elevation by Z U, and Z K' be the pattern
1
1
same
line.
for the
cut on the miter line
Z K.
The
1
In order to show that the pattern
that
produced by
the regular method is, by from the miter lino into lines of corresponding points number in the stretchout it should be noted that the
the intersection of
the other half of opening obtained by duplication.
S' can be shown by K' X' Then will X K' Z' repreclb<>\\
V
pattern for
sent the shape to be cut out of the regular
pattern.
Pattern Problems.
161
PROBLEM
The Pattern Let
<r:ililc
62.
Molded Pilaster.
for a Gable Molding: Mitering Against a
NXVE
of
in
Fig.
351
be the elevation of a
is
K
(.)
ML
molding be the elevation of a molded
which
A
BCD
the profile, and
pilaster against
to E, as would be the case if the side straight from of the pilaster were perfectly flat and projected further than the gable molding. It will therefore be neces
N
Fig. 151.
The Pattern for a Gable Molding Mitering Against a Molded
Pilaster.
which
it
is
pilaster is
The profile of the required to miter. shown by J I in the plan, where a profile
H
1
of the miter, sary to first obtain a correct elevation after .which the pattern can be obtained in the usual
of the gable
placed as to
mold A B C D is also shown and so show the comparative projection of the
1
1
1
simple manner.
To do
mencing
this
divide the profiles in the plan and
various points in each. By an inspection of the plan and elevation it will be seen that the miter line or joint
elevation into the same
at the
same
between the molding and the pilaster will not be
corresponding figures,
of equal parts, comas shown by the points in each, From the divisions in the pro
number
162
file
The Xeir Metal Worker
/'nttrn,
/AW,.
H A
the
until
in plan carry lines to the left, parallel to A', until they cut the side of the pilaster II I J, as shown. From these intersections drop lines at right angles to From the divisions in indefinitely, as shown.
1
H
angles to the lines of the gable molding. through these intersections, as shown 1>\
A line traced N G E will
2
,
be the required pattern.
Although the
ing
is
roof strip
AB
of the gable
mold
profile in
elevation draw lines
they intersect corresponding
parallel to lines drawn
N X
from
perfectly straight, points will
have
to
be intro
duced between
II I in plan.
as
shown
A line traced through these intersections, by N F E, will be the required miter line, or
of
intersection
the gable molding with the
upright
pilaster at the angle
N
X.
and B for the purpose of ascertaining the shape of the cut from to F, its intersection with the side of pilaster. The simplest method of obtainthese points is to derive them from the points being tween B' and C as shown by 0' to 5' in the plan.
A
N
1
,
Foi the pattern of the gable molding proceed as
follows
:
They can then be
At
right angles to the lines of the gable
line
molding draw the stretchout
A"
place the stretchout of the profile of ing, through which draw the usual measuring lines,
D", upon which the gable mold
transferred to their proper place in the 3 and B". By so doinir stretchout, as shown, between of like number fall in the same place on the propoints
A
lile
H I, and
intersected with
the vertical lines dropped therefrom ran !>< F for the pattern of the roof strip
X
which intersect with drawn from the points
lines
of corresponding
number
at right
and with the other
lines
in the miter line
N
FE
the face of the mold,
all of
from F to E for the pattern of which is clearly shown.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
occurs that sheet metal reproductions of various emblems or tools are desired for use as ornaIt frequently
for
63.
an Anvil.
obtain the pattern of the side, first lay off a stretchout of the profile Z T, as shown, upon v q, through
the points in which draw the usual measuring lines.
To
In the following problem is shown signs. the various pieces necessary to form an anvil may be obtained. The description, of course, only applies to the several sides, as a representation of the horn
ments or
how
can only be obtained by hammering or otherwise stretching the metal.
In Fig. 352
is
shown a
side
and end elevation and
two plans
of the anvil, exclusive of the horn, the plans being duplicates and so placed as to correspond reBefore spectively with the side and the end views.
K
J
B G can be developed the pattern of the side piece J the line P Q R S, which is the result of the miter
N
V of the ing together of the two forms shown by T of the end view, must be obtained. and Z plan T of the Therefore divide the curved portion Z
U
W
X
X
profile of
the side
WVU
equal spaces, as the points thus obtained drop lines vertically cutting the profile of the gore piece. Transfer the ,
1
any convenient number of shown by the small figures, and from
into
of the U' to points thus obtained on other plan, and from these points erect lines vertically through the elevation of the side, and finally intersect
WV
WVU
them with
lines of corresponding
number drawn from
'
the points originally assumed in Z T. Then a line traced through the points of intersection, as shown by
P QR
S, will
be the required miter
line.
Pattern Problems.
of the side from J to a and
(i to //, and also cutting the miter lines of the gore piece O Q S (which last operation has really been done in the raking operation above Placing the Tsquare parallel with v q, described).
163
the raking operation, lay off a stretchout of the same upon any line running at right angles to the form of
bring it successively against the points in the several miter lines of the side elevation and cut corresponding measuring lines; then lines traced through the points
As the points have already been dropped from the profile to the miter lines in the operation of obtaining them, it only remains to the I square parallel to IP W* and bring it sucplace
this piece, as
shown upon U"
W.
cessively against the points in
Q
and
Q
S. cutting

I
(ELEVATION
jSIDE

Fig. 352.
Patterns for the Side, Gore Piece dud Bottom of an Anvil.
of intersection, as
shown, from y
to
e,
o to
X,
X to
s
and
corresponding
measuring
lines;
then
lines
traced
g
toe?, will give the pattern for the
side.
file is
As
lower portion of the that part of the side from Y to Z of the pro
through the points of intersection, as will give the pattern and Q
shown by
for the
U
1
Q
1
1
W,
gore
straight and vertical, that portion of the pattern to </ can be made shown on the stretchout line from
piece.
X
For the end pieces of the
anvil,
NM
a
KJ
and
an exact duplicate of that part of the elevation shown N B E b, all as shown. by a
B E
b
HG
of the side elevation
1
become the
profiles,
M
and Z
T and Z T
1
are the miter lines.
For the pattern of the gore 'piece, U profile and O Q and Q S are the miter lines.
of the points previously obtained
V
W
is
the
By means
profile in
obtain the pattern of either of these pendently of the preceding operations, space the curved
portion of
its
Therefore, to pieces, inde
upon the
profile into
any convenient number of
164
The
New
Metal Worker Pattern
tained there
Booh.
spaces, and lay off a stretchout of the
line
at right
angles to
T
T'.
same upon any Carry lines from the
B, cutting the miter lines, thence profiles parallel to at right angles to T T', cutting corresponding measuring lines.
N
cutting the pattern of the side; therefore their stretchouts must be transferred point bv point to the stretchout lines; E D of Fig. 353 being the stretchin
To
avoid confusion of lines the operation
in
of obtaining the patterns of the end pieces has been
Fig. 353, in which B an elevation of the front end and
shown separately
J
1
N
1
N' J
1
is
a J in Fig. 352 and B of Fig. 353 being G. In consequence of the above the points upon the miter line Z T are such as were originally obtained there by spacing, and have been transferred
out of
N
A
that of
B
b
G
B G
of,
that of
to the lines of
N
J,
is
N
the back end.
The
upon
their profiles,
however, in Fig. 352, are such as were obpoints
made use
the
work
J B G and B G'. The remainder shown sufficiently clear to need no
1
1
1
,
further explanation.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for
64.
a Gable
Cornice Mitering Upon an Inclined Roof.
several points in
In Fig. 354 let represent one side of the gable molding and O its profile. II B F E the horizontal molding, and I) C the upper represents
ABCG
N
A G
all
M
measuring
lines,
as
B, cut corresponding indicated b
and
line of roof.
The profile of this molding is shown bv and the inclined roof by K J. Before the pattern for gable can be described it will be necessarv to
K L,
obtain an elevation of the intersection of the gable cornice with the inclined roof between C and B to be
used as the miter
line.
W
be taken in obtaining this
mitej
The
line
is
first
step to
draw the profile of gable cornice, directly over and in line with the profile of the horizontal molding J K L, as shown. Divide both profiles O M and P R into the same number of parts. From the points in M draw lines parallel with the rake, extending them indefinitely in the direction of
to
PQ
R,
C
B.
upon
From the points in P R drop lines the roof line J K, and from the points
J carry lines liorizontallv across to the elevation, intersecting them with lines of corresponding number
of intersection in
K
previously
Through the points of intersection trace a line, which will be at once the correct elevation of the miter and the miter line from which to obtain the pattern.
drawn from
M.
G is required, in gable at connection with that at the foot, extend the lines from points in O to the miter line G.
If the pattern of
A
M
A
ELEVATION
Fig. S54.
proB of right angles to gable lay out a stretchout of O, as shown by S T, through the points in which draw the usual measuring lines. Place the Tsquare at right angles to the gable
To
obtain the pattern of
:
AB
C G,
ceed as follows
At
A
Method of Obtiiinimj Miter Line mid I'ullcrii for a Gable Cornice Milering Upon an Inclined Roof.
M
Thus
the line
UX
of pattern
is
of the same' length as
AB
as
(\
of elevation, and
V \V
It
of pattern the
is
same length
of corre
C
of elevation, etc.
evident
line
A
that the various
as. lines
B, and, bringing,
it
successively against the
lines in pattern arc of the
same length
Pattern
1G5
and
sponding number
obtained
in
elevation.
in the pattern trace lines as indicated
Through the points by U V
W X.
part of gable
Then U V X shown by A B C
W
is
(i
the
pattern for the
in elevation.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for
65.
the Molding on the Side of a
Side of a
Dormer Mitering Against the Octagonal Tower Roof.
Let F J in Fig. 355 represent a half elevation of a portion of the tower roof B C corresponding to 1) K of the O P S be the side elevaplan ; also let
HG
A
U
R
tion of a
dormer cornice
for
which the pattern
is
re
quired,
K
L
MN
dormer, and
being half the front elevation of the The first step profile of the molding.
before the pattern can be described is to obtain a correct elevation of the miter line or intersection of the
cornice with the oblique side of the tower, as shown by To obtain this miter line proceed as follows:
On
UTS. AE
draw
of the plan extended as a center line, as , a duplicate of the half front elevation correspond1
N K
1
1
ing to the half E D of the plan as shown by K' L Now divide the two profiles of the return mold1
M
N
1
.
ing into the same number of parts, commencing at the same points in each, as shown by the small fig.ures.
of the points in the upper front elevation carry lines parallel with cutting the side F J of the tower, and for convenience in obtaining the
From each
UK
miter line extending them into the figure, as shown. From the intersections obtained on the side of the tower, as shown by the small figures in S, drop lines par
U
allel to
the center line
of the plan.
F G
until they cut the miter
line
AD
From
the points in
C D
ward
A vation K
(the oblique side), from the points in the lower front eleC.
draw lines parallel with extending them indefinitely to
AD
Now
1
1
L
them
until
draw lines parallel with A K', producing they meet or intersect lines of correspond1
M
ing numbers, just described.
these intersections, as shown the shape of the miter line as
A
by
line traced
1
through
will give
J
U
TJ"
T S
1
1
,
'it
will
appear
in plan, TJ
T S
1
1
showing that portion of the intersection which
occurs upon the oblique side of the tower roof. From the points of intersection in the miter line
U" T' S
of the plan erect lines parallel to B, producing them until they intersect lines of correspond
1
A
ing numbers drawn from the profile the side elevation.
355.
KLMN
through
The Pattern for the Molding on the Side of a Dormer Mitering Against the Octngcm.nl Side of a Tomer Roof.
A line traced through
these intersections, as
shown
New
in
Metal
Worker Pattern
Jiook.
U T S of the
elevation, will be the miter line in eleva
tion,
formed by the junction of the return with the
D C of the plan. oblique side of the tower At To obtain the pattern proceed as follows of the elevation draw the line right angles to
:
A
through which draw the usual measuring lines, which intersect witii lines of corresponding numbers of the elevation from the drawn at right angles to U
figures,
U
V
T points of intersections in the miter line the points of intersections in the profile
line traced
U
S and from
OPE. A
W, LM
as
shown, upon which lay
off
the stretchout of
K
of the front elevation,
as
shown by the small
T' S" K"
P
a
through these intersections, as shown by U" O', will be the required pattern.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for
66.
1
an Inclined Molding; Mitering; Upon a Wash Including a Return.
frequently occurs that
pilasters and partly returns at the sides of pilasters.
As a feature of design, a belt course between stories
which
it
is
between the
carried around pilasters occur between all the windows of a front, and
affairs presents
some
interesting
upon the wash of the Such a condition of features and is shown
PLAN
Fig.
SOG.The
Pattern far
an,
Inclined Molding Mitering
Upon a Wash Including a Return.
from the foundations to the main cornice. In a certain instance, small gables or pediments were introduced between the pilasters in such a manner that
which
rise
in Fig. 356, of
the miters at the foot of the gables came partly upon the roof or wash of that part of the belt course lying
which A B C is the front elevation. shows the plan of the belt course, upon which the foot of the gable mold is required to miter in the The gable mold, of which ,1 C is the vicinity of F.. elevation and H the profile, is required to meet the
DE G
Patte
ir,7
C J M, its top line starting In this instance, as in many others, the first requisite is that of obtaining a correct elevation of the miter between the gable mold and the three
level cornice at the angle
described,
thus:
From
points
upon J
K
above S
from the point
J.
car'y lines horizontally across to side view, intersecting thun with lines of corresponding number
dropped
from
profile
H' until a line traced through points of
washes.
To
facilitate this operation
it
will be neces
intersection,
shown by
S' T', crosses the line 0'
P
1
,
as
sary to draw a side view which will show the comparative projection of the gable mold, the pilaster and the
belt cornice
right.
shown
lines
at point T',
which point happens
to coincide
profile
with point 4 of
profile.
From
point
I
of
H'
from the face of the wall, as shown at the Divide both profiles of the gable mold into the
same number
From
J
of spaces, as shown by the small figures. of the elevation carry the points in the profile
are dropped upon O' P', from which they are carried horizontally across as in the first part of the operation till they intersect with lines of cor
H
lines parallel
to
C
J, extending
them
across the line
responding number drawn from points in profile H, Then the line J N T S L as shown from T to N.
will be a correct elevation of the required intersection and can be used as the miter line from which to obtain
the points in drop lines the profile of the wash of the belt course O P cutting so far as they fall within its projection. From the
indefinitely.
L
From
H
1
points in O P carry lines horizontally across the elevation till they intersect lines of corresponding number Inspection will previously drawn from the profile H.
the final pattern of the gable mold. With this as a miter line and II as a profile the remaining operation
is
performed in the .usual manner.
at right angles to
V W, drawn
Upon any line, J C lay off a stretchout
as
of
show
that only the lower portion of the profile will miter upon the main wash and that, therefore, the above operation can be begun with advantage at point
1
In obtaining this stretchout the profile of gable mold. of point x must be obtained from profile the position
of
4 and continued until a line traced through the points intersection crosses the line J K, which is really
the profile of the wash of the return. This, as will be at S, which point can be carried back to seen, occurs
profile
II in
H, while from profile H is obtained the position of point Q, which shows the point at which the roof piece of the gable mold passes beyond the side of the pilaster, shown best at J' in the plan. With the
1
"["square
placed parallel to
V W,
and brought success
(shown
at
a;),
where
it
will
be subsequently
ively against the points in J
lines of corresponding
NT
S
obtaining the stretchout of the gable mold. Above the point x of the profile all points will fall until the projecagainst the wash of the return J carries them across the forward miter tion of the mold
needed
number.
A line traced through
1
L, cut measuring
K
the points of intersection, as give the required pattern.
tersection
is
shown
at
N
2
L'',
shown by J N' S' L', will The plan view of the inwith some of the lines of
of the return (J' K' in plan), after which they will fall upon the wash in front of the pilaster. This point of
projection used in obtaining it, merely to assist the student in seeing the relation of parts, but is not
crossing can be found
by reversing the operation above
necessary in the actual work of obtaining the pattern.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
67.
for a Level Molding; Mitering Obliquely Against
Another Level Molding
of Different Profile.
In Fig. 357
is
shown the plan and a portion
of
BCD being the same as B C D of
A
D
and X. ively at the direction of F
In the side view is the side view of a bay window. also shown the section of a lintel molding, shown it is reindefinitely by C D E F of the plan, which
quired to miter against the oblique side of the large cove under the bay window indicated by B C F of the
plan.
In Fig. Fig. 357. B F G represents the base of the window and G E 358, C the lintel cornice. The profiles are shown respect
Y
The
lintel
molding
is
continued
in
window between
lintel
G until it G and C.
intersects the base of the
In Fig. 358
is
shown an enlarged plan
of the
particular portion in
which the miter occurs, the angle
In order to obtain the pattern of that part of the molding which abuts against the base of the
108
TV
indicated from
of
\en
Metal
\Vorlrr
Patte
window
obtain the plan
G to C, it is first necessary to the intersection or shape of the
lino with the profile at Z.
Y
draw a duplicate
of
X,
it
as
In placing the profile
Z
in position
shown must he
N,
M
4
I
1I
J
I
1
I
i
+
r
i
1
1
I
III
54
444 4
III
L
i
L
>
J
I
1
I
4 +44
i
1
i
1
1
r
n
1
i
Fig. 357,
Kan and Sectional View of a Level Molding Mitering Obliquely Against Another Livel Molding of Different Profile.
(.
i
f
,._
12 1/
Fig. S58.
Method of Obtaining the Pattern of
the Lintel
Molding Shown in Fig.
S57.
miter
line, as
shown
this miter line
in plan by G proceed as follows
:
H
C
F.
To
obtain
remembered that
as nights are all to
Opposite to
and
in
vertical lines of each profile
be compared the must be placed parallel
I 'ill III' II
I
'fill ill' nix.
Hi!)
;iinl
their ii]ixT ends
turned
1
in
tin\'.\
same
the
direction.
profile
.1
as to
produce a curve between those points in the
Therefore, the back or line
placed parallel to
P>
of
/
is
with reference to
which represents a vertical line the profile V, and the point 12 is
(',
Therefore, for accuracy it is necessary to pattern. subdivide those spaces on K J, as indicated by a l> and c d e there shown. These points must be dropped back
to the profile Z,
to the
placed exactly opposite the point .1. according to the Divide the requirements of the side view. Fig. '~>7.
profiles
and the spaces thus produced transferred
stretchout line
L M,
all
as indicated.
The
lines
X
and /
in
into the
same number
in
of parts, as in
indicated
by
the small letters in
K
J have only been
dicated l>v the small figures
each.
From the
points
thus obtained
P>
profile
J ('. cutting Tsquare placed parallel with the
of the
file
K
carry lines at right angles to of profile Y, as shown. With the
line
/
B
(J
of the plan
K
from the points on the proJ in the direction of (i and F; also draw lines
carry lines
in
window
from the points
cutting the lines of corresponding munlier drawn from the profile Y. line traced through points of intersection,
the profile
X parallel to Gr K,
drawn partway in the engraving to avoid confusion, and the measuring Hues produced by these points in the stretchout have been shown dotted for the sake of distinction. These points are then intersected with the surfaces to which they belong in the miter line G H C, as shown between 2 and 3 and 11 and 12. For the pattern of the lintel molding first draw a
line at right angles to
A
as shown by (r H (< F, will give the miter line, as shown in the plan. While the curved portions of the profiles X and / have been divided into such a number of spaces as
shown by L M, on which X, as indicated the small figures. the points thus obby Through tained draw the usual measuring lines. With the
it,
as
line lay off a stretchout of the profile
j
Tsquare placed parallel with the stretchout line L C F to measuring carry lines from the points in G
M
H
answer the purpose, of an ordinary miter, it will be noticed that the plane surfaces between points 2 and and 1.1 and 12 intercept so much of the curve of K
will
.">
of corresponding number, when a line drawn through the points of intersection, as shown by N P,
lines
will
complete the pattern.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a
68.
Square Shaft of Curved Profile Mitering Over the Peak of a Gable Coping Having a Double Wash.
Let
AB
DE FGH
mount
at
C in Fig 359 be the front elevation and be the side elevation of a coping to suris
base), lar to
DK
a gable, the profile of the top of which Also let II in the side elevation.
shown
MN
As
and through the point draw a line perpendicunext through the point X draw a line, that D K, of the making the same angle with Y
V
W
,
W
;
W
P
be the elevation of a square shaft or base, as of a finial, having a curved profile, as shown, which it is required
to miter
given profile of the coping, does with the horizontal line D L and extend this line to the right till it meets
1
the line from
W
at K',
and
is
to the left,
making
D K
1
1
down upon
the top of the coping.
the
matter of drawing the elevations of the shaft in correct position upon the washes of the coping is attended with
equal to D K. wash, which is
elevation.
This gives onehalf the profile of the
all
that
Now
from the points
some
difficulty, the
method
:
of obtaining these will be
briefly described
Through the lowermost point on either side of the front elevation, as P, draw a line'
first
till project lines parallel to they meet the center line of the front elevation, and duplicate them on the other side of the center line, which will complete the
Y
W
necessary in obtaining the in the profile D'
K
1
at the correct angle of the pitch of the
coping or gable,
far
shown by V W, and extend the same to the right enough to permit a section of the coping to be constructed upon it. Upon this line set off the distance
as
front elevation of the gable. From the points in the erect vertical lines indefinitely, which profile may be intersected with lines projected horizontally from the points on center line I L to complete the side
D K H
X W,
equal to
P L
(half the
width of the shaft
at its
elevation.
Thus a
line
from point
B
intersected with
170
line
Tlie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
and a line from point Z intersected with lines from D and H will give the points E and G, front and back of the washes
from
will give the
K
apex
of coping,
point
U
;
while the crossing of the side
P
with the
at the apex.
top line of coping B C (marked 4) is projected upon the center line of the side view, thus giving the point Y. This completes the elevations with the exception
of the lines
As
of
it,
the shaft
1
is is
M
N' 0'
P
1
,
exactly square, the side elevation in all respects the same as that of
MU
P and
M YP
1
1
.
If the profile of
the
shaft

P were
a straight line, either slanting or vertical,
U4U
i 1 i i
MM
FRONT ECEVATION
S59.The Patterns for a Square Shaft of Curved
Over the Peak of a Gable.
Fig.
Profile Mitering
the front, and
is
drawn
in line
with
it,
as
shown by the
This
the lines
U P and M Y would be straight lines,
1
because
horizontal lines of projection connecting them.
1
having been completed, the point at which its side M N' crosses the line E F (marked 4) is projected back to the front elevation, as shown, thus locating the
they would represent the intersection of two plain surfaces but as the profile is a curved line it will be
;
necessary to obtain correct elevations of these two lines, as they are essential in obtaining the patterns to follow.
I'n n,, H

I'nJdems.
171
The
angles are are developed by the ordinary plain square miters and method, as explained in several problems in the earlier
sliaft
its
being square, the miters at
P draw the points 1 to 4 of the profile lines parallel to B C cutting the profile D K', as shown
From
1
The peculiarity of this problem, part of this chapter. P and consists in obtaining the miter lines then,
U
M Y
1
and the part of the pattern corresponding to the same, which can all be done at one operation, as follows P and M' N' into the same Divide the profiles
:
and transfer the same to the profile and from these points erect perpendicuK, lar lines (also shown solid) indefinitely, as shown, which intersect with lines drawn horizontally from points of
by the
solid lines,
of coping
D
corresponding number in either profile, as shown at 2," 3" and 4". This will give the correct miter line
M
1
number
1
of equal parts,
1
and place the stretchout of the
same upon the center lines extended, as shown at I J and I J, through which draw the usual measuring lines From the points in M N' from for subsequent use.
1
O P miters at the sides of piece are of course the same as those of the front piece, therefore after they have been obtained the points 2"
Y.
The
M N
1
1
1
1
4
down drop
lines
vertically
upon the
lines,
profile
of
coping
fer the
D K,
as
shown by the dotted
lines parallel to
and
as
trans
points thus obtained to the profile D' K', from
which points draw
the dotted lines.
V W,
shown by
Intersect these with lines of corre
sponding number (2, 3 and 4) drawn either profile, as shown at 2', 3' and
the
horizontally from
4',
miter line
U
P.
After the points
thus obtaining 1 to 11 of
the profile have been dropped into the measuring lines of corresponding number of the stretchout the points 2',
into the measuring lines 3', 4' and 4^' are also dropped of corresponding number, thus giving the cut U' T at the bottom of the pattern, which can be duplicated on
the other side of the center line, thus completing the of the front of the sliaft. QRST
pattern.
U
1
and 3" are dropped into measuring lines 2 and 3 of the stretchout I J which when duplicated on the other side of the center line complete the line Q' Y T which is the bottom cut of the side piece. It has been remarked that in obtaining the intersections between U and P and M' and Y horizontal The lines may be drawn from points in either profile. reason for this is simply that the two profiles O P and N M' are identical and have been divided into the same number of equal parts. If a case should occur in which the side and face should be dissimilar it must be borne in mind that N' M' is the profile of the face piece and its points must be used in obtaining the intersections between U and P, while O P is the profile of the side piece, and its points must be used in obtaining the intersections between M and Y.
1
1
,
1
1
,
1
1
PROBLEM
The Patterns
of a Cylinder Mitering with the
69.
Peak
of a Gable Coping;
Having a Double Wash.
360 be the elevation of a coping to surmount a gable, the profile of which is D E F E D which, as will be seen, shows a double wash, E Y
Let
in Fig.
1 1
ABC
by
,
directly over the profile of the coping, all as shown, which divide into the same number of equal parts, beginning to number at a corresponding
II
GL
K,
P Let M and F E shaft which is required
1 .
N
to miter over this
be the elevation of a pipe or double wash
Before any patterns can be peak of the gable. developed it will be necessary to first obtain a correct
at the
place in the profile, and from the points in it drop lines to the profile of the coping, cutting the washes E F and F E and thence carry the lines parallel to the lines
on
1
,
of the coping, producing
lines
them
until they intersect the
elevation of the miter line or intersection of the shaft
dropped from the
profile
1
G L
1
1
K'
II'.
Through
To accomplish this proceed as folwith the coping. In line with the pipe or shaft construct a profile lows
:
the points of intersection thus obtained trace a line, as B P will be the miter line to P, then shown from
in elevation.
of
which divide of equal parts, and from into the points thus obtained drop lines vertically through
the same, as
shown by convenient number any
G L K H
1 1 1
1
,
the
it is
As both halves of the shaft are alike (dividing on line II L in one profile, and on H' L' in the other),
really only necessary to use onehalf of the profile,
the elevation.
Draw
a corresponding profile, as
shown
172
MS to use both halves as
in
Tin
New
Worker
/'<///,/,/
/>W.
lines of
the diagram requires the additional work of carrying the points from E F E' to the center line B B' for onehalf and then down the
unifies
to the
a
lay
oil'
one side of the coping, as stretchout of the wash of the coping K
J
A
'
B,
K',
set
1
I
all as
oil'
shown by
K'
F'
E
3
.
In
this
stretchout line
For the other side of the gable for the other side. of the shaft proceed as follows In line with pattern
:
of the shaft, and at right angles to it, lay L as shown by a stretchout of the profile G' R S in ihc usual manner, through the points in which draw measuring lines. Commence numbering these
the end
off
MN
points corresponding tained by the lines previously dropped from the profile G L. Place the Jsquare at right, angles to B,
,
to
the points in
E F E
1
ob
HK
A
H K
1
1
1
,
;
and, bringing it against the points in the miter line O B cut lines of corresponding numbers drawn through
1
,
the stretchout E"
E
3
,
all
as indicated
by the dotted
L'9
Fig
S60.
The Patterns of a Cylinder Mitering with
the
Peck of a Oable Coping Having a Double Wnxh.
measuring lines with, the figure corresponding to the point at which the seam is desired to be, in this case 1.
Place the J square at right angles to the shaft, and, B P bringing it against the points in the miter line cut the corresponding measuring lines. Then a line traced through these points of intersection, as shown
1
lines.
Then
tersection, as
a line traced through these points of inshown by Z 1 Y, will be the pattern of
by
it
T UV
W X,
the wash for the side of the gable B required to miter against the base of the shaft. Incase the design should call for a shaft octagonal in shape, the same general rules would apply. Less
divisions, however, will be required
in
A
will
be the miter required.
In case
the profile,
it.
should be desired to miter the coping against the base of the Shaft, the pattern for it may be obtained from
the same lines in the following manner:
only being necessary to drop points from each of the angles of the octagon, as in the ease <>f Problem 33,
previously given.
At
right
1'iitlrni.
/'/<>/:/>
,,/.,;
173
PROBLEM
A
70.
Butt Miter of a Molding; Inclined in Elevation Against a Plain Surface Oblique in Plan.
Let
cornice,
AB
and
in Fig. 3(>1 be
the profile
<>l'
a given
let
ED
represent the rake or incline of
Let G represent the intersecting surface in plan. The lirst step in developing the pattern will be to obtain the miter line in the elevation, as shown by E F. For
the cornice as seen in elevation. the angle of
this
H
purpose draw the profile
AB A
in
connection with
the raking cornice, which space in the usual manner, as indicated by the small figures. Draw a duplicate
of
this
profile,
as
shown by
1 1
1
B',
placing
it
in
proper position with reference to the lines of the plan. B into the same number of parts Space the profile as A B, and through the points thus obtained carry
A
lines parallel
to the lines of the cornice, as seen in the line G II, as shown. In like manplan, cutting ner draw lines through the points in B, carrying them parallel to the lines of the raking cornice in the
A
direction of
E F
indefinitely,
as
shown.
Place the
Tsquare
at right angles to the lines of the cornice, as
it
shown
in plan, and, bringing intersection in the line G H,
against the points of
cutting corresponding drawn from the profile
lines
in
carry lines vertically, the inclined cornice
B. Through the points of intersection thus obtained trace a line, as shown from E to F. Then E F will be the miter line in elevation, B meetformed by an inclined cornice of the profile
A
A
in the plan. ing a surface in the angle shown by At right angles to the raking cornice lay off a
B'
GH
B upon any line, as L, and through the points draw the usual measuring lines, all as shown. Place the Tsquare at right angles to the lines of the
stretchout of
A
K
/'!/.
,161.
A
raking cornice, and, bringing it against the several line E F, cut corresponding measpoints in the miter L. lines drawn through the stretchout line uring
K
A
Butt Miter of a Molding Inclined in Elevation Against a. Plain Surface Oblique in Plan.
traced through these points of intersection, as to N, will be the pattern required. from
shown
M
PROBLEM
71.
of a
Patterns for the Moldings and Roof Pieces in the Gables
Square Pinnacle.
Fig.
ilar
302 shows the elevation of one
of four sim
shown
at
K, from which
to derive the pattern.
Draw
of
The profile gables occurring in a square pinnacle. The first step is to the molding is shown at P.
the
the pnrtile P in the molding, as shown, placing it so that its members will correspond with the lines of the
obtain
miter
line
or
elevation
of
the
miter
molding.
Draw
a second profile, P', in the side view
174
The
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
of the gable, placing it, as shown in the engraving, so that its members will coincide with the lines of the side view. Space both of these profiles into the same number of parts in the usual manner, and through
equal to D' A' and
A
B of
1
the side view, and draw
the lines
A
F, as shown.
the points thus obtained draw lines parallel to each of the moldings respectively, as shown, until they intersect,
and trace a
line
through the points of intersec
shown at K. Then K is the line in elevation which the moldings will miter. Draw the center upon line O M, which represents the miter at the top of the
tion, as
gable.
