This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
AMPULES 1. Before preparing to open the ampule, make certain that all of the drug content is in the ampule proper and not in the stem. Rationale: The drug tends to be trapped in the stem and it may be necessary to tap the stem several times to help bring the drug down. 2. Wipe the neck of the ampule with cotton ball soaked in 70% alcohol. Rationale: Wiping the ampule with an antiseptic solution is necessary to remove the dust that might have lodged in it. 3. Use sterile gauze or dry cotton ball to hold ampule while breaking to protect the fingers. Rationale: Sterile material is necessary because it will be in direct contact with the opening of the ampule when the stem is removed. 4. Discard cotton or gauze and the stem and put the ampule down. 5. To remove the drug, insert the needle into the ampule and withdraw the solution being careful not to touch the mouth of the ampule with the needle in order to minimize all chances of contamination. Rationale: The fluid in the ampule is immediately displaced by air, therefore there is no resistance to its withdrawal.
VIALS 1. Remove metal cap by means of a file. Rationale: This exposes the rubber part which is the means of entrance into the vial. 2. Cleanse rubber cap with cotton ball soaked in 70% alcohol. Inject air of the same amount as the solution to be withdrawn. Rationale: This increases the pressure within the vial and the drug can be withdrawn easily since fluids move from an area of greater pressure to an area of lesser pressure. 3. Hold the plunger firmly when withdrawing drugs from vial especially when solution is in large amount.
usual dosage. 3.PARENTERAL MEDICATION Introduction: The safe preparation and administration of parenteral medications is a routine nursing responsibility that requires dexterity. Principles: 1. Rotate injection sites for patients establishing a predetermined plan. but it is generally interpreted as relating to injection directly into the body. freckles and the like. blood vessels and underlying organs. 7. inflammation. 2. Aspirate by pulling back on the plunger (except: heparin) to avoid injecting subcutaneous and intramuscular medications into a blood vessel. Definition: Parenteral drug administration can be taken literally to mean any non-oral means of drug administration. Check for drug allergies before administration of medication. Identify the medication you will administer and observe for side effects and therapeutic actions. Use only sterile needles and syringes. and potential side effects of the drug being given. 5. sterile technique. a knowledge of the actions. Select the injection site carefully to avoid major nerves. 9. Common Routes: . Select appropriate length of needle to deposit the medication in the proper tissue layer. rashes. and the knowledge of how and where to give the drug. by-passing the skin and mucous membranes. moles. 8. Obtain assistance as needed in giving an injection when the patient is a frightened child or an uncooperative adult. 4. It is possible to cause pain while giving the injection but. receiving repeated injections by 6. lesions. Select an injection site that is relatively free of hair. desired effects. focusing on the beneficial effect that the medication brings to the patient will help ease such apprehension.
Intravenous SYRINGES A syringe is a device used for injecting. Intradermal 2. It is important that all parts of a syringe coming into contact with the body be kept free of contamination. hub. needle and the needle's protective cover. Subcutaneous 3. The syringe chosen usually depends on its intended purpose. removing or infusing fluids. They are most commonly known in health care settings for injecting medications and for use in removing blood from the body. Syringes can differ in size and type. PARTS OF SYRINGES . and they can be made of glass or plastic. barrel. Intramuscular 4.1. The syringe consists of a plunger.
The barrel can range in size from 0. It is usually calibrated in tenths (a tenth is equal to 0. Its purpose is to fill or empty the barrel.is located at the end of the syringe and can be made of clouded or colored glass or plastic. blood or a solution drawn from the body.is the part of the syringe that contains the fluid.1 milliliters) to make precise measurements of the quantity of the fluid that is to be given or removed. Barrel .Plunger . The plunger is pulled back to fill the barrel and is pushed forward for emptying. . whether it is a medication.5 mL to 50 mL.
also known as the bore. The lumen. is the pointed end and determines the needle's sharpness. The lumen is chosen with the same specifications as the shaft. most needles are disposable and are thrown out after a single use. terminates into a needle hub.Hub . \ . Protective Cover/Cap . The hub consists of a needle adapter that allows the needle to be attached to the syringe. opposite the plunger. In an attempt to reduce contamination and increase safety. size of the shaft and size of the lumen. lumen and bevel. Needles vary in length.the lower end of the syringe. The needle's bevel is covered to limit the amount of accidents that could happen involving needles and to ensure that only the intended client receives the needle stick.is provided to maintain the needle's sterility. The diameter of the lumen is known by the needle's number gauge.consists of the shaft. The last part of the needle. Needle sticks are a common way of transporting infections to health care providers and clients. and the thickness of the medication. is the hollow space within the needle. The hub also functions to lock the needle in place while using the syringe for its desired function. physical mass of the client. The shaft is the metal's length and is usually chosen depending upon the route and site of administration. Needle . the bevel.
