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GENERAL STUIDES (P) TEST – 2432 (2018)

Q 1.C

 The largest number of paintings belong the Mesolithic paintings. During this period the themes multiply
but the paintings are smaller in size. Hunting scenes predominate. In some pictures, animals are chasing
men. In others they are being chased and hunted by men. Some of the animal paintings, especially in the
hunting scenes, show a fear of animals, but many others show a feeling of tenderness and love for
them. There are paintings of people gathering fruit or honey from trees and of women grinding and
preparing food. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
 The paintings of the Chalcolothic period reveal the association, contact, and mutual exchange of
requirements of the cave dwellers of this area with settled agricultural communities of the Malwa
plains. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Q 2.A

 All the statements are correct.

 The Mauryas created for the first time a well-organised state machinery, which operated in the heart of
the empire.On the other hand their conquest opened the doors for trading and missionary activities.
Contact established by administrators, traders and Jaina and Buddhist monks led to the spread of the
material culture of the Gangetic basin to the areas situated on the periphery of the empire.
 The new material culture in the Gangetic basin was characterised by intensive use of iron, plenty of
punch-marked coins, abundance of beautiful pottery called Northern Black Polished ware,
introduction of burnt bricks and ringwells, and above all the rise of towns in north-eastern India. (Phase
of Urbanisation)A Greek writer called Arrian states that it is not possible to record with accuracy the
number of cities on account of their multiplicity.

Q 3.D

 Jizyah was the tax that early Islamic rulers demanded from their non-Muslim subjects. This was a tax in
lieu of military service and was paid on a graduated scale according to means. It was not a pilgrimage
tax. Women, children and indigent who had insufficient means were exempt from it. Hence, statement 1
is not correct.
 Barids were intellegence agents posted in different parts of the empire. Only a nobleman who enjoyed the
fullest confidence of the ruler was appointed as the chief barid. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.

Q 4.D

 Statement 1 is correct: Tantricism bases itself upon mystic speculations concerning divine creative
energy (shakti). It laid great stress on magic rituals.
 Statement 2 is correct: Tantricism did not intend to satisfy the spiritualistic and divine desires but the
materialistic desires of devotees for physical posessions and day-to-day cure for injurues and diseases.
 Statement 3 is correct: It arose as a result of large scale admission of aboriginal peoples in brahmanical
society. It did not believe in any caste or gender bias and admitted both women and shudras in its ranks. It
put emphasis on ‗female‘ as a source of power and energy.

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Q 5.B

 Port-city of Lothal - Harappan times (approximately 3700 BCE).

 Stupa at Sanchi - Mauryan times (Construction started - 3rd century BCE).
 Rock-cut caves at Udaygiri - Post-mauryan times. (Early years of the fifth century CE).
 Shore temple at Mahabalipuram - Pallava period. ( 5th century AD)

Q 6.C

 Samkhya philosphy was put forward by Kapila. It provided the materialistic ontology for Nyaya and
Vaisheshika. It is generally believed that Samkhya philosophy is dualistic and not monistic because it has
two entities, purush (spirit) and prakriti (nature) in it.It believes that world is not a creation of God but
nature and human life is regulated by natural forces. Thus, it does not recognize the existence of
God. Hence, statement 1 iscorrect.
 Samkhya emphasizes the attainment of knowledge of self by means of concentration and
meditation. Samkhya holds that it is the self-knowledge that leads to liberation and not any exterior
influence or agent. Samkhya forms the philosophical basis for Yoga. In Samkhya, the necessity of
God is not felt for epistemological clarity about the interrelationship between higher Self, individual self,
and the universe around us. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Q 7.D

 All are the post Vedic ritual literature.

 Srautasutras laid down the big public sacrifices meant for prince and other three higher varnas
(Brahmin,Vaishya and Kshatriya). Shudras were not allowed to perform sacrifices.
 Grihyasutras laid down the all domestic rituals connected with birth, marriage and funerals.
 Sulvasutras prescribe various kinds of measurements for the construction of sacrificial altars.

Q 8.C

 Gandhara school of art - has Greco-Roman elements in the treatment of sculpture. The Buddha head has
typical Hellenistic elements that have grown over a period of time. The curly hair of the Buddha, the
forehead plane is large having protruding eyeballs, the eyes are half-closed and the face and cheeks are
not round like the images found in other parts of India. There is a certain amount of heaviness in the
figures. The ears are elongated especially the earlobes. The treatment of the form bears linearity and the
outlines are sharp. The surface is smooth. Hence Option c is correct.
 Sarnath school of sculpture - the body is slender and well-proportioned but slightly elongated. The
outlines are delicate, very rhythmic. Folded legs are expanded in order to create a visual balance in the
picture space. Drapery clings to the body and is transparent to create the effect of integrated volume. The
face is round, the eyes are half-closed, the lower lip is protruding.
 Mathura School of art - There is boldness in carving the large images, the volume of the images is
projected out of the picture plane, the faces are round and smiling, heaviness in the sculptural volume is
reduced to relaxed flesh. The garments of the body are clearly visible and they cover the left shoulder.

Q 9.C

 The theme of Mara Vijaya and padmapani bodhisattva has been painted in the caves of Ajanta.
 The theme of shiva chasing the boar - a scene from Kiratarjuniya is painted on the ceiling of the
rangamandapa of Swami temple, Lepakshi,

Q 10.D

 Dashavatar is the most developed theatre form of the Konkan and Goa regions. The performers
personify the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu-the god of preservation and creativity. Hence, statement 1
is correct.
 The ten incarnations are Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narsimha (lion-man), Vaman
(dwarf), Parashuram, Rama, Krishna (or Balram), Buddha and Kalki. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
 Apart from stylized make-up, the Dashavatar performers wear masks of wood and papier mache. Hence,
statement 3 is correct.

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Q 11.A

 The Buddhist stupa consists of a cylindrical drum and a circular anda with a harmika and chhatra on the
top. These parts of stupa remained consistent throughout with minor variations and changes in shape and

Q 12.D
 All the statements are correct.
 Ashokan edicts illustrate the basic attributes of Dhamma- compassion (daya), charity (dana), truthfulness,
purity and gentleness. Ashoka's Dhamma emphasized to promote a harmonious life both in the family and
community. He considered the family as the ideal nucleus for development of Dhamma. Pillar Edict
III asks subjects to control violence, cruelty, anger and envy. Rock edict I calls for a ban on animal
sacrifice. Another important aspect of Dhamma was the generation of mutual respect among people
belonging to different sects and religious communities. Dhamma did not propagate one belief, and
this aspect demonstrates religious toleration.