For the pattern of the molding lay
out of the profile upon any
right angles
line,
off a stretch
as
G
H, drawn
at
to the line of the gable in elevation, as
shown by the small figures. Through these points draw measuring lines, as shown. Place the Tsquare stretchout line, or, what is the same, at parallel to the
the gable, and, bringing it right angles to the line of the several points in the miter lines successively against
and K, cut the corresponding measuring lines, and trace lines through the intersections. This completes the pattern of the molding, to which the piece forming the roof may be added as follows Make L D equal to E D of the side view of the
as shown,
:
1
M
gable and set
it off
at right angles to
L
B'.
In like
manner, at right angles to the
same
line, set off
A' B
1
Fitj. $62.
Patterns for the Moldings and Roof Pieces in the Gables of a Square Pinnacle.
PROBLEM
72.
Pattern for the Moldings and Roof Pieces in the Gables of an Octagon Pinnacle.
Fig. 363 shows a partial elevation and a portion the plan of an octagon pinnacle having equal gables o,f on all sides. The first step in developing the patterns
is
plan, cutting the line D F, representing the plan of the From the points in D F thus obtained carry miter.
lines vertically, intersecting corresponding lines
dniwn
to obtain a miter line at the foot of the gable, as shown by L. To do this proceed as follows : Draw
from the
profile in the elevation.
A line traced through
N
:
the profile
K,
as
shown, placing
it
so that
it
shall cor
the several points of intersection, as shown by L, will be the line of miter in elevation between the moldings
of the adjacent gables.
respond
in all its parts
in elevation.
with the lines of the molding Divide into spaces and number in the
The
center line
forms the
usual manner, and through the points draw lines parallel to the lines of the gable toward L, as shown. so placed as Draw a duplicate profile in the plan, to correspond with the lines of the molding in plan.
K
miter line for the top of the gable. For the pattern proceed as follows Upon any line, as E E, drawn at right angles to the lines of the
gable, lay off a stretchout of the profile, as shown by the small figures. Through the points of the stretchout draw the usual measuring lines. Place the T
1
,
Divide
it
into the
it
the points in
same number of spaces, and through draw lines parallel to the lines of the
square at right angles to the lines of the gable, and,
Pattern Problems.
175
off
bringing the blade successively against the points in the two miter lines above described, cut the corre
be added by setting
equal in length to
A' B
1
at right angles to
A' C
1
,
AB
of the side view.
In like man
F
Fig. S6S.
C
Pinnacle. Pattern for the Moldings and Roof Pieces in the Gables of an Octagon
sponding measuring
lines,
as
shown.
Lines
traced
ner,
upon the
line
from
M
set off
will through the points of intersection thus obtained The roof piece may give the pattern of the molding.
of the side view.
Then draw
F'
D
1
equal to C D B', thus completing
D C
1
1
the pattern.
176
Ttie
Xcw
Metal
Worker Pattern Bouk.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for the Miter
73.
Upon a Square
Shaft,
Between the Moldings Means
of Adjacent Gables of a Ball.
Formed by
file
let C be one of the gables in prothe other in elevation, the moldings forming a joint against a ball, the center of which is at E. The first operation necessary will be that of obtaining
In Fig. 364,
A
elevation, set the dividers to the radius
E G
of the ele
and
B D
the miter line, or, in other words, the appearance in elevation of the intersection of the molding with the
ball.
vation, and from S and U respectively as centers strike Then N arcs, which will be found to intersect at N. To is tin; center by which to describe the arc S U. find the radius for the curve from V to T continue the
line 8
at
shown at F and H. the same number
Place the profile of the mold in each gable, as Divide each of these profiles into
of equal parts, as indicated
M
through the sphere, cutting its opposite sides L will be the diameter of the and L then
;
M
M
by the
From the points thus obtained in F small figures. drop lines vertically, meeting the profile of the ball,
as
shown from C
to J.
line,
From
as
the center
E
of the ball
erect a vertical
shown by E
J.
From
the
points in C J already obtained carry lines horizontally, cutting E J, as shown, and thence continue them, by
arcs struck from
E
as center, until they
meet
lines of
corresponding number dropped from
points in the proin elevation. file Through the parallel to the gable intersections thus obtained trace a line, as indicated by
H
DG
tion.
M.
Then D G M will be the miter line in elevaTo develop the pattern for the molding, first lay
off at right angles to the
gable a stretchout of the proP R, through the points in which file, as shown by Place the Tsquare draw the usual measuring lines.
stretchout line, or, what is the same, at parallel to the right angles to the lines of the gable, and, bringing it
successively against the points in the miter line D M, line traced cut the corresponding measuring lines.
A
through the points of intersection from 2 to 7 (that is, to will give the pattern for the curved porfrom
U
V)
tion of the profile. As any section of a sphere is a perfect circle whose length of radius depends upon the proximity of the
Fig. S64.
The Pattern for the Miter Kftween the Moldings of Adjacent Gables Upon a Square Shaft, Formed bij Means of a Ball.
cutting plane to the center of the sphere, the curves S to T of the pattern, representing the plain and to surfaces 1 2 and 7 8 of the profile, must be arcs of
U
V
fore with
circles,
whose lengths
of radius can be determined
from
is a Therepart. as a radius, and and L) T respectively as centers, strike arcs, which will interFrom 0, with the same radius, sect in the point 0.
circle of
which the
arc 7 8 or
VT
K M (onehalf of M
V
T.
V
the elevation.
is
As
simply a duplicate of the cut
the pattern for the plain surface 1 2 from D to of the
describe the arc
tern, of
Then S
UVT
will
be the pat
G
the molding to miter against the ball.
" or dein this section of the chapter involve the necessity of " raking before the pattern for the required part can be obprofile profile tained. One of the principal characteristics of this work is that, as the normal profiles are usually spaced into equal parts for convenience in beginning the work, the resulting or raked profiles must by force of cir
Note.
The remaining problems
veloping a new
from the given or normal
cumstances be made np of a number of unequal spaces
transferred to given straight lines, space
:
in
consequence of which their stretchouts must be
by
space, as they occur
upon the new
profiles.
177
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a Flaring: Article of
74.
an Oblong: and the Top Square.
which the Base
is
Let
article,
and F
ABDE N
of Fig.
365 be the elevation
of the
and
I
L' P',
making them
I the plan at the base,
KMP
in length
equal to
F
N
and
1
L
If the sides are to be debeing the plan at the top. veloped in connection with the top (supposing the
of the plan, letting the points way of their lengths respectively.
O
V
come midDraw K' F', M' N
and
,
U
L'
I'
and
P
1
0', thus
be open) proceed for the pattern as follows Draw K' M' 1" L', Fig. 366, equal in all respects to
to
:
bottom
sides.
Upon S T
completing the pattern for the set off Z T from P and S
M
1
1
,
Y
from
K
1
L', in length equal to
1
A
1
B
,
or
DE
of the ele
KMP
L
of the plan.
at right angles to
indefinitely.
Through the center of it, and each other, draw lines V U and S T While the elevation in Fig. 365 shows
it
and through the points S and T draw F' P and N' 0' parallel to K L and M P and in length equal to F I and N of the plan, letting the points S and Tvation,
1 1
the slant hight of the ends
does not give the slant
fall
midway
of their lengths respectively.
Draw F
J
K
1
Fig. 365.
Elevation and Plan.
Fig. 366.
Pattern.
The Pattern of a Flaring Article uf Which the Base
is Oblonij
and
the
Top Square.
hight or profile of the sides, therefore through the elevation, and perpendicular to the base and top, draw
the line
P L
1
,
N M
2
1
and
O P
!
1
,
which
will
complete the pattern
of the ends.
C
G, which will measure the straight hight of
From set off II, in length equal, to of the plan. Draw Then C. C will be the of the article through the side, and therefore profile the width of the pattern of that portion. Upon
the article.
G
G
M
R
H
1
H
required to produce the pattern with the sides joined to the bottom, supposing the top to be I 0, through the F open, lay out first a duplicate of
If it is
N
VU
1
of the pattern, from K' set off , I" set off U, in length equal to
M
"W V, and from L
V U and S and proceed in the same general manner as described above to obtain the sides, placing thencenter of which draw the stretchout lines
T as before,
X
H
C
of the eleva
tion.
Through
U
and
V
draw
lines parallel to
K' M'
wider ends against corresponding sides of the base or bottom.
178
The
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
In Fig. 367,
let of the
75.
is
Frustum
of a
Pyramid which
Diamond Shape
in
Plan.
ABDE
be the elevation and
R
II.
Then
MR
II
N
will
be the pattern of one of
KGI
the points the points
the plan of the pyramid at the base. Project B and D into the plan, as shown, locating and P, and draw the sides of the plan at
the four sides composing the article.
M
top, each parallel to the corresponding line of the By projection from G or O of the plan at the base. R of draw C F of the elevation, representing plan the plan and also the straight hight of the frustum.
Before the slant hight or stretchout of a side can be obtained it will be necessary to construct a section
on any
as
line crossing the plan of the side at right angles
Therefore extend the top and bottom lines shown dotted at the right, cutting 5 the vertical line S S , thus making 'S S" equal to the
S T.
of the elevation, as
1
1
Upon the base line straight hight of the frustum. extended set of from S' the distance S T , equal to S T
1
1
Then will S" of the plan, and draw S T true profile or slant hight of the frustum.
3
1
.
T
1
be the
At
right angles to
its
1
M R of
the plan draw S
W,
length equal to the slant hight of the frusmaking as shown by S* T of the section. tum, Througli II indefinitely, parallel to 0. At right draw
W
N
K
angles to
lines
II,
K
KN
and 0, draw 0, through the points and II in the points and H, cutting
K
PATTERN.
Fig. 367.
N
thus establishing
its
length.
Connect
N M N and
The Envelope of the Frustum of a Pyramid Which Diamond Shape in Plan,
is
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of the Flaring:
76.
an Oblong Tub.
End
of
In Fig. 368,
ABD
C shows
the elevation and
N
the plan of a vessel having straight sides and semicircular ends, one end of which is slanting.
First
P O R
draw a correct plan and elevation
of the article,
the elevation is carefully projected from its corresponding point in the plan. Divide half of the boundary line of the top into any
seeing that each point of
number of equal spaces, commencing at O, all as shown by the small figures 1, 2, 3, etc., in the plan. From the points thus obtained carry lines vertically
until they cut the top of the elevation, as
B D, producing them upward indefiand continue them downward until they meet nitely, the bottom line of the elevation F D, as shown. At right angles to the lines thus drawn, and at any convenient distance from the elevation, draw G II. With the dividers, set off from the line G H, on each of the lines drawn through it, the distance from T O, on the lines of corresponding number, to the curved line P 0.
lines parallel to
shown
in
and L also continue the lines downward until they meet the line T 0, all as shown. From the points between L and B thus obtained draw
the points between
;
B
In other words, make G equal to T 6 of the plan. Set off spaces on the other lines corresponding to the distance on like lines in the plan. Through the points
K
G H K
thus obtained trace a line, as shown by Then H. will be the half profile of the end of the
K
vessel on
any
line, as
L M, drawn
at
to right angles
Pattern Problems.
179
lines, as
the line
D
B.
The
stretchout of
profile
be
taken
from the
to
thus
the pattern constructed.
is
to
spending measuring
shown, for the top of the
At
any convenient distance from it, draw U V, upon which lay off twice the stretchout of K II, numbering each way from the central point 1, as shown. From the points in the
right angles
II,
D
and
at
If it is desired to make a pattern. joint E F of the elevation, the triangular
upon the
line
shaped piece ELF
:
may be added
to the pattern as follows With the dividers take the distance E F of the elevation as radius,
stretchout thus obtained draw measuring lines at right
and from the point Z of the pattern as center describe an arc. In like manner, with E L of the elevation as
PLAN
Fig. 368.
R
Pattern of the Flaring
End of an Oblong
Tub.
angles
to
it
indefinitely.
With
the blade
of
the
Tsquare
set at right
angles with
D
B, and brought
successively against the points in
F D, cut lines of corresponding number drawn through the stretchout.
as
and point R in the upper line of the pattern as describe a second arc, cutting the first arc in center, the point W. Connect with R and also with Z.
radius,
W
Then a line traced through the points of intersection, shown by Y Z, will be the pattern of the bottom In like manner bring the blade of end of the piece.
the Tsquare against the points in
triangular piece at the opposite end terminating in point is added in a similar manner, thus com
The
X
pleting the entire pattern of that portion of the vessel from the line E F to the right.
L B and
cut corre
PROBLEM
77.
Pattern for the Flaring Section of a Locomotive Boiler.
adapted tapering a locomotive boiler its principles are equally applicable to tanks, cans or pipes whose shapes are governed by
the spaces or positions which they are to occupy.
While the pattern here described to the section or "
especially " of taper course
is
section of the boiler at
A
F, Fig. 369,
is
round, as
shown by
The
The lower half of the circle I M L is the profile from L F to G D, but the upper half is raked or slanted from B K to C II, retaining its semicircular character at C H. The line H G is a vertical
I
NL
M.
180
line, as
New
shown by S L
of the sectional view,
is
Metal
Wwkvr
/'//>
m
liwk.
and the
surface
HKG
being vertical
simply a flat triangular
right angles to B C at any convenient position outside of the elevation, us the vertical center lino of the new
surface, exactly as
shown
in the elevation.
Divide onehalf, the normal section, as N L, into any convenient number of spaces, as shown bv the figures, and from the points thus; obtained draw lines
section.
A B, cutting B K, as shown, also extendthem back to the center line N M. From 15 K ing carry them parallel to B C, cutting the line C II, and extend them indefinitely, cutting also the line U AY. AVith the dividers measure the horizontal distance of
parallel to
the various points in the normal profile L from the center line M, and transfer these distances to lines
K
N
of corresponding
number, measuring each time from
to to
U AY. Thus make AA" 7 equal from U W to the point 6 equal
tinue
till
O P
7;
l>
;
the distance
and so con
all
the
distances have been measured.
A
line traced
through these points will constitute a profile of the raking portion on a line
at right angles to
its
direction,
undBK
pattern
and C
il
will
be the
the
miter lines.
first
To develop
layoff the stretch
upon drawn at right angles any to B C, as A' B As the in U T have already points
line
1
out of the profile
T U
.
A
r
been dropped upon the miter
lines
it is
in
the previous
process
now only
1
necessary to place the
it
to
A B
1
and, bringing
Tsquare parallel successively against the
points
in
C
II
and
B K,
measuring
Fig. 369.
lines
of corresponding
drop lines cutting number.
the
line
A
Pattern for the Flaring Section of a Locomotive Boiler.
Since the part
B
KH
C
is
semicircular
when cut
upon any
a section of
vertical line, the first step will be to obtain it as it would appear if cut upon a line at
XXY B K H C. To this may be added the flat triangular From the points piece K H G, as shown by X Y Z. X and Z lines may be drawn at right angles to X /,
as
traced through the points of intersection, as shown 1>\Y, will be the pattern of the raking portion
right angles to
B
:
C.
This section must be derived
shown by Z J and
X
Q, extending them sufficiently
from the normal section of the level part, and may be done as follows Assume any line, as U ~W, drawn at
to complete the lower portion of this part of the boiler, of the elevation. E shown by
K
DG
PROBLEM
The Pattern
In Fig. 370
for a
78.
for
Blower
shall
tion,
a
Grate.
DFKHE
M
shows a front view, P L
conform
to
it
the semicircle
shall slant
F
K
K
IT of
to.(i
the elevaat
and C B a plan of a blower. The conditions which determine the course to be pursued
a side view,
A
and that
from
an angle
indicated
in arriving at the pattern
are that its
upper outline
the
first
the profile. Therefore, by will be to determine a true section of its step
of
the line
L
M
Pattern Problems.
181
upper portion or hood upon a line at right angles to ]j M from the puiut N of the side view; after which,
file
of the hood, divide onehalf of the semicircle
F
K
L
H
N
into
any number of equal spaces, and carry
lines
from each of the several points
of the side view.
to the vertical line
From
the points thus obtained in
L N" carry lines parallel with L indefinitely, which intersect at right angles by the line T S, located at any convenient point outside of the diagram. With the
dividers take the horizontal distances between the points in the arc F to the line G, and set them off on the
M
K
K
corresponding number, measuring from the Then a line drawn through the points thus obtained, and as indicated by T R, will be a correct
lines of
line
T
S.
Take the stretchout
at right angles to
and place the spaces on the line U V, which is drawn L M. Through the points in U V
at right angles to
it.
section through the inclined portion of the blower. of the profile T R point by point
draw the usual measuring lines As the points from the profile
Fig. 370
T R
Pattern for a Blower for a Orate.
dropped upon both the miter lines only necessary to carry them, at right angles to L M, on to the measuring lines of corresponding numbers.
M
have already been N and N L, it is
with
NM
and
N L as
developed in the usual manner.
miter lines, the pattern can be To obtain a true pro
Then
and
as indicated
a line traced through the points thus obtained, by I" K' H', will be the desired pattern.
PROBLEM
79.
Pattern for a Can Boss to Fit Around a Faucet.
Fig. 371 is shown a top and side view of a boss whoso sides are in part parallel and just sufficiently apart to allow the faucet to fit between them. In
L
N
L
K
represents the diameter of the opening at the top. represents the general shape of the boss
the points thus established drop lines vertically, cutting the line repreF to senting the top in the side view, as shown from From the points thus established in F C carry C.
as indicated
by
1, 2, 3, etc.
From
MX
it
lines parallel
to
the side
line
F D, producing them
until
where
joins the can
and
is
the result of the condiis
tions existing in the side view, but
not
of in the process of obtaining the pattern. tial points are the curve of the can body,
made use The essen
D
they cut the curved and A. The next step to be taken is to obtain the a section taken profile which would be shown by
E, as
D
AB
shown between
DAB
E,
the diameter of boss at top, L tween 1) and E and the distance
N,
the distance beall of
X C,
which are
through the article at right angles to the line D F. For this purpose at any convenient point draw a line through D F and at right angles to it, as shown by P R.
shown
in
the side view.
From
the points established in the plan of the top, as
lines vertically until
cated by
Divide onequarter of the plan of the top, as indiN, into any convenient number of spaces,
shown from O to N, carry meet the horizontal line K
they
M
passing through the cen
182
ter of the top, as
Neiv Metal Worker Pattern Book.
shown. Taking the length of each the distances thus obtained in the dividers, set it of off from either side of P R on the lines of corresponding numbers, and through the
trace the curve, as shown.
points
this
thus obtained
Then
curve will repre
sent the required section from which the stretchout of On the line E P, prothe. envelope may be obtained.
duced
as
sufficiently outside of the side view for the purpose, lay off the stretchout of onehalf of this curve,
shown, and through the points thus established draw measuring lines parallel to D F. Then, with the Tsquare placed parallel to P R, or, what is the same, at right angles to D F, and brought successively
against the points in the profile of the can body between D and A, cut the measuring lines of correspond
ing
numbers.
In like manner bring the Jsquare
against the points in the top of the article shown from F to C and cut the measuring lines of corresponding
numbers.
obtained, As that porhalf of the pattern of one of the ends. tion of the boss lying between points A, B and C is
Then lines traced through the points thus as shown by D' A' and F' C', will be one
flat triangular piece it is only necessary to a duplicate of its shape to that part of the pattern add
simply a
just obtained, bringing one of its straight sides against To the other straight side the line 5, all as shown. C' B' must be added a duplicate of the first part of the
as pattern reversed,
shown by B' C' G' E'; the
result
ing shape will then constitute the pattern of onehalf the boss.
Fig. 371.
Pattern for a Can Boss to Fit Around a Faucet.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a Molded
80.
Base
in
which the Projection
of the Sides is Different
from that of the Ends.
Let
and
E F G
A B C D, in Fig. 372, represent the side view H the plan of a base in which the projec
angles to
A
B
and
L
Gr in plan.
until they intersect the miter lines J P At right angles to F draw the line
G
tion of the sides, as shown at C. the ends, as shown at
M
O P, is less than that of B C and A D show the
B" C", upon which place the stretchout of the profile B C, as shown by the small figures, through which draw
of corresponding
intersections, as
ends of the base. As the projection the sides of the base is less than that of the through P ends, a profile must be obtained through the side
profile
of the
the usual measuring lines, which intersect with lines numbers drawn from the miter lines
at right angles to
F
G.
A
line traced
in plan, from which to obtain the stretchout in proTo obtain the pattern for ducing the pattern of sides. Divide the profile B C the end proceed as follows
:
shown by
J' L'
G'
F', will
through these be the re
To obtain the quired pattern for the end of the base. the side proceed as follows From B profile through
:
into an equal number of parts, as shown by the small figures, and from the points obtained drop lines at right
in elevation
draw the
vertical line
profile
from the divisions on the
B M, as shown, and B C draw lines par
Pattern
Problenifi.
183
allel
to the lines of the
moldings until they intersect
l>v
tlie
the side of the base.
side proceed as follows
To
:
obtain the pattern for the
small figures. From on the miter line L G in plan, the intersections obtained
the line
as
B M,
shown
At
as before explained,
draw
lines parallel to
tend them indefinitely, cutting the
H G and exmiter line K H, as
the line B* N", upon which It will be profile B' N', as shown by the small figures. noticed that the spaces in the profile B' N' are unequal,
draw right angles to II place the stretchout of the
G
shown.
Upon K L
of the plan extended set off IV M',
and therefore each must be separately placed on the
line
F'
,
N'
W
0. P.
IN"
PROFILE THROUGH
PLAN,
H'
Fig.
N2
G
{s
Patterns for a Molded Base in Which the Projection of the Sides
Different
from
that of the Ends.
in hight equal to
B
M
of elevation,
and transfer the
At right angles spaces from B M to B' M', as shown. to B' M' and from the points on same draw lines, as shown, intersecting lines of corresponding numbers
drawn from the
rniter line
Through the points in this stretchout line draw the usual measuring lines, as shown, which intersect with lines of corresponding numbers drawn at right G from the miter lines II and L G. A angles to
.
B N
8
J
H
K
L
G.
A
line traced
through
line traced
these intersections will be the desired profile through
K' H' G'
L', will
through these intersections, as shown bv be the desired pattern for the side.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for
81.
in
an
Elliptical
Vase Constructed
Twelve Pieces.
first essential in beginning the work is an which may be drawn by whatever rule is most ellipse, convenient, and which must be of the length and Draw the breadth which the vase is required to have. of the sides of the vase about the curve, as shown plan
The
in Fig. 373, in such a manner that all the points X, Y, Z, etc., shall have the same projection beyond the
at least onefourth of the plan by miter lines, as shown by P C, C, U C C, drawing Above the plan construct an elevation of and N C.
curve.
Complete
M
184
Tin
1
\/'/r
Mini
II
'<;//>;
I'lillini
HV
the article, as shown bv II L G. Only the profile L of the elevation is needed for the purpose of
K
considered before the article
projection of cadi of lhe sides
is
constructed.
the plan
As
the
W
upon
is differ
Fig.
37S.The
Patterns for an Elliptical Vase Constructed in Twelve Puves.
pattern
cutting,
but the other
lines are
desirable in
ent
when measured from
the center
C on
will
lines at right
process of designing, in order that the effect
may
be
angles to the lines of the sides,
it
be necessary
Pattern
185
the
points in
C' in
develop the profiles of each of the van ing sides from the normal prolile II V \V L. Therefore. di\ idc
lirst
to
C
A
of
the plan,
making the distance
from
each instance the same as the distance from
II
Y
\\'
Ij
in
the usual manner, and
lines across its
from the several
C
in the plan.
NumVr
the points to correspond with
points in
it
drop
corresponding section
in
(.No. 1) of
the plan. Across the second
section
the plan, from the
<)
C, draw lines parallel to points already obtained in U, the side of it cutting O C, and produce them
until
U
numbers given to the points in the profile II V from which they were derived. In like manner L, from C* set off points corresponding to the points in C
the
W
B
From C
of the plan, numbering them as above described. 3 set off points of corresponding to those in
CD
thcv meet
1'
A
C, which
is
drawn from C
at right
angles to
section
Then the points in give produced. the projections from which to obtain a profile of the
<)
AC
the plan, likewise identifying them by figures in order to facilitate the next From C erect the operation.
1
perpendicular C'
perpendiculars
A
2
3
1
;
likewise from C" and
3
C
3
erect the
numbered
'2.
In like manner continue the
points from
parallel to
C O
O M,
across the third section in the plan, the side of it cutting C, and pro
M
C B and C D From each of the laid off from C and also from each of those laid points off from C' and C erect a perpendicular, producing it
3
.
1
,
,
duce them until they cut C
at right angles to
15,
which
is
drawn from C
contains
until
it
O M
produced.
Then C B
HVW
meets the horizontal line drawn from the profile L of corresponding number. Then lines traced
the points requisite in obtaining a profile of the third across the fourth Continue the points in C section.
M
through these several intersections will complete the profiles, as shown. Perpendicular to the side of each
section in the plan lay off a stretchout taken from the
profile corresponding to it, just described, the points in the stretchouts draw
section, cutting
its
other miter
line
C
P.
From C
4.
draw C
D
at right angles to the side
P
M
of the sec
tion, cutting the lines
drawn across section
of
Then
upon C
duce the
as
D
will
be found
determine
profile line of the base of
the
the points necessary to Prothe fourth pattern.
W
L
shown by
I)'.
C' C"
C
:l
.
the elevation indefinitely, and also the line of the top A'
"W the several points in the profile draw lines indefinitely, parallel to the lines just de
From
HY
1
the usual manner, all E 3 F 3 Place the Tsquare parallel to each of these stretchout lines in turn, and, bringing it against the several points in' the miter lines bounding the sections of the plan to which they correspond, cut the measur.
and through measuring lines in J J as shown by E F, E' F', E F and
scribed and as
shown
in
the diagram.
From C
,
upon
the base line produced, set off points corresponding to
Then lines tracad ing lines in the usual manner. the points of intersection thus through obtained, all as shown in the diagram, will complete the patterns.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a
Finial, the
82.
Plan of which
is
an Irnegfular Polygon.
In the central portion of Fig. 374
plan B C D construct a
is
shown the
to
is required II, upon which it the only other view given being a fiuial, section through one of the sides, being that numbered
E FG
the Tsquare placed parallel with C B of plan and brought successively against the several points in B L, drop lines cutting the miter lines profile
K
;
A
and
A
C.
1
on the plan.
On
AM
extended, as
Al Ml,
lay off a stretchout
The
section of side
line
ABC,
or No.
1, is
shown
is
.of
KL
of profile, through the points in
which draw
above and in
marked Profile No. 1, and is a section on the line A M, which is drawn at right angles to B C of the plan. To obtain the pattern of A B C of plan, or No. 1,
divide the profile
with the plan of the same, and
the customary measuring 'lines. the stretchout line Al parallel to
Place the Tsquare
Ml, and, bringing it B and against the several points in the miter lines cut corresponding measuring lines. C, Tracing
A
A
KL
in the usual
manner, and, with
lines
through the points thus obtained, as shown by
186
The
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
at right angles to eacli
Bl, will give the pattern of part of shown on plan by A B C.
PROFILE NO.4
Al Cl
article
that
is,
since
A N, A
and
A
PROFILE
NO. 3
P, drawn
at right angles respectively to
C D, D E
PROFILE
NO.1
K2
PROFILE
NO.2
cij
D3
02
Fig. 374.
C2
Pattern for a
Finial,
the
Plan of Which
is
an Irregular Polygon.
in the plan is not equidistant Since the point from all the sides of the same, when measured on lines
A
and
E
F, differ in
A M
length from each other and from a correct section must be obtained for each
Pattern Problems,
187
of
the
other
sides
before
their
patterns
can
be
developed.
the points in and in the normal profile. each of the points in J2 L2 erect lines
AN
From
perpendicular
most conveniently obtained at one operation in the following manner: With the Tsquare placed parallel with D C, and brought successively against the points in A C, draw Then the points in A N lines cutting A D and A N.
different sections can be
These
to the same, intersecting lines of corresponding number drawn from L. Then a line traced through the
K
points
of intersection, as
shown from K2
rect section
can be used to obtain a profile of section No.
2.
Also
continue the points from
A D across A
the third section
of the plan, and parallel with D E, and produce them until they cut E, also 0, which is drawn from
A
A
of the plan, from which to obtain a stretchout of piece No. 2. The sections of pieces No. 3 and No. 4 are obtained in a similar manner from O and P. J3 L3 is a duplicate of and J4 34 of P.
on
AN
to L2, will be the cor
A
A
A
A
Perpen
at right angles to
D
produced.
Then
A
contains
diculars are erected from each of the points cutting horizontal lines of corresponding number, thus devel
the points necessary in obtaining a profile of the third
section.
Continue the points from A E across the fourth section of the plan, and parallel with E F, cutthe points in P can be used to obtain a profile of section No. 4. While the projection of the several points in each
ting
oping
K3 L3 and K4
downward
L4.
To
obtain the pattern of
ADC
A N
AP
and
A
F.
Then
A
stretchout of
K2
indefinitely, L2, as shown
(No. 2) continue upon which lay off a
by A2 N2, through
be obtained respectively from and A P, the hights of the several points must be the same in all and must be derived Therefore continue from the normal profile K L. a horizontal line of profile No. 1, J L, which represents
of the
profiles can
new
the lines
A N, A
the points in which draw the usual measuring lines. Place the "[square parallel with A2 N2, and, bringing it C and against the several points in D, cut
A
A
measuring
lines
of
corresponding numbers.
Lines
traced through these points, as shown by A2 D2, will be the pattern sought.
by
A2 C2
and
in either direction,
as
shown by L4 L2.
No.
1
From
the
stretchouts for pieces Nos. 3 and 4 are taken A3 03 is the respectively from profiles 3 and 4.
of
The
several points in profile
L4 L2, extending them
At any
shown
lines parallel with in either direction. indefinitely convenient position on L4 L2 set off points
draw
corresponding to the points in
at
A N
of the plan, as
K3 L3 and is laid off on a continuation while A4 P4 is taken from K4 L4 and is set O, off on a continuation of P. The remaining operations are the same as those employed in obtaining the
stretchout of
A
A
J2 L2, numbering them
to correspond with
other pieces.
PROBLEM
Pattern
for a ThreePiece
83.
Elbow, the Middle Piece Being: a Gore.
Let
AB
C D E F
Gr in Fig.
375 be the elevation
NK
any
L, cutting the miter line
F
H
C, as shown.
(X
elbow to any given angle, as G F E, the middle piece of which, B C II, forms a gore extendThe lines H B and ing around onehalf the diameter.
of a threepiece
II C are drawn parallel respectively to the ends of the two outer pieces, therefore the patterns for the end H to B and pieces will be straight from H to C and To obtain the pattern for one mitered from H to F.
line, as
E D
extended,
e d,
lay off a stretchout of
M
through the points in which draw the usual measuring lines, as shown. With the
L, as
K
shown by
Tsquare brought successively against the points in II C, cut corresponding measuring lines, as shown.
line traced
F
A
by fh"
c,
will
through the points of intersection, as shown be the half pattern of end, as represented
of the ends, as
F
H ODE,
N
divide
N K L
With
into
any
in elevation
convenient number of equal parts.
at right angles to
the 7square
The
L. E, or in profile by other half of the pattern can be obtained by dupli
by F
H
C D
N K
L, carry lines
from the points in
cation.
188
Since II
II
The
New
Metal
HW.vr
Pattern Bool'.
C
is
drawn
parallel to
E
J
is
less than onehalf the diameter of the
D, the distance normal
than L, therefore it will lie necessary before obtaining the pattern of B II C to obtain a corJ of elevation. To do this, rect section on line
profile, or less
H
C place tlie Tsquare parallel with from the points in C, cutting II J and
first
B
and carry lines
H
H
B.
