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www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman

mass charge in refrigerating machines

Naer Vjacheslav a, Andrey Rozhentsev b, Chi-Chuan Wang b,*

a

Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration, Odessa, Ukraine

b

Energy and Resources Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, D500 ERL/ITRI, Building 64, 195-6

Section 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan, ROC

Received 19 July 2000; accepted 6 December 2000

Abstract

A rationally based algorithm was proposed to evaluate the optimal mass charge into refrigerating ma-

chines. The calculated results indicate that the system performance is strongly related to the refrigerant

mass charge. In the early stage of the refrigerant charge process, a sharp rise of COP is observed. The COP

reaches an optimal value for a speci®ed refrigerant charge and shows a slight drop for a further increase of

refrigerant charge. Calculated results reveal similar trends to those of experimental data. The analysis of the

study can well interpret the cycle transformation subject to refrigerant mass charge. Ó 2001 Elsevier

Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The appropriate refrigerant mass charge into the system is an important subject in the design of

refrigerating machines, since it is directly linked to its system performance, stability, and dura-

bility. Usually, the system performance is increased with the refrigerant charge and peaks at a

speci®c refrigerant charge. Further refrigerant charge after this optimal point may decrease the

system performance thereafter (see the test results from Refs. [1±5]). Though the phenomenon has

been well known for a long time, the technique of evaluating the optimal refrigerant charge into

the system is, unfortunately, relied heavily on trial and error which is not only time consuming but

also expensive.

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +886-3-591-6294; fax: +886-3-582-0250.

E-mail address: ccwang@itri.org.tw (C.-C. Wang).

0196-8904/01/$ - see front matter Ó 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 1 9 6 - 8 9 0 4 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 1 6 4 - 3

2084 N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095

Nomenclature

M mass, kg

p pressure, bar

V volume, m3

F area, m2

T temperature, °C

R gas constant, J/kg K

m_ mass rate, kg/s

v speci®c volume, m3 /kg

q density, kg/m3

k coecient of compressor capacity

k coecient of heat transfer, W/m2 K

W power, W

g isentropic eciency

h enthalpy, J/kg

l coecient of dynamic viscosity, Pa s

x quality

Subscripts

eq equilibrium

min minimal

c compressor

evp evaporator

cond condenser

is isentropic

d discharge

s suction

cpl capillary

cr crisis

f liquid phase

g vapor phase

fg liquid±vapor

in inlet

sc sub cooling

amb ambient

a air

^õ object

Fig. 1 shows the progress of refrigerant charge into the system and the related system per-

formance in typical refrigeration cycles. Initially a very small amount of refrigerant charge M1 , as

seen in Fig. 1a, will result in a ``triangular cycle''. In this circumstance, the compressor cannot

N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095 2085

pump the refrigerant to the desired pressure. Therefore, at the outlet of the condenser, the re-

frigerant is in a vapor state, having a temperature close to the ambient temperature (Tamb ). The

throttling process for the pure vapor virtually brings the state to a much higher temperature than

the standard design point before entering the evaporator. By assuming the ideal gas condition, the

equilibrium pressure peq can be evaluated as peqV M1 RTamb for this given refrigerant mass charge

for a known volume V of the whole system.

A slight increase of the refrigerant charge to the value of M2 M1 DM causes the vapor

temperature leaving the condenser to just reach the condensation temperature (Fig. 1b). In this

condition, a slight temperature decrease of the refrigerant during the process of throttling is

observed and the pressure in the evaporator is slightly higher than in the previous case (Fig. 1a),

but the cooling capacity at this temperature level is very poor. Again, the equilibrium pressure peq

can be roughly estimated from the ideal gas law.

