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Comparison of polymerization shrinkage

of pattern resins
Sarah B. Gibbs, DDS, MDS,a Antheunis Versluis, PhD,b
Daranee Tantbirojn, DDS, MS, PhD,c and Swati Ahuja, BDS, MDSd
College of Dentistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center,
Memphis, Tenn
Statement of problem. The dimensional stability, in particular polymerization shrinkage, of pattern resins affects the
accuracy of implant prosthesis fabrication. Recently introduced photopolymerizing pattern resins are easy to use, but their
shrinkage needs to be determined and compared with traditional autopolymerizing pattern resins.

Purpose. The purpose of the study was to compare the polymerization shrinkage of photopolymerizing pattern resins with
autopolymerizing pattern resins.

Material and methods. Two autopolymerizing (DuraLay, GC Pattern resin) and 2 photopolymerizing (Primopattern LC Gel,
Primopattern LC Paste) pattern resins were tested. The sample size was 10 for each group. Polymerization shrinkage was
determined by measuring the change in area dimensions with image analysis. The percentage of volumetric shrinkage
was calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed with ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc
test (a¼.05).

Results. The volumetric shrinkage values (%; mean standard deviation) for GC Pattern Resin were 5.72 0.89; for DuraLay,
5.07 1.36; for Primopattern LC Gel, 5.42 1.83; and for Primopattern LC Paste, 7.43 0.62. The volumetric shrinkage of
the Primopattern LC Paste was significantly higher than that of the other 3 materials.

Conclusions. The photopolymerizing pattern resin in gel form (Primopattern LC Gel) had a similar shrinkage value to the
autopolymerizing pattern resins (DuraLay and GC Pattern Resin). However, the photopolymerizing pattern resin in paste form
(Primopattern LC Paste) shrank significantly more than the other 3 materials tested. (J Prosthet Dent 2014;112:293-298)

Clinical Implications
Clinicians should be aware that the photopolymerizing pattern resin in
paste form has a higher shrinkage value than that of the traditional
autopolymerizing pattern resins and the photopolymerizing pattern resin
in gel form. The higher shrinkage may affect the accuracy of implant
prosthesis fabrication.

The accurate transfer of implant by fabricating a cast with verified The autopolymerizing acrylic resins
position to working casts with the ul- implant positions captured by means commonly used for implant device
timate goal of passively fitting implant of impressions incorporating splinted fabrication are GC Pattern Resin (GC
prostheses is an important aspect of copings or impression devices fabri- America) and DuraLay (Reliance Dental
prosthodontics.1-3 A passively fitting cated from autopolymerizing acrylic Mfg Co). Both these methacrylate-
implant restoration can be achieved resins.4-6 based pattern resins are supplied as

This study is based on a graduate thesis (June 2013).

Former Resident, Department of Prosthodontics.
Professor, Department of Bioscience Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center.
Associate Professor, Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center.
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center.