Next
draw any
line, as
K' M'
J'.
of the section,
II',
and erect the
J',
perpendicular H'
From
on H'
set off the
them point by spaces in H J of elevation, transferring Through the points thus obtained draw lines point. with K' M', as shown. With the dividers take parallel
the distance across
lines
K O
L
or
L O M,
on the several
same drawn parallel with distance on lines of corresponding number drawn Thus H' M' and H' K' are the same as through H' J'. A. line traced through the points thus M. K and the section obtained, as shown by K' J' M', will be
K
M, and
set off the
desired.
J extended, C, lay off on of section, through which as h h', draw the usual measuring lines. With the Tsquare
For the pattern
of II
B
H
a stretchout of K' J'
M'
measuring
II J, and brought successively placed parallel with the points in B II and C H, cut corresponding against lines drawn through k h', as indicated by the
K'
H'
dotted lines.
intersection, as
Lines
drawn through these points
1>
1>
of
SECTION.
Fig. 37S.lttltein
/../
of
h' r, shown by shown in. elevation by the part
will
be the pattern
B
II 0.
a ThreePiece Elbuw,
lie in
ij
tlie
Middli Piece
a
(Jure.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
of
84.
a Tapering
Article
which
is
Square at the Base and Octagonal
at the Top.
ABD
at the base,
C
J
IKLMHGrFE
H' D"
in Fig.
376 shows the plan of the
article
I G.
Draw
I
1
A' and G'
s
D
1
,
thus completing a diagonal
the top,
E
3
C
3
is
represents the shape at an elevation of one side. In
section.
order to obtain the slant hight of the octagonal sides it will be necessary to construct a diagonal section or ele2 3 vation. Therefore extend the lines of the base C 1) and
top
off
complete a diagonal elevation, set off E F" equal to E F of the plan and draw ! lines to C as shown.
If it is desired to
,
E
3
ir, as shown, to the
left,
through which draw a
obtain the pattern of one of the smaller sides, produce the diagonal line R C, upon which set off the as shown by C', and length or stretchout of I'
To
A
1
,
N
vertical line, as
R C
1
2
.
Upon
the line of the base set
draw the measuring
line
E'
F
1
.
By means
1
of
the
1 1
each
way
of the plan.
set off
or 1) from C' a distance equal to In like manner upon the line of the top,
a distance equal to onehalf
A R
R
from R' each way
Tsquare, as indicated by the dotted lines, set off E K equal to E F of the plan and draw C' E and C' F'. Then E' C' F' is the pattern of one of the smaller sides
1'iitii
iii
Problems.
189
Fig. 377.
Pattern in One Piece,
of the article.
sides,
For the pattern of one
of the larger
draw
set
11
P
which
oil'
C, upon perpendicular to the side 3 P, in length equal to E C' of the ele
A
vation, at right angles to
which through
and
P draw
measuring
lines,
lines.
By means
2
of the Tsquare, as
4
make A C equal to A C of manner make F E' equal to I E of A P and C E Then A' T E C
2 4 4 4
.
shown by the dotted
the plan.
In like
4
the plan. Connect will be the pattern
one of the larger sides of the article. If for any reason the pattern is desired to be all in one piece the
of
,
may adjacent the large and small sides alternating, all a a , Fig. 377. as indicated by i
in c:ich other,
1
shapes of the different sides
be laid
off
Pig. 376.
Elevations, Plan and Patterns.
is
A
Taperinij Article
Which
Square at
the
Base and Octagonal at the Top.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
of a Finial,
85
Sides.
the Plan of which
is
Octagon with Alternate Long: and Short
P K S T be the eleL In Fig. 378, let iinial corresponding to the plan which is vation of the shown immediately below it. The elevation is so
drawn
the long sides, profile of one of which proceed in the usual manner. Divide the profile A L M N O P into any number of convenient spaces, as shown by the small figures, and
as to
for the pattern of
A
MN
made on account
tern
to
of the
if
would have
2
made
extreme length which the patin one piece. Perpendicular
DD
lay off a stretchout, as
shown by
G H, through
show the
manner.
in
the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual Place the ysquare parallel to the stretchout
line, and,
bringing
D E C
and
D F
2
against each of the several points C, cut the corresponding measuring
it
from the points thus obtained drop lines across tin; corresponding section in the plan, cutting the miter
lines
lines.
traced through these intersection will be the pattern sought.
line
Then
a
points of
dif
DEC and D
same
2
F
C, as shown.
is
2
A
duplicate of the
1
For the pattern of the short sides
ferent course
is
a
somewhat
part in the demonstration
ered the
E C F
of the plan
shown below by K C
1
2
F',
and
to
C K and
0" K' are to be consid
C
C
to the line
K
E
be pursued. As the distance from is than that from C to E F a greater
it
in all respects
as
C K and C
F.
The
profile of the piece as
1)
same mav be said
line
bearing
the two parts of the stretchout like letters; the division having been
of
must
:
first
be obtained.
would appear To do
if
cut on the line
this
proceed as
follows
From
the points in
C
E,
dropped from the
190
The
Sew
Metal
Worker Pattern Bwk.
Pattern Problems.
191
Vrs
in the profile
from whirh they are derived.
At
After obtaining the profile as here described, for the
pattern of the short side proceed as follows Perpendicular to E of the short side^ or on C extended, O' of lay off a stretchout of the diagonal section
:
of the IV erect the perpendicular B' A', equal to B From the several points in the profile of elevation. the elevation draw horizontal lines cutting the 'central
A
K
D
A
1
vertical line
A
B, as shown.
Set off points in A'
B
1
in
Fig.
379, as
shown by
C'
D
1
,
Fig. 379
to correspond,
From the several points P' carry lines vertically, intersecting correspondThen a line traced through these ing horizontal lines. as shown by A' L' M' N' O P', will be the points, the short side on the line C D of the plan. profile of
in
horizontal lines, tification in the following steps.
and through these points draw number for convenience of idenwhich
which draw measuring
lines in the usual
through the points in manner. Place
the Tsquare parallel to the stretchout line, and, bringing it against the several points in the miter lines D
K
B
1
1
side in the plan, cut the corresponding measuring lines. Then a line traced these points, as shown in the diagram, will be through
C and
DEC bounding the short
the required pattern.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for
86.
a Gore Piece Forming a Transition from an Octagon to a Square, as at the End of a Chamfer.
sents the intersection of the gore piece with the side of the shaft, may be of any contour whatever at the pleasure of the designer, the method of laying out the
represent the plan of the that of the square portion of a shaft and
In Fig. 380, let
FF FF
AAAA
pattern being the same no matter what its outline. By reference to the plan it will be seen that the lines of the molding, of which C D shows only the termination,
run octogonally, or
in the direction of
A
A.
There
fore, before a stretchout of the piece can be obtained a correct profile must be developed on a line at right
angles to
its lines
:
that
proceed as follows in the elevation, into any convenient number of spaces, From the points thus as shown by 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
Pattern
on the line E F. To do this Divide the line C D, as it appears
is,
obtained drop lines down upon the side of the plan F, which should be placed in line below the ele
A
vation.
Continue the lines from the side
corner,
as
A
F
across the
crossing with the
E
shown, F, and number the
all
parallel to
A A of the octagon,
lines
to
correspond
numbers of the points in the elevation from Draw the vertical line which they were derived. G n at a convenient distance from P D, and cut G n by lines drawn at right angles to it from the points in C D, as shown by the connecting dotted lines. G II
then
plan,
may be
or 11 of the
considered to represent the point F in the numbers on the line E F. From
G
Fig. 380.
off
The Pattern for a Gore Piece Forming the Transition from an Octayon to a Square.
on each of the several lines drawn through it, lay a distance equal to the space from E to the corresponding number in the same plan. Thus lay off from
II,
GH
on
on
line 1
a distance equal to 11 1 on
octagon portion.
Let
DPC
be the elevation of the
line 2 a distance equal to 11 2 of
is required to form the transition begore piece which The outline C D, which repretween the two shapes.
H. for each of the lines through these points, as shown by I through
G
E F, and F, and so on Then a line traced E
H,
will
'
be the
192
The
New
its
Metal
ll'w/ar Pattern Book.
profile of
when
the gore piece, or the shape of cut by the line E F.
section
from C D.
the
Through the
measuring
usual
lines,
points thus obtained draw as shown. Place the
Prolong
E
F, as
shown by
K L,
the latter a stretchout of the profile I
and lay off on H, the spaces of
Tsquare at right angles to the measuring lines, or, what is the same, parallel to E F, and, bringing it against
which must be taken from point to point as they occur, so as to have points in the stretchout corresponding to the points on the miter lines A F, previously derived
A F and F A, cut the corresponding lines drawn through the stretchout. Lines traced through these points, as shown, will constitute the pattern.
the points in
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a
87.
Gore Piece
in
a Molded Article, Forming: a Transition from a Square to an Octagon.
A B D C represent the elevation of an article of which G H I J is the half plan at the base and K L M N O P the half plan at the top. A C
In Fig. 381, let
the normal profile or profile of one and II of the plan of the square sides, and L show the miter lines between the square sides and the
of the elevation
is
H
M
gore piece.
lines II
C E and D
and
I
M
N,
are
shown
F, the elevations of the miter as part of the design,
but are not necessary in cutting the pattern. As only the normal profile, which would be used
cutting the pattern of one of the square sides, is shown in the elevation, the first step will be to obtain
in
from
this a profile of the gore piece, or in other words,
a section
upon
its
center line,
RH
of the plan. Divide
the profile C into any convenient number of parts, and from the points obtained drop lines at right angles in plan, as shown. to B, cutting the miter line L
A
A
H
From
draw
the intersections obtained on the miter line
lines parallel to
L
II
L M,
as shown, cutting the other
indefinitely.
miter line
H
M, and continue them
At
any convenient position outside the plan draw the line A" parallel to R, and draw a duplicate of the 2 that in the same relative position to C profile
A
1
H
A
A A
1
A A
1
C C
holds to
1
spaces as
A B, and divide the same into the same A C, all as shown by A C'. From the points in draw lines parallel to A A", cutting lines of
1
1
corresponding number drawn through the plan of the
gore piece.
A line traced through these intersections, as
to C", will
PROFILE OF
GORE
PIECE.
shown from A"
be the profile of the transition
:
piece from which to obtain the stretchout for the pattern. To obtain the pattern proceed as follows Upon K' a continuation of II R, place the stretchout of a the profile A' C as shown by the small figures, through
, ,
R
2
which draw the measuring n<>\v to be intersected bv
lines, as
shown.
These are
of
lines
drawn from points
L and corresponding number upon the miter lines Lines traced through the points of intersection, II M.
shown by
H
RT
and
R
Fig.
X81.The
S, will give the desired
pattern.
Pattern for a Gore Piece in a Molded Article, Forniinrj a Transition from a Square to an Octa,j,,
lt
.
f '/!//<
rn
lit 3
PROBLEM
The Patterns
Tliis
is
88.
for a
Raking: Bracket.
one of the
1
many
instances which calls for
on the part of the pattern cutter. the architect's drawings give Frequently only a detail of a bracket for the level cornice of a building, while
special draftsmanship
It may be necessary introduce in the several profiles of the normal bracket other points than those derived from spacing the profile.
in
the side of the normal bracket.
to
the scale elevations
show
one or
more
of the gables to
be finished with raking brackets. In such cases the " level " bracket, and the detail of the pitch of the roof
are the only available facts from required bracket.
In
which
to
produce the
at the re
Fig.
:;sJ, let
M
Use as many such points as may be necessary to determine the position of all points in the side being constructed. Then X' N" P' will be the pattern of the side of the bracket, and U" Z" D will be the pattern of the strip forming the sides of the sink shown in the face by E F II G, and &' a d c' will be the shape of the panel in
3
1 l
X
or
<)
I'
be drawn
the side of the bracket.
quired angle, with reference to any horizontal line, to The first step represent the pitch of the gable cornice. is to redraw the normal side elevation of the level
For the patterns of the several pieces forming the face of the bracket the profiles are to be found in the
be at right angles to the lines of the rake, all as shown at L Q P. Next, at any convenient distance from this draw two rertical and N' 1", the horizontal distance between lines, as M
its
bracket so that
vertical lines shall
normal side view, from which stretchouts can be obtained when wanted, and laid out at right angles to the
while the miter lines of any part are the vertical lines of the face view corresponding to that part of the profile under consideration.
lines of the rake;
(
)
which
shall be the required face
width of the bracket.
j
Lines projected parallel to the rake from the various angles in the profile between these vertical lines will
For the strip forming that part of the face at the side of the sink, lay off a stretchout of its Z at right angles to the lines of the rake, as profile
REGS,
U
complete the front elevation of the raking bracket. The additional lines E <! and F II representing the sink in
the depth of the panel in side, and U 1) giving the depth of the sink in the face, will be understood from, the drawing.
the face,
shown by u
measuring
1
lines are
A
z\ through the points in which the usual drawn. Drop the points from the
C showing
profile to the miter lines
R
S and E G;
then, with the
Tsquare placed at right angles to the lines of the rake,
To
what
is
construct a side view of the raking bracket, or, the same thing, the pattern for the side (includ
ing the bottom of the sunken panel and the sink strips I' I) Z in the face), all hights must be measured upon
and brought successively against the points in R S and E G, the corresponding measuring lines are cut. Then lines traced through these points of intersection, as shown by R S and E G 3 form the pattern for that
1
1
.
1
,
piece.
one of the vertical lines of the face view, as 0. To avoid confusion, however, and make room for other patterns, another vertical line. X' P% will serve as well.
Divide the curved portions U to P of the face of the normal profile into any convenient number of small
spaces for use in this and subsequent parts of the operFrom all the points in the profile of face carry ation. lines parallel to the rake through the side view and
'
M
the sink, as
indicated
For the piece forming the face of the bracket below shown in the elevation by S P Z proceed in like manner. A stretchout of its profile, as
1
1
,
P, is laid off at right angles to the lines by of the rake, through which the usual measuring lines are drawn. The points in D P are then carried parallel
to
D
the
rake, cutting the
is
miter lines S
and Z
1
P'.
The Tsquare
continue them
From
lines
P they intersect the vertical line the points thus obtained in the line P 3 carry
till
1
X
3
.
X
1
then placed at right angles to the lines of the rake, and brought against the several points in the sides S and Z' P', by which the corresponding In like manner it is brought and II, by which the shape of the part extending up to meet the sink is determined.
indefinitely horizontally, as indicated. each oi the lines so drawn lay off from the line
Upon
X'
measuring
lines are cut.
P
s
a
against the points
G
distance or distances equal to the distance or distances upon the corresponding lines drawn across the normal
side of the bracket.
Then
lines traced
through these several points of interII
s
Through the points thus obtained trace lines, which will give the several shapes in the sides of the brackets corresponding to the shapes shown
form the pattern for that part of the face of the bracket. The upper part of the face of the bracket, shown in the face view
section, as
shown by
Z P
3
s
0'
S
3
G*,
194
The
1
1
New
Metal
HW.vr
l'nll>',i<
Tiook,
N U K M, being u Hat side view N U, is obtained
by
surface, as indicated in the
by pricking directly from the face view of the bracket, no development of it
being necessary. To avoid confusion of lines, the sink piece
E
FH
d\ is laid oil at right angles to the lines of the rake, and through the points in it the usual measuring lines are drawn. The square is then placed at right angles to the lines <>f the rake, and, being brought successively against the points in the sides
"
prolilc, as
shown by
'
\^.\\\\$^\\Y<L
VP
Fiij. 383.
Upper Return of Bracket Head.
Fig. 384.
Lower Return of Bracket Head.
Fig. 382.
The Patterns for a Raking Bracket.
1 1
G
is
is
The
transferred to the right, as shown by E F H' G'. profile of it, as indicated in the side view by UD,
E
1
G' and F'
divided into
1
any
convenient
lines
II'.
number
of
spans.
Then section, as shown by E G" F
cut.
3
the corresponding measuring lines are lines traced through these points of interII',
2
IF, constitute the pattern
of the side in the
and through the points miter lines E G' and F'
are
The
drawn, cutting the stretchout of this
of the
bottom of the sink. Of the strips bounding the panel
Pattern Problems.
195
piece corresponding to l> c in the side view, being vertical, is obtained by pricking directly from its elevation in llie face view of the bracket, B
bracket,
ilie
lines
M, cut the measuring points in the profile N' L' and drawn through the stretchout. Then lines traced
1
K
A
D'
For the other straight strip bounding this panel, shown in the side view by a b, the length is laid off equal to a b, while the width is taken from the face view, equal to the space indicated
the shape.
C being
through the points of intersection thus obtained, as shown by L3 N' and K M', will be the shape of the ends of the molding forming the front of the bracket
head.
by strip representing the irregular part a to c proceed as follows Divide the profile a d c into any convenient number of parts, from the points in
:
A
B.
For the
Before laying out the pattern for the return molding forming the upper side of the bracket head a correct side elevation of it must be drawn. duplicate
A
which carry
lines
crossing the face view of the
same
B 1)' C. At right angles to part, as indicated by the lines of the rake lay off a stretchout of the profile just named, as indicated by a' c', through the points
in
A
any convenient L 1ST* in Fig. 383, and parallel lines from its angles are extended to the right, as shown, making L' Q equal to L Q of the side view of the
of the profile L' place, as shown at
1
N
1
is
transferred to
3
bracket.
which draw the usual measuring
at
lines.
Place the
angles to the lines of rake, and, C bringing against the several points in the line and B D', cut the corresponding measuring lines drawn Then lines traced through through the stretchout.
1
square
right
which represents , repeat the outline L" the intersection of the bracket head with the bed mold
of the cornice. L'
At Q
1
N
4
it
A
N
1
of
Fig. 382
is
1
then the cor
X" are the miter and rect profile and the lines L' lines of this return ; however, as both the miter lines
are identical with the profile, the stretchout q
N
4
Q
the several points of intersection thus formed, as indicated by A' G" and B D', will be the pattern of the
1
x may
be taken from either one, the other being divided into
curved
in the side
forming part of the boundary of the panel view of the bracket. Of the three pieces of molding forming the head
strip
number of spaces as the first, which is easier The than dropping the points from one to the other. then be placed at right angles to the Tsquare may
the same
lines in the
of the bracket, the profile of the piece across the face is normal, as shown at L N, while that of the two side
the points in the lines
molding and brought successively against L N 4 and Q' X*, and the cor3
or returns, requires to be modified or raked before square miter with the face piece can be These principles will be further explained eH'ec.tcd.
pieces,
responding measuring lines intersected.
traced through these points, as 3 Q 3 , will form the pattern.
a
shown
Then lines .by L N* and
4
X
in
Problems 91 to 94.
The
first
correct elevation of the head,
profiles of the
step will be to draw a which includes raking the
upper and lower returns. Divide the normal profile L N into convenient spaces, and from the points thus obtained carry lines
pattern for the return molding of the head occurring on the lower side of the bracket is obtained in the same manner. duplicate of the profile
The
A
KM
The
of the face view of the bracket
is
2
drawn
at
any con
venient place, as
shown by
K M
3
in Fig. 384.
indefinitely parallel to the rake across the top of the Draw duplicates of the norI'.K e view of the bracket.
proper length
is
given to the molding by measuring
mal
profile, placing
them
in a vertical position directly
upon the side view of the bracket, and a duplicate of the profile is drawn at the opposite end. Space the
profile
above where the new sides are required to be, as shown Divide these two profiles into the b\ it I and k m. same number of parts employed in dividing the normal
K"
W
into
any convenient number
of parts, as
indicated by the small figures, and in like manner di3 3 into the same number of parts. vide the profile
K M
from these points drop lines vertically, profile, and those drawn from L N. Then lines traced intersecting
through these points of intersection, as shown by L' N and M, will be respectively the profiles of the on the upper side and on the lower side of the moldings
1
At
right angles to the line of the stretchout of these profiles, as shown
molding lay
k'
off a
which draw the usual measuring
of
lines.
through by With the blade
,
m
1
K
the T srl uarc
molding, and
right angles to the lines of the brought successively against the several
at
bracket.
at the profile L Lay to the line of the rake and through the right angles the points in it draw the usual measuring lines. "With
off a stretchout of
N
points in the profiles
K M
3
3
and
K M
3
3
,
cut the corre
sponding measuring
lines.
Then
a line traced through
blade of the Tsquare at right angles to the lines of the rake, and brought successively against the several
and these points of intersection, as shown by 4 4 constitute the pattern of the return moldwill
K M
5
5
K M
,
ing, or the lower side of the bracket.
196
Tlie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a Raised Panel on the
89.
Face of a Raking Bracket.
In the solution of the problem stated above, and which is given in Fig. 385, the first requisite is tinas design or outline of the side of the normal bracket, such an outline is really a section through the raking ST bracket upon a line at right angles to the rake.
B and C D. intersection gives the outlines shown at of the lower These outlines constitute a front, elevation
end of the molded panel, or the view
point exactly
in front of
A
as seen
from u
the face
<>f
the raking bracket
N
shows the side view of a normal bracket, or the bracket as it would appear in a level cornice, the part from G to H being molded as shown by the shaded profile, which profile, being a section on line a b of the normal bracket, is given complete at J and called the normal profile. The first step is to derive from these factors a front elevation of the molded panel upon tin
The proper or linal position. outline or shape of the upper end of the panel \vouhl appear as a simple straight line in this view because it
when
finished
and
in its
miters against to back.
a
surface which
I)
is
horizontal from front
ABC
G
F K shows
the entire front view of
the molded panel. This view furnishes the means for the next step, which is to obtain a view at right angles
to the face
lines of the
H, and
at the
same
at right angles to the
To accomplish face of the raking bracket. divide the profile of the panel molding into
venient
this first
rake
N
0.
To do
this, first
continue the
their vertical
any con
lines
from the normal
till
profile of panel in
shaded
of equal parts, as shown in the section in the side of the normal bracket, and through
number
course
E
F.
they intersect the upper line of the panel These lines are omitted through the face of the
these points draw lines parallel
to the face of
the
bracket, producing them iintil they cut the upper surface against which the panel terminates, and in the opposite direction until they meet the vertical surface
bracket, the points only being indicated on the line K From the points thus established in K K. and from F.
the points derived in the outlines
AB
lines at right angles to the raking cornice,
and C D, carry producing
lower part of the bracket against which the panel From the points thus obterminates at the bottom.
in the
At right angles to the indefinitely, as shown. raking cornice, at any convenient place, draw the line
them
tained in the horizontal surface near the top of the bracket and in the vertical surface near the bottom of the bracket draw lines at right angles to the face, thus transferring the points to the line representing the outer
face of the panel, as
H' and
setting off on it spaces corresponding to those established in II G, already described. Through G draw lines at right angles to it to the points in the left, producing them until they intersect lines al,
G
1
H
1
1
shown from
be used a
G
to II.
ivadv drawn from the outlines
points in
left
A
B
and C D and the
in developThese ing the view of the panel at rjght angles to the face. Next, from the points already obtained in the line rep
points will
little later
Through the points of intersection thus obtained, a.s indicated by 1 T in the lower
F.
the line
E
resenting the vertical surface near the bottom of the bracket carry lines parallel with the rake, extending
corner, 8 14 in the lower right hand corner, s, 9, 10, etc., in the upper right hand corner, and 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., in the upper left hand corner, trace lines, thus
hand
them
across the front elevation of the bracket.
In the
diagram, to
avoid confusion, these lines terminate at
the intersections
shown from
work they would tion, thereby making
to B, but in actual be extended across the front elevaalso the intersections
A
completing a view of the panel piece at right angles to The next step to be taken is to develop a its face.
true profile of this panel, or in other words, a section at right angles to its lines, from which to obtain a
shown from
stretchout for the required pattern.
To do
this,
first
C
to D.
At any convenient
place in line with the
assume any
line, as
P
0, at right angles to the lines of
front elevation of the raking bracket draw the normal profile, as shown below the elevation, and divide it
into spaces corresponding to the spaces used in dividing From the points thus the profile in the side view.
the view just obtained as the surface of the panel in the new profile. Upon this line extended,, as at K, draw a duplicate of normal profile so that the points 7
and
S
shall lie in
it.
Divide the profile K
in
into the
obtained carry lines vertically, intersecting those just drawn from the side of the normal bracket across the
front elevation.
same number
of spaces as
previous instances, and
A
line traced
through the points of
from these points carrv lines through the face view intersecting them with lines of corresponding number, as
Pattern Problems.
197
14
NORMAL
PROFILE,
a
Fig. 385.
The Pattern for a Raised Panel on the Face of a Raking Bracket.
198
Tlic
New
will
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
as
shown
at
LP
and
Q
R.
Then L P
Q K
be the
shown
in
to the left
this line
true profile of the moldings along the face of the raking The student will observe that only half the bracket.
profile is
points
by the line L M. Through the draw the usual measuring lines, as
shown.
shown
answer
at
all
K,
as both halves are alike, oneif it
Then, with the blade of the Tsquare placed with the stretchout line and brought against parallel
the several points of intersection at the corners of the " View at Right Angles to the Face," cut correspond
half will
purposes
be kept
in
mind while
that the points making At any con17 in one profile are 148 in the other. of the true profile, venient place lay off the stretchout
the intersections
by number
Lines traced through the points ing measuring lines. thus obtained will produce the pattern shape, as shown.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig. 386
cornice of
fits is
90.
for a Diagonal
Bracket Under Cornice of a Hipped Roof.
shown a constructive section of the a hipped roof, under which the bracket L
through the points of intersection, and L N", will give the pattern for
as
shown by
K M
half the face.
against the planceer and over the bed molding C. Fig. 387 shows an inverted plan of the angle of such a
cornice, including two normal brackets B and C, and the diagonal bracket D, of which the patterns are re
" the " operation of obtaining or raking pattern of the side is exactly similar to that employed in Problem 88, with the difference that while in Problem
The
quired.
plan,
is
At A,
also
in line with
one arm of the cornice in
shown a duplicate
normal bracket.
to
E F
of the profile of the represents the miter line of the
is
88 the side is elongated vertically, in the present instance (the cornice remaining horizontal, and the bracket being placed obliquely) it is elongated laterally or
planceer over which the diagonal bracket
fit.
required
The operation horizontally. the addition of a profile at the
is
also
back edge
complicated by of the bracket
Two distinct operations are necessary in obtaining the patterns of the bracket D, one for the face pieces and the other for the sides. As the bracket is placed
exactly over (or more properly speaking under) the miter in the cornice, onehalf its width must be drawn
on either side
of the miter line, as
shown
in Fig. 387.
Each
half of its face thus
becomes a continuation of
the moldings forming the faces of the course of normal brackets of which it is a part. Therefore the normal
profile
X
G
8 of the bracket
A
is
the profile to be used,
lines
and
I
and J F form the miter
for
one half
the face.
The
face piece
of the
usual method in obtaining the pattern for the would be to divide the profile of into any
A
convenient number of spaces and lay
direction of the
off a stretchout
Fig. S80.
Sectional View of the Cornice of Showing Bracket,
<t
Hipped Hoof,
same upon any line drawn at right angles to the mold that is, at right angles to I Jor G F after which lines should be dropped from the profile upon the rniter lines and thence intothe stretch
where
However, as the miter is a square miter, the method is available hence the stretchout line is drawn at right angles to the horizontal line of the elevation X X, as shown at II G. The usual measuring lines are drawn and intersected with lines from points of corresponding number on the profile. Lines traced
out.
required to fit over the bed molding of the obtain the pattern of the side it is first to ascertain the correct horizontal distances necessary between the various points of the profile. The points
it is
cornice.
To
short
;
already
made use
of in obtaining the face
may
be used
Therefore, drop lines from each of these points vertically, intersecting the side of the bracket, or, what is the same thing, the center line E F,
for this purpose.
as
shown
in the plan, Fig. 387,
by
1',
2', 3', etc.
The
Pattern Problems.
must number of spaces, as als<> be divided into a convenient shown by the small figures, which must also be dropped upon E F, as shown, and numbered correspondingly.
profile at the
back
of the bracket in the elevation
from transfer the points and spaces from E F. each point in the line E' F', erect lines vertically, intersecting lines of corresponding number previously drawn to the right from the elevation. Thus, lines
Low
H
r
drawn upward from the intersections 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., on the line E' F' intersect with horizontal lines 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., while lines drawn upward from the intersections
1', 2', 3', 4', etc.,
horizontal lines
1', 2', 3', 4', etc.
on the line E' F' intersect with Lines traced through
the points of intersection, as shown by be the required pattern of the side.
If it
R
S P,
will
be desirable to ascertain the exact angle to which to bend the edges or flanges of the bracket to
fit
against the planceer
:
it
may be accomplished
in the
following manner
side
till it
Extend
P
from
of the pattern of the
intersects the line
X of the side
eleva
Fig. S87.
Inverted Flan of Cornice
and Method of Obtaining
tion, as
Patterns.
of the points in the profile of the elevation to the right, as shown. At any carry lines indefinitely convenient point at the right of the plan, draw another
From each
shown
at
Y.
Upon
the solid line
X X
in
as T. Through diagonal elevation establish any point, P draw a line inT and at right angles to the
point
Y
so placed that its sides plan of the diagonal bracket, of the shall be parallel with the horizontal line F' all as shown, and upon its center line E' elevation,
X X
P at U. tersecting the line As the angle of the plan shown in Fig. 387 is a a right angle, Fig. 388, right angle, construct
Y
ABC,
200 and bisect
it,
Tlie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
the face together, as shown by E' H' F' in Fig. 389. Tin anisic which the sides of the bracket make with
B L. Now take T in diagonal elevation, and the distance from B L in Fig. 388, from B to place it 'on the miter line At right angles to B L draw a line through the D. A B point D, intersecting the sides of the right angle
obtaining the miter line
Y
to
D
the planceer will be the complement of the angle II K of Fig. 388 and may be obtained as follows: Paral
lel to
B
L, in Fig. 388, and through the point E, draw
Fig. S89. Fig. S88.
Perspective View of Finished Bracket.
Diagram for Obtaining Angles for Sending
the Flanges.
C
at
E
and F.
Now
take the distance
it off
T U
in diag
I
onal elevation and set
toward B, locating Connect the points E, II and F; then the point H. F in Fig. 388 represent a section will the profile E
from
D
will the angle
K, representing the vertical side of the bracket then J E I represent the profile required IW
;
H
file
across the hip at right angle to its rake and will also be the angle to be used in putting the straight parts of
bending the flanges on the side of the bracket, the probeing shown in position by I' E' J' in Fig. 389. In Fig. 389 is shown a perspective view of the finished bracket as seen from below.
PROBLEM
To Obtain the
Angles
in
91.
Profile of a Horizontal
Return, at the Foot of a Gable, Necessary to
Profile,
Miter at
of Both.
Right
Plan With an Inclined Molding of Normal
and the Miter Patterns
In the elevation
of
BCE
D, and plan
FG
H K L I,
file
A'
will
have to be changed or "raked,"
in this
Fig. 390 is presented a set of conditions which necessitate a change of profile in either the horizontal or raking molding, in order to accomplish a miter
joint at I II in the plan.
case increased in hight, in proportion to the inclination. (These conditions are treated in the succeeding problem.) The vertical hight of the profile of the re
In other words, the condiprofile, as
tions are
such that with a given
shown by
may be measured in the side elevation and compared with that of the inclined molding by measuring
turn
across the latter at right angle's to the line B C. In this problem it is assumed that the profile as
A
in the raking molding, the profile of the horizontal molding forming the return will require to be modi,
1
fied, as
shown by the miter upon the line I H The reason for this
line
profile A*, in order to in the plan.
is
form a
well as the pitch, or rake, of the cornice B C are established and that the profile of the horizontal reis to be modified, or "raked," to suit it. To obtain this profile, first draw the normal profile in the
easily found.
