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V.

PERSONS CRIMINALLY LIABLE

A. Principals – Art. 17
People v. Yanson-Dumancas, G.R. No. 133527-28, 13 December 1999, 320
SCRA 584
People v. Maluenda, G.R. No. 115351, 27 March 1998, 288 SCRA 225
People v. Montealegre, L-67948, 31 May 1988
People v. Madali, L-67803, 30 July 1990

B. Accomplices – Art. 18
Abejuela v. People, G.R. No. 80130, 19 August 1991, 200 SCRA 806
People v. Doble, L-30028, 31 May 1982, 114 SCRA 131
People v. Doctolero, G.R. No. 34386, 7 February 1991, 193 SCRA 632
People v. De Vera, G.R. No. 128966, 18 August 1999, 312 SCRA 640
Garces v. People, G.R. No. 173858, 17 July 2007

C. Accessories – Art. 19 and 20 (RPC); PD 1612; PD 1829
People v. Talingdan, L-32126, 6 July 1978, 84 SCRA 19
Dizon-Pamintuan v. People, G.R. No. 111426, 11 July 1994

VI. PLURALITY OF CRIMES

A. Compound crime (delito compuesto)
People v. Tabaco, G.R. No. 100382, 19 March 1997
People v. Valdez, G.R. No. 127663, 11 March 1999
People v. Sanchez, G.R No. 131116, 27 August 1999, 313 SCRA 254

B. Complex crime proper (delito complejo)
People vs. Hernandez, L-6025-26, 18 July 1956, 99 Phil. 515
Enrile vs. Salazar, G.R. No. 92163, 5 June 1990, 184 SCRA 217
People v. Garcia, G.R. No. 141125, 28 February 2002
Batulanon v. People, G.R. No. 139857, 15 September 2006

D. Continuing crime (delito continuado)
People v. Madrigal-Gonzales, L-16688, 30 April 1963
Gamboa v. Court of Appeals, L-41054, 28 November 1975
People v. Mallari, G.R. No. L-58886, 13 December 1988
Santiago v. Garchitorena, G.R. No. 109266, 2 December 1993

D. Composite Crimes/Special Complex Crimes
1. Art. 266-B
2. Art. 267
3. Art. 294
4. Art. 297
5. Art. 320
E. Complex crimes in relation to Quasi-crimes
Ivler v. San Pedro, G.R. No. 172716, 17 November 2010

VII. PENALTIES

A. Imposable penalties

1. Principal penalties

a. Capital punishment – Sec. 19, Art III of the 1987 Constitution; RA
7659, RA 8177; RA 9346; Art. 40 and 47 Revised Penal Code; RA
9346
People v. Bon, G.R. No. 166401, 30 October 2006

b. Afflictive penalties

i. Reclusion perpetua – RA 7659, Art. 27 of Revised Penal Code
People v. Lucas, G.R. No. 108172, 25 May 1994;
People v. Lucas, G.R. No. 108172, 9 January 1995;
People v. Latupan, G.R. No. 112453, 28 June 2001

ii. Reclusion temporal
iii. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification – Article 30
iv. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification – Art. 31
v. Prision mayor – Art. 27

c. Correctional penalties – Art. 27, 39, and 44
i. Prision correccional
ii. Arresto mayor
iii. Suspension
iv. Destierro

d. Light penalties – Art. 27, 39, and 44
i. Arresto menor
ii. Public censure

e. Common penalties – Art.25
i. Fines – Art. 26, 39, and 66
ii. Bond to keep the peace – Art. 27 and 35

2. Accessory penalties – Art. 40 -45

a. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification
b. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification
c. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the
profession or calling
d. Civil interdiction
e. Indemnification
f. Forfeiture or confiscation of the instruments and proceeds of the offense
g. Payment of costs

3. Subsidiary penalty – Art. 39 See also: RA 10159

B. Application and computation of penalties

1. General rules – Art. 5, 21, 28, 29 (see also RA 10592), 46, 73-77
2. Specific Rules
a. Complex Crimes (Art. 48)
b. Crime different from that which was intended – Art. 49
c. Effect of degree of participation and stage of commission – Art. 50 -57,
60-61
d. Additional penalty for certain accessories – Art. 58
e. Impossible crimes – Art. 59
f. Effect of mitigating, aggravating, and qualifying circumstances – Art.
62-66
g. Incomplete justifying or exempting circumstances – Art. 67 and 69 h.
Minors – RA 9344

3. Indeterminate Sentence Law
People v. Lanuza, G.R. No. 188562, 17 August 2011
Talampas v. People, G.R. No. 180219, 23 November 2011
People v. Temporada, G.R. No. 173473, 17 December 2008. See CJ Puno
Dissent and J. Corona Separate Opinion C. Execution and service of
penalties

1. General rules – Art. 47, 70, 78, and 86-88,
In re Petition for Habeas Corpus, Pete Lagran, G.R. No. 147270,
15 August 2001, 363 SCRA 275

2. Probation Law (PD 968 as amended) See also: RA 10707
3. Suspension of sentence
a. In cases of insanity – Art. 79
b. Minors
i. Section 31-35 of AM No. 02-1-18-SC
ii. RA 9344

VIII. EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY

A. Total – Art.89-93
Sermonia v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 109454, 14 June 1994
Republic v. Desierto, G.R. No. 136506, 23 August 2001, 363 SCRA 585
See also: Act No. 3326 as amended by Act No. 3763
Romualdez v. Marcelo, G.R. No. 165510, 28 July 2006

B. Partial – Art. 94-99; See also: amendments under RA 10592

Cruz III v. Go, G.R. No. 223446, 28 November 2016

IX. CIVIL LIABILITY ARISING FROM CRIMINAL LIABILITY – ART. 100-113

People v. Bayotas, G.R. No. 102007, 2 September 1994.