A further increase of the mass charge to M3 M2 DM brings the outlet state the of condenser

into the two phase region, but the exit state of the condenser is not fully condensed (Fig. 1c). The

throttling of the two phase mixture causes a larger decrease of the temperature and pressure in the

evaporator which is below the designed value. Though there is some cooling eect, the mass ¯ow

rate in the system appears to be insucient. Hence, a considerable part of the evaporator is

occupied by the vapor. A further increase of refrigerant charge results in a fully condensed state at

the condenser exit (Fig. 1d). Usually, subsequent throttling at this operational condition may

bring the temperature and pressure to the desired values in the evaporator. The installation is able

to function properly, but it tends to be unstable. This is because slight variations of the ambient

temperatures in both the condenser or the evaporator may switch the inlet state of the throttle

device back and forth (between single phase and two phase ¯ow condition). As a consequence,

unstable cooling capacity prevails. Therefore, it is necessary to charge further refrigerant into the

system to avoid this unstable phenomenon. The amount of the refrigerant corresponding to this

operational mode can be regarded as the minimal required mass charge Mmin .

A further increase of refrigerant charge will increase the liquid contents in the condenser

(Fig. 1e). Usually in a nominal operation mode, 10% of a condenser should be ®lled with fully

2086 N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095

condensed liquid. In this region, a further increase of the refrigerant charge may promote opera-

tional stability of the installation but at a cost of higher pressure. Continuing refrigerant charge

into the system results in over¯owing of the condenser. The pressures of evaporation and con-

densation will increase and will cause a signi®cant increase of compressor work and detectable

drop of cooling capacity.

As aforementioned previously, the refrigerant charge into the system has a tremendous impact

on the system performance. However, a rationally based model for evaluating the optimal re-

frigerant charge in a refrigerating machine (such as domestic refrigerators, residential air-condi-

tioners, commercial refrigerating equipment etc.) is simply not available. Therefore, attempts are

made in this study to examine the optimal mass charge into a system. The overall objective of this

study is to propose a rationally based model to determine the optimal mass charge of a refrige-

rating machine.

Apparently the mass charge M (kg) is related to the mass ¯ow rate (m) _ in the refrigeration cycle,

i.e. m_ f
M. The typical refrigeration cycle under investigation is shown in Fig. 2. The refrig-

eration system consists of a compressor, a condenser, a capillary tube and an evaporator. The

total amount of mass within the refrigeration system can be approximated by

M Mevp Mcond
1

where Mevp and Mcond denote the mass within the evaporator and condenser, respectively. The

amount of mass within the condenser is the summation of the mass occupied in the superheated,

saturated, and subcooled region, i.e.

Mcond Mcond;v Mcond;s Mcond;l
2

Similarly, the amount of mass in the evaporator is

Mevp Mevp;v Mevp;s
3

Fig. 2. Schematic of the refrigeration cycle for the present simulated air conditioner system.

N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095 2087

To calculate the mass ¯ow rate within the refrigeration system, it is necessary to consider the

detailed modeling for each component of the refrigeration system. Related details of each com-

ponent is described as follows:

2.1. Compressor

A reciprocating compressor is used as the basic model. Its corresponding mass ¯ow rate m_ c , is

evaluated as follows:

m_ c V_c kqs ;
4

where V_c , k and qs are the compressor displacement, the coecient of compressor capacity, and

the vapor density in the suction line, respectively

The coecient of compressor capacity is evaluated from the following Eq. [6]:

" 1=w #

pcond Tevp

k k1 k2 ; k1 1 c 1 ; k2 ;
5

pevp Tcond

where k1 and k2 are the coecients re¯ecting in¯uence of the clearance volume in the compressor

and heating of the vapor in the cylinder of the compressor; c is a relative value of the clearance

volume in the compressor that depends on the speci®cation of the compressor; w is the polytropic

exponent.

The required work of the compressor is evaluated from the ratio of the enthalpy dierence

between the discharge and suction to its isentropic coecient of performance gis :

hd hs

W m_ c :
6

gis

Calculations of the mass ¯ow rate within the capillary tube depend upon the ¯ow condition.