If a vertical
turn
it will be be erected from point 9 in profile a point in the norseen that each line emanating from mal profile A becomes depressed after passing this
1
A
raking cornice, as shown by placing it to correto the lines of the cornice, as shown. Draw spond
,
A
1
vertical line,
more or
less,
according as
its
distance
another profile corresponding to
with the face of the
placing this profile
it
away from
amount shown by the dotted lines. If, on the contrary, the normal profile, the proprofile A" be considered as the
this line increases, all in proportion to the of rake or incline of the face molding, as
above or below the foot of the raking cornice,
in all parts, directly in line to
new
profile
A so that its vertical
be constructed,
lines shall cor
respond with the vertical lines of the horizontal cor
Pattern
Problems.
201
nice.
number
draw
parallel
Divide the profiles A and A' into the same of parts, and through the points thus obtained
those
lines,
from
of
A
the
ively against the points in measuring lines. Then a
Z
V
U, cut tne corresponding
through, these
line traced
1
being
raking
to
the
lines
cornice,
and those from
A
intersecting
them
of
vertically.
intersection of
Through these points like numbers trace a
profile,
is
2 3
.
line,
as
which gives the modified shown by A Then A
the
indi
profile of the horizontal
return,
cated
byG
II 1
F
in the plan.
It is also
the elevation of the miter line I II of the
plan.
Therefore at any convenient point
at right angles to the lines of the raking
cornice lay off the stretchout of the profile through the points in
M N
in
A
1
,
which draw
usual manner.
right
measuring
to
lines
the
Place the J^quare at
the
lines
angles
of
it
the
sucthe
raking cornice, and, bringing
cessivelv against
profile
the
points
in
A
2
,
cut
the
corresponding measuring lines
of
just described. trace a line, as
will
Through the points shown by O P II.
intersection
Then
OPE
T, mak
be the shape of the lower end of the raking cornice mitering against the return. For the pattern of the return proceed as follows: Construct a side
elevation of the return, as
shown by S
VU
ing the profile
elevation.
the same as the profile A' of the Let the length of the return correspond to
VU
the return, as
file
shown
in
the plan
by F
I.
In the pro
set off points corresponding to the points in 2 as shown from to D. At right angles the profile
V.U
A
B
1
to the elevation of the return lay off a stretchout of 2 U, or, what is the same, of the profile^A. , as shown
Fig. 390.
V
by
W X,
in
lines
the
through the points in which draw measuring usual manner. Placing the Tsquare
Pr.f.le cf c, Il.rizontzl return at the Foot of a Gable, Necessary to Miter at night Angles in Plan with an Inclined Molding of Normal Profile, and the Patterns of Both.
To OotzLi tte
parallel to this stretchout line,
and bringing
it
success
points of intersection, as usual, from the pattern of the horizontal return.
Y
to Z, will be
PROBLEM
To Obtain the
Profile of
92.
an Inclined Molding Necessary
to Miter at Right Angles in Plan with a Given Horizontal Return, and the Miter Patterns of Both.
shown in this problem are similar one just demonstrated. In this, howthe normal profile is given to the horizontal reever, turn, and the profile or the raking cornice is modified
conditions
to those in the
The
to correspond with it. To obtain the new profile proceed as follows: Divide the normal profile , Fig. 391, into any convenient number of parts in the usual
A
1
manner, and from these points carry
lines parallel to
202
Tlte
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
At any the lines of the raking cornice indefinitely. convenient point outside of the raking cornice, and at
F'
Pattern Problems.
in the designing of the pediment, the normal profile should be placed in the return at the foot, as is sometimes necessary, then the profile <>f tin inclined mold
.
203
the view of the miter line
is
As
the same in both
the front and the side elevation the pattern may be developed from the front just obtained in the following
ing must be first obtained, which in turn must be considered as a normal profile and used as a basis of obtaining the third profile, that of the return at the top. In Fig. 392, let A' be considered as the normal Divide into any profile of the inclined molding.
manner, with the result, however, that the pattern will Draw the line K be reversed perpendicular to the
:
M
A
1
convenient number of parts in the usual manner, and
through these points draw lines parallel to the lines of the cornice indefinitely. At any convenient point outside of the cornice, and in a vertical line with the point at which the new profile is to be constructed, draw a
duplicate of the profile of the raking cornice, as shown lv A, which space into the same number of parts as
A', already described.
From
the points in
lines vertically, intersecting lines drawn from . Then a line traced through these several points of intersec1
A A
draw
tion, as
shown by
A
3
,
will constitute the profile of the
horizontal return at the top and also the miter line as shown in elevation. If the normal profile were in the
horizontal return at the foot of the pediment and the modified profile in the position of ,
A
1
it
would he immaterial whether the
normal
profile or a duplicate of the modified profile were in the place of A by which to obtain the intersecting
lines,
only
tion,
is
as the projection of the points to be considered in this opera
and that is the same in both cases. For the pattern of the inclined At right molding proceed as follows
:
angles to the lines of the raking cornice lay off a stretchout of the profile of the raking cornice as shown by F G, through the points in
A
1
,
lines in the usual manner. Place the Tsquare at right angles to the lines of the raking cornice, and, bringing the blade successively against the points in the profile A", which is the miter line in the elevation, cut the corresponding
lines,
line,
which
draw measuring
tern
measuring and through these points of intersection trace a as. shown by G II. Then G II will be the patof the top end of the raking cornice to miter
Fig. SOS.
For the pattern of the' against the horixontal return. horizontal return the usual method would be to construct an elevation of it in a manner similar to that
described for the return at the foot of the gable in the preceding demonstrations the equivalent of this, howto save a considerable ever, can be done in a
;
To Obtain the Profile of the Horizontal Return the Top of a Broken Pediment Necessary to Miter with a Given Inclined Molding, and the Patterns of Both.
'
lines of the horizontal return, as it
would be
if
shown
and
in elevation.
profile
Upon
as
KM
lay off a stretchout of the
figures,
A
1
,
all
shown by the small
way
por
through the points draw the usual measuring
lines.
tion of the labor.
With
the Tsquare parallel to the stretchout line
KM
204
Tlie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
L, which will be the pattern of the end of the horizontal return to miter against the trable as shown. cornice,
in the bring the blade successively against the points the corresponding measuring lines. profile A% cutting
shown by
N
Through
these points of intersection trace a line, as
PROBLEM
To Obtain the Profile and Patterns
of the
94.
Returns at the Top and Foot of a Segmental Broken Pediment.
three problems treat of the various miters involved in the construction of angular pedi
The preceding
would be obtained
lems.
as described in the previous prob
In Fig. 393 is shown an elevation of a curved or segmental broken pediment in which the normal
ments.
foot. profile is placed in the horizontal return at the
The
profiles for the
curved molding and for the return
:
can both be obtained at one operation in Divide the normal profile the following manner
at the top
ABC into any convenient number of parts,
any convenient point draw
and from
the points thus obtained draw lines at right angles to At the horizontal line C F of elevation, as shown.
With Gr, cutting them. the curve of the molding was struck, as center, strike B C, extending them in the arcs from the points in
A
II, at right angles to the point from which Q,
G
A
direction of
D
indefinitely.
From any convenient
line to the center Q.
point in the arc
A D, as L,
draw a
From L draw L M,
beginning
as
at right angles to
L Q, upon
which,
at L, set off the distances contained in II
G,
From the figures in L M. where arcs struck from Q cut points of intersection draw lines at right angles to L Q. From the L
shown by the small
Q
points in L M, and at right angles to it, drop lines cutting those of similar number drawn at right angles line traced through these points of interto L Q.
A
section,
as
shown by
M
K,
will
be the profile of
be observed that the points for obtaining the profile are where he perpendiculars intersect the lines drawn at right dropped from L
curved molding.
It will
M
angles
to
L
Q, and
not where the
perpendiculars
intersect the arcs. dropped from L For the profile D E draw N D, parallel to C J, or at right angles to N 0, and, starting from D, set off on D N the same points as are in G II. Drop perpendiculars from these points to the arcs of similar numbers drawn from B, when a line traced through the
M
A
Fig. 393.
points of intersection will form the desired profile, as show by D E. The normal profile is also drawn above
To Obtain the Profiles and Patterns of the Returns at the Top and Foot of a Segmented Broken Pediment.
G
is
II
and
ND
N
at
X and
Z
to
show
that the
same
result
L
M
obtained by using the points in G II to set off on D as would be obtained by dropping the and
points from the profiles.
The
patterns for the returns
Problems describing the method of obtaining the pattern for the blank for the curved molding will be found in Section 2 of this chapter.
Pattern Problems.
205
PROBLEM
From
to
95.
the Profile of a Given Horizontal Molding, to Obtain the Profile of an Inclined Molding Necessary Miter with it at an Octagon Angle in Plan, and the Patterns for Both Arms of the Miter.
is
required a change of prolilc in order to produce a miter between the parts In this case the angle shown is shown in Fig. 394.
Another example wherein
us indicated,
and
in the
corresponding side, as shown
as
in
elevation
by N OLK, draw a duplicate profile,
by A'.
Divide both of these profiles into ber of parts, and from the points in each
carry lines parallel to the lines of molding in the respective views, producing the lines drawn from profile until
shown the same num
A
they meet the miter
the points
C X. From thus obtained in C X erect
line
lines vertically until
they meet those
intersecting as Through these
drawn from shown from
profile A',
to L.
points of intersection
draw
the
line
in
O
L, which elevation corresponding to
will
be the miter line
C
X
of the
plan.
From
the points in
O L
carry
lines parallel with the raking
molding
in
the direction of
P
indefinitely.
At
the
any convenient point outside of
normal
profile, as
raking cornice draw a duplicate of the
shown by
A
2
,
its vertical
line at right
angles
placing to the
lines of the raking cornice. 2 into the same profile
Divide the
A
number
1
of
A and A and spaces as employed from these points carry lines at right
in
,
angles to the lines of the raking cornice, those of corresponding intersecting
number drawn from
the points in
L.
Trace a line through these intersections, as shown from E to S. Then R S
be the required profile of a raking cornice to miter against a level cornice at an angle indicated of the profile by
will
A
B C D
in the plan, or an octagon angle. For the pattern of the level cornice,
at right angles to the
arm
B C
in the
plan
the Profile of a Given Horizontal S94. Moldiiiy to Obtain the Profile of an Inclined Moldiny Necessary to Miter nith it at an Octa
lay off a stretchout of the profile
as
From
A,
ing
shown by E
in
points
F, through the which draw the usual measur
line.
gon Angle in Plan, and the Patterns fur Roth Arms of the Miter.
With
angles to
B
the Tsquare at right C, bringing the blade suc.
plan between the abutting octagon, as indicated by
iii
members
is
that of an
X
1
BCD.
To produce
the
I
!
cessively C, cut corresponding measuring lines drawn through Then a line traced through these points, as shown !'.
II to
against the several points in
modified, profile
as follows
:
and
to
In the side
B
describe the patterns proceed draw the normal profile A,
from
G, will be the required pattern of the horiIn like manner, for the pattern of zontal cornice.
206
the raking cornice, at right angles to the profile R S, as
The
Xew
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
ively against the points in the miter line O L, as shown elevation, cut the corresponding measuring lines.
its lines
lay off a
l>y
stretchout of
shown
U
T,
in
through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual manner. With the Tsquare at right angles
to the lines of the raking cornice, arid
us
Then a line shown by
W V,
traced through the points thus obtained, will be the required pattern for the
brought success
raking cornice.
PROBLEM
From
In Fig. 395, let B C D be the angle in plan at which the two moldings are to join, U V the angle in elevation, and A or A the normal profile of the raking mold.
1
96.
the Profile of a Given Inclined Molding, to Establish the Profile of a Horizontal Molding to Miter with it at an Octagon Angle ia Plan, and the Patterns for Both Arms.
elevation proceed as follows: Draw the normal profile with its vertical
A
side parallel to the lines in the plan of
To form
a miter between moldings
arm E D C, corresponding to the front of the elevation. Draw a duplithe
cate of the normal profile in correct position in the elevation, as shown
X
meeting under these conditions
a
VL
by
A
1 .
into
the same
Divide both of these profiles number of parts, and
through the points in each draw lines parallel with the plan and with the
elevation respectively, all as indicate.] by the dotted lines. From the points
the miter line of the plan C E, obtained by the lines drawn from the
in
profile
A, carry
the
lines vertically, inter
drawn from secting Then a line traced through the intersections thus obtained, as shown from
lines
1
A
.
N
vation.
to 0, will be the miter line in eleFrom the points in O
N
carry lines horizontally along the of the horizontal molding
as shown.
arm
Y,
NOU
At any
convenient point
outside of this arm, either above or below it, draw a duplicate of the nor
mal
profile,
divide into
as before,
shown by A", which the same number of parts
as
and from the points carry
lines vertically intersecting the lines
drawn from
N
Then a
From the Profile of a Given Iiulined Moldiwj. Establish the Profile of a Horizontal Moldimj to Miter with it at, an Octagon Angle in Plan, and the Patterns for Both Arms.
to
line
0, just described traced through tin
.(
Fig. SOS.
points of intersection, as shown by T S, will give the required modified
profile.
For the patterns of the arm
YN
O U
change of
profile is required.
To
obtain the modified
line
profile for the horizontal
arm and the miter
in
angles as G F. a lay off on any straight line, stretchout of the profile T S, all as sh'own by the small
by
W E C B,
At right proceed as follows: to the same, as shown in plan
Pattern Problems.
3
207
figures
I
,
2",
3",
etc.
measuring
lines in the usual
Through these points draw manner. With the Tsquare
and brought against the
parallel to the stretchout line,
points of the miter line E C in plan, cut corresponding measurirg lines, as indicated by the dotted lines, and
dropped from it to the line E C according to the rule. For the pattern of the raking molding, at right angles to the arm N Z V O in the elevation lay out a stretchout,
L M, from
the profile A'.
Through the points
in this stretchout
through these points of intersection trace a line, as shown by K II. Then K II will be the shape of the end of Y N U to miter against the raking molding.
be easily understood that the points as found iipon the line E C arc just the same as would be obtained there if the newly obtained profile were drawn
It
manner.
line,
lines in the usual Place the Tsquare parallel to the stretchout
draw measuring
will
and, bringing it against the several points in the miter line in elevation 0, cut corresponding measurThen a lines, as indicated by the dotted lines. ing line traced through these of intersection, as points
N
into the plan of the
arm C
13
W E and the points were
shown by P R,
will
be the shape of the cut on the arm
molding.
N
Z
V
to miter against the horizontal
PROBLEM
The Miter Between the Moldings
97.
of Adjacent Gables of Different Pitches
upon a Pinnacle with Rectangular
Shaft.
The problem presented in Figs. 396 and 397 is one occasionally arising in pinnacle work. The figures represent the side and end elevations of a pinnacle which
other at the corners, and which are of the same hight in the line of their ridges, as indicated by L and L'
M
M
1
.
Whatever
profile is
given to the molding in one
face of such a structure, the profile of the gable in the adjacent face will require some modification in order to
form a miter.
In Fig. 396
let
A
be the normal
profile
of the molding placed in the gable of the side elevation. Before the miter patterns can be developed it will first
be necessary to obtain the miter line or joint between the moldings of the adjacent gables as it will appear
in the elevation, to
accomplish which proceed as
fol
lows
a duplicate of A, placing it in a vertical position directly below or above the point at which the
:
Draw
two moldings are
indicated
to meet,
both of these profiles into
shown by A the same number of
as
1 .
Divide
parts, as
by
the small figures, and through these points
draw
will
lines intersecting in the points from to K, as Then a line traced through these intersections shown.
H
be the miter line in elevation. For the pattern of the molding of the side gable lay off at right angles to II a stretchout of the profile A, as shown by B C, through the points of which draw the usual measuring
M
Place the Tsquare at right angles to the lines of the molding, or, what is the same, parallel to the
lines.
stretchout line, and, bringing it against the several points in the miter line II K, cut corresponding meas
uring
Firj. 396.
lines.
Then a
E, will
line traced
Side Elevation of Rectangular Pinnacle, Showing the Miter Between the Moldinijs of Adjacent Gables.
shown by
D
through these points, as be the shape of the cut at the foot
of the side gable to miter against the adjacent gable. The next step is to obtain the correct profile
of the
is
rectangular, but
not square.
All of
its
faces are
tiuished with gables
whose moldings miter with each
molding on the adjacent gable. having been established as the correct elevation of the miter, its
HK
208
outline
The
Xcw Mdal Wurkvr
points, to the
Pattern Bovk.
may now
be transferred, with
it it
its
end
elevation of the pinnacle, as
shown
tit
II
1
K', Fig.
397, reversing it, because side of the gable, whereas
other.
appears here at the right
appeared
at the left of the
Draw
a duplicate of the normal profile, as
its
shown
at A", placing
vertical lines at
lines of the gable,
and divide
it
right angles to the into the same spaces as
in the first operation.
From
these points draw lines at
right angles across the molding, which intersect with lines drawn parallel to the molding from the points in
the
miter line
IP K'.
Then
a
line traced
through
these points of intersection will form the required modified profile, as
shown by
:
W X.
proceed
For the pattern of the molding of the end gable At right angles to the lines of the. as follows
X, raking cornice lay off a stretchout of the profile P R, through the points in which draw as shown by
measuring
Tsquare
at lines
in
W
the
usual
to
manner.
With
the
right
it
angles
the lines of
the raking points in
cornice, bringing
successively against the
lines.
K H
1
1 ,
traced
Then aline cut corresponding measuring through these points of intersection, as shown
Fly. S97.
End
from S to T, will be the pattern required.
Elevation of Rectangular Pinnacle, Slwning Miter as in Fig. 396.
Same
PROBLEM
The Miter Between the Moldings
of Adjacent Gables
01'
98.
Different
Pitches upon an
Octagon Pinnacle.
This problem
that
differs
from the preceding one
is
in
parallel to the
lines of the raking cornice,
which proBring
1
the angle
of
the
plan
octagonal
instead of
duce in
the direction
of
N O
indefinitely.
1
a change of profile in one square, but like it requires In Figs. 398 of the gables in order to effect a miter. and 399 are shown a quarter plan of pinnacle and the
elevations of two adjacent gables of different widths B' F' O D' of Fig. but of similar bights. Let
points in C O and with it erect vertical lines, cutting the lines drawn from E as shown from to O. Then a line, NO, traced through
the Tsquare
against the
,
,
N
these points of intersection will be the miter line in
elevation.
A
1
G
1
398 be a correct elevation and
AB
C G be
a quarter
For the pattern
:
of
the
miter at the foot of the
In that portion of the plan corplan of the structure. to the part of the elevation shown to the responding
E, placing its vertical Divide it into side parallel to the lines of the plan. convenient number of spaces, and through these any
front
profile
wide gable or gable shown in elevation proceed as follows At right angles to the lines of the gable cornice
lay off a stretchout of the profile E as shown by II K, through the points in which draw the usual measuring
1
draw the normal
,
lines.
to the lines of the plan, cutpoints draw lines parallel In like ting C O', the miter line in plan, as shown.
Placing the Tsquare at right angles to the lines of the cornice, or, what is the same, parallel to the .stretchout line, and bringing it against the several
points
in
manner plaee
a
by E
1
in the elevation.
duplicate of the normal profile, as shown Divide it into the same num
N
O, cut corresponding measuring
lines.
<:.
Then
a line
traced
through the points of intersect:.
ber of equal parts, aud through the points draw lines
thus obtained, as shown from
L
to
M,
will
be the put
P/ltf/'/'ll
Frnlil, in
.
209
tern of the miter at the foot of the gable
shown
in ele
the miter line
as
N
()
vation.
Fur the mudilied
profile of the gable
molding
shown by
K P
in Fig.
from Fig. 398 (reversing tne same), 399, and through the points,
also reproduced from O, carry lines parallel to the lines of the gable cornice indefinitely, as shown. Draw a duplicate of the normal profile at any convenient
N
point outside of the gable placing
its
cornice, as shown by E', vertical side at right angles to A" 11, or the
lines of the cornice.
Divide
E
3
into the
same number
of parts as used in the other profiles, and through the points draw lines at right angles to the lines of the cornice, intersecting the lines
drawn from P R.
Through
Fig.
S'JO.
Elevation of
Narrow Side of Octagon Same Miter as in Fig. 398.
Pinnacle, Showing
these points trace a line, as indicated by be the modified profile.
E which will
,
3
To
lay
it
out the pattern
off
take the stretchout of
line
E
3
and lay
on any straight
angles to the lines of the cornice, as the points in it draw the usual measuring lines.
/
drawn at right S T, and through
Place
'HIS.
iiirj
Miter Bctueen
Quarter Plan nnd Elevation of Octayon Pinnacle, Moldinrjs of Adjacent (tables of Different
Pitches.
the Tsquare at right angles to the lines of the gable cornice, and, bringing it against the points in P R, cut the measuring lines, as indicated by the dotted lines.
upon the narrow side proceed as follows: Draw n correct elevation of the narrow side, reproducing therein
Then a line traced through these points of as shown by U T, will be the pattern for
at the foot of the gable
intersection,
the molding
on narrow side.
210
Tlie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a Cold Air
99.
in Plan.
Box
in
which the Inclined Portion Joins the Level Portion Obliquely
The
in the plan
conditions of the problem are clearly shown and side elevation of Fig. 400, in which Z
Thus the ele pipe as it would appear in those views. ration would show the slant, which is determined by
the two dimensions
c
B C
is
the elevation and
X C'
D'
Y
is
the plan of the
and
d.
Therefore from the point
to
level portion of a cold air passage joining a furnace The inclined portion of the just above the floor line.
air
A
of the elevation erect a perpendicular line equal
passage or
box
is
at the angle
Z
A E
required to join the level portion of the side elevation, and at the
the required hight c, from the top of which draw a horizontal line to the right of a length equal to the amount of slant </, thus locating the point K. which
angle
are in
in plan. These conditions similar to those given in Problem many respects 95, with the difference, however, that in this case the
Y
A' E' when viewed
connect by a straight line with A.
Then
will
A E
represent the angle of the inclined portion of the pipe as it appears in the elevation. But according to the
joint or miter
between the level and the inclined portions does not appear as a straight line in the plan. It be here remarked that the solution of this probmay
requirements the pipe
is
also to
have an
oll'set a dis
lem
is
more
as nothing can
a matter of drawing than of pattern cutting, be more simple than the cutting of a
tance equal to e that is, the point E of the elevation is nearer the observer than the Therefore point A. from A' of the plan draw a line forward the amount of
the offset, from the end of which draw a line to the right, in length equal to d, or in other words till it
miter between two pieces of rectangular .pipe
required angle between them
is
when
the
This problem is capable of two solutions, both of which will be given, leaving the reader to choose which is the more
adaptable to his requirements.
known.
comes directly under the point
E
of the elevation, thus
E which locating that point in the plan, and draw will show the apparent angle in the plan. The depth and width of the oblique portion of the
.
A
As above intimated, before the First Solution. pattern can be developed it will be necessary to make tareful drawings, in the preparation of which a knowledge of the principles
necessary.
of orthographic
box
will
next demand attention.
the line
AE
box a and
At right angles to of the elevation set off the depth of the draw a line to represent the lower near cor
projection
is
(See Chapter III). proceed, then, with the drawings, first draw a plan and elevation of as much of the furnace as is necessary to show its connection with the cold air box,
To
ner of the box, which continue downward until it cuts the floor line, as shown at D; then draw D, which the miter cut for the side of the box. At represents
A
right angles to
A' E'
of the plan set off the width
/,
as
placing each part of the plan directly under its corresponding part in the elevation, so that as soon as any
shown, and draw a line parallel to A' E' intersecting the line from X at B', as shown, and draw A' B', which
gives the plan of the miter cut across the top of the As the point D of the elevation is in the same box. it vertical plane as may now be dropped into the
new
tion
point
is
determined in either of the views
its
posi
can be located in the other by means of a perpendicular line dropped from one view to the other. Upon
the plan set off the width of the box b and draw parallel lines from the side of the furnace body to the right indefinitely, and upon the elevation set off its hight, a,
A
line showing the front side plan, intersecting with the of the box in that view, as shown at D'; and the point
from the floor line up, and draw Z. A vertical line from the point X of the plan will give the point Z upon
the elevation, or, in other words, curve of the furnace body cuts
A
B' of the plan, being on a level with A', may be projected into the elevation, where it would intersect with
show how
into
far the
A line the line showing the top of the box at B. drawn from D' of the plan parallel to A' K' (shown of the lower near dotted) will then show the position
angle of the inclined portion of the box, and a line E will show the from B of the elevation parallel to
the
top
and
bottom surfaces of the cold
air
box.
Next, upon the
A
the required distance from elevation locate the point the side of the body according to specification and find
its
A
position in that
view of the further top corner of the
box.
position in the two views of the remaining of the box may be ascerangle of the inclined portion The width b may be set off tained in several ways:
position in the plan by means of a vertical line, as in both views lines must shown. From the point be drawn to represent the angle or deflection of the
The
A
I '<dli
rn
/'rMnns.
211
from
1)'
of
tlic
sect with
X
line drawn which will interplan ami B' continued, as shown at C'; thence it
:i ;
may be projected into the elevation at C, as shown or the width a may be set off from B of the elevation,
0,
thus locating the line which intersects with the floor at which point may be dropped into the plan, thus
or, again, B G may be drawn locating the point C' D, or 1)' C' may be drawn parallel to A' parallel to B', all producing the same result.
;
A
was noted that
In the case in Problem 95, above referred to, it if the normal profile is adhered to in the
mold must be changed " raked" before a or perfect miter joint can be oblevel arm, the profile of the gable
tained.
\Vhat
is
Irno in the case, of the gable miter
is
a correct equally true in the case of the furnace pipe or cross section of the box must be developed profile in order that a correct stretchout may be obtained for use in cutting the miter of the inclined arm of the pipe. As neither the plan n<>r the elevation, which have been correctly obtained, gives the true length of the inclined
piece
that
is,
flic
true distance
from
A
to
E
it
will
be necessary to obtain still another elevation, in which As A' E' of the such distance is correctly shown.
plan gives the liori/.ontal distance between the points A and K, and c represents the vertical distance between them,
lie
if
a right angled triangle
constructed with A'
as
c
K'
a
base
and
the
as the perpendichight ular, itshypothenuse will
then
give
the
desired
measurement.
triangle
Such
a
properly
forms
part of an oblique elevation which may be pro
jected from the plan in the following manner:
Parallel to
A'
E', at
any
convenient
away, draw a
resent
floor,
distance
line to rep
the level
as
of
;
the
shown
above
which, at a distance equal to draw another paral,
representing the hight of the horizontal arm of the pipe. Above the line X" 3 at
,
lel line,
X"
A
2
.
A
,
a
hight equal to
c,
draw
another line, upon which the point E is subsequently to be located.
still
Fig. 400.
Plan and Elevations of a Cold Air Box
iti
Which
the Inclined Pcrtion Joins the Level
Portion Obliquely in Plan.
First Solution,
212
Tlie
Xtw Metal
Worker Pattern Book,
lines
Now
drop lines from
all
the points of the plan at right
of
the stretchout,
all
as clearly
shown
in
the
A' E', intersecting each with its correspond ing line of the new elevation, thus locating each point of the As points D' and C' are upon the miter in that view Liketheir position will be found at D and C floor, wise lines from A' and B' will locate those points in the upper surface of the horizontal pipe, as shown at A* and B where they are also shown to be in the side A line dropped from E' will also locate that elevation. a A line conat its proper hight, as shown at E point necting A" and E will then be the hypothenuse above As all alluded to and be the correct length sought.
angles to
3 2
.
drawing.
zontal
the plan shows all the dimensions of the horiof the pipe, the pattern for that can be dein the usual manner. To avoid confusion a veloped of that part of the plan has been transferred duplicate
As
arm
to Fig. 401,
is
a
,
where a stretchout of the normal profile laid off at right angles to the lines of the pipe, into
1?
.
3
which the points are dropped from the miter line A C D. In the normal profile of course the distances 4 and 2 3 are equal to I and the distances 1 2 and
3 equal to a of Fig. 400.
1
4
edges or corners of the pipe are necessarily parallel, 2 J lines drawn from B C' and D' parallel to A' E will
complete this part of the elevation as far as necessary. In these, as in all geometrical drawings, lines showing
parts concealed from view shown dotted. Lines from
in the
by other
parts are always
X and Y locate those points
is
new
elevation and
elevation of the inclined
show that, while a correct arm of the pipe has been oboblique, the
to
fit
tained, the view of the horizontal portion
space between X" and Y" showing the open end against the furnace body.
Having now obtained a correct oblique
the next step
line, as
is
elevation,
F H, which may be accomplished in the following manner From each point upon the line of the section F, G, J and H project lines parallel with the direction of the
:
to obtain a correct profile upon any drawn at right angles across the pipe,
pipe to a convenient point outside the elevation, as shown at the left, across which draw a line, x y, at
right angles to them as a base distances from front to back.
from which
to
measure
Assuming
its
crossing with the line from
G (point
*>
of the pipe, set off from 1) to represent the near angle x on the line from F the horizontal breadth of the pipe
6,
D
12
Arm
of Cold Air
Boar.
PLAN
Fig. 401.
thus locating point 4, which corresponds to the In like manner on the line point F in the elevation.
Plan and Pattern of Level
II set off from y the distance o of the plan, locatthe point 2, which corresponds to point II of elevaing The distance tion, and draw the lines 1 4 and 1 2.
from
from line x y is equal to distance b plus the or in other words, draw the line 2 3 paro, allel to 1 4 and the line 4 3 parallel to 1 2, thus
of point 3
be noted here that, as is the case in all profiles, the dimensions and shape of the profile obtained from the oblique elevation differ somewhat from .those of the normal profile shown in Fig. 401,
It
may
raked
distance
and that their stretchouts are therefore necessarily
ferent.
dif
locating the point
3.
Having now
of
a
profile
and
a correct
elevation
the
miter,
nothing remains
but
to
lay
off
a
and drop stretchout, as shown, upon the line the points in the usual manner from the profile to 5 B" C'' D", thence into the measuring the miter line
H K
may be asked naturally, is of producing a miter without a change of profile, just as a carpenter would saw off the ends of two square sticks of timber of the same section and
Second Solution.
It
there no
way
A
produce a perfect miter at an oblique angle ? There is, but the method of doing it is not so apparent as the
Pattern
Problems.
213
To accomplish this a drawing or one just described. view must be obtained, in which the surface of the
paper represents a plane
shown
commou
to
both arms of the
in Fig. 402, in which the plan shown in Fig. 400 has been reproduced, but turned around in such a manner as to facilitate the projection from it of an end
elevation, all of
which
is
clearly
This view shows the
offset e
shown in the drawing. and the rise c of the
The new view, which oblique portion of the pipe. will give the required conditions, is obtained by lookE of ing at the pipe in a direction at right angles to
A
the end elevation, and
to
is
obtained as follows
:
Parallel
A E at any convenient distance away draw A' E', which make equal to A E by means of the lines drawn at right angles to A E, as shown. Upon the line E' E set off from E' the slant d as given in the side elevation and plan, Fig. 400, locating the point E", and 2 draw the line E A'. From all points of the profile or end view of the horizontal pipe, 1, 2, 3 and 4, project
lines also at right angles to
across the line
Fig. 402.Pfiiterns of Cold
Air Box.