Q 13.C

 Ajanta is located in Aurangabad District of Maharashtra State. It has twenty-

nine Buddhist rock-cut caves. It has large chaitya- viharas and it is decorated
with sculptures and paintings. Ajanta is the only surviving example of painting
of the first century BCE and the fifth century CE.
 Ellora - It is located a hundred kilometres from Ajanta and has thirty-
two Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jain rock-cut caves. It is a unique art-
historical site in the country as it has monastries associated with the three
religions dating from the fifth century CE onwards to the eleventh century CE.
It has famous Chaitya hall with seated Buddha sculpture. Hence, only
statements 1 and 2 are correct.

Q 14.D
 The Turkish rulers had strong reasons for coveting Malwas and Gujarat. Not only were these areas
fertile and populous, they controlled the western sea-ports and the trade routes connecting them with
the Ganga valley. Another reason for the sultans of Delhi to establish their rule over Gujarat was that it
would secure them a better control over the supply of horses to their armies. The import of Arabi, Iraqi

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and Turki horses to India from the western seaports had been an important item of trade since the eight
century. Hence, all statements are correct.

Q 15.C

 Sri Ramanuja (1017 - 1137 CE), the most important philosopher-saint of Sri Vaishnavam and one of the
most dynamic characters of Hinduism.
 Ramanuja argued that for salvation, the grace of God was more important than the knowledge
about him.
 He further argued that the path of Bhakti was open to all, irrespective of caste, and enrolled diciples from
all castes.
 Unlike the Nayanars and Alvars who distrusted book learning Ramanuja tried to link bhakti with
the tradition of the Vedas. Thus, Ramanuja was a bridge between the popular movement based on
bhakti and upper caste movement based on the Vedas.

Q 16.A

 Jainism did not condemn the varna system as Buddhism did. According to Mahavira, a person is born in a
high or in a low varna in consequence of the sins or the virtues acquired by him in the previous birth. In
his opinion through pure and meritorious life members of the lower castes can attain liberation.
 The Jainas discarded the Sanskrit language mainly patronized by the Brahmins. They adopted the
common language of the people, Prakrit, to preach their doctrines. This not only helped in reaching
out to the masses but also helped in the growth of this language and its literature. Many regional
languages also developed out of Prakrit.
 Mahavira asked his followers to lead a more austere life. He asked his followers to even discard
clothes completely.
 Jainism did not much state patronage as compared to Buddhism but it has managed to retain its
hold over the areas where it spread.

Q 17.B

 The founder of the Rashtrakuta power was Dantivarman or Dantidurga. The Rashtrakuta King
Dantivarman or Dantidurga was contemporary of Chalukya King Pulakesin II. Dantidurga occupied all
territories between the Godavari and Vima. Dantidurga is said to have conquered Kalinga, Kosala,
Kanchi, Srisril, Malava, Lata etc. He annexed Maharashtra to his kingdom by defeating Chalukya King
 The founder of the Chola Empire was Vijayalaya, who was first feudatory of the Pallavas of Kanchi. He
captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. He established a temple of goddess Nishumbhasudini (Durga) there. Aditya
I succeeded Vijayalaya. The climax in Chola power was achieved under the successor of Parantaka II,
Arumolivarman, who crowned himself as Rajaraja I in 985 A D the next thirty years of his rule formed the
formative periodof Chola imperialism.
 The Pala Dynasty was the ruling Dynasty in Bihar and Bengal India, from the 8th to the 12th
century. They were called the Palas because all their names ended in Pala, 'protector'. The founder of the
dynasty was Gopala. Gopala reigned from 750-770 consolidated his position by extending his control
over all Bengal. His successor. Dharmapala , 770-781, made the Palas a dominant power of northern
 Hence, only pair 3 is correctly matched.

Q 18.A

 Khuts and Muqaddams refer to the landlords and village headmen. The khuts and muqaddams were
suspected of passing their burden on to the weaker sections, and not paying the taxes. Alauddin Khilji
through his reforms ensured that they paid taxes on houses and milch cattle.

Q 19.D

 Statement 1 is correct: Chalcolithic people lived in houses made up of Mud bricks. It revealed that they
were not aware of burnt bricks. Burnt bricks mainly associated with mature Harappan culture.

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 Statement 2 is not correct: They had domesticated cows, sheep, goats, Pigs and Camels but not horses.
 Statement 3 is correct: Chalcolithic people cultivate cotton along with wheat, rice, bajra and pulses.

Q 20.D

 In the Deccan and Central India Satavahanas succeeded the Mauryas after a gap of 100 years. After
the disintegration of Mauryan empire, Indo-Greeks occupied large part of North-West India. They
were followed by the Shakas who controlled much larger part of India than the Indo-Greeks did. Both
Satavahanas and Shakas were contemporaries. Infact Shakas were greatest competitors of Satavahanas.

Q 21.D

 Kandariya Mahadev Temple - The largest and most ornate temple at Khajuraho ( Madhya Pradesh) is
the Kandariya Mahadeva, dedicated to Siva. It was probably constructed by Chandela King Vidyadhara
between A.D. 1017 and A.D. 1029. This temple is considered one of the best examples of temples
preserved from the medieval period in India.
 Lingaraja Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Harihara, a form of Shiva and Vishnu and is one of the
oldest temples in Bhubaneswar, the capital of the East Indian state of Odisha.
 Hoysaleshvara temple (Lord of the Hoysalas) at Halebid in Karnataka was built in dark schist stone by
the Hoysala king in 1150. Hoysala temples are sometimes called hybrid or vesara as their unique style
seems neither completely dravida nor nagara, but somewhere in between. They are easily distinguishable
from other medieval temples by their highly original star-like ground-plans and a profusion of decorative
carvings. Dedicated to Shiva as Nataraja.

Q 22.A

 Statement 1 is correct: Buddha, who was in the symbolic form earlier, got a human form in both
Mathura and Gandhara schools of art.
 Statement 2 is not correct: It was the sculptural tradition in Gandhara which had the confluence of
Bactria, Parthia and the local Gandhara tradition. The local sculptural tradition at Mathura became so
strong that the tradition spread to other parts of northern India.

Q 23.B

 The successors of Chandragupta II had to face an invasion by the Hunas (and not Shakas) from Central
Asia in the second half of fifth century AD. Skandagupta tried to effectively stem their march but his
weak successors could not cope with the Huna invaders. The Gupta empire was further undermined by
the rise of the feudatories. Hence, only statements 2 and 3 are correct.

Q 24.A

 Yavanas were Greeks who came to India to purchase pepper with gold and supplying wine and women
slaves to the natives. This has been mentioned in the Sangam literature.

Q 25.C

 In Bijapur, the successor of Ali Adil Shah was Ibrahim Adil Shah II. He was very solicitous of the poor
and thus had the title of 'Abla baba', or 'Friend of the Poor'. He was deeply interested in music, and
composed a book called ' Kitab-i-Nauras' in which songs were set to various ragas. In his songs, he freely
invoked the goddess of music and learning, Saraswati. Due to his broad approach he came to be known as
'Jagat Guru'.