When the critical mass ¯ow rate is reached
m_ cr , Bittle et al.Õs correlation [7] is used for estimation

of the mass ¯ow rate across the capillary tube:

2 1:369 0:484 2 0:019 2 0:824 0:773 !0:265

m_ cr dc pin Lc dc Cpf DTsc dc hfg vg lf lg

1:893 ;

dc lf vf l2f dc v2f l2f v2f l2f vf lg

7

2 0:417 0:740 0:646

m_ cr d pin Lc 0:981 vg

836:9 c 2
1 x :
8

dc lf vf lf dc vf

Note that Eq. (7) is valid for a subcooled inlet condition and Eq. (8) is appropriate for an inlet

situation having the quality, x. All the thermophysical and thermodynamic properties used in

Eqs. (7) and (8) are based on the temperature and pressure of the ¯ow of the refrigerant at the

inlet of the capillary tube. Related thermophysical and thermodynamic properties of refriger-

ants are obtained from REFPROP [8]. It should be pointed out that the correlation developed by

2088 N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095

Bittle et al. [7] is only applicable for the critical ¯ow condition. If the condition for throttling did

not reach the critical ¯ow condition, the mass ¯ow rate across the capillary tube can be ap-

proximated by the homogeneous ¯ow assumption:

s

2

pdcpl q

dcpl

m_ cpl 2 pcond pevp q;
9

4 4Lcpl f

where Lcpl and dcpl are the length and the inner diameter of the capillary tube, respectively q is the

average density of the refrigerant inside the tube, and f is the corresponding Fanning friction

factor for the two-phase homogeneous ¯ow.

The inlet state of the condenser is assumed to be equal to the state of the discharge outlet of the

compressor
pcond pd ; T2 Td . The capacity of the condenser, Qcond , can be calculated from the

energy equation and the corresponding rating equation:

X

Qcond m_ c Dhi m_ c
h2 h3
h3 h4
h4 h5 m_ c
h2 h5 ;
10

X

Qcond Ui Ai DTi

U sup A sup T2±3 Ta 2±3 Ucond Acond Tcond Ta cond Usub Asub T4±5 Ta 4±5 :

11

The calculated results of Eqs. (10) and (11) allow to determine the refrigerant states 3±5 (Fig. 2)

for subsequent evaluation.

Similarly, calculations of the cooling capacity in the evaporator Qevp are:

Qevp m_ evp
h1 h6 ;
12

Qevp Uevp;s Aevp;s Ta;evp Tevp Uevp;s Aevp; sup Ta;evp Teva; sup :
13

In Eqs. (11) and (13), U, A, and DT are the overall heat transfer coecients, area of the heat

exchanger and eective temperature dierences for the condenser and evaporator (the indexes are

referred to the states in Fig. 2: the process 2±3 is cooling of the superheated vapor, 3±4 is saturated

condensation and 4±5 is subcooling of the liquid phase). Tcond , Tevp , To , Ta are the temperatures of

condensation, evaporation and ambient temperatures of the air ¯ow in the condenser and

evaporator, respectively.

As aforementioned, at refrigerant charge M > Mmin , any insigni®cant increment of mass charge

will over¯ow the condenser and increase the temperature and pressure of condensation. For this

range of the refrigerant mass charge, we have derived an equation that gives the connection be-

tween the increment of the refrigerant charge and the change of condensing temperatures as

follows.

The condenser operates in a stable regime under a heat load Q, thus,

Q UA
Tcond Ta ;
14

N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095 2089

where the overall heat transfer coecient is based on the tube surface area
pDL. At the ®rst

approximation, the small amount of refrigerant charge DM added to the system is assumed to stay

in the condenser. Thus,

p D

DM D2 DLq0 DAq0 :
15

4 4

For the constant heat load Q assumption, at the equilibrium situation, the condenser tries to

compensate for the loss of heat exchanger surface
A DA. This will lead to an increase of the

condensation temperature, i.e.