Second Solution.
three points determine the position of a be seen at once that such a plane passes plane, and E of the side elevation, through the points Z, The best means of obtaining this view is Fig. 400.
pipe.
it
As
will
A
E, continuing them and make A' Y* equal to A Y Then A' Y" will be the length of the of the plan. horizontal arm in the new view and A' E" will be the length of the inclined arm, both lying in the same plane, and the angle E" A' Y" will be the angle at which the two arms meet. Under the above conditions, then,
A
A'
E',
a line
which bisects that angle,
as
A'
C, will be the
t)ie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Hook.
miter line between the two arms.
As
the two arms of
the miter are symmetrical, the view can be completed,
if
on any line at right angles to C and the points in the usual manner, all as shown. If desired. dropped
laid off
W
desired,
by drawing
lines parallel
with A'
E from
2
the points of intersection with the lines from the end As is the view with the miter line A' C.
1234
the stretchout may also be laid off at right angles to the inclined arm and the pattern for this piece thus developed from the same miter line, although the miter
which the short profile from new view, a stretchout may
arm was projected now be taken from
in the
it
cut
A
B CD
A
is
the same in both pieces, one simply
and
being the reverse of the other.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for the Inclined Portion of a Cold Air
100.
Meet the Horizontal Portion Obliquely
alike.
in Plan.
Box
to
This problem
the similarity of
is
here introduced on account of
two views are lettered
clearly that
it is
Thus
the elevation shows
its
conditions with those of the one
its
an elevatio:i of the front
AB
F E
of
immediately preceding, although, as obtained entirely without the use of
patterns are
profiles, it
does
the plan, with the back the plan shows clearly the
C
I) II
G
G
ABD
dotted behind, while of the elevation with
not properly belong in this connection. will serve to show what widely different
Its solution
bottom E F
H
Gr clotted
below.
means may be employed to obtain the same ends. In the preceding case the miter cut was obtained without reference to the miter at the upper end of In this case the the oblique arm.
its
is required to join, at with another arm like upper end, and exactly parallel with the arm join
oblique portion
ing
its
lower termination.
it
Under such conditions
follows
that the planes of the upper and lower miters must be parallel, and, therefore,
that miter
cut
at
the upper end
of
either of the faces of the oblique portion must be parallel with that at the
lower
may
end of the same. Advantage be taken of these conditions to
a
obtain
very simple solution of the
problem, as will be seen below. The first requisite is, of course, a
correctly
drawn elevation and plan
in
which
all
the points in each are duly
in projected from corresponding points is shown In Fig. 403 the other view. a plan and elevation of the box, with
Fig. JOS.
Patterns for
the,
Inclined Portion of a CoM, Air Portion Obliquely in Plan.
Pox
to
Meet the Level
the lines of projection connecting cor
be conresponding points in each, all of which may in the preceding structed very much as described
'
The
first
important information to be derived from
problem.
The
inclined
arm
is
required to have a rise
the correctly drawn views is that the front and back are the same, likewise the top and bottom are alike.
equal to a of the elevation and a forward projection Corresponding points in the equal to I of the plan.
The
patterns of the top and front are given separately, upon the supposition that joints will be made at all of
Pattern Problems,
SIB
of the dotted lines
the angles should they he wanted in one piece they could readily be connected. As all the surfaces of the
;
by means
drawn
parallel to
M N.
inclined portion of the pipe are oblique to the given view, only some of their dimensions will be correct as
This pattern is completed by connecting the point A' with B' and C' with D'.
In developing the pattern of the side B FE the same course might be pursued, beginning with the
lines
A
An inspection of both they appear on the paper. elevation and plan will show that the lines A C and 13 D are both horizontal and parallel, and, therefore,
correct as they appear in the plan, and may be used as given in the construction of a pattern of the top
piece.
will
AE
and
B
F,
whose lengths are correctly given
in the elevation,
method has
but for the sake of diversity another been employed. Beginning with the
the point
known
point
struct
fact
that
B
in
is
The
shortest distance between these
two
lines
A,
a
as
shown
by a
the
higher than the elevation, con
be represented by a line at right angles to both, as M N. Since the point N in the line B D is higher
than the point
M
of
it
the lino
A
C,
by
the distance a
of the elevation,
will
be necessary to construct the
in order to get the correct distance bediagram J L tween the points and N. J K is made equal to the distance L X, as indicated by the dotted lines. is equal to the rise given in the elevation; hence the
K
M
M
K
P K, making O P equal to B of the plan, and E equal to a, thus giving K P as the correct length of the line represented by A B of the From the plan. points E and F draw, at right angles to E F, the lines E S and F T indefinitely. Since the distances A E and B F are the same and are correctly given in the
diagram,
and
parallel with
A
elevation, take that distance
dividers, and placing one foot
between the
feet of the
distance J
points of the plan set off the distance J L, as shown at ,1 L'. Through each of these points lines are drawn
M
represents the true distance between the and N. Upon the continuation of the line
L
MX
'
at the point describe a small arc, cutting the line E S in the point S. By repeating this operation from the point P, the
is
E
established in the line
F and
parallel to
is
A
and
to
B D
of the plan.
I)' is
made equal
A
C, and B'
The line A' C' made equal to B D
the points E S, S T and T tern of the front and back.
P
point T Lines connecting will complete the pat
T.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a Hip
101.
Molding:
upon a Right Angle
of a
in
a
Mansard Roof, Mitering Against the Planceer
Deck Cornice.
Let Z X Y V in Fig. 404 be the elevation of a deck cornice, against the planceer of which a hip molding,
shown
in elevation
by
U
W Y T,
is
required to
5 the point in which the line meets the a vertical line, cutting the horizontal planceer, drop at the point C, all as shown by line drawn through
From B,
A
A
miter.
Let the angle of the roof be a right angle, as
B
A', Fig. 405, D N" representthe plan of the angle over which the hip molding ing is to be placed. This angle is also shown bv B of
shown by the plan
Q
I)
A
D A' in Fig. a duplicate of the plan, in such a manner that the diagonal line shall 405, lie parallel to the horizontal line drawn through A, all
Y'.
W
C.
Produce the
line of planceer
W Y,
Q
as
shown by
Draw
DN
the elevation.
the only view which will show the correct angle at which the hip molding meets the planceer is a view at right angles to the line D N, the first
step in the
As
as
At right angles to the line D' A'. 5 draw the line A" A", at any convenient point, as C in elevation, in length equal to the distance C',
shown by
1
Q D
1
A
,
A
1
development of the patterns will be to construct such a diagonal elevation. Assume any point,
as A, line representing a plain surface in the profile of the roof, as B A. Through draw a horizontal line indefinitely, as shown by
in the elevation
and through
I
on any
A
A", as shown in the point the diagonal line I) cutting , by Then D N' represents the diagonal plan of that in the elevation. From part of the hip from B to
C'
draw a
line parallel to
D
1
N
1
N
1
N
1
1
.
A
1
LAC.
N
1
erect a perpendicular,
N
M, which produce
until
it
216
Tlie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
the side D'
to
meets the line carried horizontally from the plancccr in the point B'. In like manner from I) erect a per1
A
1
,
from which erect a line perpendicular
K,
D
1
N', as
shown by K
line
it
which produce
in
until
it
pendicular, which produce until it meets the horizontal line L C in the point L. Connect L and B', as shown, which will constitute the desired oblique projection
of
meets the horizontal
thence carry
in
L C
the point
L
1
,
and
upward
1
parallel to
LB
F
1
A
the point
F
.
On
either side of
cutting G II lay off a space
1
,
B.
step will
equal to
F E
of the diagonal plan, as
shown by
F'
K'
The next
be to construct a section of the
it,
and F
to
1
hip molding upon a line at right angles with
as
G
K,
Through these points E' and E" draw lines the intersection of the lines L B' and G II. From
E".
Fig. 404.
The Pattern of a Hip Molding in a Mansard Roof, Mitering Against, the Planceer of a Deck Cornice.
any convenient point. It might be supposed that in such a section the two fascias of the hip molding would be at right angles to each other, as
II,
assumed
at
K
off
as a center describe the curve of the roll of the re
Upon the lines quired diameter. from a distance sufficient to
K
E' and
K
E" ccs
K
make
the desired
they undoubtedly would appear in the plan
Fig. 405 or
in a section
QD
A'
of
width of
fascia, thus
completing the profile of the hip
J
on any horizontal
line, as
L M.
molding in the diagonal elevation.
Space onehalf of this profile, as G E in the usual manner, through the points in which carry lines parallel to L B', cutting the line of plamccr V, which
,
object of this part of the demonstration is to show exactly what that angle would be and how to obtain it.
The
Assume any
point in the diagonal plan, as K,
in
W
Pnaern Problems.
is
217
the miter line of the
will of
edges of the fascia course miter with the lower edge of the fascia
roll.
The
right angles to the line
L
B'
draw the straight
line
S R,
upon which
lines.
lay off a stretchout of
the profile in the
usual manner, and through the points draw measuring With the Tsquare parallel to this stretchout
line, or,
what
is
of the
it
molding
the same, at right angles to the lines in the diagonal elevation, and, bringing
successively against the points in
lines
W
1
Y
1
,
cut corre
drawn through the stretchout. sponding measuring The measuring lines 7 and 8 are cut from the interPlan of
the Fascias
Fig. 405.
and Angle of
the
Mansard Shown
section of the fascia of the hip with lines projected from E 3 as above explained. Then a line traced
in Fig. 404.
through these points,
as
as J,
shown
will
in
the the
engraving,
shown by J P
1
be
at the top of the mansard, as
shown
in profile at
shown by the dotted
lines projected
from
B E all E At
3
,
the
hip
molding
inhering
against
pattern of the horizontal
3
.
planceer.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for a
102.
Hip Molding upon a Right Angle in a Mansard Roof, Mitering Against a Bed Molding
at the Top.
Let
tion of a
A
C
B, in Fig. 406, be the section of a porroof, the elevation of which
let
lines.
Then
A
3
B
3
F' will be the correct angle
upon
mansard
to the left,
and
shown P E be any bed molding whose
is
which
to construct the corner piece and develop the miter line between the hip molding and the bed mold
profile does not correspond to or member with the molding used to cover the hips, a section of the hip molding being shown at Z Y C'. The solution of this problem will be accomplished
ing of the deck cornice.
by means of a "true face" of the roof, rather than by means of a diagonal elevation as in the problem
immediately preceding
Therefore, supposing the section C B to give the correct pitch of the roof, the first step will be to obtain the true face, or elevation of the roof as it would appear if tipped or
this.
The next step will be to obtain a correct section of the hip molding upon a line at right angles to the line of the hip. To do this it is necessary to first construct a diagonal section through the hip. At any
as
A
convenient place lay off a plan of the angle of the roof, shown by D F D" in Fig. 407, and through this angle
1
of the hip, as shown by a line perpendicular to F D', as
draw a plan
to
F K. From D
1
1
erect
D
it
DC
of the section.
2
Through
it
C', in length equal C", parallel to D' F,
into a vertical position, for the purpose of getting the correct angle at A' B F'.
swung
draw C K, producing
until
cuts the line repre
1
reproduce the section of mansard and bed molding as a whole at a convenient point below, but so turned as to bring the faces of the roof into a
this
To do
senting the plan of the hip. From the points F and in the lines representing the plan of the hip erect perpendiculars,
parallel
K
3
to
shown by F L and K C Draw L C F K, as shown at the base line of a diagas
3
.
vertical
position,
maintaining the same distance be
onal section.
tween the points
A
and
B
as
shown by A" and B
2
.
length
Project lines horizontally to the left from this section for the true face, marking the lines from the points
of the original section carry a line across intersecting the line B' at the point
.
E
1
L.
From C erect a perpendicular, C E in Connect equal to C E of the original section. Then L C E' will be a diagonal section of a
3
1
3
,
3
A
2
and
B
2
From
A
A
1
A
1
.
portion of the roof, and L E will be the length of the At right angles to L E hip through that portion. draw , upon which to construct a correct section
1
1
MH
1
Next drop
iiiKs
line
from
A
1
and B' vertically intersecting
of the hi}) molding.
Take any
and from
of
corresponding letter, as
shown by the dotted
F D
1
,
at convenience,
it
in the line point, as erect a perpendicular
G
218
to
The
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
'
in the point H, and produce it cutting F also iintil it cuts the base line of the diagonal section
P K,
3
,
K
LC
as
shown, and from this point carry
it
parallel to
it
be obtained by which the angle contained between the hip molding mav be determined. Therefore from II' on either side set off the distance
will
the facias of
the line
LE
1
,
representing the pitch of the hip, until
HG
of the plan,
as
shown by G and
1
G
2
.
Through
Fiij.
jfOfi.Thr Pattern of a
Hip Molding Upon a Right Anyle
1
in a
Mansard Rnof, Miteriny
Atj<ni,nt
Bed
cutting it in the point II Since D F D* represents the angle in plan over which the hip molding is to lit, and since G is the meascrosses
line
,
. 1
the
M H
1
H
these points draw lines representing the fascias of the 2 Add the hip molding, as shown by O (I and () (i
1
.
fillets
all
urement across that angle, if the distance II G be set off from H either way in the diagonal section, points
1
and draw the roll according to given dimensions, as shown. In the true face, Fig. 4nii. draw a half section of
Pattern Problems.
219
the hip molding as derived from Pig. 407, as shown. M' IF. H' of the diagonal section. corresponds to
M
Place a corresponding portion of the profile of the hip molding in the vertical section, as shown, in which
M' IF also corresponds to II M in the diagonal section. Divide this section into the same number of equal parts, and through the points draw lines upward until
1
they intersect with the profile of the bed molding,, as shown between P" and B a From the points n P 2 B" carry
. i
lines
the
horizontally, intersjecting the lines drawn from Then a line traced profile in the .true face.
through these, points of intersection will be the miter line between' the, hip molding and the bed molding, as
seen. near B'.rh elevation.
Fpy
i.
1
'the pattern
proceed as follows
:
At
right
in the
/
'
'
;
c
<
angles to the line of the hip molding, as
true face, lay off
a
shown
Diagonal Section
shown by S R, through the
stretchout of the hip molding, as points in which draw the
usual measuring lines. Place the Tsquare at right to the lines of the hip molding, and, bringing angles it successively against the several points in the miter
line, as
shown
in elevation, cut corresponding measur
ing lines,
fillets,
as
which will give the pattern for the roll and shown from U to V. In like manner place
Fig. 40?.
Method
f Obtainim./
t
',,,;<<*
Cross Section of
Hip
in
in the true face, the Tsquare against the point which is the point of junction between the flange of
X
Fig. #;.
the hip molding and, the apron of the bed molding corresponding to points 9 and 10 of the profile, and
of partis
is
Space
this profile into
any convenient number
in the usual manner, and through the points draw lines to tjie lines of the hip molding indefinitely.
parallel'
cut the corresponding measuring lines. then completed by drawing u line from
The
W
pattern
to
V
'
and
T
to U.
PROBLEM
In the upper part of Fig. 408
is
103.
Patterns for the Top and Bottom of the Hip Bar in a Skylight.
sJiown the trans
as a
means
B verse section of a skylight in which of the ventilator or finish at the top, and portion
the curb or finish at the bott >m.
A
represents a
points,
of obtaining thejmefal projection of all its numbering corresponding points in both profiles
C D
The
section also
shows the side elevation of a
''
common"
bar whose
the points in the normal profile F with the top and .bottom of the B skylight finish, as shown by the small figures in the same.
the intersections of
all
Number
A
The plan immediately below shows a profile is at F. corner of the skylight with one of the hip bars, H K, It will be necesthe patterns for which are required.
sary
first
and C G.
of the points in the profile F lines parallel to the center line of the hip in either carry direction, intersecting lines of corresponding number
From each
to sec
that the plan
is
correctly projected
dropped vertically frombotk
4ho miters
of the
trans
from the elevation, and afterward that a diagonal elevation of the hip bar bo obtained from this plan, before the correct or raked profile of the hip bar can be
obtained.
Draw, a duplicate of normal profile F with its center line on the center line of the hip, as shown at F',
'
Lines traeed through these verse section to the plan. of intersection will give the miter lines at top points
and bottom
At
as
as they appear in plan. right angles to the lines of the hip carry lines,
shown, by means. of which to construct the diagonal Assume anv line, as E' G', as the base or elevation.
22C
Tlte
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
the
horizontal
at
horizontal line of the diagonal elevation representing E G of the section. At E' erect a perpendicular upon
shown
A
molding at the top whose profile B, it will be found most convenient
is
to
Fig. 408.
Plan and Section of a Skylight and Patterns for
the
Hip Bar.
which to obtain the hights of the various points
upper
miter.
in the
carry
line
all
the points of the upper profile to the vertical
1, 2, 3', 4, 5
As
the hip bar
is
required to miter with
A
B, as shown by
and
1
(5
,
and
after
Pattern Problems.
221
ward
to
transfer them, as
shown, to the
1
line
1
A' B',
in Fig.
keeping the perpendicular hight from E to B equal to E B. From all the points in A' B' carry lines horizontally
nitely, partial
been taken
108 are necessarily small, but great care has in the preparation of the drawing, and all
that
is,
parallel to E' G'
to the right indefi
the points in the several views of both miters have been carefully numbered, so that the reader will have
as shown.
These
of
lines will
elevation
the
top
then represent a B in the molding
no
difficulty in following
start to finish.
out the various intersections
A
from
lines
Lines from each of the points in diagonal elevation. the plan of the upper miter at II may now be carried
now being
drawn
profile and the two miter in readiness, the pattern may be de:
The
veloped in the usual manner, as follows
line
Upon any
they intersect with lines of corLines connectresponding number drawn from A' B the points of intersection will give the required ing
parallel to II E' until
1 .
at right angles to the hip bar, as L M, lay off a stretchout of the profile R, as shown by the small
figures,
miter line at the top of the hip bar. From each of the points obtained in this miter
line carry lines parallel to B' G', or the rake of the hip bar, and intersect them with lines projected parallel to
in plan at K. Lines conthese points of intersection will give the renecting quired miter line at the bottom of the hip bar.
II E'
It
through which draw the measuring Keeping the blade of the I square parallel with
lines.
L M,
it successively against the points of intersection previously obtained in the upper and lower miters and cut corresponding measuring lines. Then lines traced
bring
from the lower miter
N
through the various points of intersection, as shown by and P Q, will constitute the required patterns. It may be noticed that while most of the points
now remains only
to obtain the correct profile
of the
To
hip bar before a stretchout can be obtained. accomplish this, draw any line cutting the lines of
.
come squarely against the profile inner beveled surface of the curb G, the points 1 and 2, representing the vertical portion of the bar, pass
from the normal
over the curb to a point beyond. The line from point 2, therefore, intersects at both 2 and 2', which points
are duly carried through the views of this miter at and and finally into the pattern, as shown from which it may be seen that the miter pattern may be
the hip bar in the diagonal elevation at right angles,'as shown at R. Upon this line, and above or below the
hip bar, as shown at F", draw a duplicate of the normal
profile
K
F, from the points
in
which carry
lines at right
G
1
;
angles to the hip bar, cutting lines of corresponding number in the same. Then lines connecting the points
'
of intersection will give the raked profile, as
shown
at R.
cut as shown by the solid line from P to Q, or that portion from point 2 to 3 may be cut as shown by the
dotted line.
On
account of limited space the important details
PROBLEM
104.
Pattern for the Top of a Jack Bar in a Skylight.
The jack bar in a skylight is the same as the " common " bar in respect to its profile, and the miter
at
its
miter with the jack bar, or what is the same thing, that the surfaces indicated by 2 3 of the profile of the
hip bar in Fig. 408 shall lie in the same plane with that portion of the profile of the jack bar. However, as the raked hip bar presents exactly the same appear
lower end with the curb.
At
its
upper end,
it is required to miter against the side of the instead of against the upper finish of the skyhip bar. As the hip bar occupies an oblique position light.
however,
with reference to the jack bar, two could not be effected perfect miter between the without a modification or raking of the profile of the
it
is
evident that a
ance when viewed in plan as a bar of normal profile, it will not be really necessary, so far as the miter cut
on the jack bar
operation.
is
concerned,
to
perform the raking
hip bar,
all
of
which has been demonstrated,
in the
preceding problem. It may be here remarked that the raking of the of the hip bar is done not so much to affect a
profile
In Fig. 409 is shown a sectional and a plan view of a portion of a skylight containing the miter above The normal profile of the jack bar shown referred to.
finish as to perfect joint with the top
make
a perfect
j
not exactly the same in its proportions as that of the preceding problem, but possesses the
at F'
is
F and
222
77/e
Xvw
Mi'lul
Worker Pattern Book.
same general features. the section from A to
jack bar.
The view
15
of the bar
given in
lowed
at x,
to intersect with the line
is
from
5 of
F
3
,
as
shown
represents an oblique elevaside of ihe hip bar which is toward the tion of that
which point
carried into the sectional view and
From B
to
D
the view shows the side of the
thence into the pattern, where it intersects with lines 4, as shown by x, so that the cut in the pattern is from
jack bar, while beyond D is shown a continuation of the full hip bar with its profile correctly placed in position at F".
x
to 5 instead of
from 4 to
5.
For the same reason,
The
is
to
first step before the pattern can be laid out obtain a correct intersection of the points in the
1
and afterward an elevation of the same, plan, as at B Draw u normal profile of the jack bar at B. as shown Al>n in correct position in the plan, as shown at F'.
,
as
place a profile of the hip bar in the plan of the same, As only the lateral projection of the shown at F are here made use of a normal profile will [mints
:
.
answer as well
intimated.
as
Number
the raked profile shown, as above all the points in both profiles
points
in
Correspondingly, and from the
lines
each carry
respective! v
B'.
parallel
to
as
shown at like numbers
view, cutting
From
of
the
their plans, intersecting points of intersection of
erect lines
lines
in
vertically into
the sectional
corresponding number drawn
the profile F parallel to the lines of It will' be seen that both Uhe rake, as shown near B. sides of the profile F' intersect with one side of the
from the points
profile
F".
1
alike, as
I
,
both sets of intersection being numbered This gives rise to two miter etc. ~2', 3',
the sectional view.
lines at
B
in
The line
'.'>',
correspond
ing bar are
to
the
intersections on the upper side of the jack here numbered 1", 2", etc., while those
to the
points belonging exclusively 3 ^ and it are numbered 3
;i
lower intersection
.
,
A
laid off
stretchout of the normal profile
F mav now be
on anv
line,
as
(i
II.
drawn
at right angles to
the elevation of the jack bar, through which the usual Now place the blade of measuring lines are drawn.
the Tsqnare parallel to G H, and, bringing it against the various points in the two miter lines above described, cut corresponding measuring lines, carrying the
points from the upper miter line into one side of the pattern and those from the lower one into the other
side;
as
then lines connecting the points of intersection,
Fig. 409.
Section
and Plan of Miter
at the
shown from
K
to L, will constitute
the
required
it is
a Skylight and Pattern of
the
Top of the Jack Bar Same.
in
miter cut.
As
so as to
it is
fit
desirable to cut the miter on the jack bar o.ver the hip bar (that is, so as not to cut the
and in order to prevent the surface from all) 4 to 5 of the jack bar from hipping on to a like portion of the hip bar, as shown between the points 4', 5"
hip bar at
desired to prevent the surfaces 2 3 from overlapping the line from 2 of F may be intersected 2 with 3 from F as shown at ?/, and carried into the
if
1
,
pattern, as
shown, producing the cuts in the pattern
lines
and x in the plan, the line from point 4 of
F
1
is al
shown by the dotted shown from 3 to 2.
3 y in the place of those
I'lttti'.rn
Problems.
223
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a
105.
in
Hip Mold Upon an Octagon Angle
a Mansard Roof,
Profile.
Mitering
Against a
Bed
Molding of
Corresponding
This problem, like many others pertaining to mansard roofs, m;iv reach the pattern cutter in drawings either more or less accurate, and in diil'erent stages of
Certain facts, vi/., the profiles completion. of the moldings, the pitch of the roof and the angle in
plan
From
I
the lines
I
K'
oil'
aud
F'
K. upon
lines
at
right
angles to each, set
F and
K
II;
the projection D E, as shown at through the points F and 11 draw linos
however
parallel to the first lines,
<!
meeting
in
G; then
a line from
must be known before the work can be accom;
plished
have no
but with these given the pattern cutter will as are difficulty in drawing such elevations
to II will represent the plan of the angle or hip of that portion of the roof of which B D is the profile. N"o\v, to complete the true face of that part of the
necessary to produce the required patterns. B C D be the given section of In Fig. 410, let
fro.n
roof drop a line from the point E' intersecting the line B at L, and one from G intersecting the one from
1
A
D
the
mansard trimming shown, A C the profile of the bed molding and apron, and B D E the pitch of
According
to
then the angle B L will be the correct angle of the miter between the bed mold and the hip mold.
1 1
at
M
;
M
the roof.
the statement of the
is
;
octagonal angle cither greater or less than that of an special octagon, but the principle involved and the operation As in all of cutting the patterns would be the same.
a
above the angle of the plan
it
problem might be
As
in
Problems lUl and 102 preceding,
it
will
next
be necessary to obtain a correct section of the hip mold on a line at right angles to the line of the hip. To avoid
in
confusion of lines, this operation is shown in Fig. 411, which E" G the base line, is made equal to E G of
1
1
,
other problems connected with mansard trimmings, the first requisite is an elevation of the "true face," in order to obtain the correct angle between the bed mold
ing and the hip molding.
as
is
is
the plan in the previous figure. At the point E erect a perpendicular, making it equal in hight to B E of the sectional view. Connect B" with G', which will give
a
A
normal elevation, such
likely to be
in the
met with
in the architect's 'drawings,
engraving at the left of the section, In obtaining the true merely for purposes of design. the section and plan face, shown below, it is best to use
shown
the correct angle of the hip of the roof. As a means of constructing a correct section at right angles to this line, assume any two points on the original plan, as
N
and 0, equidistant from
1
G
and connect them by a
onlv.
Therefore, redraw the section as shown immediately below it, placing the line of the roof in a verall
Set off straight line, cutting the angle or hip line in P. from G on the line G' E" of Fig. 411 a distance equal
to
GP
of the plan, as
to
shown
at 1",
from which draw a
the points of this tical position, section lines may now be projected horizontally to the in developing the required true left, as the first step
all
as shown.
From
the hip G' W. Next intersect these another at right angles at any convenient two lines by 2 From the point P" set off the point, as shown by P Q.
line parallel
face.
Immediately above the space allotted to the elevation draw a plan of the horizontal angle, as shown
I E'
distances
P O and
3
1
P" N', making them equal to
P
and
by
K.
As
it
will be impracticable to include the
entire profile of the roof in the drawings, some point must be assumed at a convenient distance below' the
with R, which is the intersection of P" Q with the line then the hip angle O' R N will be a correct section of thereof upon
;
1
PN.
Connect the points
O
1
and
N
1
bed mold, as D, from which to measure hight and proalso in the section below, as shown jection, which locate B D' equal to B D. From A draw a at D', making
1
or upon any line cutting the hip at right which the finished profile of the hip mold angles, upon
the line
P Q
3
may now be
constructed as follows:
;
jections of the fascia
and
fillet
Set off the proas given in the sectional
1
line at right angles to the line of the roof, meeting it be assumed for convenience as which at
B, point may the upper limit of that part of the roof under consideration. Now, from the point B drop a vertical line,
view, Fig. 410, from the lines R O and R N', continuing their lines to the center line P" Q. From the intersection S as a center, with a radius of the bed mold,
describe the
roll.
*which intersect with one drawn horizontally from D, as shown at E; then 1) E will represent the projection.
stipulated in the statement of this problem, the profiles of the bed mold aiul hip mold are to cor
As
224
Xew
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
Fig. ill. Diagonal
Section of flip.
Fig. 410.
The Pattern of a Hip Molding Upon an Octagon Angle, Miteriiig Against a
Heil
MMituj of Corresponding
Profile.
Pattern Problems.
225
respond.
By
this
it is
understood that the curves of
their molded surfaces are alike and struck with the
same
radius,
As
circle,
and so placed as to member or miter. the curve of the bed mold is only a quarter
while that of
it
'pon any line at right angles to the line L M, as V, lay off a stretchout of the complete hip mold as obtained from the half profile S' T, through which
I
U
the
will
hip mold
is
nearly three
draw measuring lines as usual. Drop lines from the points from 1 to 10 of the profile, parallel to L M, cutting the miter line; then, with the Tsquare placed at and brought successively against the right angles to L
quarters of a circle,
be seen that the quarter
circles in each half of the hip mold next adjacent to the fascias and iillets will miter with the arms of the bed
M
mold on either side of the miter, and that a small space in the middle of the roll will remain between them, which must be mitered against the planceer, and the object of the operation shown in Fig. 411 is to determine exactly what
from
to
points in J X, intersect them with lines of corresponding number in the stretchout; then lines traced through the points of intersection, shown by d I and a c, will give the pattern for that nart of the profile from 1 up to the The pattern ci that portion of the roll which point 10. miters against the planceer muso be obtained from the
this
space
is.
The dotted
at
lines
S
(.)'
to
the
points
10
drawn
right
angles
N' show the limit of the quarter circles or the parts that must miter with the bed mold, while the space between them (10 to 10) shows the
K
and
R
From points 10, 11 and diagonal section of the hip. 12 in Fig. 411 carry lines parallel to G' B* intersecting the line of the planceer, as shown at W. It is only
necessary to ascertain how much shorter the lines 11 and 12 are than the line 10, and then to transfer these
must miter against the planceer. might be that the angle between the fascias of the hip supposed mold, to fit over the angle of a mansard which is octag.part that
It
onal in plan, would be octagonal, but the demonstraof tjie plan, tion shows that while the angle
N GO
less
This can be done by dropdistances to the pattern. lines from the intersection of points 11 and 12 ping with the planceer, in Fig. 411, at right angles to G' B 3 ,
the angle Fig. 410, is that of an octagon, N' 0' Fig. 411, is greater, because the distance
to
N R O',
1
is
equal
These distances can then be transcutting line 10. to line 10 of the pattern, Fig. 410, measuring ferred down from the point 10 of pattern already obtained,
after
X
O, while the distance
RP
J
is
than
G
P,
being at right angles to the line of the hip being oblique to
it.
and
RP G P'
1
3
which they may be carried
parallel
to
UV
into
the measuring lines 11 and 12,
pattern.
thus completing the
The
as follows
true face, Fig. 410,
:
may now
1
be completed,
in
right angles to
Upon any line, as S T, drawn at L M, representing the face of the roof,
of onehalf the profile of the hip
This portion of the work is necessarily very minute the drawing, but it will be easily seen, in applying
1
draw a duplicate
mold
the
the principle to other similar cases, that if the angle of were less than that shown, for plan I E
K
obtained in Fig. 411, placing the point S upon the line L M, as shown. Lines drawn through the angles of
this profile
parallel to
L
M
will intersect with lines
were a right or an acute angle, a instance, distance or more points would occur between greater the points. 10 and 10, and further, that if the angle of
if it
from corresponding points from the profile line .1 viously drawn, giving the miter
pleting the elevation of the true face.
A C', preX and com1
the
roof
were
less
steep
a
greater
curve
or
of
would occur between those points
pattern.
(a to i)
dip the
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of
106.
a Hip Molding Upon an Octagon Angle of a Mansard Roof, Mitsring Upon an Inclined
Wash
In Fig. 412,
let
at the
Bottom.
DB
of the section represent the
whatever.