Gibbs et al
294 Volume 112 Issue 2
powder and liquid that need mixing to values ranging from 4.5% to 6.4%. A necessarily comparable. The purpose of
initiate the polymerization reaction. In more recent study using a strain gauge this study was to determine and compare
2009, new pattern resins were intro- technique found that GC Pattern Resin the polymerization shrinkage of various
duced (Primopattern; Primotec), which produced less microstrain than DuraLay pattern resins. In dental research, total
have been described as “a light cured II for splinting implant impressions.13 shrinkage has been determined by
universal modeling resin, ready to use For their pattern resin, GC reports poly- measuring fluid displacement (dilatom-
one-component-material, available as merization shrinkage of 0.36% after 30 eter),11,17 changes in density (buoyancy
modeling gel and modeling paste.”7 minutes and 0.37% after 24 hours but method),12,18 dimensional changes
In general, photopolymerizing mate- does not specify the method used to (measured with a 1-dimensional trans-
rials have an advantage over their auto- determine the shrinkage.14 ducer),19 or optical techniques (analysis
polymerizing counterparts because of The shrinkage values reported by GC of before-and-after images).20 In this
their ease of handling and reduced are relatively low compared with values study, a new, simpler optical method that
fabrication time.8,9 All resin-based ma- reported for other resins.11,12 Shrinkage did not require any dedicated shrinkage
terials exhibit polymerization shrinkage. values can be affected by the method of measurement equipment was used to
The polymerization shrinkage of pattern measurement.15 For example, some measure the change of a surface area
resins contributes to distortion in resin-based materials exhibited a 0.33% projection. The null hypothesis was that
implant prosthesis fabrication9,10; this is ‘postgel’ shrinkage measured with a the volumetric shrinkage values of pho-
a concern, because the production of strain gauge technique while exhibiting topolymerizing pattern resins do not
high-quality restorations demands ac- a 1.76% ‘total’ shrinkage measured with differ from those of autopolymerizing
curacy. Several methods have been used a linometer.16 Postgel shrinkage is the pattern resins.
to determine the dimensional accuracy portion of shrinkage responsible for
or polymerization shrinkage of acrylic shrinkage stresses, and total shrinkage MATERIAL AND METHODS
resins.8,11-13 Cho and Chee8 measured is the overall change in dimension. For
dimensional accuracy as changes in gap pattern resins, the total shrinkage is The total polymerization shrinkage
distance between copings indexed with most relevant, because the overall of 4 pattern resins was determined. The
DuraLay, GC Pattern Resin, and a new dimensional changes of a device are materials were 2 autopolymerizing
photopolymerizing resin. With a com- more important than potential residual acrylic resins, DuraLay (Reliance Dental
bination of a dilatometer and an induc- stresses in the polymerized resin. Mfg Co) and GC Pattern Resin (GC
tive transducer, Mojon et al11 found a To date, no information regarding America); a photopolymerizing gel
24-hour volumetric shrinkage of 7.9% polymerization shrinkage of the photo- (Primopattern LC Gel; Primotec); and a
for DuraLay resin. Danesh et al12 used polymerizing Primopattern resins has photopolymerizing paste (Primopattern
a hydrostatic method to evaluate been published. In addition, the values of LC Paste; Primotec). The sample size
the volumetric shrinkage of light- autopolymerizing pattern resins reported was 10 per group. Manufacturers and
polymerizing and autopolymerizing by different authors were not measured material information are listed in
resins for occlusal splints and reported by using the same method and are not Table I.

Table I. Materials information

Materials DuraLay GC Pattern Resin Primopattern Primopattern LC Paste

LC Gel
Manufacturer Reliance Dental GC America Primotec Primotec
Mfg Co
Composition Powder: Powder: Polymethyl Acrylic resins Neopentylglykol
Methacrylate polymer methacrylate Fillers propoxylat-Diacrylat
Dialkyl phthalate Polyethyl methacrylate Initiators 7,7,9-(bzw 7,9,9) Trimethyl-4,
Benzoyl peroxide Dibenzoyl peroxide 13-dioxo-3,14-dioxa-5,
Liquid: Liquid: 12-diaza-hexadecan-1,
Methyl methacrylate Methyl methacrylate 16-dioldimethacrylat
Form Powder-liquid Powder-liquid Syringeable gel Hand molded paste
Polymerizing mode Autopolymerize Autopolymerize Photo polymerize Photopolymerize
Handling Paint brush method Paint brush method No mixing required No mixing required
Batch number Liquid lot 012601 Liquid batch 1205021 Lot 120605 Lot 115136
Powder lot 040706 Powder batch 1006242

Information on DuraLay, Primopattern LC Gel, and Primopattern LC Paste is from material safety data sheets of respective products.

The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry Gibbs et al

August 2014 295

1 A, DuraLay specimen on silicone platform (green). B, Shrinkage measurement setup, consisting of stereomicroscope
with digital camera and imaging software. Monitor shows image capture screen and measurement display.