Q 26.C

 The Sun temple at Modhera dates back to an early eleventh century and was built by Raja Bhimdev I of
the Solanki Dynasty in 1026. The Solankis were a branch of the later Chalukyas. There is a massive
rectangular stepped tank called the surya kund in front of Sun temple. The proximity of sacred
architecture to a water body such as a tank, a river or a pond has been noticed right from the earliest

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times.The influence of the woodcarving tradition of Gujarat is evident in the lavish carving and sculpture
work. However, the walls of the central small shrine are devoid of carving and are left plain as the temple
faces the east and, every year, at the time of the equinoxes, the sun shines directly into this central shrine.

Q 27.D

 Statement 1 is correct: Trade with Western Roman Empire ended because of decline of Roman empire.
 Statement 2 is correct: From the late fifth century AD onwards, many silk weavers from the western
coast migrated to Mandasor in Malwa, gave up silk weaving, and adopted other professions. On account
of the decay of trade and towns, the villages had to meet their needs of oil, salt, spices, cloth, etc., on their
own. This gave rise to smaller units of production, each unit meeting its own needs. Hence, by the mid-
sixth century, the silk trade with Iran was stopped.Statement 3 is correct: In trade with China and South
East Asia benefits was reaped by Arab middlemen and Arabs practically monopolized the export trade of
India because of their geographical location.
Q 28.D

The factors behind the expansion of trade and commerce in India during the 17th century:

 Political integration of India under Mughals.

 Establishment of law and order over extensive area.
 Uniform tax was levied on goods at the point of their entry into the empire.
 Road cess was declared illegal.
 Minting of silver coin and making it standard coin throughout India.

Q 29.D

 The darvida style temples were surrounded by high walls and lofty gates. These lofty gates were
called gopurams. Chief deity room was called as grabhagriha. A pillared hall called mandapa was
generally placed in front of the sanctum. The main feature of dravida style was building of storey upon
storey above garbhagriha, which came to be called as vimana.

Q 30.B

 Tulsidas was a contemporary of Akbar. Akbar summoned Tulsidas on hearing of his bringing back a dead
man to life. Tulsidas declined to go as he was too engrossed in creating his verses but he was later forcibly
brought before the Akbar and was asked to perform a miracle, which Tulsidas declined by saying - It's a
lie, all I know is Rama. The emperor imprisoned Tulsidas at Fatehpur Sikri. Hence, Pair 1 is correctly
 Amir Khusrao was a contemporary of the Khiljis. Amir Khusrau went with Alauddin Khilji and has given
a graphic description of the capture of Ranthambore fort. Hence, Pair 2 is correctly matched.

 Surdas, the 15th-century sightless saint, poet, and musician, is known for his devotional songs dedicated
to Lord Krishna. he was born blind in 1479 in Siri village near Delhi. Many others believe, Surdas was
born in Braj, a holy place in the northern Indian district of Mathura.

Surdas' lilting music and fine poetry attracted many laurels. As his fame spread far and wide, the Mughal
emperor Akbar (1542-1605) became his patron.Surdas spent the last years of his life in Braj, the place of
his birth and lived on the donations, which he received in return of his bhajan singing and lecturing on
religious topics until he died in 1586. Although Surdas is known for his greatest work - the Sur Sagar, he
also wrote Sur-Saravali and Sahitya-Lahiri, devotional lyrics dedicated to the Supreme Absolute. Hence,
Pair 3 is not correctly matched.
Q 31.A

 Rajendra Chola I was one of the greatest emperors of the Chola dynasty. He expanded the Chola Empire
from where his father Rajaraja Chola had left. Apart from reaching northwards to River Ganges and
moving overseas to Maldives and Sri Lanka, he also invaded the Southeast Asian territories of Srivijaya in
Malaysia, Indonesia and southern Thailand. He continued to maintain and improve commercial relations

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with China, started off by his father. He assumed the title ‗Gangaikonda Chola‘ (The Chola who took the
Ganges) after defeating the Gangas, Chalukyas, Cheras, Palas, Pandyas, Kalinga and other rulers.

Q 32.B

 Muhammad bin Tughlaq decided to shift his capital from Delhi to Deogir (Daultabad) in the Deccan
because it was more centrally located. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
 Muhammad bin Tughlaq wanted to reform the currency system. An experiment which was launched by
Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the token currency. He issued coins of copper and brass which were to
exchange as equal with silver and gold. Token Currency System was not a totally new thing. Paper
currency in China was known. The Mangol ruler, Qublai Khan, had introduced in the first year of his
reign. The experiment of Tughlq failed largely because the sultan was unable to prevent forging of the
new coins. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
 Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's experiments were not confined to internal matters only; it was also down with
external affairs. His Khurasan project was the first of them. In-order-to fulfill his ambition of a great
conqueror; he planned to conquer the kingdom of Khurasan which was then ruled by Iraq. He recruited
one lakh soldiers for this purpose and paid them one year's salary in advance. Hence, statement 3 is

Q 33.D

 Statement 1 is correct: With the waning of Chola and Pandya power, the Hoysalas of Karnataka grew to
prominence in South India and became the most important patrons centered at Mysore. The remains of
around hundred temples have been found in southern Deccan, though it is only three of them that are most
frequently discussed: the temples at Belur, Halebid, and Somnathpuram. Hoysala temples are sometimes
called hybrid or vesara as their unique style seems neither completely dravida nor nagara, but
somewhere in between.
 Statement 2 is correct: They are easily distinguishable from other medieval temples by their highly
original star-like ground-plans also known as stellate plan and a profusion of decorative carvings.
 Statement 3 is not correct: Since they are made out of soapstone which is a relatively soft stone, the
artists were able to carve their sculptures intricately. This can be seen particularly in the jewelry of the
gods that adorn their temple walls.

Q 34.B

 In the Rig Vedic Age, Land did form a part of well-established type of private property. Wars were fought
for the sake of cows as cows were considered the most important form of wealth. People of the time
prayed not for spiritual uplift but for praja, pasu, food, health and wealth.Hence, statement 1 is correct.
 Their is no historical evidence of standing army in Rigvedic age it was only from the Mahajanpadas age
that the King started maintaining standing army .Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
 Cattle slaughter formed an important part of religious offering. It was one of the reasons that agriculture
remained primitive as enough bullocks were not available for ploughing. Hence, statement 3 is not

Q 35.B

 Balban considered that power and prestige should belong to those who were born in noble houses. Balban
supervised the appointment of all officers and was particular that only people of noble birth were
appointed to higher posts. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
 The accession of Balban to the throne began an era of strong, centralised government. He also organised a
strong centralised army, both to deal with internal disturbance and to repel the Mongols who had
entrenched themselves in Punjab and posed a serious danger to the Delhi sultanate.Hence, statement 2 is

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Q 36.B

 Brihatsamhita is considered to be one of the most important contribution of Varahamihira. This

epic consists of wide range of subjects comprising of human interest, including astrology, planetary
movements, eclipses, etc.