The
profile of the hip
mold
as given in the
fitting
wash surmounting the base molding at the foot of a mansard roof, the inclination of the roof being shown 2 2 by B A. The plan of the angle of the roof B K B as specified, is that of an octagon, but so far as prin,
original drawings over an octagonal angle
will
most likely be drawn as
that
is,
over the angle as given
in the plan
ciple
and method are concerned,
it
may
be any angle
As explained in the building. problem preceding this, a section through the angle of the roof at right angles to the line of the hip must be
of
the
226
Tlie
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
Ks
?
P
Diagonal
3
Fig. U1S
Section of Hip.
, f
Ri D
G"
2
H*
The Pattern of a Hip Molding Upon an Octagon Angle, Mitering Upon an Inclined Wash at the Bottom.
Pattern Problems.
227
1
obtained, to which the profile of the hip mold must be The difference between adjusted before going ahead.
such a section and the angle in plan may seem trilling, but will be found to increase as the pitch of the roof decreases, and in a low hip roof will be found to be
considerable.
horizontal lines previously drawn from A', B' and D , 2 as shown then P' I will be the correct angle at which to construct the miter of the half of the hip
;
K
1
mold belonging
IP
to
this face of the roof,
and K' G'
P
will represent
a corresponding elevation of the
Hence the
original
detail
of
the
hip
wash.
mold must be accepted only so far as it gives width and depth of fascias and fillets, and diameter or radius of the roll, while the angle between the faseias must
be adjusted to the true section across the hip as above
stated.
The
elevation 01 the true face
may now be com
pleted by placing onehalf the profile of the hip in correct position that is, with its base line or fascia at
The method
of doing this
is
shown
in Fig.
on the
!13, and the principles involved therein arc explained connection with Fig. 411, in the previous problem
m
right angles to the hip line P' K', the point coming line. Through the points Y, S and T project lines parallel to the To show the intersection hip line.
R
and need not, therefore, be repeated here.
operation will consist in obtaining the "true face" of the roof in the usual manner, viz.:
first
of the hip mold with the wash, first place a duplicate of the half profile of hip mold in the sectional view, as
The
shown by
T' then divide the curved portion of both profiles into the same number of equal spaces and
;
Y R
1
1
Assume any
at a
point upon the section of the roof, as
A,
convenient distance above the base, as a point
number all From these
the
points
correspondingly,
lines
as
shown.
from which to measure hight and projection. the section of the roof immediately below the
placing
t'.ie
1
Redraw
first
one,
1
1
it
in a vertical position
and locating thereon
the points B and D project lines horizontally to the left, thus obIt will be taining all the hights in the true face. next to complete the plan, to do which first necessary
point A, as
shown by
A
1
.
From
A
,
points drop parallel with the lines of the respective views, those in the sectional view cutting the line of the wash B D From these points of intersection carry lines horizontally, intersectS T. Then a ing the lines dropped from the profile line traced through these of as points
1 1
downward
.
Y
shown by
Y
intersection,
2
S T
3
2
,
will
be the miter
line
formed by
i
the projection of the points in the section upon horizontal line, as the one drawn through B, which any can be done by dropping vertical lines from the points
litain
the junction of the hip molding with the wash. At right angles to the line of the hip molding in the true face lay off a complete stretchout of the hip molding,
;
as
shown by
U
V.
A
and D, cutting
it
as
shown
at I
and C.
Assuming
measuring
lines in
of the plan to represent the point B of the section, set off upon any lines at right angles to
the line
B
2
KB K
I,
Through the points in it draw the usual manner. Place the Tor,
2
square parallel to this stretchout,
what
is
the same,
the lines
equal to
B B
3
these projections
that
to
is,
make B"
I'
at right angles to the line of the hip molding, as in true face, and, bringing it
shown
and
B C
2
1
equal
B
C.
Through
points in the miter line
Y
2
S T
2
successively against the 2 cut the corresponding
,
these points
draw
lines parallel to B"
and forming the line P G, whicn is is required to fit. From angle over which the hip mold the points P, K and G, which represent upon the angle
of the roof the points
lines
intersecting the plan of the
K,
a line traced through these of intersection, as shown from to Z, will be points the cut to fit the bottom of the hip molding.
measuring
lines.
Then
W
The normal by means
as shown.
elevation
A, B
the
and
D
of the section, drop
of projections
may be completed, if desired, from the plan and the section,
vertically
into
true face
intersecting
the
PROBLEM
Pattern for a
107.
Hip
Molding:
Mltering
is
Against the Planceer of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof
Which
Square at the
Eaves and Octagon at the Top.
In Fig. 414
in
it
is
shown the method
of obtaining the
deck cornice formed by the molding covering a hip, which occurs between the
or against the planceer of a
main roof and that part wnich forms the transition from a square at the base to an octagon shape at the
top.
The
roof
is
of the character
sometimes employed
228
Tliv
Xcw Mdal
\Ywlxr Pattern Bouk,
upon towers which are square in a portion of their bight and octagon in another portion, the transition from
square
to
by adding the
required
is
molding
in question covers
The hip octagon occurring in the roof. what may be called a transi
Since the mittr flanges and the roll. the junction between the hip molding, the profile of which has just been drawn, and a horizontal planceer, the remaining step in the development of the
pattern consists simply in dividing the profile into any
tion hip, being a diagonal line starting from one of the corners of the square part and ending at one of the
corners of the octagon above. carefully drawn plan, with a section through one of the sides of the together
roof, giving the pitch,
will
A
convenient number of parts, and carrying points against the line of the planceer, as shown near B and thence
1
,
be the
first
requisites to
in the
carrying them across to the stretchout, as indicated. It is evident, however, upon inspection of the elevation, that the
solving the problem, both of which are
shown
apron or fascia strips in connection with
engraving. tion of a section upon the line of the hip, which may Assume any point, as A, in be done as follows
:
The
first
operation will
be the construc
the planceer which miter with the flanges of the hip molding will form a different joint upon the side cur
the
section
of
the
roof
If
bight and projection.
which to measure a horizontal line from A
from
responding to the transition piece of the roof than upon the side corresponding to the normal pitch of the
roof,
and a vertical line from the top of the roof surface B be intersected in C, then B C will represent the bight and A C the projection of the part of Set off the projection C A at the roof assumed.
right angles to the top line of the plan C' E, as
sides.
owing, to the difference in pitch of these two To obtain the lines for this rniter an additional
section
line
must be constructed, corresponding to a center L in through the transition piece, as shown by
W
plan.
shown
by C
through A' parallel to C' E then D E will till it cuts the plan of hip E Q at D form the base and B C the bight of the required sec1
A
1
,
and carry a
line
;
From L erect a perpendicular, as shown by L' B% equal to C B of the original section. Connect and B
,
W
1
Prolong C
3
1
and lay
off
W
D", as indicated, in the direction of
L',
equal to
W L of the plan.
W
3
,
which may be obtained for convenience by lines The projected from D E at right angles, all as shown. line B' D" then represents the real angle at which the hip mold meets the planceer or level line at
tion,
against the face of which draw a section of the apron or fascia strip belonging to the planceer, as shown, and from
the points in
it
intersect lines
drawn from the flange
carry lines parallel to B" B' until they of the hip molding
the top. operation will consist in obtaining a correct section of the hip mold from the data given and in
lying against that side of the roof, all as indicated by X. From these points carry lines, cutting corre
U
The next
it
sponding
lines in the stretchout.
The
lines of the fascia
belonging to the other side are the
same
as
if
placing
Take any
in correct position in the diagonal section. point, G, in the plan at a convenient distance
from the normal section
elevation.
at B, or as
they appear
projected in the
as
DA Set off G at the same disfrom the angle From the tance from the angle on the opposite side. G and G' carry lines at right angles to and cutpoints
1
W
Having obtained these points proceed
1
.
follows
right angles to the lines of the molding in the diagonal section lay off the stretchout of the hip
:
At
ting
D C
3
3
in
the
points H" and
O
3
,
and from these
2
parallel with the line D B' indefiAt right angles to D' B' draw a line, as shown nitely. by Z II intersecting with the lines last drawn in the
points carry them
1
molding S T, and through the points draw the usual Place the Tsquare at right measuring lines, as shown. angles to the lines of the molding, or, what is the same,
parallel to the stretchout line, and, bringing
it
success
,
and 0. From H', along the line H' PF, set points off a distance equal to II G of the plan, and from 0, in the line Z set off a distance equal toO' G of the ,
H
1
ively against the points formed by the intersection of the lines drawn from the hip molding and the planceer line B , cut the corresponding measuring lines, as shown.
1
H
1
1
1
In like manner bring the
f square
against the points
U
plan, as
shown by
G".
Connect the intersection of
and X, above described, and
Y
and V, points corre
Z
H
1
and D'
B
with the points
G
3
and
G
3
,
which
will
give the correct section through the angle of the roof. Having thus determined the angle of the hip molding finish, a representation of it is indicated in the drawing
sponding with the opposite side of the hip molding, Then a line traced and cut corresponding lines.
through these several points of intersection, as shown by U' X' Y V, will be the pattern sought.
1
Pattern Problems.
22!)
SECTION
fig. 414.
The Pattern for a Hip Molding Mitering Against the Planceer of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof Which Eaves and Octagon at the Top.
is
Square at
tht
230
Tlie
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
which
at the
108.
Patterns for a Hip Molding Mitering Against the Bed Molding of a Deck Cornice
is
on a Mansard Roof
Square
Base and Octagonal
at the Top.
The problem presented
in Fig.
415
is
similar to
section with the line
D
3
B".
Complete the
profile of
that described in the previous problem, with the difference that a bed molding is introduced in connection
the hip molding, as indicated, laying off the width of the fascias on these lines, adding the roll and^dges.
with the planceer against which the hip molding
is
to
is
be mitered.
MEM
The next
to
1
the top, while L D of the section, assumed at convenience the point somewhere between the top and the bottom for the
M
represents a plan of the roof at represents a horizontal line at
draw a " true face "
step in the development of the pattern of the roof. In performing
this operation it matters not
whether the actual
sur
A
face of the roof be used or the surface of the fascias.
purpose of
lines
measurement.
The
intersection
of
the
M
L and E D
prolonged would indicate the cor
In this case the points and B of Fig. 415, by which the depth and projections of the pitch are measured, are taken on the surface of the fascia. For the true
face transfer the section
as
J
A
ner of the building at the bottom of the roof, the structure being square at the base and octagonal at
the top.
is
A B
to a vertical position,
indicated by A' B', Fig. 415, in connection with which the bed molding against which the hip mold
step in the development of the pattern to obtain a correct section of the roof on the line of
first
The
ing
is
to miter
is
also drawn, as shown.
From
the
one of the hips.
lay off
E D
3
3
Therefore, at any convenient point of Fig. 416 equal to D E of the plan.
several points in this vertical section draw horizontal lines, which intersect by vertical lines dropped from cor
responding points in plan.
Then D E
5
2
X
is
the true
From
the point
E
C
3
length equal to 3 nect B" and D ,
section
erect a perpendicular, E B", in B of the section of the roof. Con
3
face of that part of the roof corresponding to E M' M* of the plan. In connection with the vertical section just
described,' place a half
profile of
D
which
will
corresponding to the line
DE
be the pitch of the hip of the plan. Since the
true section of which has been obtained
the hip molding, a by the process
B" has been constructed away from and out of line with the plan, it will be necessary to re
D E
3
3
already explained in Fig. 41G, and also place a duplicate of this portion of the profile in connection with
the true face.
produce a portion of the plan
in
immediate connection
Space both of these
profiles into the
with the section, as shown by I' II C". This can done by tracing, or any means most convenient. be
A
3
same number
From
the point II in this plan lay off on either arm the points I and I , equally distant from it and conveniently located for use in constructing the profile of
1
of parts, and from the several points in each carry lines upward parallel respectively to the lines of the views in which they appear; the lines
from the
profile in the vertical section cutting the
bed
molding, and the
tersection in the
lines
from the
profile in the true face
the points I and I' erect perand 0, pendiculars to II C , cutting it in the points 3 3 which prolong until they meet the base D E of the the hip molding.
s
From
being continued indefinitely.
From
the points of in
K
diagonal section, from which points carry them paral3 J lel to the inclined line D B' indefinitely. At right
bed molding carry lines horizontally, those drawn from the profile in connection intersecting with the true face, producing the miter line, as shown
by
E'.
B draw a straight line, angles to the inclined line the lines last described in the points O , cutting
3
D
2
1
K
1
1
K' and
0'.
From
K
1
,
measuring back on the
line
By inspection of the plan where a portion of the bed mold is shown it will be seen that the miter of the bed molding around the octagon at E is regular that
is, its
P
K
1 1
,
K
O O
to
F
set off the point F, the same as from
1
making the distance from
miter line does not coincide with the line of the
K
to I of the plan.
From
equal to
hip
D
E.
If
in the line I I set off the distance
I'
3
O
3
1
I
s
,
vertical section,
the profile of the bed molding in the and also the profile of the bed mold
these points I and F draw lines meeting the line O' K' at the point of its interof the plan.
From
ing as shown in the plan, be divided into any equal umber of parts, points may be dropped from the
n
Pattern Problems.
231
Fig. 415.
Plan, Elevation, True Face
and Part of Pattern.
Fig.
417.
True Face of Octagonal Side and Part of Pattern.
Patterns for a
Hip Molding Miteriny Against
the
Bed Molding of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof which
Octagonal at the Top.
is
Square at the Base and
232
profile of the plan
Tltc
New Mdal Worker
and thence
in
Pattern
iiook.
on
to the miter line E,
carried
downward and
shown
at
intersected with horizontal lines
It will be portion corresponding to F G of the plan. well to add to this at B a section of the bed mold as
3
from the corresponding points of the bed molding
section, also
it
thus giving the appearance of the miter between the two arms of the bed mold behind
,
E
2
true relation between
roof.
appears in the section below, thus establishing the it and the transition side of the
By means
by means
of this section
and the plan, construct
side of
with the hip roll. The vertical lines from the miter E of the plan have not been cartheir
intersection
a
true face of
onehalf
of
the transition
the
roof,
which
to obtain the miter of the reroll.
ried, in the engraving, further
intersected with lines
where they are from corresponding points from
than
,
E
1
maining portion of the
the section
To do
4 2
,
this first
redraw
B
3
F', placing the line of the roof in a ver
the profile at the operation
this
B
is
of the elevation, thus
performed. avoid a confusion of lines at
line in
showing how This has been done to
tical position, as
points in
E
2
.
Having obtained
the right,
Fig. 417, from the which project horizontal lines, as shown to upon each of which set off from an assumed
shown by B F
the true face, the point where it crosses the miter line between the hip mold and bed mold
line from previously obtained at E" must be noted. this point of intersection must then be carried parallel
Thus make
A
vertical line the width of the roof as given in the plan. G' E' equal to E of the plan, and
G
V
4
D
F
4
equal to
F
D.
Connect
D
4
and
E'.
Then
G E D
1
4
to the line of the
profile
molding in the true face, back to the of the hip, and there marked, as shown by the
is the true face of that portion of the roof represented by G E D F in the plan. In connection with the vertical section just de
3
figure 1\.
The
be marked upon
profile as exists
position of the point 7 should now the section of the hip molding previ
scribed place so much of the stay as was not used for the pattern already delineated, and in the elevation of
ously obtained at
O
1
in
Fig.
1
416.
So much
of the
between
and 7
in the true face is
the transitional face of the roof place a corresponding portion of the profile, as shown, each of which divide
into
used in obtaining the stretchout of this part of the
pattern.
the
same number
of spaces.
From
the
points
The remaining
to 14
is
from 7
portion of the stay namely, afterward used for the true face of
thus obtained carry lines parallel to the lines of the respective views of the part, those in the vertical section cutting the bed molding, and those in the elevaFrom the points in tion being produced indefinitely.
the octagonal side for the remainder of the pattern. At right angles to the line of the molding in the
true face lay off a stretchout equal to that portion of the profile thus used, as shown by P N, through the points in which draw measuring lines in the usual
the bed molding of the vertical section carry lines horizontally, intersecting those drawn from the profile the elevation, thus establishing the miter line, as 4 indicated at E At right angles to the line D 4 E 4 set off a stretchout of the profile, as shown by R P*,
in
.
manner.
Place the Tsquare at right angles to the
lines of the
molding
in the true face, and, bringing it
against the several points in the miter line between 2 the hip and bed molding at E , cut corresponding
.
through the points in which draw the 'usual measuring
the Tsquare placed parallel to this stretchout line, or, what is the same, at right angles to 4 4 the line D E , and being brought successively against
lines.
With
measuring
lines
drawn through the stretchout.
Then
a line traced through these points, as shown by S T, will be the miter line for that portion of the pattern
the points in the miter line at
corresponding to the part of the profile thus used. For the other half of the hip molding, being that
another operation must be gone through.
portion which lies on the face of the transition piece, Construct a
1
measuring
lines, as in
shown.
cut corresponding Points also are to be car,
E
4
section of the roof corresponding to the line F G in the plan. At any convenient point lay off F C in From the point C Fig. 415, equal in length to F G.
1 1
same manner as described, corresponding to the bottom of the apron or fascia strip in Then a line traml connection with the bed molding. these points, as indicated by the line drawn through from U to T', will be the pattern of the other half of the hip molding. By joining the two patterns thus
ried across,
the
erect a perpendicular, C B ,*in length equal to C B of the section. Connect F and B 3 Then F B 3 is the
1
3
1
1
.
obtained upon the dividing line of the stay, correspond2 ing to P T of the first piece or P T' of the second
piece, the pattern will be contained in one piece.
length of the transition side of the roof through that
(DUPLICATE OF PAGE
231.)
B
3
Fig. 415.
Plan, Elevation, True F*ce and Part of Pattern.
Fig. 417.
True Face of Octagonal Site anil Part of Pattern.
Patterns for a
Hip Molding M'dering
A&3.inst the
Bed Molding of a Deck Cornice on a Mansard Roof which
Octagonal at the Top,
is
Square at the Base and
234
The
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Hook.
4V
A
A'
Fig. 418.~The Patterns for
the.
Miter at the Bottom of a Hip Molding on a Mansard Roof Which at the Bottom.
is
Octagon at the Top and Square
Pattern Problems.
235
Locate the point 8 on the first section of the hip obtained near O, as shown, and use the remainder of profile 8 to 14 for another operacorrespond to the point
8.
hip mold it will be necessary first to construct a true face of the octagon side of the roof. To do this,
the line
1
tion.
Lay
off a stretchout of the entire profile of the
V, through the points in hip molding) as shown by draw the usual measuring lines. With the which
W
obtain a diagonal section of the roof corresponding to 3 D E in the pjftn, viz. Lay off D E equal to
1
:
D E of the plan, and from E' erect E A', equal to C A of the section in
nect
a perpendicular,
Fig. 419.
is
Conthe
roof
A' and
D'.
Then A" D'
length of the diagonal measured on the line
face of the
D E
of the plan.
off
Upon
any convenient straight line lay
D' A* in Fig. 420, in length equal to D'
A", and from
it,
A
4
4
set off, at right angles to
A
4
A* C plan. half of the diagonal what
is
C in Then
,
3
length equal to
E C
1
of the
D
3
shows
in the flat one
face of the roof, or
At
in the plan. represented by to D 4 C' draw the remainright angles
DEC
1
ing portion of the stay not used in connection with the true face, placing it in 3 such a manner that the point O corre,
sponding
to line
of the hip section, shall fall
which represents the the hip. Through the point 8 of angle of 7 the section L" corresponding to 8 of the 3 of Fig. 418, draw a line section L"
upon the
D C
4
,
3
,
M
M
4
parallel to
D
C', as
and Elevation of the Miter at the Bottom of a Hip Moldiwj Fig. 419. on a Mansard Roof Which is Octagon at the Top and Square at the Bottom.
Section
S'
Y' corresponds
to
shown by S' Y'. Then S Y of the true face
7
in Fig. 418.
Space the profile L M into the same parts as used in laying off the stretchout V, and through the points draw lines
W
cutting the line S" the center line of the octagwhich, being onal side of the roof, is also the miter
parallel to D'
G\
A
4
,
line
Miter between the Inner Edges of the Hip Moldings at the Bottom.
between the two arms of the hip mold
ing.
From
line
the
points
4
,
of
intersection
Fig. 420.
in the
D A
4
at right angles to
S
3
Y
Tsquare placed at right angles to the lines of the hip, as shown in the true face, and brought against the of the points in the miter line S T TJ, cut so many
1
1
,
draw
lines cutting
S
1
Y
1
,
giving the
For con13 and 14. points marked 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, venience in using one stretchout for the entire patof the true the line S tern, transfer these points to face in Fig. 418, from which, at right angles to S Y,
Y
measuring lines drawn through the stretchout
correspond to those points.
tion of the pattern
this
W
V
as
shown by
that porBy S T' IT will be obtained.
1
means
draw
lines cutting the
corresponding measuring lines
of the stretchout.
For the portion of the pattern corresponding to the part of the profile which miters against the other
[
points of plete the pattern.
Then a line traced through these intersection, as shown from S' to X, will com
236
Tlie
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
no.
Patterns for the Fascias of a Hip Molding Finishing a Curved Mansard Roof which
is
Square at the
Base and Octagonal
at the
Top.
The
82, near
differ greatly
conditions involved in this problem do not from those given in Problems SO, 81 and
it
line
should properly be classed. case, however, the profile of an entire roof
which
In this
is
under
in the plan. The width of the flange or fascia the hip finish may be obtained as described in forming Problem 6, and the corner piece drawn in to agree with the original design, as shown by S' T'
If
it is
E H
consideration instead of that of a simple molding or vase, but the problem is here introduced as being
closely related in
desirable
it
to
produce an elevation of
1
this
angle of the roof
feature to several of the foregoing
problems.
can be done bv dividing the profile B by the same points as were used in dividing O B', from which horizontal lines can be drawn to the left
CD E F
roof at
its
of Fig.
421 represents the plan of the
base, while
V G II
W represents the plan
at
intersecting with the lines of corresponding previously erected from the miter line E II.
number
A
line,
the top. It will be seen that the roof is nearly square at the foot of the rafters and octagonal at the top. The
E
3
II
3
,
drawn through >he points
of intersection will
with D* G' give the correct elevation of the transition
side.
same conditions may
where the corners of the roof are chamfered, starting at nothing at the bottom and increasing to a considerable space at the top, witharise
For the pattern
first
of this side
construct a section
upon
its
be necessary to center line, P R of the
it
will
out reference to forming an octagon.
DG
II
E
in the,
plan.
1
At any convenient
place outside of the plan
1
plan represents a chamfer or transition piece in the construction of a roof which, as above described, is square
at the base
draw a duplicate of P R parallel to it, as shown by P A', and from the point A erect a perpendicular,
and octagonal at the top. This part is rep3 The elevation is by D G" II* E introduced here not for any use in pattern cutting, but
resented in elevation
3
.
A
1
B', in length equal to
AB
of
In A' B' set off points corresponding
the original section. to the points in
1
A
In the sectional simply to show the relation of parts. B the outer line B represents view of the roof
A
B, and through them draw horizontal lines, as shown. Place the "{square parallel to A' B and, bringing it
,
1
the surface of the fascias of which the patterns are required, the inner curve showing the line of the roof
against the points in E II previously obtained from the Then profile 0' B , cut corresponding measuring lines.
As it is in the boards and the depth of the sink strips. that the miter lines are shown it will be necessary plan
to develop the pattern from the plan. that one of the square sides, as E F
II, is to be be necessary to place a profile so that
a line traced through these points of intersection, as shown by B' P', will complete the diagonal section
W
Assuming then
From this diagonal corresponding to P R in the plan. section take a stretchout, which lay off on the straight
line corresponding to
PR
produced,
all
3
as
shown by
done
its
al".
first, it
will
P
3
B
3
.
Through
lines.
projection
as
O A
shall lie across this part of the roof,
shown by 0'
A B
1
measuring
the points in P" B draw the usual With the Tsquare placed parallel to
1 .
1 1
Divide the profile
O B
into
any convenient num
ber of equal spaces, and from the points of division drop lines parallel to E F, the side of the roof, cutting
the miter line
this
and brought successively against the points in R II, cut the measuring lines, as shown. Then a line traced through these points of intersection, as shown by E to II', will be one side of the required
this stretchout line,
1
E
II.
Upon any
line at
right angles to
pattern.
In like manner, having
II across to the
it,
side
of the roof, as
O
2
B*,
lay off a stretchout
from
E
transferred points corresponding line D G, cut the
through the points, in which draw the usual measuring Cut these measuring lines bylines drawn vertilines.
measuring lines from
intersection forms
a
which
will give the other side
of the required pattern.
The width
of fascias (whose
Then a line traced cally from the points in E H. these points of intersection, as shown by E through H', will be the line of the pattern corresponding to the
3
may be obtained above and as given in Problem 6. as suggested In locating the points N and of this pattern it
panel in this case)
1
M
1
Pattern Probkras,
227
_
IV
_
"nx/*
/
u
i
a
:.
Bitterns /or the Fascias o/
a
Ht_p
Molding Finishing a Curved Mansard Roof Which
Octagonal at the Top.
is
Square at the Eaves and
238
Tlte
Xew
Metal
Worker Pattern Bwk.
if s<>
is desirable for the sake of design tliat they be, when finished and in position, at the same vertical distance below the corniee as are the points S and T on the
completed
desired, all of
\vhichwillbemade
clear
by
inspection of the drawing. In the ease of very large roofs,
it is
:5
square sides of the roof.
To accomplish
this
it
will
be
ment
of a profile or a pattern to the full size
where the developwould be
necessary to go back to the points S' and
4
T
1
,
in the first
impracticable,
scale of li or
pattern obtained, and from them carry lines back into the stretchout line O* B where they are numbered 10 and 11. Their positions may now be transferred
,
possible to perform the work to a inches to the foot; after which full
size patterns of parts of
convenient size
may be
ob8
tained
or 4.
by multiplying
the
are
their various dimensions
by
by means of the dividers to the normal profile O B, where their vertical bights can be measured on the line A B, as shown, and transferred again to the vertical
line
As
the
hip,
patterns
for the
roll,
properly included
is
under
usually finishing the head of
in
A B
1
1
of the diagonal section.
to carry
It is
only necesto the profile
Flaring
Work, which subject
section
of
this
treated
the fol
P' B',
shown, from adjacent points may be measured by the dividers and placed upon the stretchsary
now
them
across, as
lowing
tained,
where
their distances
given here.
section
in
The
the
radii
however,
may
be chapter, they from which they can be obbe derived from the diagonal
in
will not
out line
this
means the appearance of By both in the plan and in the elevation may be panel
B'.
P
2
similar
manner described
the
following
problem.
PROBLEM
To Obtain the Curves
for
in.
a Molding Covering the
Hip of a Curved Mansard Roof.
The method
of a
molding Problem G. As it is necessary in obtaining the patterns of the molded portion or roll, that the curve of the hip should be established, this problem really consists of developing from the normal profile of the roof a
profile
of obtaining the pattern of the fascias covering a curved hip has been given in
measuring
lines in the usual
by
lines erected perpendicularly to
manner, and intersect them E F from the points
1
therein.
Then
intersection, as
a line traced through these points of shown by E K', will be the profile to
is
which the molding covering the hip
to be raised.
through the hip, section of the mansard.
or,
in other words, a diagonal
Let A E B iii Fig. 422 represent the plan of a mansard roof or tower, the elevation of which is shown by II K, over the hip of which a molding of any given
profile is to
Inasmuch as in the usual process of mold raising all curves must be considered as segments of circles, to accommodate both the adjustment of the machine used and the describing of the patterns, the curved line E K' just obtained must be so divided that each
1
section or
segment
circle.
will
be
fitted, in this case a
the diagonal line angle of the hip as
E F
it
threequarter bead, in the plan representing the
if
an arc of a
approach as nearly as possible In this case the section from E to
1
L
viewed from the At any convenient point parallel to E F, and top. equal to it, drawK' F', and from F' erect a perpendicu
would appear
a center,
to correspond to an arc struck from while the section from L to K' corresponds M, to an arc struck from a center not shown in the engrav
will be
found
ing,
lar,
F
1
K
1
,
tion
G
K.
in length equal to the vertical line in elevaand F' K' into the same numDivide
lines
but which L N and
will
1
be found by the intersection of the
1
GK
produced. In the lower part of Fig. 423
K N
is
shown an enlarged
it
From ber of equal spaces. lines cutting the profile K,
points thus obtained in
drop ducing them until they cut the diagonal line E F of the Through the points in F K' draw plan, as shown.
1
H H K
the points in as shown, and
GK
draw from the
section of the hip molding, including the fascias, as would appear at the bottom of the hip, and above
it
lines vertically, pro
another section taken at the top, which has been derived from the normal section or section at the bottom
by the method used and explained
in
Problems 105,
I'n
Htm Prvbkms.
the roll require trimming after being raised so that the roll may have an equal projection throughout its course.
lot!
and
K>7,
of
previously
the
lines
demonstrated.
oi
A
dotted
is
j
reproduction
the
upper
suction
SE.CTIONATTOP
Fig. 423.
Enlarged Sections Through Hip Finish at Top and Bottom, Showing Change in Flare of Fascias.
Fig. 42%.
Diagonal Section of a Curved Mansard Roof Obtained for the Purpose of Mold Raising.
placed here to show the change in the flare that takes place between fascias in going from the bottom to the
top of the hip, thus showing that the outer edges' of
Methods
ings will
chapter.
of obtaining the patterns of
curved mold
be found in the following
section of this
240
The
New
Metal
Worker
l*uttcru
JJuuk.
SECTION
2.
(FLARING WORK.)
It will
clear statement of the class of
be well to place before the reader here a problems he may ex
In this connection it is proper to call attention to the difference between a scalene cone and a right cone
It will include pect to meet with under this head. only the envelopes of such solid figures as have for a
base the circle, or any figure of equal or unequal sides which may be inscribed within a circle, and which
terminate in an apex located directly over the center
of the base.
oblique to its axis. According to Ih'linition 96, a scalene cone is one whose axis is inclined to the plane of its base, and according to Definition !M
is
whose base
the base of a cone
is
a circle.
its
As any
the
section of a
as
its
cone taken parallel to
base,
base
is
same shape
any section
its
of a scalene cone taken
circle,
parallel to
According
gon
to the definition of
(l)ef. 66), its
angles must
all
an inscribed polylie in the circum
its
base must be a
right angles to
and any section taken at axis could not, therefore, be a circle,
Again, as any section of a
its
So the angles or hips of a ference of the same circle. pyramid whose base can be inscribed in a circle must
lie
its
but would be
elliptical.
right cone (Def. 95) at right angles to
if its
axis
is
a
in the surface of a cone
whose base circumscribes
is
base and whose altitude
pyramid.
Therefore the
equal to that of the circle which describes the
base be cut off obliquely, such base would. circle, Thereto Definition 113, be an ellipse. according
fore,
since
its
horizontal
section
is
a
circle,
its
pattern of the base of the envelope of such a cone will also circumscribe the pattern of the base of the pyra
envelope
may
be obtained by methods employed
(See Problem 136.)
in
this section.
And
since the secits
mid contained within
therefore,
it.
The envelopes
cones,
of
such
solids,
tion of a scalene cone taken at right angles to
is
axis
as scalene
scalene
pyramids and
pyramids whose bases cannot be inscribed within a circle are not adapted to treatment by the methods employed in this section. Even the envelope of an
elliptical
an ellipse, an oblique base that is, with a base elliptical cone with cutoff at such an angle as to produce a circle and, as
stated above, cannot be included in this section. The principles governing the problems of
this
the scalene cone becomes virtually an
cone cannot be included with
this
class
of
problems because it possesses no circular section upon which its circumference at any fixed distance from
the apex can be measured.
section are given in Chapter V, beginning on page 79, which the reader will find a great help in explaining
anything which he
may
fail to
understand.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
Let
of a
112.