For the autopolymerizing resins, a Caulk) set against a glass slide to Primopattern LC Gel was dispensed
powder-to-liquid ratio of 0.5 g to 0.3 achieve a very smooth surface directly from its syringe onto the silicone
mL was used. This ratio was determined (Fig. 1A). The pattern resin specimens platforms, and Primopattern LC Paste
in a preliminary trial to give a clinically formed a dome shape because of their was dispensed with a plastic scoop. After
manageable consistency. The manufac- consistency. The specimen dimensions the prepolymerization images were
turers of DuraLay and GC Pattern Resin were approximately 6 mm in diameter captured, the specimens were irradiated
describe a brush technique for creating and a maximum of 2.5 mm in height for 5 minutes with a small polymeriza-
resin patterns, in which a monomer- in the center. The specimens were tion unit (Metalight Mini; Primotec)
soaked brush is used to pick up the placed under a stereomicroscope according to the manufacturer’s rec-
polymer, but they do not provide rec- (SZX16; Olympus) with digital camera ommendations.22 The postpolymeriza-
ommended powder-to-liquid ratios.21 (UC30; Olympus) (see Fig. 1B), and tion images were captured immediately
In this study, the premeasured the prepolymerization images of the after the 5 minutes of irradiation.
powder was added to the premeasured specimens were captured from above By using imaging software (Stream
liquid and hand spatulated for 45 at 1 minute 30 seconds from the start Basic; Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions
seconds for DuraLay and 20 seconds of mixing (Fig. 2B). For the autopoly- GmbH), a minimum of 80 points was
for GC Pattern Resin. The mixing times merizing resins, the postpolymerization traced around the perimeter of the
were based on an assessment of images were made 20 minutes after prepolymerization and postpolymeriza-
workable consistency. The mixture was the start of mixing (see Fig. 2B). The tion images to calculate each speci-
placed on a square silicone platform 20-minute measurement point repre- men’s circumferential area (see Fig. 2).
fabricated from a heavy body impres- sented when these pattern resins were The projected area shrinkage (A) was
sion material (Aquasil; Dentsply ready to be used clinically. calculated by dividing the change in

2 A, Primopattern LC Gel specimen with area measurement at first image captured (prepolymerization image). B, Same
specimen with area measurement at second image captured (postpolymerization image).
Gibbs et al
296 Volume 112 Issue 2
area ðA0  A1 Þ by the original area Pattern Resin, and Primopattern LC All specimens exhibited shrinkage
ðA0 Þ: Gel were not significantly different. after setting. The volumetric shrinkage
ANOVA results are shown in Table III. values of DuraLay, GC Pattern Resin,
A ¼ ðA0  A1 Þ=A0
and Primopattern LC Gel were in the
DISCUSSION same range (5.07% to 5.72%), whereas
Area shrinkage (A) was converted to Primopattern LC Paste had the highest
percentage volumetric shrinkage (V%) by The importance of using a pattern shrinkage (7.43%). Therefore, the null
using the following formula (Table II): resin with the least amount of shrinkage hypothesis that no difference would
for implant impression procedures lies be found between autopolymerizing
V% ¼ 1  ð1  AÞ3=2  100 in the need to accurately reproduce the and photopolymerizing pattern resins
implant position for definitive restora- was partially accepted. The photo-
tions.6,9 The ultimate goal is achieving polymerizing pattern resin in gel form
The differences in shrinkage among an implant framework that exhibits a had the same shrinkage value as the
the pattern resins were analyzed with passive fit without undue fitting stresses autopolymerizing pattern resins, but
1-way ANOVA, followed by the that could be detrimental to connecting the photopolymerizing pattern resin in
Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test screws, abutments, or patient tissues.1- paste form had significantly higher
(a¼.05). 3
Clinicians are familiar with fabricating shrinkage value. Both Primopattern
resin patterns with autopolymerizing products were polymerized for 5 mi-
RESULTS resin and the brush technique and with nutes with the Metalight polymerization
the shrinkage behavior of such resins. unit recommended by the manufacturer
The volume percentage of total poly- The more recently introduced photo- for best dimensional stability given their
merization shrinkage (mean standard polymerizing resins offer handling innovative cooling system. This study
deviation) for GC Pattern Resin was characteristics that can be more con- found that both Primopattern resins
5.72 0.89, DuraLay 5.07 1.36, Pri- venient and reduce chair time.8,10 In gel shrank and that the shrinkage values
mopattern LC Gel 5.42 1.83, and form, the pattern resin is distributed in were equivalent or higher than those of
Primopattern LC Paste 7.43 0.62 a syringe, whereas the paste form can the traditional autopolymerizing resins
(Fig. 3). One-way ANOVA indicated accommodate larger amounts and can DuraLay and GC Pattern Resin. Dura-
that there were significant differences be molded by hand. The objective Lay and GC Pattern Resin are
among the 3 groups (df¼3, F¼6.121, of this study was to investigate how composed of polymethyl methacrylate
P¼.002). The volumetric shrinkage the dimensional stability of these (acrylic resin). According to the mate-
of the Primopattern LC Paste was new photopolymerized pattern resins rial safety data sheets, Primopattern LC
significantly higher than the other 3 compared with the stability of Gel is composed of acrylic resin, fillers,
materials (Student-Newman-Keuls). The the conventional autopolymerizing and initiator, similar to DuraLay and
shrinkage values for DuraLay, GC materials. GC Pattern Resin. The formulation of