Q 37.B

All the given pairs are correctly matched. With reference to temple architecture in India, the shrines of the
temples were of three kinds:

 Sandhara type - with pradikshinapatha,

 Nirandhara type - without pradakshinapatha, and
 Sarvatobhadra - which can be accessed from all sides.

Q 38.D

 The art of bronze-casting was practised on a wide scale by the Harappans. We find human as well as
animal figures.
 Archaeologists have discovered thousands of seals, usually made of steatite, and occasionally of agate,
chert, copper, faience and terracotta, with beautiful figures of animals. Some seals have also been found in
gold and ivory.
 The bead industry seems to have been well developed as evident from the factories discovered at
Chanhudaro and Lothal. Beads were made of cornelian, amethyst, jasper, crystal, quartz, steatite,
turquoise, lapis lazuli, etc. Metals like copper, bronze and gold, and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt
clay were also used for manufacturing beads.

Q 39.D

 Yaksha worship is characteristic of all the three religions. Yaksha worship was very popular before and
after the advent of Buddhism and it was assimilated in Buddhism and Jainism. They appear in texts of
hindu religious scripts. Yakshas were placed at entrances of Hindu temples to guard the main deity.

Q 40.A

All the statements are correct.

 The state controlled almost all the economic activities in the realm. The state brought new land under
cultivation with the help of cultivators and sudra labourers. The virgin land that was opened to cultivation
yielded handsome income to the state in the form of revenue collected from the newly settled peasants. It
seems that the taxes collected from the peasants varied from one-fourth to one-sixth of the produce.
 Those who were provided with irrigation facilities by the state had to pay for it. In addition to this, in
times of emergency peasants were compelled to raise more crops. Tolls were also levied on commodities
brought to town for sale, and they were collected at the gates. Moreover, the state enjoyed a
monopoly in mining, sale of liquor, manufacture of arms, etc. thus naturally brought money to the
royal exchequer.

Q 41.C

 Odisha is the home of Odissi, one of the many forms of Indian classical dance. Sensuous and lyrical,
Odissi is a dance of love and passion touching on the divine and the human, the sublime and the mundane.
The Natya Shastra mentions many regional varieties, such as the south-eastern style known as the Odhra
Magadha which can be identified as the earliest precursor of present day Odissi.
 For centuries maharis were the chief repositories of this dance. The maharis, who were originally temple
dancers came to be employed in royal courts which resulted in the degeneration of the art form. Around
this time, a class of boys called gotipuas were trained in the art, they danced in the temples and also for
general entertainment. Many of today's gurus of this style belong to the gotipua tradition.

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Q 42.C

 Odisha temples: The main architectural features of Odisha temples are classified in three orders,
i.e., rekhapida, pidhadeul and khakra. Most of the main temple sites are located in ancient Kalinga—
modern Puri District, including Bhubaneswar or ancient Tribhuvanesvara, Puri and Konark. The temples
of Odisha constitute a distinct substyle within the nagara order. In general, here the shikhara, called deul
in Odisha, is vertical almost until the top when it suddenly curves sharply inwards. Deuls are preceded, as
usual, by mandapas called jagamohana in Odisha.
 Assam temples: An old sixth-century sculpted door frame from DaParvatia near Tezpur and another
few stray sculptures from Rangagora Tea Estate near Tinsukia in Assam bear witness to the import of
the Gupta idiom in that region. This post-Gupta style continued in the region well into the tenth century.
However, by the twelfth to fourteenth centuries, a distinct regional style developed in Assam. The style
that came with the migration of the Tais from Upper Burma mixed with the dominant Pala style of Bengal
and led to the creation of what was later known as the Ahom style in and around Guwahati. Kamakhya
temple, a Shakti Peeth, is dedicated to Goddess Kamakhya and was built in the seventeenth century.
 Temples of the Hills: A unique form of architecture developed in the hills of Kumaon, Garhwal,
Himachal and Kashmir. Kashmir‘s proximity to prominent Gandhara sites (such as Taxila, Peshawar
and the northwest frontier) lent the region a strong Gandhara influence by the fifth century CE. This
began to mix with the Gupta and post-Gupta traditions that were brought to it from Sarnath, Mathura
and even centres in Gujarat and Bengal. Brahmin pundits and Buddhist monks frequently travelled
between Kashmir, Garhwal, Kumaon and religious centres in the plains like Banaras, Nalanda and even as
far south as Kanchipuram. As a result both Buddhist and Hindu traditions began to intermingle and
spread in the hills. The hills also had their own tradition of wooden buildings with pitched roofs. At
several places in the hills, therefore, you will find that while the main garbhagriha and shikhara are made
in a rekha-prasada or latina style, the mandapa is of an older form of wooden architecture. Sometimes,
the temple itself takes on a pagoda shape. The Karkota period of Kashmir is the most significant in
terms of architecture. One of the most important temples is Pandrethan, built during the eighth and ninth
centuries. In keeping with the tradition of a water tank attached to the shrine, this temple is built on a
plinth built in the middle of a tank.
 Temples of Bengal: The style of the sculptures during the period between the ninth and eleventh centuries
in Bengal (including Bangladesh) and Bihar is known as the Pala style, named after the ruling dynasty at
the time, while the style of those of the mid-eleventh to mid-thirteenth centuries is named after the Sena
kings. While the Palas are celebrated as patrons of many Buddhist monastic sites, the temples from that
region are known to express the local Vanga style. The ninth century Siddheshvara Mahadeva temple in
Barakar in Burdwan District, for example, shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka and
is an example of the early Pala style. It is similar to contemporaneous temples of Odisha.Many local
vernacular building traditions of Bengal also influenced the style of temples in that region. Most
prominent of these was the shape of the curving or sloping side of the bamboo roof of a Bengali hut. This
feature was eventually even adopted in Mughal buildings, and is known across North India as the Bangla

Q 43.C
 All the statements are correct.
 The major cause behind the rise of new religions lay in the introduction of a new agricultural economy in
the north-east India. The use of iron tools made possible clearance of forests, agriculture and large
settlements. The agricultural economy based on iron ploughshare required the use of bollocks and the
Vedic practice of sacrificing cattle stood in the way. Therefore there was a need of a new religious system
that propagated non-violence towards the animals. Also with the use of punch-marked coins facilitated
trade and commerce carried by the vaisyas which were accorded third rank in the brahmanical society.
Naturally they were looking for a religion which would improve their position.The post- Vedic society
was clearly divided into the four varnas in which the Brahmins were assigned the highest position.
Distinctions were made on the basis of birth. Naturally the varna-divided society seemed to generate
tensions. The kshatriyas reacted strongly against the ritualistic domination of Brahmins which was
one of the main reasons for the rise of new religions. Both Mahavira and Buddha belonged to the
Kshatriya clans.The new forms of private property created social inequalities and caused suffering and
misery to the masses of the people. So the common people wanted to get back to the ascetic ideal life. The
new religions preferred simple, puritan and ascetic living.