0

Q U
A DA
Tcond Tair :
16

0

Tcond Tair = Tcond Tair 1= 1 DA=A: 17

By rearranging Eqs. (15) and (17), one can reach the following relation:

1 T0 Ta

4DM

cond : 18

1 2 0 Tcond Ta

pdcond q L3 4

Here, DM is the increment of the mass charge, L3±4 and dcond are the length and the inner dia-

meter of the tubes of the condenser, respectively where the condensation 3±4 takes place; Ta is the

0

average temperature of the air; Tcond and Tcond are the related condensation temperatures before

0

and after mass charge DM; q is the saturated liquid density. Eq. (18) was obtained under the

condition of a constant heat load in the condenser. Therefore, the temperature and pressure of

condensation, evaluated from Eq. (18), should be elaborated between the dependence of the heat

load of the condenser and the mass charge of the refrigerant. Therefore, iterations are needed

before the ®nal state is reached.

To evaluate correctly the refrigerant mass charge into the system, it is essential to keep track of

the major in¯uential parameters, namely the mean densities within the condenser and evaporator

and that at the outlet states of the condenser and evaporator. Apparently, the outlet of the

condenser determines the throttling process. As discussed previously, iterations are needed to

obtain the ®nal state. For the present study, the ith iteration of the associated refrigerant mixture

densities is given as:

Mi DMi

qi ;
19

Vcond

qi2 qi3

qi2 3 ;
20

2

1
1 xi4

vi3 4
1 xi v0i xi v00i ; xi ;
21

qi3 4 2

qi4 qi5

qi4 5 ;
22

2

2090 N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095

1 1

vi4
1 xi4 v0i xi4 v00i ; 0 6 xi4 6 1

qiexit qi4
23

qi exit qi5 ; hi5
T5 ; pi cond < h0i
pi cond :

From Eqs. (19)±(23), the average densities in the whole condenser can be evaluated. The

subscript indexes in Eqs. (19)±(23) correspond to the states of the cycle shown in Fig. 2. From Eq.

(19), the inlet density qi exit into the throttling device is also calculated by considering the state of

the ¯ow. The inlet properties were input into the throttling Eqs. (8) and (9). The value of the

average quality xi of the ¯ow from Eq. (14) is used for evaluation of the average density of the

refrigerant in the region of the two-phase ¯ow in the condenser.

Analogous equations for the evaporator like Eqs. (19)±(23) were used for evaluation of the

mass of the refrigerant. For each refrigerant mass charge, it is assumed that the speci®c enthalpy

at the inlet of the evaporator is equal to that of the outlet of the condenser, i.e. h6
pevp h5
pcond .

The proposed equations Eqs. (2)±(23) set the general basis for obtaining the refrigerant charge. In

addition, there is still need for some auxiliary information to evaluate the above-mentioned al-

gorithm. For instance, the related heat transfer coecients on the air side and tube side, the heat

transfer zones within the condenser and evaporator will be determined during the iteration

process. These basic information can be found from Ref. [9].

3. Algorithm of solution

Basically, the solution algorithm consists of two iteration loops. The inner iteration loop is as

follows:

(2) Guess the suction temperature and a condensation pressure (using Eq. (18)) as the ®rst

approximation).

(3) Use the compressor model shown in Eqs. (4)±(6), calculate m, _ Tdisch and the speci®c work of

compressor.

(4) Calculate the condenser outlet state from the condenser model using the results from step

(3).

(5) Calculate the evaporator outlet state using the results from step (3), then compare the outlet

temperature to the guessed value of step (2). If the outlet state is not the same, repeat steps (2)±(5).

After the convergence of the inner iteration loop, the outer iteration loop is started for ®nding

the condensation temperature:

(1) Based on the calculated results of the inner loop, evaluate the critical mass ¯ow rate m_ cr . If

the mass ¯ow rate obtained from the inner loop is greater than the critical mass ¯ow rate, then the

condensation pressure must be adjusted to a lower value and the inner iteration loop must be

repeated again.