Table II. Shrinkage value conversions

Volumetric shrinkage: DV=V0 ¼ ðV0  V1 Þ=V0 ; where V0 is original volume and V1 is volume after shrinkage.
Area shrinkage: DA=A0 ¼ ðA0  A1 Þ=A0 ; where A0 is original volume and A1 is volume after shrinkage.
Linear shrinkage: DL=L0 ¼ ðL0  L1 Þ=L0 ; where L0 is original volume and L1 is volume after shrinkage.
1. Volumetric shrinkage as function of linear shrinkage:
V0  DV ¼ ðL0  DLÞ3 and V0 ¼ L30 ¼ >
DV=V0 ¼ 1  ð1  DL=L0 Þ3 ¼ 1  ðL0 =L1 Þ3 ¼ 3DL=L0  3ðDL=L0 Þ2 þ ðDL=L0 Þ3
DV=V0 w3DL=L0 if linear shrinkage L=L0 is small
2. Volumetric shrinkage as function of area shrinkage:
V0  DV ¼ ðA0  DAÞ3=2 and V 0 ¼ A0
DV=V0 ¼ 1  ð1  DA=A0 Þ ¼ 1  ðA0 =A1 Þ3=2

DV=V0 w3=2DA=A0 if area shrinkage A=A0 is small

3. Area shrinkage as function of linear shrinkage:
A0  DA ¼ ðL0  DLÞ2 and A0 ¼ L20 ¼ >
DA=A0 ¼ 1  ð1  DL=L0 Þ2 ¼ 1  ðL0 =L1 Þ2 ¼ 2DL=L0  ðDL=L0 Þ2
DA=A0 w2DL=L0 if linear shrinkage L=L0 is small

The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry Gibbs et al

August 2014 297
8.0 shrinkage of Primosplint measured with
a hydrostatic method was 5.1% with an