9 ©Vision IAS

Q 44.B
 The reign of Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) saw the high watermark of the Gupta empire. His court at
Ujjain was adorned by numerous scholars including Kalidasa and Amarsimha. Banabhatta was present
in the court of Harsha.

Q 45.C
 Statement 1 is correct: During the early phase of Buddhism, Buddha is depicted symbolically through
footprints, stupas, lotus throne, chakra, etc. This indicates either simple worship, or paying respect, or at
times depicts historisisation of life events. Gradually narrative became a part of the Buddhist tradition.
Thus events from the life of the Buddha, the Jataka stories, were depicted on the railings and torans of the
 Statement 2 is not correct: Worship of Yakshas and mothergoddesses were prevalent during 3rd C B.C.
i.e. Mauryan period and after the advent of Buddhism and it was assimilated in Buddhism and Jainism.So,
multiple forms of worship existed. In budhhist worship tradition, worship of female goddesses was
 Statement 3 is not correct: Idol worship was followed in Mahayana and Vajrayana buddhism. Images of
Tara became very popular. Seated on a throne, she is accompanied by a growing curvilinear lotus stalk
and her right hand is in the abhaya mudra.

Q 46.D

For the purpose of assessment the land was classified in Akbar's reign in four categories:

 Polaj land which was cultivated every year and never left fallow
 Parati orparauti land which had to be left fallow for a time to enable it to recover fertility
 Chachar land which had to be left fallow for three or four years
 Banjar land which remained uncultivated for five years or more.

Q 47.B

 Ramacharita is written by Sandhyakara Nandi in 12th century narrates the story of conflict between the
Kaivarta peasants and the Pala prince Rampala, resulting in the latter‘s victory.
 Swapnavasavadatta is a Sanskrit play written by ancient poet Bhasa. It narrates the love story of Vasta
king Udayana and Vasavadatta, the daughter of Avanti ruler Pradyota.
 Malavikagnimitra is also a Sanskrit play written by Kalidasa. It is based on love story of Agnimitra (son
of the founder of Sunga dynasty).
 Ratnavali is also a Sanskrit drama written by Harsha. It is based on love story of princess Ratnavali and
king Udayana.

Q 48.C

 A Code of Gentoo Laws is a English translation of Manusmiriti (a law book by Manu). It was translated in
1776 in order to understand Hindu‘s law by colonial administration.

Q 49.B

 Buddhism did not recognise the existence of god. This appealed to the common people.
 Gautama taught that a person should avoid excess of both luxury and austerity. He prescribed the middle
path or ‗madhyam marga‘.
 Buddha proved to be a practical reformer who took note of the realities of the day. He addressed himself
to the worldly problems. He said that the world is full of sorrows and people suffer on account of desires.
If desires are conquered, nirvana will be attained.

10 ©Vision IAS

Q 50.C

 Theatrical forms - State

 Bhand Pather - Kashmir
 Nautanki - Uttar Pradesh
 Rasleela - Uttar Pradesh
 Jatra - Bengal
 Maach - Madhya Pradesh
 Bhaona - Assam, Bengal, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh,
 Bhavai - Gujrat
 Jatra - Bengal
 Krishnattam, Mudiyettu, Theyyeam, Therukoothu - Kerala

Q 51.B

 The most important outcome of this invasion was the establishment of direct contact between India and
Greece in different fields. Alexander‘s campaign opened up four distinct routes by land and sea. It paved
the way for Greek merchants and craftsmen, and increased the existing facilities for trade.
 Alexander remained in India for 19 months (326-325 B.C.), which were full of fighting. He had barely
any time to organise his conquests, still he made some arrangements. Most conquered states were restored
to their rulers who submitted to his authority. But his own territorial possessions were divided into three
parts, which were placed under three Greek governors. He also founded a number of cities to maintain his
power in India.
 Alexander was deeply interested in the geography of the mysterious ocean which he saw for the first time
at the mouth of the Indus. Therefore he dispatched his new fleet under his friend Nearchus to explore the
coast and search for harbours from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Euphrates. So Alexander’s
historians have left valuable geographical accounts. They also have left clearly dated records of
Alexander‘s campaign, which enable us to build Indian chronology, for subsequent events on a definite
 By destroying the power of petty states in north-west India, Alexander’s invasion paved the way for the
expansion of the Maurya empire in that area.

Q 52.D

The Asthapradhan of Shivaji consisted of following 8 officials:

1. Peshwa, who looked after general administration and finances.

2. Sari-i-naubat or senapati, commander-in-chief
3. Majumdar, who was an accountant.
4. Wakenavis, who was responsible for intelligence, posts and household affairs.
5. Suranavis or chitnis, who helped in correspondence.
6. Dabir, who was master of ceremonies.
7. Nyayadhish, was in charge of justice.
8. Panditrao, was in charge of charitable grants.

All officers except pandit rao and nyayadhish were asked to lead military campaigns. Under Shivaji these
offices were neither herediatry nor permanent - they held office during the king's pleasure and they were
frequently transferred. They were directly paid by the exchequer and no jagir was granted to any civil or
military officer.

Q 53.B

 Burzahom is archaeological site located in Kashmir valley. The site belongs to three periods namely-
Neolithic, Megalithic and Early Historic period. Tools and weapons made up of bones found here in large
number. The Practice of burying domestic dogs with their master in their grave is the unique feature
of the site. People of Burzhom site used Coarse grey pottery.

11 ©Vision IAS

Q 54. A

 Early Buddhist and Jaina texts mention, amongst other things, sixteen states known as mahajanapadas.
Although the lists vary, some names such as Vajji, Magadha, Koshala, Kuru, Panchala, Gandhara and
Avanti occur frequently. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
 Most mahajanapadas were ruled by kings (monarchies). But some of them, known as ganas or sanghas,
were oligarchies, where power was shared by a number of men, often collectively called rajas.
 Both Mahavira and the Buddha belonged to sanghas. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.