INTRADERMAL OR INTRACUTANEOUS INJECTION It is the introduction of a solution by means of a syringe and a needle into the superficial layer of the skin or just below the epidermis of the skin. 3. To vaccinate. BCG. To diagnose individuals who have developed antibodies against specific pathogens. Purposes: 1. e. Upper chest if not hairy . such as tubercle bacillus. Sites of Injection: 1. Inner surface of the forearm 2. 2.g. To identify allergens to which the patient may be hypersensitive (skin test).
Rationale: Handwashing deters the spread of microorganisms. 5. Sharps Container Procedure: Action 1. 8. Medicine Ticket Solution prescribed Disposable sterile tuberculin syringe Disposable sterile 2cc syringe Disposable sterile needle G25-26. 3. 6. Assess the patient’s history of allergies and note the substances the patient is allergic to and the normal allergic reactions. the nurse should not administer substance if the patient is known to be allergic to prevent its occurrence.1cc of the prescribed medicine . 4.9cc of the diluents and 0. Upper back Equipment: A. 2. 4. Pick up syringe and attached the aspirating needle. Rationale: To ensure that the patient receives the right medication at the right time by the proper route. 5.3. Rationale: Pharmaceutical products for parenteral administration are supplied in various containers. Note: To prepare for skin testing. Wash your hand and assemble all equipment. 6. 3. Follow the basic Five Rights (1st 5 Rights). Check for the physician’s order and assemble all equipment. Rationale: This prevents contamination of the needle and syringe. Proceed as in the procedure of preparing/withdrawing a drug from ampule or vial. withdraw 0. Rationale: Certain substances have similar compositions. 5/8” Disposable sterile aspirating needle A jar of cotton balls soaked in 70% ROH (more than 2 CBs) Waste Receptacle B. 2. 7. Hypodermic Tray lined with sterile towel containing: 1. Rationale: Promotes the patient’s safety by preventing medical error.
Pat dry. Leaving the needle uncapped protects the needle from accidental injury with the needle. Insert the needle only about 1/8 inch. 16. Inform the patient/watcher that you will be back with physician after 30 minutes. Slowly inject the agent while watching for a small wheal or bleb to appear. Rationale: Pathogens on the skin can ba forced into the tissues by the needle. Rationale: Most accidental puncture wounds occur when recapping the needles. 9. Rationale: If a small wheal or bleb appears. Withdraw the needle quickly at the same angle that it was inserted. 11. Rationale: Intradermal tissue will be entered when the needle is held as near parallel to the skin as possible and is inserted about 1/8 inch.7. The physician will interpret the result of the procedure. Do not massage the area after removing the needle. Select an area on the inner aspect of the forearm (or other appropriate sites). 8. An explanation encourages the patient cooperation and reduces apprehension. Use the fish-hook technique to recap the used needle and placed it on top of the hypodermic towel. withdraw the needle slightly. Rationale: This guards against error in medication. If non appears. Pick up syringe and remove the cap. Discard used cotton ball. Rationale: Taut skin provides an easy entrance into intradermal tissue. 13. the agent is in intradermal tissue. Change aspirating needle with G25 or 26 needle. Carry tray to patient’s room. for checking together with the empty ampule or vial of the drug prepared and pink booklet for signing. 12. 15.I. Encircle the wheal with a blue or black pen and instruct the patient and/or watcher not to disturb the wheal nor erase the mark. Place on top of hypotowel. Rationale: The forearm is a convenient and easy location for introducing an agent intradermally. Cleanse the area with a cotton ball soaked in 70% alcohol wiping with a firm. Identify the patient and explain the procedure. With bevel side up. 17. Rationale: Withdrawing the needle quickly and at the angle at which it entered the skin minimize tissue damage and discomfort for the patient. circular motion and moving outward from the injection site.Place the needle 5-15 ° angle against the patient’s skin. Maintain sterility by retaining the cap of the needle. Present preparation to C. Use your non-dominant hand to grasp the dorsal forearm and gently pull the skin taut. 10. A red pen may influence the reading. . 14. insert the needle beneath the skin so that the point of the needle can be seen through the skin. Rationale: This prevents error in medication. Drying the skin will prevent introducing alcohol into the tissues during injection as alcohol is irritating to the tissues and this makes patient ubcomfortable. Allow the skin to dry. Rationale: Massaging the area where an intradermal injection is given may interfere with the results by spreading medication to underlying subcutaneous tissue.
due time and site. Rationale: If the result is doubtful.18. 19. patient’s name. Rationale: Awareness of the procedure done and to give time to contact the physician for interpretation. Endorse the medicine ticket to the NOD. Rationale: The nurse considers the well-being of the patient. Handwashing deters the spread of microorganisms. Rationale: A circle easily identifies the site of intradermal injection and allows for careful observation of the exact area. there may be a need for re-skin testing as ordered. Wash your hands. Observe the area for signs of a reaction within 30 minutes. 22. 21. Write the time injected. .I. Write the positive (+) or negative (-) sign on the appropriate space of the medicine ticket. Accompany the attending physician or ROD to interpret the result. of the procedure done.Inform the C. due time and site at the back of the medicine ticket. 20. Leave the medicine ticket and the used syringe on the hypodermic towel for possible re-skin testing.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.