% Volumetric shrinkage
6.0 * irradiation time of 10 minutes and 5.2%
with an irradiation time of 15 minutes.12
These values are close to the 5.42% of
Primopattern Gel found in the present
3.0 study. Other autopolymerizing and
2.0 photopolymerizing resins for occlusal
1.0 splints had volumetric shrinkage ranging
0.0 from 4.5% to 6.4%.12
DuraLay GC Pattern Primopattern Primopattern This study introduced a straightfor-
Resin Gel Paste
ward methodology to measure polymer-
3 Percentage volumetric shrinkage (mean and standard ization shrinkage. The results with this
deviation) of tested pattern resins. Asterisk (*) indicates methodology are similar to reported
significantly higher shrinkage. ANOVA followed by Student- volumetric shrinkage values.11,12 Con-
Newman-Keuls post hoc test (a¼.05).
ventional dilatometer and hydrostatic
Primopattern LC Paste, by contrast, The manufacturer of GC Pattern shrinkage measurement techniques sup-
uses different acrylates that may be Resin reported 0.36% shrinkage after 30 posedly provide a ‘free’ shrinkage value,
responsible for the higher shrinkage minutes and 0.37% shrinkage after 24 which means that the specimens shrink
value. The shrinkage values found for hours. These values are much lower than without any hindering effect from the
the Primopattern LC gel may also have the values found in the present study. surrounding media. In the present study,
been affected by the way the specimens The manufacturer’s information did not a silicone platform was chosen to prevent
were built and photopolymerized in one contain details about the method used the specimens from sticking to the plat-
piece. To create thick layers, the man- or even what shrinkage it was (volu- form during shrinkage, thus allowing it to
ufacturer’s instruction manual recom- metric or linear, postgel, or total). For contract freely. Other platform materials
mends that each 1-mm layer of example, if it was linear shrinkage, the are also feasible, as long as the pattern
Primopattern LC gel be prepolymerized value would be about 3 times less than resin does not stick and the surface is very
with a handheld light for 10 seconds the volumetric shrinkage. Also, postgel smooth. The silicone impression material
or with a light-polymerizing unit for shrinkage values are likely to be consid- fulfilled the nonstick requirement and
1 minute. In this study, the specimens erably lower than total shrinkage could be made very smooth by letting it
were light polymerized for 5 minutes in values.16 Therefore, no meaningful set against a glass plate. Another chal-
a Metalight Mini polymerization unit to comparison could be made between the lenge for capturing the prepolymerization
obtain thorough photopolymerization. data reported by the manufacturer and image of autopolymerizing materials is
The measured shrinkage value of the data found in the present study. In that the transfer from the mixing to the
DuraLay was similar to the values from this study, the volumetric shrinkage of measuring stage will take some time,
the only published study found11 that GC Pattern Resin was 5.07%, similar to during which the material may already
reported 6.5% volumetric shrinkage at DuraLay (5.72%). The similarity in start shrinking. All shrinkage methods
17 minutes and 7.9% after 24 hours of shrinkage found is supported by a pre- have this limitation. For example, Mojon
the DuraLay ‘standard’ mix (1.0 g viously published study that reported the et al11 started capturing the data 2 mi-
powder to 0.8 mL liquid).11 In the same dimensional accuracy for these 2 nutes after the beginning of mixing. The
present experiment, a ratio of 0.5 g resins.8 simplicity of the method used in this
powder to 0.3 mL liquid was used for To date, no report of shrinkage study may reduce the time between mix-
DuraLay, which resulted in a volumetric values for Primopattern is available. ing and the first ‘prepolymerization’
shrinkage of 5.72% at 20 minutes. With The closest product with published shrinkage measurement. In this study, the
less monomer, less shrinkage was found shrinkage values was Primotec’s Pri- prepolymerization image was captured 1
in the present study, as should be mosplint, a photopolymerizing resin for minute and 30 seconds after the start of
expected. an occlusal splint.12 The volumetric mixing. For the photopolymerizing resins,
there may also be an effect of premature
polymerization due to ambient light. This
Table III. ANOVA results for effect of pattern resin on volumetric shrinkage limitation is also true for other testing
Source df Sum of Squares Mean Square F P methods if they are carried out in labo-
ratories not equipped with blue-light
Material 3 27.965 9.322 6.121 .002 (320 to 500 nm) blocking filters. How-
Residual 36 54.821 1.523 ever, the manufacturer of Primopattern
claims that the photopolymerizing
Gibbs et al
298 Volume 112 Issue 2
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The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry Gibbs et al