Q 55.A

 Statement 1 is correct: The inscription in the Badami Cave No.4 mentions the date 578–579 CE,
describes the beauty of the cave and includes the dedication of the image of Vishnu. Thus it may be
presumed that the cave was excavated in the same era and the patron records his Vaishnava affiliation.
Therefore, the cave is popularly known as the Vishnu Cave.
 Statement 2 is not correct: Paintings in this cave depict palace scenes. One shows Kirtivarman, the son
of Pulakesin I and the elder brother of Mangalesha, seated inside the palace with his wife and feudatories
watching a dance scene. Towards the corner of the panel are figures of Indra and his retinue.

Q 56.B

 The traditional forms of murals are Pithoro in parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, Mithila painting in
northern Bihar’s Mithila region, Warli paintings in Maharashtra, or simply paintings on the walls, be
it in a village of Odisha or Bengal, Madhya Pradesh or Chhattisgarh.

Q 57.D

During the reign of Akbar and his successors four main systems of revenue assessment were prevalent:

 zabti or dahsala system

 batai, ghallabakshi or bhaoli
 kankut and
 nasaq

Q 58.C

 Fernao Nuniz, Domingo Paes, Duarte Barbosa were foreign travellers who visited the Vijayanagar
empire. The Portuguese travellers came to India in the early part of the 16th century. Nicolo has written
specifically about the religious life of the people. He has written about the military also. Barbosa has
written about the rich social life and Dominigo Paes has described the flourishing city of Vijayanagara.
 Ibn Batuta visited India in first half of fourteenth century, during the reign of Muhammad bin

Q 59.A

 Akbar abolished both jizyah and pilgrimage tax. He also abolished the practice of forcible conversion
of prisoners of war. He treated Rajput and Mughal officials equally for e.g Man Singh and Bhagwant
Das rose to mansab ranks of 7000 and 5000 respectively.

Q 60.C

 The Portuguese were hardly able to change the established pattern of Asian trade networks. The Gujarati
and Arab merchants continued to dominate the most lucrative Asia trade, i.e. the trade in Indian textiles,
supplemennted by rice and sugar against which they obtained spices from the South East, gold and horses
from the West Asia and silk and porcelain from China. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
 The Portuguese could not act as a bridge for transmitting to India the science and technology which had
grown in europe since Renaissance. This was partly because the Portuguese were themselves not as

12 ©Vision IAS

deeply affected by the Renaissance as Italy and North Europe. They did however help to transmit a
number of agricultural products from Central America such as potato, tobacco, maize, pea nuts etc.
introduce to India. Hence, statement 2 is not correct and statement 3 is correct.

Q 61.B

 Alauddin Khilji sought to control the prices of commodities like sugar, foodgrains, cooking oil etc. He
kept a check on hoarding and ensured cheap supply of foodgrains. The state itself set up warehouses and
stocked them with foodgrains which were released during famine or if there was a threat of shortfall of
grains. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
 Alauddin Khilji controlled the prices of horses. This was so because, without the supply of good horses to
army at reasonable prices, the efficiency of army could not be maintained. Good quality of horses could
be sold only to the state. The price of a first grade horse fixed by Allauddin was 100 to 120 tankas while a
pony not fit for the army cost 10 to 25 tankas. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Q 62.C

 To propagate dharma within various social groups, Ashoka appointed dharmamahamatras. Whereas
Rajukas, a class of officers were vested with the authority of not only rewarding people but also punishing
them, whenever necessary and administering justice in his empire.

Q 63.B

 The art of bronze-casting was practised on a wide scale by the Harappans. Their bronze statues were made
using the ‘lost wax’ technique in which the wax figures were first covered with a coating of clay and
allowed to dry. Then the wax was heated and the molten wax was drained out through a tiny hole made in
the clay cover. The hollow mould thus created was filled with molten metal which took the original shape
of the object. Once the metal cooled, the clay cover was completely removed. In bronze we find human as
well as animal figures. Techniques of the same nature are practised even now in many parts of the
country, having a continuous tradition.
 Terracotta was used in making seals and pottery. Ornaments made of gold, silver, copper, ivory, pottery
and beads have been discovered in civilisations as ancient as the Harappa and Mohenjodaro.

Q 64.C
 Besides the Sangam texts, there are other important Tamil texts. Tolkkappiyam (written by
Tholkappiyar) deals with grammar and poetics. Tirukkural (authored by Thiruvalluvar) deals with
philosophy and wide maxims. Silappadikaram (by Ilango ) and Manimekalai (by Sattanar) are twin
Tamil epics. Ramavataram is popularly referred to as Kamba Ramayanam and is a Tamil epic that
was written by the Tamil poet Kamban during the 12th century.
Q 65.A
 As per the ancient treatises, dance is considered as having three aspects: natya, nritya and nritta.
 Natya highlights the dramatic element and most dance forms do not give emphasis to this aspect today
with the exception of dance-drama forms like Kathakali. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
 Nritya is essentially expressional, performed specifically to convey the meaning of a theme or idea.
 Nritta on the other hand, is pure dance where body movements do not express any mood (bhava), nor
do they convey any meaning. Hence statements 2 and 3 are not correct.
 To present nritya and natya effectively, a dancer should be trained to communicate the navarasas. These
are: love (shringaara), mirth (haasya), compassion (karuna), valour (veera), anger (roudra), fear
(bhayanak), disgust (bibhatsa), wonder (adbhuta) and peace (shaanta).
Q 66.D
 All of the above the port cities of ancient India situated in Coromandal Coast (Eastern Coast).
 Arikamedu is in present Pondicherry. It was used to trade with Yavanas or Greek traders.
 Mahabalipuram is in Tamil Nadu and it was port cities famous for trade with South East Asia. It is also
famous for Shore Temple constructed by Pallavas.

13 ©Vision IAS

 Kaveripattanam is also known as Kaveri poompattinam or Puhar. It was also capital of early Chola King
Q 67.C
 Some of the aspects of reign of Sher Shah Suri are: He considerably improved the means of
communication. He constructed the famous Grand Trunk Road running from Bengal to Punjab, and
planted trees and established resting places along the roads.
 Sher Shah was the first, among the Muslim rulers to recognize the fact that India was the land of the
Hindus and the Muslims alike and he tried his best to reconcile the two elements as far as possible.
 He extended equal treatment to all sections of his subjects irrespective of the faith they professed.
Some of the most responsible officials, civil and military, were recruited from among the Hindus.

Q 68.C

 The traditional Rod puppet of Bihar is known as Yampuri. These puppets are made of wood. Unlike the
traditional Rod puppets of West Bengal (Putul Nautch) and Orissa, these puppets are in one piece and
have no joints. As these puppets have no joints, the manipulation is different from other Rod puppets and
requires greater dexterity.

Q 69.B

The Lion capital at Saranath originally consisted of five component parts:

1. the shaft (which is broken in many parts now),

2. a lotus bell base,
3. a drum on the bell base with four animals proceeding clockwise (a bull, a horse, an elephant and a lion)
4. the figures of four majestic addorsed lions, and the crowning element.