(2) If the mass ¯ow rate obtained from the inner loop is lower than the critical mass ¯ow rate,

use Eq. (9) to obtain the evaporation pressure. If the evaporation pressure is not equal to the

N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095 2091

initial guess, then the condensation pressure must be adjusted, and the inner iteration loop must

be started again.

After the convergence of the inner and outer iteration loops, one can use Eqs. (2) and (3) to

obtain the mass charge.

4. Results of calculation

An example of the calculations, demonstrating the in¯uence of the refrigerant mass charge on

the COP of an air conditioner using refrigerant R-410A, is presented below. The rated condition

of the air conditioner is given in the following.

Evaporation temperature and pressure Tevp 7°C, pevp 10 bar

Ambient temperature Tamb 35°C

Condensation temperature and pressure Tcond 45°C, pcond 27:5 bar

Designed COP COP 3.5 (subject to gis 0:8)

Compressor ± reciprocating type V_c 59:34 10 5 m3 /s

Throttling device ± capillary tube Lcpl 1 m, dcpl 1:5 10 3 m

Tube designation in condenser Lcond 28:27 m, dcond 8:9 0 3 m

Tube designation in Evaporator Levp 12:5 m, devp 8:9 10 3 m

Figs. 3±6 show the results of the calculations. In Fig. 3, the calculated results of COP(M) as a

function to refrigerant charge is illustrated. As seen in the ®gure, the calculated results show an

optimal value of COP(M) near a refrigerant mass charge of 0.4 kg. The optimal condition cor-

responds, approximately to a state having the condenser fully condensed. However, as noted out

earlier, this design point may not be stable due to slight variations of ambient conditions. In

practice, one would design the condenser outlet with a certain amount of subcooling. At the left of

the optimal value, one can observe a sharp rise of COP vs. refrigerant charge. As shown in the

case of Fig. 1(c), the sharp rise is associated with the eective cooling capacity caused by the

eective latent heat transport in the two phase region of refrigerant ¯ow. At the right of

the optimal COP, a mild decrease of COP vs. mass charge is seen. This is because of ¯ooding in

the condenser that may result in higher system pressure. As a consequence, a signi®cant increase

of the required work from the compressor is expected. Fig. 4 is the schematic of the related state of

the calculated results subjected to refrigerant charge variation that gives a clear picture of the

extreme COP phenomenon vs. mass refrigerant charge.

Comparison of the calculated results to the experimental measurements from Ref. [5] are shown

depicted in Fig. 3. One can see that the calculated results show a maximum COP that is analogous

to the phenomenon of the measured results. The calculated COP is about 15±20% higher than that

of the measurements. This is because we did not take into account the mechanical losses of the

compressor and the connections piping in the present simulation. The phenomenon of a sharp

rise and mild decrease of the COP before and after the optimal value is quite similar between

2092 N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095

Fig. 3. Comparison of the calculated results of COP vs. refrigerant charge and the ex-perimental data by Ref. [5].

the calculated results and the measured data. However, the optimal mass charge during the

experiments is close to 0.65 kg as compared to the calculated results of 0.4 kg. The discrepancy

between the calculated results and the experimental data are twofold. Firstly, the present model

does not include the component of a receiver±accumulator. As is known, an accumulator is often

implemented to prevent liquid compression. Notice that the internal volume of the accumulator

used in the experiments is about 1 10 3 m3 . If 25% of the volume is occupied by the liquid

refrigerant, summation of the calculated results with the refrigerant in the accumulator will ex-

actly coincide with the experimental results. Secondly, as reported by Wei et al. [10], in the prac-

tical implementation of an air conditioning system, instead of a straight tube, a coiling capillary is

often used. Depending on the coiling diameter, the reduction of mass ¯ow rate across the capillary

tube can be reduced as much as 12% in comparison with the straight tube. Eqs. (7)±(9) are only

applicable for straight tubes. Hence, one can expect that the calculated results show a lower

optimal mass charge.