Triangular Pyramid.
the point
AB
pyramid, and
C of Fig. 424 be E F Gr of Fig. 425
the
elevation of
the the
K
erect
K H,
perpendicular to F
K and equal
shown by
the plan.
From
in length to the hight of the pyfamid, as
Fig. 424. Elevation.
Fig. 425.
Plan.
Fig. 426.Pattern.
The Envelope of a Trianr/ular Pyramid.
center
K
draw the
lines
E K, F
K and G K in
the plan,
A
1)
of the elevation.
representing the angles or hips of the pyramid.
From
which then represents
the hypothenuse F II, the length of the corner lines.
Draw
Pattern Problems.
241
set off
From anv point, as L of Fig. 426, for center, with O I indefradius equal in V II, describe the arc From inite! v, and draw L M. set off the chord
manner
and
N
and
I respectively, equal to
GE
the
MN
E F
of
()
the plan.
Connect
I
and L,
I
as
shown,
is
M
M
and draw L
and L N.
Then L
N M
N, in length equal to the sideF
G
of the plan.
lu like
pattern sought.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
of a
113.
Square Pyramid.
Let
E
A
C
of Fig.
pyramid, and F
II
K L
L
of Fig.
427 be the elevation 428 the plan.
of the
or circumscribe the pattern, as
shown
in the
diagram
The
From any
to
center, as
M, Fig. 429, with a radius equal
and diagonal lines F angles or hips, and G
apex
K
II represent the plan of the a point corresponding to the
A
of the elevation.
From
the apex
A
drop the
S N, indefinitely D, describe an arc, as P R From P, on the arc drawn, set off P. a chord, P R, in length equal to one of the sides of
and draw
A
M
_
N
Fig. 437.
Elevation.
Fig. 428.Plan.
Fig. 429.
Pattern.
The Envelope of a Square Pyramid.
line
AB
perpendicular to the base
E
C.
in the direction of
D,
making BD
Connect
equal to
Prolong E G F, one
the pyramid
shown
in
the
plan.
From R
set
off
of the angles of the plan.
D
and A.
Then
AD
wiir be the slant hight of the article on one of the corners, and the radius of an arc which will contain
O, in like manner, and repeat the same operation, obtaining S and S N. Draw the lines S R P will O and R. Then N, S,
another chord,
R
M
M
M
M
M N
be the required pattern.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
Let
of a
114.
Hexagonal Pyramid.
the straight hight of the article, as shown in the elevaDraw the hypothenuse B X. Then tion by G K.
a
430 represent the elevation of of which D F C L B E of Fig. hexagonal pyramid,
I of Fig.
is
HG
X
431
the plan.
its
on a line drawn
step is to construct a section from the center of the figure through
The first
the side of a right cone, the represents the apex and of the base of which, if drawn, would circumplan
XB
X
1
oue of
angles in the plan, as
A
B.
From
the center
it
A
erect
AX
perpendicular
to
A B,
making
equal to
From scribe the plan of the hexagonal pyramid. of Fig. 432, with as convenient center,
any
of
XB
242
Fig.
Tlie
Xew
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
as
431 as radius,
describe an arc indefinitely,
line.
shown by the dotted
the arc to the
Through one extremity of center draw a line, as shown by D' X
1
B' L' in the arc thus obtained draw lines to the center, as shown by E' X', B etc., which will represent
1
X
1
,
.
the angles of the completed shape, and serve to locate
Fig. 430.
Elevation.
Fig. 431.Plan.
Fig. 432.Pattern.
The Envelope of a Hexagonal Pyramid.
With
plan, as
the dividers set to a space equal to any side of the D E, commencing at D set off this distance on
1 ,
the bends to be
made
1 1
in
process
of
Then
;
X D E B L
1 1
1
C'
F D
1
3
will
forming up. be the complete
the arc six times, as shown.
From the
several points E'
pattern.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
In Fig. 433,
article,
115.
of a
of the
Frustum
Square Pyramid.
let
GHK
I
be the elevation of the
A
E D
the plan of the larger end and
L
M
lows
Construct a diagonal section on the lin? P as folErect the perpendicular P F, making it equal
:
A
Fig. 433.Plan
and Elevation.
Fig. 434.
Pattern.
The Envelope of the Frustum of a Square Pyramid.
the plan of the smaller end. lines C L, M, etc., in the plan
N
A
Produce the hip
to
to the straight hight of the article, as of
shown by
RK
the center P.
the
elevation.
Likewise erect the perpendicular
Pattern Problems.
243
M
P
B
of the
same length.
the diagonal
Draw F B and
A
B.
Then
the
arc
L N'
1
0' M'
L
1
,
AB
both indefinitely.
Draw
C'
F
is
A. Produce A tion of X, and also produce P F until it meets A B extended in the point X. Then X is the apex of a right cone and X A the side of the same, the base of
the line
P
section of the article upon B indefinitely in the direc
X', cutting the smaller arc in the point
L
1
.
Make
the
chord C'
equal in length to one side, <J D, of the and D' E to another side, D E, of the plan, plan, and so on, until the four sides of the base have been
1
D
1
set off.
Draw
the
1
drawn, would circumscribe the plan C A E D. Therefore, from any convenient center, as X' of Fig. 434, with X A as radius, describe the arc C' D' E'
which,
if
L L
1
J
in
X E' points N O
D'
1
,
X',
1
etc.,
cutting the arc
1
,
,
etc.
Then
D N
1
1
,
E O
1
1
and
A
1
C",
and from the same center, with radius
X
B, draw
will represent the lines of the bends in the pattern. Draw the chords L' N', O forming up etc., thus completing the pattern.
A
M'
N
1
1
,
PROBLEM
The Envelope
of the
116.
Frustum
of
an Octagonal Pyramid.
Fig. 435 shows the elevation and Fig. 436 the The plan of the frustum of an octagonal pyramid. first step in developing the pattern is to construct a
diagonal section, the base of which shall correspond to one of the lines drawn from the center of the plan
through one of the angles of the figure, as shown by Erect the perpendicular G C equal to the G. B.
straight hight of the frustum, as shown by elevation, and at b erect a perpendicular, b
NM
A,
of the
of like
length. section
line
Draw B
A
and
A
it
C.
Then G B
if
A
C
is
a
of the article as
would appear
cut on the
Produce B A indefinitely in the direction B. and likewise prolong G C until it intersects B A X, produced in X. Then X is the apex and X B the
G
of
side of
a
would circumscribe the base
any convenient
right cone, the plan of which, if drawn, of the frustum. From
center, as X', Fig. 437, with radius describe an arc indefinitely, as shown by the B, dotted line E E' of the pattern, and from the same for radius, describe the arc e' e' of center, with
X
1
XA
the pattern. Through one extremity of the arc E Ei to the center draw a straight line, as shown by E' X'^ Set off on the cutting the smaller arc in the point e
1
1
.
arc
E E
1
s
spaces equal to the sides of the plan of the
1
<
base of the article and connect the points by chords. Thus make E P' of the pattern equal to E P of the
Tier.
437.Pattern.
and so on. Also from these points in the arc draw lines to the center, cutting the arc e e', as shown. Connect the points thus obtained in this arc by chords, etc. Then e' E E" e' will as shown by e p\ p' d\ d o
plan,
1
1
l
1
1
,
The Envelope of the Frustum of an Octagonal Pyramid.
be the pattern sought.
TAe
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Hook.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
of the
117
Frustum
of
an Octagonal Pyramid Having Alternate Long and Short Sides.
the
In Fig. 438, let I the article of which G
first
MBNOPK H F E is the
L be
elevation.
phm of The
Produce S
K and B A
if
Then
X
is
the apex and
thing to do in describing the pattern is to construct a section corresponding to a line drawn from the center
base of which, of the article.
meet in the point X. the side of a cone, the drawn, would circumscribe the plan
until they
XB
is
From any convenient
center, as
X',
Fig. 439, with radius equal to as shown by M M". Draw X'
1
X
M'
1
B, describe an arc.
as one side of the
set off chords to the
,
pattern.
arc, as
Then, starting from
M
,
equal to and correwith the several sides of the article, as shown sponding From these points. B, B N, etc., in the plan. by
B', B'
,
shown by
M
1
N
1
etc.
M
B
1
,
N', etc., in the arc, draw lines to the center X'.
Fig. 438.
Plan and Elevation.
Fig. 439.Pattern.
The Envelope of
the
Frustum of an Octagonal Pyramid Having Alternate Long and Short
Sides.
to one of the angles in
'
the plan, as
SB.
At S
erect
From
X
1
,
with
XA
as radius, describe an arc cutting
the perpendicular S B, in length equal to the straight hight of the article, as shown by C D of the elevation.
these lines, as shown by m' m*.
Upon
as
the point b erect a corresponding perpendicular,
Connect the points of intersection by straight lines, as shown by //', b' n\ //' </. 2 will be the pattern sought. Then in' nr etc.
.'
M M
1
1
B
shown by b A. Draw R A and A B. Then B A S is a section of the article taken upon the line S B.
will represent the and the lines B i N ', etc., of bends to be made in forming up the article.
1
1
,
lines
PROBLEM
The Pattern
In Fig. 440, let
square spire which
gables
in a
is
118.
of a
Square Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables.
B F H C
be the elevation of a over four equal
is
Produce F
will
required to miter
B and H C until they meet in A, which be the apex of the pyramid of which the spire is a
Draw
the axis
pinnacle, the plan of which
also square.
section.
A
G, and at right angles to
it,
Pattern Problems.
245
3
1
from the lowest point of contact between the spire and the gable, as F, draw F G. Then F (1 will represent the half width of one of the sides of the pyrarnicl at the base, and A F will represent the length of a side
through
its
spaces of the extent of G' G as shown by G" g, gg and g' B equal to and O A'. Make O. Draw g g B draw a perpendicu13 of the elevation, and through
,
1
A
1
,
A
1
A
1
1
A
it
1
1
lar to
A' F
1
,
as
shown.
Draw
lines corresponding to
center.
From any convenient
point, as
A
1
through the other sections of the pattern.
Make
A D
1
1
'..A
Fig. 440.
Elevation of Spire.
Fig. 441.
Pattern.
The Pattern of a Square Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables.
in length equal to From F. F' set off, perpendicular to A' F , on each side a space equal to F G of the elevation, as shown by F G' and
in Fig.
441, draw
A
1
F
1
,
A
1
equal to
A
D, and draw
D G
1
1
and
D G
1
5
.
Set the
1
compasses to
1
(. From
F'
From
G' and G" draw lines to
A
,
as
shown.
and from G" and y as centers describe arcs intersecting at d. Draw d g and d G 5 as shown. Eepeat the same operation in the other
D',
,
G
2
A
1
as center,
and with
A G
1
2
as radius, describe
sections of
the pattern, thus completing the required
an
arc, as
shown by
G
3
0, in length equal to three
shape.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
Let
spire,
119.
of
an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Eight Gables.
ing of the valleys and ridges at the line G H, cutting the side
point D.
AG and M
L in O P
Fig. 442 be the elevation of the From the point G, the half plan.
T
in the plan,
draw
A
D
1
C
extended in the
443, upon
C' equal to
which represents the lowest point of the angle or valley between the gables, to H, which represents the meet
Draw any
line, as
A'
in Fig.
which
to construct the pattern.
Make
A
1
Tlte
New
Metal
Worker Pattern
Itook.
\
'
(
of the elevation,
elevation.
and A' D' equal to A D of the Through D' draw the horizontal line 1 0, as
Draw A' and A' 1. Set the dividers radius, and from A' as center describe the
it
to
A'
1
1
as
in
arc
8
1 0, and step off as on the arc as there are sides in the spire. many spaces Draw the lines A 2, A 3, etc., to A S, which represent the angles of the spire and the bends in the pattern. Draw C' and C' 1 in the first section of the pattern.
definitely.
Set the dividers to
1 1
1
Set the dividers to
describe
C
;
1,
and from
1
and 2 as centers
manner describe
In like intersecting arcs, as shown by C*. similar intersecting arcs at the points
D'
Fig. 442.
Plan
unil
Klevation of Spire.
The,
Tig. 443.
Pattern.
Pattern of an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Eight Gables.
shown.
vation,
From D
1
set off D' 0, equal to
E F
of the ele
C
3
,
C
4 ,
etc.
Draw
and likewise
set off D' 1, of the
same
length.
1, 2, 3, 4, etc., as
from these points to the points shown, thus completing the pattern.
lines
PROBLEM
The Pattern
In Fig.
444, let
120.
of
an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables.
will
gon spire, mitering upon a square pinnacle.
B E Z U be down upon
the elevation of an octa
be seen that onehalf the sides
fit
will
be notched
at
four gables occurring Continue the side lines until
the bottom to
over the gables, while the others will
they intersect in the apex A. H, and from the point Gdraw
center
line,
Draw the
center line
A
G H perpendicular
of one
be pointed to reach down into the angles or valleys between the gables.
ascertain the correct length upon the center line of one of the pointed sides it will be necessary to
to the
To
showing
half
the width
of the
it
sides at the point G.
Ry
inspection of the elevation
construct a section through one of the valleys, for
in
/
'<
i
Ilirn
Problems.
241
stance,
upon
tlie line
M' N' of the plan.
Through
the
point J of the elevation draw the line .) M at right angles to the center line, extending it to the left indefinitely,
the distance
and from the point M set off upon this line M N, equal to M' N of the plan. Draw
1
E of the elevation, etc. Through E' draw equal to a perpendicular equal in length to the width of a side at the point E, or to twice G H, as shown in the elevation, placing onehalf on each side from
A
E
1
1
,
all as
shown by L K.
A'
as center,
From L and K draw lines to A with A L as radius, describe an
1
.
From
arc, as
shown by L U,
to the space
indefinite in length.
Set the dividers
L K, and
Y X, etc., A
1
until as
in the spire
step off spaces from L, as L Y, are set off as are required in this case Draw the lines eight. Y,
many sides
A
1
etc. From the point D', which, as will be seen in the elevation, by corresponds to the top of the draw lines to the points L and K, which gives gable,
X,
D
the pattern for the notch in the first section. the dividers to L D as radius, and from and
1
Set
X
Y as
centers describe
arcs
X
intersecting at
W.
Draw
W
and "W Y, and repeat this upon all the alternate sides throughout the pattern, as shown, locating the
Fiir.
444.Plan and Elevation of Spire.
Fig;. 445.
Pattern.
The Pattern of an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon Four Gables.
N
P, and extend the side
A E until
it
intersects this line
at F.
Then
AF
will
be the correct length through
points a space
to
the center line of one of the long sides. To describe the pattern first draw
L
F',
and P. For the pattern of the point, take between the points of the dividers equal and from L and Y as centers describe small
A
1
F
1
in Fig.
445, equal to A F of the elevation, and set off points on it corresponding to Thus make in A F.
points
1
L and Y. With arcs intersecting. at M, and draw the same radius repeat the operation upon the intermediate sides, establishing the points V,
M
M
H
and
I,
thus
A
1
B' equal to
A
B,
A D
1
equal to
A
D, and A'
E
1
completing the pattern.
The
New
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
PROBLEM
121.
Pattern for an Octagon Spire Mitering upon a Roof at the Junction of the Ridge and Hips.
In Fig. 446, let
lion of the roof
ABC represent the
c
front eleva
i
vation
spire
let
WO
.1'
and A' a
C' the corresponding plan.
and H'
J II represent the octagon K' M' N' O' the corresponding plan.
N MK
W
PLAN
Fig. 446.
PLAN.
Plans and Elevations of Spire.
Fig. 44".Section of Spire
on Line of Hip.
Pattern for
an Octagon Spire Mitering Upon a Roof
at thr Junction of the Ridge
and
Fli/is.
Also
let I)
E F G
be the side elevation of roof, and

In the side elevation
tlic
spire
I
\"
a' c'
C"
the corresponding plan.
In the front ele
UTR
Q, and
iji
plan
by
v
X represented by ? R' T" U' V. Q' Only
is
Pattern Problems.
240
the
points in plans are designated by letters which In order to represent similar points in the elevation.
draw the plans and elevations, including the miter lines, it maybe found convenient to first construct the
octagons, as indicated in the plans, and from these to project the elevations aliove, as shown. From the point u in front elevation, which represents the
entire
Q) is determined. Draw Q Z paralC Y, and from the point X' of plan set off J the distance / Q of diagram, as shown by X' Q'. Connect R' Q' ami Q' P'. From the point Q' in plan
(the point
lel
same
with
carry a line parallel with the center line X', cutting the hip line D E at Q. Draw Q R, which shows the
X
miter line in side elevation.
From
the point
Q
can be
intersection of one of the rear angles of the spire with the roof, carry a line parallel with B F, cutting X //.
h'roin
drawn the
the point
I'
draw the miter
line
U
J, cutting the hip lines in front elevation at the points J and N,
line
Q
AB
and
B C
and the miter
T, and from
the
X'
V
points
drop perpendiculars to plan, cutting and X' U', from which points can be drawn
1
1
V
the miter lines
V
lines J and drawn. The points in front elevation correspond with the points K' M' of plan. For the pattern proceed as follows: Draw I x of
K
MN
KM
IT'
T' of the plan.
To
which
a
is
obtain
miter line P' Q' It' of plan, from obtained the miter line Q R of side elevation,
the
Fig. 448, equal to P erect the perpendiculars
to L' P'
<jf
X
/
of side elevation,
and from
I
plan or
L
M
equal in length of front elevation. From y
I
p and
p',
diagram has been constructed in Fig. 447 which shows a section of spire and roof on the line C" X' of
plan.
and p' draw lines to x, as shown. From x as center, with x p as radius, describe an arc, as shown by p' e,
indefinite in length.
To
Draw any
tance
construct the diagram proceed as follows Y. From set off the disline, as
:
Set the dividers to the distance
as
X
X
X E of
point
side elevation or
WB
of front elevation.
p p and step off spaces from p, til as many sides are set off as are
in
p
r,
r
t,
etc.,
un
desired to be
shown
The
ridge.
E
From
X
represents the junction of hip and set off the distance S, and erect
X
S L, making it in length equal to Then X S L is a duplicate S P, and connect From X set off the distance X Y and of X S P.
the perpendicular
L X.
one part of the pattern. For convenience in dethe pattern draw the lines x r, x t, x c. Conscribing nect c and e and m'ake c d equal to p I and draw x d.
Bisect
p
r
and draw x
a,
and from
x,
distance
X Q
onxa,
set off the
erect
the
perpendicular
Y C,
K
in
length
equal to
X' C" of plan, and connect C sents one side of spire, and C
reprethe hip of the roof, and the point Q the point of junction between the two. As the spire is a perfect octagon, the profile of
ilie
E. Then L X
p q and q r. V and X U
i.
of Fig. 447, locating the point q. Draw From x, on x c?, set off the distances
X
of side elevation, locating the points v Through i draw a perpendicular cutting x c
in the points
x u
e
t.
u and
u',
then draw u'
and and v v u and
side just constructed is in
nowise different from
It
either of those
in
shown
in the elevations.
simply has
addition the profile of one of the hips by means of which the correct hight of its intersection with the
I P' Q' R' T' U' I'. 448 shows a little more than half the full Fig. pattern, which will be readily understood by a com
spire
Then x p p q r t u v shown on plan by X'
u' is the pattern for part of
V
parison of reference letters.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
122.
of a Rig;ht
Cone.
In Fig. 449 cone and
let
A B
C be
the elevation of the
any convenient point
strike
as
the plan of the same. To obtain the envelope set the compasses to the space B A, or the slant hight of the cone, as a radius, and from
D E F
arc indefinitely. Connect one arc with the center, as shown by A' B'.
an
center, as B' of Fig. 450, end of the
With
the dividers, using as small a space as
is
250
T/ie
Arew
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
convenient, step off the circumference of the plan D E F, counting the spaces until the whole, or exactly
B A' C
1
1
will
be the pattern for the envelope of the
cone
ABC.
It is
not necessary that all of the spaces used in measuring the circumference of the plan should be It frequently happens that when the space equal.
assumed between the points of the dividers has been stepped off upon the circumference of the base, a space
will
remain at the
finish smaller than that original! v
'
Fig. 449.
Plan and Elevation.
FiK.
4.VI.
Pattern.
The Envelope of a Right Cone.
one
half, is
completed, as shown in the upper half of
set off
assumed.
'after
the plan.
Then
in
on the arc
commencing
contained
at A', the
same
C' of the pattern, number of spaces as is
A
1
spaces can be stepped
In that case the required number of full off upon the arc of the pattern,
the entire
circumference of
the plan.
which the remaining small space may be added. thus completing the correct measurement of the
Connect the
last point C'
with the center
B
1 .
Then
pattern.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
of a
123.
Frustum
of a Right
Cone.
The principle involved in cutting the pattern for the frustum of a cone is precisely the same as that for
of the pan,
The frustum cutting thfe envelope of the cone itself. of a right cone is a shape which enters so extensively
into articles of tinware that an ordinary flaring pan, an elevation and plan of which are shown in Fig. 451, has
spection of the engraving will show that C D, the top is the base of an inverted cone, its apex ?> and C at the intersection of the lines D being
A
forming the sides of the pan
;
and that
AD
is
the top
of the frustum or the base of another cone,
AO
B.
been engraved for the purpose of
illustration.
An
in
which remains after cutting the frustum from the origFor the pattern then proceed as follows inal cone.
:
Pattern Problems.
251
initely.
Through the elevation draw a center line, K B, Extend one of the sides of tho pan,
indefas, for
example,
point B.
D
O, until
it
meets the center
line in
the
greater accuracy will be insured by exthe opposite side of the pan also, as shown tending the three lines meeting in the which deterpoint B
Still
and
mines the apex of the cone to a Then B certainty. B D, respectively, are the radii of the ares which
contain the pattern. point as center, with
From B or any other convenient B as radius, strike the arc P
the
arc
Q
indefinitely,
and likewise from
radius,
strike
same
center,
with
B D
as
the
E
F
indef
draw a line across these initely. arcs near one end, as P E, which will be an end of the pattern. By inspection and measurement of the plan determine in how many pieces the pan is to be constructed and divide the circumference of the pan
into a corresponding number of equal parts, in this case as shown by K, and L. With the dividers or three,
From
the center
B
M
spacers
step off
shown from
last division
M
the length of one of these parts, as to L, and set off a corresponding num
E F, as shown. Through the draw a line across the arcs toward the center B, as shown by F Q. Then P Q F E will be the pattern of one of the sections of the pan, as shown
ber of spaces on the arc
in the plan.
Fi'j. 451.
The Envelope of the Frustum of a Right Cone.
PROBLEM
To Construct a
Ball in
124.
any Number
of Pieces, of the
Shape of Zones.
Tn Fig. 452, let
ball
AIG
II
be the elevation of
a'
to this diameter,
and brought successively against the
1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
which
it is
required to construct in thirteen pieces.
points in the elevation, drop corresponding points
it,
Divide the profile into the required sections, as shown by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and through the points thus obtained draw parallel horizontal lines, as shown. The in the profile are to be obtained by the foldivisions
upon Through each of these center by which the points describe circles from the Each of these circles becomes the is drawn. plan
as
shown by
plan of one edge of the belt in the elevation to which
it
lowing general rule, applicable in all such cases Divide the whole circumference of the ball into a num:
corresponds in number, and
is
to be used in estab
ber of parts equal to two times one less than the ber of pieces of which it is to be composed.
numthe
of lishing the length of the arc forming the pattern Extend the center the zone of which it is the base.
line K
A
in the
direction
of
indefinitely.
Draw
In convenient proximity to the elevation, center being located in the same vertical line
A
N,
chords to the several arcs into which the profile has been divided, which produce until they cut G 0, as
A
draw a plan
the diameter
elevation,
of the ball, as
K
shown by
KM
L N. Draw
shown by
L
parallel to the lines of division in the
With
the
square placed at right angles
Then E, 2 3 D, E 2 and E 1 are the radii of parallel arcs which will describe the pattern of the first division above the cen1 2
3 4 C, 4 5
B
and 5 6 A.
252
ter zone,
The
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
2 are the radii describing the of the second zone, and so on. pattern
3
and
D
and
D
the centers
D
1
,
Fig. 454;
and A', Fig. 457.
as
The
in
Fig. 455; B , Fig. 456, pattern for the smallest section,
C
1
l
,
From E
l
in Pig.
453
as center, with
E
2 and
E
1
indicated
as radii, strike the arcs 2 2
and
1 1 indefinitely.
Step
radius equal
by F to F
the plan, 6 in the plan.
may be
The
struck by a center belt or
Fig. 455.
Pattern of Zone 3
1.
.
453.
Pattern of Zone
1 2.
Fig. 456.
Pattern of Zone 4
i.
Pig. 457.
Pattern of Zone 5
6.
Fig. 452.
Plan and Elevation.
Fig. 454.
Pattern of Zone 2
3.
Fig. 458.
Pattern of Middle Zone.
To Construct a Ball in any Number of Zones.
off the
1
1
length on the corresponding plan line, and make equal to the whole of it, or a part, as may be dein this
sired
case a half.
In like manner describe
zone, shown in the profile by 1 0, is a flat band, and is therefore bounded by straight parallel lines, the in the elevation, and the length measwidth being 1
as shown, struck from patterns for the other pieces,
ured upon line 1 of the plan,
all as
shown
in Fig. 458.
Pattern Problems.
253
PROBLEM
The Patterns
for a Semicircular
125.
Pipe with Longitudinal Seams.
By
self,
with
the nature of the problem the pipe resolves itrespect to its seetioii or profile, into some
In the illustration presented in Fig. is employed, but any other reg
the profile
15
ABC
and C back upon
regular polygon.
iait
drawing the
D F II G E and project the points N R and complete the elevation by semicircles O U and P T.
an oetagoual form
By
the inspection of the diagram it is evident that for the sections corresponding pattern
elevation may be from the drawing as it pricked directly is now constructed, and that the patto in the
UTP
terns for the sections represented by E and F of the profile will be plain straight strips of the width of one side
A
D
of the figure, as
shown by either
E
A or
D F, and
the lines
length corresponding to the of the sweep of the elevation on length
in
N L V and R X S, respectively.
virtue of the bevel or flare
of
By
P,
as
the pieces
shown by
N L V U T A B
and R X S T and C D of
Fig. 459.
Elevation and Section.
Fig. 480.
Pattern.
A
ular shape
Semicircular Pipe with Longitudinal Seams.
used, and the patterns for it will be L be Let cut by the same rule as here explained. semicircle around which an octagonal pipe is to be any
may be
N V
the profile, each becomes onehalf of the frustum of a above or below the point W. right cone, with its apex Therefore prolong C D of the profile until it cuts the center line
curried.
Draw
Through
Let
W
N R
passing through the center W. draw the perpendicular L K indefinitely. be the required diameter of the octagon.
line with
N V,
L
K of
MD
to
and
M
C
Then the elevation in the point M. are the radii of the pieces corresponding
P T S R of
the elevation. Also prolong the side
A B,
Immediately below and iu
N R
construct
or, for greater
convenience,
its
equivalent,
E
G, until
it
254
The X'n
M'i'tl
Worker Pattern Book.
Then M' cuts the center line in the point M'. M' E are the radii of the pieces corresponding to
G
and
NLV
K
1
UO
of the elevation.
From
M'' in Fig.
460
1
as center,
The essential points to be observed arc the circle. placing of the profile in correct relationship to the elevation and to the central line L K, after which prolong
tin
using each of the several
definitely, as
off the
1
radii in turn, strike
arcs inS'.
oblique sides until they cut the central
line,
thus
shown by N' V,
O'
U P
1
,
T' and
the elevation, Fig. 457, length Step Draw N' O' of Fig. 45S equal to it. and makeN O will conThen and U' radial to W.
in
N
L V
V
V
N
1
VU
N
L
establishing the radii by which their patterns may be In the case of elliptical curves, by resolving struck. them into segments of circles and applying this rule
to each
1
1
segment, as though
it
were
to
be constructed
of the stitute the pattern for the pieces In like manner establish the length of P' elevation.
V UO
alone and distinct from the others, no difficulty will be met in describing patterns by the principles here set
forth.
T
1
,
as
and draw P' R and T S shown. Then P T S R
1
1 1
,
also radial to the center,
1
The
several sections
may be
united so as to
1
1
1
will
be the pattern for
produce a pattern in one piece
their radial lines.
in
by joining them upon
the pieces
PT SX R
of the elevation.
may be employed for carrying any polygonal shape around any curve which is the segment of a
This rule
This principle is further explained the pattern for the curved molding in an elliptical
in
window cap
126.
Problem 128.
PROBLEM
The Blank
for
a Curved Molding.
As
metal
in
curved moldings necessitate a stretching of the order to accommodate them to both the curve
machinery
taken to
designed
for
that
purpose,
the
care
being
make
the widtli of
flaring strip suffi
of the elevation or plan
and the curve
of the profile at
cient to include the stretchout of the curve of the pro
Fiy. 461.
Obtaining the Blank for a Curved Core or Ovolo Molding.
Fig. 462.
Obtaining the Blank for a Curved Ogee Moldiny.
be considered
the same time, the patterns for their blanks can only as flaring strips of metal in which the
file.
tums
of cones
Blanks for curved moldings thus become frusand are cut according to the principles
curve of the elevation or plan only is considered. The curve of the profile requires to be forced into them by
of regular flaring articles, as explained in the preceding The method of determining the exact flare problems.
Pattern Problems.
255
necessary to ]>ro<luco a certain mold with tin greatest facility is a matter to be determined l>y tho nature of
the profile and tho kind of machinerv to lie used in forming the same. I'sually a line is drawn through the extremities of the profile, as shown at D in
as
though the side
E C
were to be
straight.
Through
the center of the article draw the line
B F
and draw a
A
line through the points C and E the sides, which produce until it meets B F in the Then F E will be the radius of the inside of point F.
indefinitely, of one of
either of the two illustrations
here given, Figs. 401
it
and
t(i2,
and
is
continued until
meets the center
line,
the pattern. The radius of the outside is to be obtained by increasing F C an amount equal to the excess
for length of radius, as
shown
at F.
Therefore, to describe the pattern of the blank
from which
to
make
to the elevation
AGED,
a curved molding corresponding proceed in the same manner
E C over the straight line E C, as shown by the distance C S. Then F S is the radius of the outside of the pattern. The length of the pattern
of the curved line
can be obtained as in previous problems.
PROBLEM
The Patterns
In Fig.
in
4ii.'{
127.
for
Simple Curved Moldings in a
of a
Window
it
Cap.
is
shown the elevation
window
essary for joining
to the face
and roof pieces
will
be
cap. are required of
the construction of
which two curved moldings the same profile, but curved in opposite
obtained in one piece. The method of developing the for the blank is the same for both curves. The pattern
II
10
3
Fig. 464.
B'
Blank for Center Piece.
Fig. 403.
Elevation or
Window
Cap.
Fig. 465. Blank for Side Piece.
Thf Patterns for Simple Curved Moldings in a Window Cap.
directions.
It is
advisable to include as
much
in
one
two pieces
rolls, it
will raise to the
form by the same dies or
piece as can be raised conveniently with the means at hand; therefore, the curved part of the profile with its
lillets
being necessary only to reverse them in the machine. Before the blank for the middle piece can
or straight parts adjacent and the two edges nee
be developed
it
will
be necessary
to first construct
a
256
section
file
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
ing to points 9, 10 and 11 of the stretchout, thus completing this pattern. For the pattern of the carved molding forming the end portion of the cap proceed in the same general
upon the center line, as shown atS K; from all center of the curve upon the points in the mold and the Draw center line project horizontal lines to the right.