Q 70.D
 Gita Govinda is a work composed by the 12th-century Indian poet, Jayadeva. It describes the relationship
between Krishna and the gopis of Vrindavana, and in particular one gopi named Radha.
 The popularity of Jayadeva's Gita Govinda is due to many reasons. The first, naturally is the intrinsic
poetic beauty of the work almost unequalled.
 It also lent itself to dance and any conceivable style of music. Again, it was in Sanskrit, thus transcending
many linguistic barriers. Besides all this, the greatest significant force sustaining it is bhakti. Bhakti or
adoration is as old as man. It really is a state of mind beseeching the Lord.
Q 71.D

In the field of mathematics, Indians made distinct contributions -

 The notational/numeral system - The Indian notational system was adopted by the Arabs who spread it
in the western world. The Indian numerals were called Arabic in English, but the Arabs themselves called
their numerals as hindsa. We cannot establish that Indians were the first ones to use humeral system.
 The decimal system - The Indians were the first to use the decimal system. The earliest epigraphic
evidence of the use of decimal system could be traced to the beginning of 5th C A.D. Aryabhatta was
acquainted with it.
 The great mathematician and astronomer of the Gupta period, Aryabhatta, is credited with: discovery of
earth‘s rotation on its axis; discovery of the cause of eclipses; approximation for the value of pie (π)
Q 72.D
 The Sattriya dance form was introduced in the 15th century A.D by the great Vaishnava saint and
reformer Mahapurusha Sankaradeva as a powerful medium for propagation of the Vaishnava faith in
Assam. This neo-Vaishnava treasure of Assamese dance and drama has been, for centuries, nurtured and
preserved with great commitment by the Sattras i.e. Vaishnava maths or monasteries. Because of its
religious character and association with the Sattras, this dance style has been aptly named Sattriya. Other
visible influences on Sattriya dance are those from Assamese folk dances namely Bihu, Bodos etc. Many
hand gestures and rhythmic syllables are strikingly similar in these dance forms.

14 ©Vision IAS

 Hence, both statements are not correct.

Q 73.B
 Kshatriyas and brahmanas were exempted from the payment of taxes and the burden fell on the peasants
who were mainly vaisyas or grihapatis. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
 Bali was a voluntary paid by the tribesmen to their chiefs in Vedic times, but it became a compulsory
payment to be made by the peasants in the age of Buddha and officers called balisadhakas were appointed
to collect it. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
Q 74.D
Some features of Nagara style of temple architecture-
 Latina/rekhaprasada: There are many subdivisions of Nagara temples depending on the shape of the
shikhara. There are different names for the various parts of the temple in different parts of India; however,
the most common name for the simple shikhara which is square at the base and whose walls curve or
slope inward to a point on top is called the latina' or the rekha-prasada type of shikhara.
 Phamsana: Phamsana buildings tend to be broader and shorter than latina ones. Their roofs are
composed of several slabs that gently rise to a single point over the center of the building, unlike the latina
ones which look like sharply rising tall towers. Phamsana roofs do not curve inward, instead, they slope
upwards on a straight incline. In many North Indian temples, the phamsana design is used for the
mandapas while the main garbhagriha is housed in a latina building.
 Valabhi: These are rectangular buildings with a roof that rises into a vaulted chamber. The edge of this
vaulted chamber is rounded, like the bamboo or wooden wagons that would have been drawn by bullocks
in ancient times. They are usually called ‗wagonvaulted buildings‘.
Q 75.D

 Statement 1 is not correct: Hsuan Tsang visited India during Harshavardhana (606-647 AD) and Fa-
hsien visited India during Gupta period (Chandragupta II Vikramaditya 405-411 AD). He was the first
Chinese pilgrim to visit India.
 Statement 2 is not correct: Both Hsuan Tsang and Fa-hsien came to India to visit Buddhist shrines, study
Buddhism and collect books on Buddhism and relics.

Q 76.A

 Nayaka paintings of the seventeenth and eigtheenth centuries are seen in Thiruparakunram, Sreerangam
and Tiruvarur. In Thiruparakunram, paintings are found of two different periods—of the fourteenth and
the seventeenth century. Early paintings depict scenes from the life of Vardhaman Mahavira. The
Nayaka paintings depict episodes from the Mahabharata and the Ramayana and also scenes from
Krishna-leela.In the Sri Krishna temple at Chengam in Arcot District there are sixty panels narrating the
story of the Ramayana which represent the late phase of Nayaka paintings. The examples cited above
suggest that Nayaka paintings were more or less an extension of the Vijayanagara style with minor
regional modifications and incorporations. Hence, statements 1 and 2 are correct.
 Nayaka paintings like Vijayanagara were two-dimensional. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.

Q 77.B

 Yakshagaana, traditional theatre form of Karnataka, is based on mythological stories and Puranas.
Hence, statement 3 is not correct.
 It is a traditional theatre form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage
techniques with a unique styleand form. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
 The most popular episodes are from the Mahabharata i.e. Draupadi swayamvar, Subhadra vivah,
Abhimanyu vadh, Karna-Arjun yuddh and from Ramayana i.e. Raajyaabhishek, Lav-kush Yuddh, Baali-
Sugreeva yuddha and Panchavati. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
 Yakshagana is traditionally presented from dusk to dawn. It is believed to have evolved from pre-classical
music and theater during the period of the Bhakti movement.

15 ©Vision IAS

Q 78.D

 Decorative forms during the Indo-Islamic architectural era included designing on plaster through incision
or stucco. The designs were either left plain or covered with colors. Motifs were also painted on or carved
in stone. For surface decoration particularly in the dado panels of the walls, the techniques of
tessellation (mosaic designs) and pietra dura were popularly used.
 The term pietra dura signifies the requisite hardness and durability of the materials used in this work. The
most commonly used of these hard stones were quartzes, chalcedonies, agates, jaspers, granites,
porphyries, and petrified woods, all of which are variable in hue and together provide an almost limitless
range of colour.

Q 79.B

 Akbar had put forth his idea of Suh-i kul in context of the sectarian conflict in Deccan. He was afraid that
the bitter sectarian rivalries prevailing in Deccani states would spin over into the Mughal empire. Akbar
was also apprehensive of the growing power of the Portuguese in Deccan. Hence, statements 1 and 2
are correct. They had tried to expand their positions on the mainland, and had even tried to lay hand on
Surat. In 1593, Akbar set out to conquer Deccan territories. Hence, statement 3 is not correct. He
faced opposition to his authority in Ahmadnagar and attacked the Deccan state in 1595. Chand Bibi, the
regent queen offered formidable opposition, but was forced to concede defeat ultimately having to give up
Berar. By 1600, Akbar had captured Burhanpur, Asirgarh Fort and Khandesh.