Fig. 5 shows the cooling capacity qevp (M) and the speci®c work of the compressor lc (M) vs.

refrigerant charge. The value of the speci®c work of the compressor lc was calculated based on

gis 0:8. It is seen that the speci®c work of the compressor reveals a minimum value near the

maximal value of the COP. It is also noted that the speci®c work increased gradually after the

optimal mass charge. Part of the results is attributed to the increase of condensing pressure and

evaporation temperature. An increase of evaporation temperature will reduce the eective cooling

capacity. The pressure and the temperature in the condenser vs. mass charge are depicted in

N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095 2093

Fig. 4. Schematic of the relation of COP to mass refrigerant charge for the present simulation.

Fig. 5. Variation of cooling capacity qevp and speci®c work of compressor to refrigerant mass charge.

2094 N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095

Fig. 6. Variation of pressures and temperatures in evaporator and in condenser to refrigerant mass charge.

Fig. 6. As shown in Fig. 6, for mass charges M > 0:75 kg, the temperature may increase to an

unacceptable value. This is because the evaporation temperature is above 10°C which will sig-

ni®cantly reduce the eective temperature dierence and eventually decrease the cooling capacity

by more than 15%. In addition, the increase of suction temperature will deteriorate the com-

pressor eciency. As a the summary, refrigerant overcharge may decrease the eective cooling

capacity and overheat the suction temperature which will cause a pronounced performance drop.

5. Conclusions

In this study, a rationally based algorithm was proposed to evaluate the optimal mass charge

into refrigerating machines. The model can take into account the major components of the re-

frigerating system, namely the condenser, evaporator, expansion device and compressor. The

calculated results indicate that the system performance is strongly related to the refrigerant mass

charge. In the early stage of refrigerant charge, it is found that a sharp rise of COP is observed.

The COP reaches an optimal value for a speci®ed refrigerant charge, and shows a slight drop for a

further increase of refrigerant charge. The calculated results give an identical trend to those of

experimental data. In addition, the calculated optimal COP shows a lower value of refrigerant

mass charge. The deviation is due to the presence of an accumulator in actual system design and

the cooling eect of the capillary tube. The analysis of the study can well interpret the cycle

transformation subject to refrigerant mass charge.

N. Vjacheslav et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 2083±2095 2095

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express gratitude for the Energy R&D foundation funding from the

Energy Commission of the Ministry of Economic Aairs, which provides ®nancial supports of the

current study.

References

[1] Dmitriev VI, Pisarenko VE. Determination of the optimal dose of refrigerant for unit of a domestic refrigerator.

Holod Technika 1982;16(3):21.

[2] Damasceno GS, Domanski PA, Rooke S. Refrigerant charge eects on heat pump performance. ASHRAE Trans

Part 1 1991;97:304.

[3] Jung DS, Radermacher R. Performance simulation of single-evaporator domestic refrigerators charged with pure

and mixed refrigerants. Int J Refrig 1991;14:223.

[4] Wei CS, Lin SP, Wang CC. System performance of a split-type unit using R-407C and R-22 as working

refrigerants. ASHRAE Trans Part 1 1997;103:797.

[5] Wei CS, Wang CC. Development of R-410A air-conditioning system and its long-term reliability test. ASIAN

J Energy Environ vol. 1, p. 29.

[6] Plastinin PI. Theory and Calculation of Reciprocating Compressors, Moscow, Agropromizdat, 1987, p. 271.

[7] Bittle RR, Wolf DA, Pate MB. A generalized performance prediction method for adiabatic capillary tubes. Int

J HVAC R 1998;4(1):27.

[8] REFPROP, 1998. Thermodynamic properties of refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures, version 6.0, Gaithersburg,

MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[9] Rohsenow WM, Hartnett JP, Cho YI, (Eds). Handbook of Heat Transfer. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill, 1998.

[10] Wei CS, Lin YT, Wang CC. A performance comparison between coiled and straight capillary tubes. Heat Transfer

Eng 2000;21(2):62.

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