K, to represent the face of the and at S draw the profile of the mold, as shown. The principle to be employed in striking the pattern is simply that which would be used in obtaining the envelope of the frustum of a cone of
any
vertical line, as
H
cap in the
section
manner.
as
of the curve, as
Upon any line drawn through the center N L M, construct a section of the mold. shown at R. From N draw the perpendicular X !>
Through the average
of the profile R, as
indefinitely.
which
AD
is
the axis.
The
in establishing the taper of
general average of the profile is to be taken the cone, or, in other
B in before explained, draw the line to B, cutting as shown. of the the point B, Lav off the stretchout
profile
N
words, a line is passed through its extreme points. Draw a line through the profile in this manner and proD in the point A, all as long it until it intersects
the
upon this same manner
line,
commencing
at the point 1, in
From any
tern, as
tion,
as explained in the previous operation. convenient point, as B' in Fig. 465, as center,
shown by C
which
A
C
is
A the apex of A. Then A the side and H D the top of
is
with radius
B
1,
describe the inner curve of the pat
the cone, of the frustum.
shown, which in length make equal to the eleva
Divide the profile S, as in ordinary practice for stretchouts, into any number of spaces, all as shown by the
Transfer the stretchout of the profile S small figures. on to the line C, commencing at the point 1, as shown, letting the extra width extend in the direction
small figures, after which
1
measuring upon the are 1, all as shown by the add the outer curves, as
A
shown by E E". The straight portion forming the end of this moldas shown in the elevation, is added by drawing, at ing,
a continuation of the angles to the line E B lines of the molding of the required length, as shown
5
1
right
in
,
464, describe the pattern, making the with radius C, length of the arc equal to the length of the correspond
of C.
From any convenient
center, as
A in Fig.
A
ing 'arc in the elevation, all as shown by the spaces and numbers. From the same center draw arcs correspond
of the pattern a the ordinary rule for by such purposes, to join to the return at the end of the
the
pattern.
is
Upon
this
end
square miter
to be cut
cap.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
In Fig. 466
tion of a
is
is
128.
an
Elliptical
for the
Curved Molding:
in
Window
Cap.
shown the elevation and
elliptical in shape,
vertical sec
window cap
the face of which
Then the stretchout, as indicated by the small figures. of the middle segment S is the radius of the pattern
R
molded.
In drawing the elevation such centers have
will
of the cap.
been employed as
produce the nearest approach to a true ellipse after the manner described in Problem 76 of Geometrical Problems, page 65. The centers B, D and
F, from which the respective segments of the elevation have been described, may then be used in obtaining patterns as follows Through the center F, from which
:
With
the radius
as
file, lay off
the dividers, measuring down from the proon P distances equal to the length of
K
the arc forming the middle part of the cap is drawn, and at right angles to the center line of the cap G H, draw
A B, as shown by the point O, and of C 1), shown by the point M. Through these (mints () and M, at right angles to P K, draw lines cutting S R Then U S is the radius for in the points T and U. the pattern of the segment C E of the elevation, and T S
In C. the radius of the pattern for the segment order to obtain the correct length of the pattern, not only as regards the whole piece, but also as regards
the length of each arc constituting the curve, step off the length of the curved molding with the dividers
A
Project a section on the center as shown by P at the right, the line line of the cap,
the line I
K indefinitely.
K
P
K being used as a common basis of measurement upon which to set off the semidiameters of the various cones of which the blanks for the moldings form a part. Through the average of the profile, as indicated, draw S R, producing the line until it meets I K. Divide the profile of the molding in the usual manner and lay off
upon any line of the elevation most convenient, as shown, numbering the spaces as indicated, and setting off a like number of spaces upon a corresponding line
of the
pattern.
As
a matter
both of convenience ami
Pattern Problems.
257
of
accuracy,
in
greater in the
the spaces used in measuring the arcs arc one of longest radius and are diminished
length
all
the corresponding arc
in
the
1
elevation,
as
those of shorter radii, as will be noticed tion of the diagram.
by examinaare obtained
line
shown by the small figures. From C draw the C D to the center by which this arc was struck.
1
1
To
as
lay off the pattern
after the
radii
Draw any described, proceed as G' II' in Fig. 467, from any point straight line, in which, as F with radius equal to R S, as shown
al>o\e
as follows:
1
,
an arc, as shown by E'G'; and from the same center, describe other arcs corlikewise,
1'V
F
1
E',
describe
iile.
responding to other points in the stretchout of the proMake the length of the arc E' G equal to the
1 1
length of the corresponding arc in the elevation, as described above. From E' to the center F by which this
,
was struck, draw E' F'. Set the dividers to the distance U S as radius, with which, measuring from
arc
Fig. 467.Blank for the
Curved Molding.
Fig. 486.
Elevation and Section of
Window
Cap.'
The Pattern for the Curved Molding in an Elliptical
Window Cap.
the distance
along the line E' F establish D' as center, from which describe arcs corresponding to the points in the profile,
1
,
Set the dividers to
T S
in the section,
1
1
as
shown from
E' to C'.
Make
E'
C
1
equal to the
and, measuring from C' along the line C D establish the point B from which as a center strike arcs cor,
1
,
258
The
Xew
Metal
Worker Pattern
B<j<jk.
responding to those already described in
the
other
and
draw
the
line
A'
IV.
Then A' C
to
1
E'
G'
is
section of the pattern. Make the length equal to the of the corresponding segments in the elevation, length
the half pattern
elevation.
corresponding
A
E G
of the
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of
129.
an Oblong Raised Cover with Semicircular Ends.
In Fig. 468 let B C D represent a side elevation of the cover of which E G F is the plan or of the vessel it is to fit. Various constructions shape
A
H
may be employed
that
in
making such a cover
as this
;
is, the joints, at the option of the mechanic, may be placed at other points than shown here; the principle used in obtaining the shape, however, is the
same, whatever
may be
the location of
the
joints.
By
inspection of the elevation and plan it will be seen that the shape consists of the two halves of the en
joined by a straight piece. for the pattern proceed as follows At any Therefore, 2 convenient point lay off B C", in length equal to B
velope of a right cone,
:
1
C' of
plan. radius equal to
arcs,
the
From B and C" as centers, with A B or C D of the elevation, deseriKe
2
as
shown by
N
and P M.
Upon
measured from
and P, respectively, stretchout of the semicircular ends, as shown in plan, thus obtaining the points and N. From draw
B', and from
these arcs, set off the
Fig. 46S.
Elevation,
Plan and
1'attern of an Oblong Raised Cover with Semicircular Ends.
N
M
draw
M M C\
N
3
right angles to the line B" C'', B of the elevation, length equal to
From B and C draw B" K and C L,
3 2
at,
,
the slant hight of the article.
Connect
will
K
and L,
as
in
shown.
pattern.
Then
NKLMP
be the required
A
which represents
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a Regular Flaring Article
130.
which
Is
Oblong with Semicircular Ends.
In Fig. 469,
let
ABD
C be
the side elevation of
the required article. Below it and in line with it draw a plan, as shown by E c d F G. From D in the
from the elevation, necessary, to meet C
it
H
elevation erect the perpendicular D L. represents the flare of the article and C D
of
Then L C
is
radii of the
meets d H, as curved parts of the pattern.
must be prolonged, if D extended. Produce C I) until shown by y. Then y D and g C are
this
line
the width
Lay
off
on a straight
line
MO
in Fig.
470, the
the pattern throughout. Across the plan, at the where the curved end joins the straight sides. point
draw the
article.
line
d
H
at right angles to the sides of
the
length of the straight part of the article, as shown in draw S At right angles to the plan by c d. and K indefinitely. Upon these lines set off from
M
M
As
the plan
may be drawn
at
any distance
M and
the distance g C, locating the points
S and $,
Pattern Problems.
259
all at
the
centers
for
the curved
('
portions of the pattern..
strike the are
(Mid,
instead of
From S with
initely.
the radius y
M
I"
indef
ner such changes
one end, as shown. In like manbe made as are necessary for may
center describe the arc
In like manner, with same radius, from R as V. From the same centers,
with radius equal to g D, describe the arcs
NT
and
P
.W. Step
curved part of the article either the inner or outer line of the plan, and make upon
off the length of the
the corresponding arc of the pattern equal to it, as T and 1' W. Through the shown by the spaces in
N
draw lines from the centers S and R, them until they cut the outer arcs at U and producing V. At right angles to the line S T U or K V, as
points
T and
W
W
the case
may
be, set off
V X Y W,
equal to
MO
P
N",
which
will be the other straight side of the pattern.
Then
UMOVXY
it
WPNT
will
be the complete
pattern in
If
one piece. were desired
to locate the
seam midway
in
T
Fig. 49.
Plan and Elevation.
Fig. 470.
Pattern.
The Pattern of a Regular Flaring Article Which
is
Oblong with Semicircular Ends.
one of the straight sections, in adding the last member as above described, onehalf would be placed at each
locating the seam at any other point, or for cutting the pattern in as many pieces as desired.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of a
131.
Regular Flaring Oblong Article with Round Corners.
In Fig. 471, article and E F G
are arcs of
ACD MN
circles,
B is the side elevation of the P B the plan. The corners being struck by centers H, L, T
in line
shall correspond.
Through the
the plan
by which the corners
H and L of M N are struck, FG and
centers
draw F
shown.
N
and
S, as
shown.
Draw the plan
with the
ele
elevation
in the different views vation, so that the same parts
C D Then
Prolong the side line of the indefinitely. until it cuts F in the point K, as is the radius of the inside line of
N
KD
2GO
the pattern of the curved part, and of the outside line.
TJie
New
is
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
to right angles to it lay off O , equal elevation. Draw N' W, and draw the arc N'
1 1
K
C
the radius
N
X
M"
of the in the
the straight line E' F of Fig. 472, in length to the straight part of one side of the article, or E equal F of the plan. Through the points E and F', at right
Draw
1
1
angles to the line
E
1
1
F',
draw
lines indefinitely, as
shown
K Upon these lines set off, E the distance K C, locating the points K
by E
1 1
U
and F
1
.
from
F and
1
1
,
and U, the
K
to
From K', with the radius centers for the curved parts. strike the arc F which in length make equal C, ,
1
G
1
FG
1 ,
of the plan.
From G draw
1
a line to the center
K
at right angles to
which erect G'
equal to
GM
of the plan.
in length In like manner, with like
,
M
1
radius, describe the arc
E
1
R'.
Draw
R
1
U,
at right
N
fig471.
Plan and Elevation.
Fig. 472.
Pattern.
The Pattern of a Regular Flaring Oblong
Article
With Round Corners.
angles to which erect
At
the
right angles to
R P equal to R P of the plan. R P draw P V indefinitely. In
1 1
,
1
1
1
manner above described establish the center V, and from it describe the third arc P' 0'. Draw O V. At
1
In the as already described. ner lay off the inner line of the pattern, as and in yfe r p o n ra'. Join the ends M'
same manner
same manshown by
m
M m
a
1
1
,
1m*
completing the pattern sought.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
of the
132.
Is
Frustum
of a Cone, the
Base of Which
an
Elliptical Figure.
is very frequently used in pans and and therefore in Fig. 473 is shown an elevation plates, and plan of what is familiarly termed an oval flaring
This shape
pan.
L
Let that part of the plan lying between H and is at U, and let those porII and L and \\ be arcs whose tions between V and
be an arc whose center
Pattern Problems.
centers are, respectively,
261
R
and
S.
an elevation of the vessel, and
plan
as to
is
C D B represents so connected with the
of
A
N
0.
From
lines
the points
H
and
L
of the arc
first
draw
to
A, thus intercepting the arc
off
NO
drawn and
show the
step
is
relationship
corresponding
points.
determining its length. In the diagram, Fig. 474, set
line II
from
II,
on the
The
Fig. 474,
first
1>\
to construct a diagram,
shown
in
U, the distance
means
of
which the lengths
of the nidii to
be used
Draw
describing the pattern are to l>e obtained. the horizontal line II U indefinitely, and at right
in
it
angles to
draw
II
A,
indefinitely also.
Make
II
U
of the plan. equal to R the points R and I thus established, Then, through draw the line R B, which produce until it intersects
of the plan, Fig. 473. the point C, set off C I,
H, making it equal to R II Also, upon the line C G, from
R
N
Make II C equal of the plan, Fig. 471. equal to II to the vertical hight of the vessel, as shown in the
U
A
H.
Then
R B
will
of the pattern lying
be the radius for those portions between V and H and L and of
W
w
Fig. 473.
Plan and Elevation.
Fig. 474.
Diagram of
the
Radii.
Fig. 475.
is
Pattern of One Half.
The Envelope of the Frustum of a Cone,
Base of Which
an
Elliptical Figure.
D X. Draw the line C G parallel to II U, making C G in length equal to U N of the plan. Through the points U and G thus established draw the
elevation
by
the point H, on the line A, Fig. B of Fig. 475, set off the distance B, equal to 474. Then, with B as center, describe the arc E II,
the plan.
From
H
H
R
line
in the G, which continue until it meets II will be the radius by which to Then point A. describe that portion of the pattern which is included
U
A
AU
and from a corresponding center, C, at the opposite end on pattern, describe the arc L K. 'From the same centers, with B I as radius, describe the arcs N M and
U between the points H and L of the plan. With as as radius, and from any convenient point as center A, Fig. 475 draw the arc II L, which in length make
as shown by the equal to II L of the plan, Fig. 473, From the same center, and with points 1, 2, 3, etc. G of Fig. 474, describe the parallel arc the radius
1
A
O
P,
all
as shown.
Make
H E
P
and
L
K
in length
equal to II
E
and
respectively, draw cepting the arcs
of the plan. lines to the centers
L
K
From E and K,
B
NM
and
in the points
and C, interand P.
M
Then E
i
KPM
will be onehalf of the
complete pat
A
terns of the vessel.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
Let E C article, and I
the plan
it
1 1
133.
of a
HeartShaped Flaring Tray.
G F G C of Fig. 476 be the plan of the N O K the elevation. By inspection of
be seen that each half of
it
will
consists of
one being struck from D or D as center, and the other from C or C as center, the junction between From C the two arcs being at G and G', respectively.
two
1
arcs,
1
262
draw C F, and likewise draw C G.
The Neiu Metal Worker Pattern Book.
Upon
the
point
Lay
off the
perpendiculars
XU
and
P $
indefinitely.
1
D
1
C'. erect the perpendicular To obtain the radii of the pattern construct a dia
D
1
Upon P
from P, set off P R, equal to 1)' C of the plan, and on X U, from X, set off X W, equal to D' c of
8,
Fix. 476.
Plan and Elevation.
n
Fig.
478.
Pattern.
R. 477.
Diagram of
Uadii.
The Pattern of a HeartShaped Flaring Tray.
gram, shown in Fig. 477, which
is
in reality a section
the plan.
In like manner
Draw P in Fig. 477, of the plan. to the straight hight of the article. in length equal
upon the
line
CG
X
the plan, and R. S and
U
W
X U equal
make P S equal to C G of C .7 of the plan. Connect Produce P X indefinitely in the directo
Pattern Problems.
tion of Z.
tin
263
Also produce
R
W
until
it
meets
P X
in
point Y. and in like manner produce S I" until 'it meets P Z in the point Z. Tlien / I" and 'A S are the radii for that portion of the article contained between
Z
to G F of the plan. In like manner, with radius from the same center, describe the arc y'f, in I", Draw/' F'. Set length equal to #/ of the elevation.
ei[tial
of]'
G
and K
of the plan,
and
V
(i
\V and
to
Y Rare
the radii of
that portion
shown from
E
of the plan.
lay out the pattern after the radii are estabdraw anv straight line, as Z' G* in Fig. 47s, in lished,
To
upon the line G Z', the distance R Y of 477, as shown at Y', and from Y as center, with Fig. 2 the radius R Y, describe the arc G E', which in length make equal to G E of the plan. In like manner, from tin; same center, with radius Y "W, describe the arc
from
G
2
2
,
1
length equal to
ter,
Z S
of the diagram.
with
Z S
as radius, describe the
From arc G* F
Z' as cen1
.</'
,
in length
equal to the arc g c of the plan. completing the required pattern.
'''.
Draw
c'
E
1
,
thus
PROBLEM
The Pattern
of
134.
an Oval or EggShaped Flaring; Pan.
B C D in Fig. 479 represent the elevation Let I is the plan. the article, of which L B' The plan is constructed by means of the centers O, P, F and F , as indicated. The patterns, therefore, are
of
A
1

construct a section of the article as
it
A K
1
M
cut on the line
A P
1
of the plan.
would appear if Therefore set off,
at right angles to
it,
A P
2
3
,
equal to
A
1
P.
Make
P
5
D" equal to the straight hight of the
article, as
f'
Fig. 4HO.
Diagram of Small Cone.
Fig. 479. Plan
and Elevation.
Fig. 481.
Diagram of Middle Cone.
Fig. 482.
Diagram of Large Cone.
An
Oval or EggShaped Flaring Pan.
struck
by
radii obtained
from sections
is
of the several
shown by
which
will
it
R D
of the elevation.
to
cones of which the article
composed.
At any
con
diagram equal
longing
D P
1
of
the
Make D 1 A" of Draw A plan.
1
1 .
the A',
venient place draw the line
nitely,
P
2
P',
Fig. 480, indefi
corresponding to
P
of the plan,
and upon
it
correspond to A D of the elevation, pro2 until it meets P P' in the point P Then
New
Metal Worker Pattern
the radius of the outside line of the pattern 3 and I of the plan, and P' of the portion between is the radius of the line inside of the same part. 2 In like manner draw the line O O , Fig. 481,
1
P A*
is
From
well as at
inspection
it
is
evident
at
K
A
might have been commenced
1
upon any
k of the plan. of the other divisions
I
i,
K
the pattern other point as any If the joint is desired
that
between the
it
arcs, as
and construct a section corresponding to O of the plan, 3 2 B as shown by O 2 B 2 C C taken on the line 2 2 Produce B C until it meets O O in the point O
1
L
I,
M
m, or
the method of obtaining
will
be so
.
,
2
1
1
.
nearly the same as above narrated as not to require If the joint is wanted at some special description.
Then O C and O B are the radii of the pattern of that portion of the article contained between L and of the plan.
1
2
1
3
M
point in one of the arcs of the plan,
as, for
example,
Draw
spond
to
the line
or
F F
3
2
,
Fig. 482,
which
F"
shall corre
F
F
1
of the plan.
1
Make
E
equal to the
3
and lay off F' L at right straight hight of the article, 2 to F L of the plan, and E Z equal angles to it, equal 3 Draw L ?, which produce until to F .1 of the plan. 2 1 2 3 Then F 2 I and F L ! , it meets F F in the point F
1
.
radii of the pattern of those parts respectively, are the of the plan. I L and shown by To lay off the pattern after the several radii are
K
M
2
draw any straight line, obtained, as described above, 4
in length equal to F L , as shown by F 2 2 and from F* as center, with F V and F
3
K in
L
3
,
Fig. Fig.
1
483,
482, as radii,
strike arcs, as
shown by
1
&'
Z
and
1
KL
4 ,
,
which
in length
make equal
I,
to the corresponding arcs
of the plan upon it set off
K L and k
from
1
as
shown.
Draw L F
and
Z
toward
F
4
,
O
C' of Fig. 481, establishing of in length equal to I which strike the arc T , from the same center, In like manner, the plan. of Fig. 481, strike the arc L with radius O
,
1
a distance equal to 3 from the point O
m
1
m
1
1
B',
M
1
,
equal in
which produce
of the plan. length to L 6 in the direction of F
4 ,
M
Draw M' O making M' F
3
,
Fig.
4S3.The Pattern of an Oval or
E;/gShaped Flarimj Pan.
b
F from which center continue the inner equal to i\ which in length line of the pattern, as shown by In like manner, from the i of the plan. must equal
K
m
m
1
F center, with radius 3 1 and draw I F the arc
same
2
L
M
1
1
.
Fig 482, describe off on this line from Set
of
3
line x across the plan, producing meets the center by which that arc of the it until it In laying off the pattern, commence plan is struck. with a line corresponding to X F in place of F K', and from it lay off an arc corresponding to the portion
at
X x,
draw the
X
1
4
,
3 of Fig. 480, thus estabP a distance equal to P' Describe the arc t" k, in length center P lishing the In like manner, from the to i k of the plan.
3
.
A
of the arc in the plan intercepted by Proceed in other respects x.
X
tin
,r,
as
shown by
as
XL?
there
same
above
of Fig. 480 describe P center, with the radius of the plan. arc I K", in the length equal to I the
1
equal
described until the line k
K
2
same
A
2
1
K
must be added an amount cut from the first part
above described,
of the plan.
or, in
obtained, against which arc corresponding to the
is
Place the straight edge against the points P 2 thus completing the pattern. and draw
3
and
K
2
of the plan by other words, equal to
X as XKkx
a;,
K
k,
Pattern Problems.
265
PROBLEM
The Envelope
In Fig.
4S4, let
135.
of
of the
Frustum
of a Right Cone, the
Upper Plane
Which
Is
Oblique
to Its Axis.
C B D E
lie
tin
elevation of the
1)
center lying in
it
draw a
half plan of the article, as
required shape.
til
Produce the sides
C B and K
lie
unof
thev intersect at A.
Then
A
shown by F
G
II.
will
the
:i]>ex
Divide this plan into any number of equal parts, and from the points carry lines
the axis until they cut the base line, and from there extend
parallel
to
them
^in
the direction of the apex
upper plane B D. Place the Tsquare at right angles
until they cut the
to the axis, and, bringing it against
the several points in the line B D, cut the side E, as shown. From
A
A
as center,
with
arc
AE
C' E',
as
radius,
describe
the
on which
lay off a stretchout of either a half or the whole of the plan, as may
be desired, in this case a half, as shown. From the extremities of
this stretchout,
C and
1
E',
to the
center, as C'
A
draw lines and E A.
1
Through the several points in the stretchout draw similar lines to the
center
A,
as
shown.
With
the
the compasses set at A, the pencil to the point D in bring the side E, and with that radius
point of
A
describe an arc, which produce until it cuts the corresponding line in the
stretchout, as
shown
at
D
1
.
In like
manner, bringing the pencil against the several points between D and E
in the elevation, describe arcs cut
ting
Fit/. 4*4.
the
The Enrelopf of
th<
Rif/hf Oblique to its Ajrin.
Frustum of a
Cone Whose Upper Plane
is
lines of the stretchout.
corresponding measuring Then aline
(raced
will
through these intersections form the upper line of the
the
entire
the cone of which
axis
C B
DE
is
a frustum.
lignre,
Draw
the
pattern,
the
A
G, which produce below the
and from a
tained in
C
1
pattern B' D' E
of
1
half
being con
.
PROBLEM
The Envelope
of a Right
136.
Is Oblique to Its Axis.
Cone Whose Base
be the elevation of u right In Fig. 485, let G D cone whose base is oblique to its axis, the pattern of
H
It will be necessary first to assume is required. section of the cone at right angles to its axis as a any
which
Tlie
Xew
Metal
Worker Pattern Book.
This base upon which to measure its circumference. can be taken at any point above or below the ol>li<iu>
base according to convenience. Therefore at right angles to the axis
O, and Extend the
D
through the point G, draw the line axis, n.s shown by D B, and upon
the cone as
it
G
it
F.
draw a plan of would appear when cut upon the line G F, as shown bv ABC. Divide the plan into any convenient number of equal parts, and from the points thus obFrom the apex D, tained drop lines on to G F. the points in G F, draw lines to the base through
Pattern
G
II.
From D
as center, with
DG
as radius, describe
an arc indefinitely, on which lay off a stretchout taken all as shown by I K. From from the plan the center D, by which the arc was struck, through
ABC,
M
the points in the stretchout, draw radial lines indefiPlace the blade of the Tsquare nitely, as shown.
F, and, bringing it against the parallel to the line in the base line, cut the side several points H, as
G
D
shown, from F to II. the other successively to the points passes in D, bring in F II, and describe arcs, which pro1, 2, 3, 4, etc.,
With one point of the com
duce until they cut the corresponding
lines
drawn
Elevation.
^^
through the stretchout, as indicated by the dotted traced through these Then a line, lines.
ILK,
as points of intersection,
shown,
will
complete the
reFig.
quired pattern.
Jj8S.Thf Envelope of a Cone whose Base
is
Obliqur to
its ATI'S
PROBLEM
A
In Fig. 486
is
137.
Conical Flange to Fit Around a Pipe and Against a Roof of One Inclination.
shown, by means of elevation and
B plan, the general requirements of the problem. I represents the represents the pitch of the roof, G through it, and C D F E the required flange pipe passing
A
HK
P R of the plan, it does not pass through the center of the oblique cut E F in the elevation, or, what is the of the plan. same, For the pattern of the flange proceed as shown in
N
fitting
around the pipe
at the
line
C D and
against
Fig. 481,
which
in the lettering of its parts is
made
to
the roof at the line
E
F.
The
flange, as thus drawn,
becomes a portion of the envelope of aright cone. At any convenient distance below the elevation assume a horizontal line as a base of the cone upon which to measure its diameter, and continue the sides downward till they intersect this base line, all as shown
at
Divide the correspond with Fig. 486, just described. 11 into half plan P any convenient number of parts in
X
and from each of the points thus established erect perpendiculars to the base of the cone, Fmni these points obtaining the points 1', :>', 3 etc. draw lines to the apex of the cone \V cutting the
this case twelve
1
,
.
L M.
Also continue the sides upward
till
they
in
oblique
line
W, the apex. Below the elevation is shown a plan, and similar points in both news are connected S T represents the pipe the lines of projection.
tersect at
shown.
E F and the top of Inasmuch as C D cuts the
the flange
('
1>.
as
cone
at right angles
by and
to its axis, the line in the pattern corresponding to it will be an arc of a circle; but with E F, which cuts the
While the pipe is made to pass the flange. the center of the cone, as may be seen by exthrough in the elevation, and also amining the base line L
NO
cone obliquclv to
point in
it
its
axis, the ease
is
different, eaeli
M
being Accordingly, the several points
at a different distance
in
E
from the apex. F, obtained by
Pattern Problems.
267
the lines from the plan drawn to the apex \V, must Intransferred to one of the sides of the cone, where their
fore from
distances from \Y can he accurately measured. There3 3 in K l'\ draw lines 2 3 the points 0", I
:i
the plan P 11, all as shown hy 0', 1", 2', 3", etc. From these points draw lines to the center \V,us shown. With one point of the dividers set at AY and the other
in
X
,
,
,
ut right angles to the axis of the cone
the side
\V
W M,
as
shown.
With
W
as
AY X, cutting center, and with
brought successively to the points obtained in AY by the horizontal lines drawn from E F, cut the corresponding lines in the stretchout of the pattern, as indicated line traced through hy the curved dotted lines.
M
M
as radius, strike the arc 1"
11'
indefinitely, and.
A
w^i
Fig.
46.Plan and Elevation.
Fig. 487.
Pattern.
Inclination.
A
Conical Flange to Fit
Around a Pipe and Against a Roof of One
1
with the same center and with
the arc
WD
as radius, strike
D' indefinitely, which will form the boundAt anj convenient disary of the pattern at the top. tance from draw AY P', a portion of the length of
C
1
these points, as E F', will represent the lower side of As but onehalf of the plan has been the pattern.
M
which
tern.
will
form the boundary of one end of the patP' K',
used in laying out the stretchout, the pattern C' E F D' thus obtained is but onehalf of the piece required. It can be doubled so that the scam can be made to
1 1
On
in
equal
commencing with P', set off spaces and the same in number as the divisions length
come through the short
long side at
side at
C
E, or through the
D
F, at pleasure.
PROBLEM
The Pattern
for
138.
a
Cracker Boat.
sides of the dish are parts of the frustum of a right
LetE F
A
B C D E
G, in Fig. 4SS, be the side elevation, the end, and I J L the plan of a dish
H
K
cone.
sometimes called a cracker boat or bread
trav.
The
the plan have been addc] the circles showfrustums of which the sides are a part, ing the complete
To
268
Tlie
New
Metal Worker Pattern Book.
being the centers, all of which will appear from an inspection of the drawing, and below is While in further shown a side view of this frustum.
clear
L and
K
Before the pattern can be described it pleted cone. will be necessary to draw a half elevation of the cone
U V Z,
K'
T',
to the same, as in Fig. 480.
Z'.
showing the end view of the tray in its relation Draw any center line, as From the point L', as center, strike the arc K'
being onefourth of the plan of top, as shown by Tin Fig. 488. Below the plan of top draw onehalf of frustum of cone, as shown by V'X' w' in which
'
K
',
draw the end elevation of boat A' B' C' X' K', letting X' be one of its sides, and extend the line b' B'
V
B"
Divide the part of plan through the arc K' T' at B". T' into any convenient number of parts, and from
the points carry lines parallel to the center line or axis until they cut the top line u' V, and from there extend
in the direction of Z' until they cut the line B' C'. Place the Tsquare at right angles to the axis, and, bringing it against the several points in the line B' C',
them
which represents the shape tion of side, cut the side
center, with Z'
V
V X'.
shown by E C F
as shown.
in eleva
From
I' J',
Z' as
as radius, describe the arc
upon
which lay
plan
B"
As the part of the a stretchout of plan. T' corresponds to B' C', which shows onehalf
off
of one side of boat, and as this part of plan is divided into
three
parts,
six
of
these parts are spaced off on the arc I' J and num
bered from
to
1
to 4,
and 4
1, 4 being the center
line.
in
the
Through these points stretchout draw
lines to the cen
measuring
ter Z',
as
shown.
AVith
one point of the compasses
set at Z', bring the pencil point up to the several
and C' in points between the elevation, and describe
arcs cuttingmeasuringlines of corresponding numbers
V
in the stretchout; then a line traced through these points of intersection will form the line I' K' J', showFig. 488.Plan
and Elevations.
Fig. 489.
Pattern.
ing the upper line of the pattern for one side of the
boat.
The Pattern for a Cracker Boat.
the plan the top and bottom of the sides have been shown parallel, in the side view the top appears curved
at C, the cut
obtain the bottom line of the pattern, with Z' as center and radius Z' X', describe the arc M' N'.
To
BC
producing which curve being shown by of the end view.
until they
Extend the sides IT "W and V X of the frustum meet at Z, which is the apex of the com
Divide the plan of bottom of boat, as M T X in Fig. 488, into any convenient number of equal parts, in this case six, three on each side of the center T, and starting from the center line 4 of pattern, space off three spaces each way on the arc M' N', thus establish
Pattern Problems.
269
ing
to
the points the points
M' and N'
M
and
N
of pattern, corresponding of plan. By drawing the
lines
boat,
M' I' and N' J' the pattern for one side of the shown by E F H G in elevation, is completed.
PROBLEM
Pattern for the Frustum of a Cone
139.
Fitting: Against
a Surface of
Two
Inclinations.
In Fig. 490, let of a cone, the base of it lit against a roof of
A
B C D
represent the frustum
which is to be so cut as to make two inclinations, as indicated by
the points already established in the side B G of the cone, strike arcs as shown by the dotted lines, cutting meas
P R D.
Continue the lines of the sides of the cone
until they meet in the point X, the apex of the complete cone. Through the of the cone draw the line R, representing the apex axis of the cone, meeting the ridge of the roof in the
A
B and D C upward
is
which
X
point R, and continuing
downward
in the direction of
Y, as
shown.
A