Q 80.C

 In north-east India smaller principalities and republics gradually merged with the Magadhan empire. But
the north west India presented a different picture in the first half of the sixth century B.C. Several small
principalities such as those of the Kambojas and Gandharas fought one another. This area did not have
one powerful kingdom like that of Magadha to weld the warring communities into one organised
kingdom. This area was also wealthy and could be easily entered through the passes in the
 Nandas were there in eastern India and they declined during 4th century BC.

Q 81.A

 Statement 1 is not correct: Gol-Gumbaz is situated in Bijapur district of Karnataka. It is the mausoleum
of Muhammad Adil Shah (1626-1656) the seventh Sultan of the Adil Shah Dynasty of Bijapur (1489-
 Statement 2 is correct: Gol Gumbaz is built in mandu style of srchitecture, which is one of the
provincial styles in Indo-Islamic architecture. The tomb is a complex of buildings such as a gateway, a
Naqqar Khana, a mosque and a sarai located within a large-walled garden. The tomb chamber also
contains the burial place of the Sultan, his wives and other relatives, while their real graves lie
perpendicularly below in a vault, accessed by stairs.

Q 82.D

 Kathakali is a classical dance form of Kerala. It is a visual art where aharya (expression through costume)
and make-up are suited to the characters, as per the tenets laid down in the Natya Shastra. Hence,
statement 1 is correct.
 Kathakali is a blend of dance, music and acting and dramatizes stories, which are mostly adapted from the
Indian epics.The noble characters like Indra, Arjun and the Devas are frequently used. Hence, statement
2 is correct.
 It is an art which has evolved from many social and religious theatrical forms which existed in the
southern region in ancient times. Chakiarkoothu, Koodiyattam, Krishnattam and Ramanattam are few of
the ritual performing arts of Kerala which have had a direct influence on Kathakali in its form and
technique for body movements and choreographical patterns. It is indebted to the early martial arts of
Kerala. Hence, statement 3 is correct

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Q 83.C

 Koodiyattam, the Sanskrit theatre tradition of Kerala, has been declared as among the ―Masterpiece of the
Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity‖ by UNESCO. Hence, statements 1 and 2 are correct.
 The characters of this theatre form are: Chakyaar or actor, Naambiyaar, the instrumentalists and
Naangyaar, those taking on women's roles. The Sutradhar or narrator and the Vidushak or jesters are the
protagonists. It is the Vidushak alone who delivers the dialogues.
 Emphasis on hand gestures and eye movements makes this dance and theatre form unique.

Q 84.D

 Harsha (590–647 AD), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India
from 606 to 647 AD. He belonged to the Pushyabhuti dynasty. Kannauj was the seat of Harsha's
capital. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
 Harsha followed a religious tolerant policy. A Saiva in his early years, he gradually became a great patron
of Buddhism. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
 Land grants continued to be made to priests for special services rendered to state. In addition Harsha is
credited with the grant of land to the officers by charters. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.

Q 85.A
 Option (a) is correct.
 In the later Vedic period, the king‘s power increased which was further strengthened by the rituals. He
performed the ‗rajasuya‘ sacrifice, which was supposed to confer supreme power on him. He performed
‗asvamedha‘, which meant unquestioned control over an area where the royal horse ran uninterrupted. He
also performed the ‗vajapeya‘ or the chariot race, in which the royal chariot was made to win the race
against his kinsmen. All these rituals impressed the people with the increasing power and prestige of the

Q 86.D

All the statements are correct.

 The enormous expenditure on the army and bureaucracy created a financial crisis for the Mauryan empire.
Despite all the taxes, it was difficult to maintain this huge superstructure.
 Since Ashoka was mostly preoccupied with missionery activities at home and abroad, he could not pay
attention to the safeguarding of the passage on the north- west frontier. This had become necessary in
view of the movement of tribes in Central Asia in the 3rd century B.C.
 Oppressive rule in the provinces was an important cause of the break-up of the empire. It existed in the
reign of Bindusara in Taxila. But even in the reign of Ashoka similar complaint was lodged by the same
city. After his retirement, Taxila took the earliest opportunity to throw off the imperial yoke.

Q 87.A

 Only pairs 1 and 2 are correctly matched. Lothal is located in Gujarat and Ropar is in Punjab.
Mohenjodaro is located Pakistan.

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Q 88.A

 Rig Veda: Rig-Veda is known as the oldest religious text in the world. It is also known as ―First
testament‖ of mankind. It was composed around 1700 BC. It‘s a collection of hymns by a number of
priest families. It is organized in 10 books which are called Mandalas.
 Sama Veda: It mainly contains verses taken from Rig-Veda with reference to Soma sacrifices. Its
hymns are set to music. The Sam Veda has hymns meant for the priest only who sang them at the
time of the performance of Yajnas.
 Yajur Veda: The Yajur Veda practically served as a guidebook for the priests who execute
sacrificial acts and at the same time uttering the prayers and the sacrificial yajurs. Few hymns are
also attributed to various Gods. However, the core of the Veda is dedicated to the theory of the rituals
thereby making it very much ritual based. It Contains hymns and rituals which have to accompany the
hymns. The rituals reflect the social and political milieu in which they arose.
 Atharva Veda: Unlike the other three Vedas, the Atharvaveda has less connection with
sacrifice. Its consists chiefly of spells and incantations, concerned with protection against demons and
disaster, spells for the healing of diseases, for long life and for various desires or aims in life.

Q 89.B

 The Greek writers mention Chandragupta Maurya as prince Sandrokottas who was contemporary of
Alexander. Alexander invaded India during the rule of Nandas. No Indian history account talked about
invasion of Alexander in India. We came to know about it from Greek source of History.

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Q 90.D

 Harappa is an archeological site of Indus valley Civilisation, which is located on the bank of river Ravi in
Pakistan. Hence, pair 1 is correctly matched.
 Ujjain emerged as the political centre of central India around 600 BCE. It was the capital of the
ancient Avanti kingdom, one of the sixteen mahajanapadas. An ancient city situated on the eastern bank of
the Kshipra River. Hence, pair 2 is not correctly matched.
 Nagarjunkonda is a Buddhist site located on the bank of river Krishna in Andhra Pradesh. Hence, pair 3
is not correctly matched.

Q 91.B

All the options are correct.

 Enterprising and ambitious rulers like Bimbisara, Ajatshatru and Mahapadma Nanda. They employed
all means fair and foul at their disposal to enlarge their kingdoms and to strength their states.
 Richest iron deposits were situated not far. The ready availability of iron in the neighbourhood enabled
the Magadhan princes to equip themselves with effective weapons which were not easily available to their
 The two capitals of Magadha, first at Rajgir and second at Pataliputra were situated at strategic
points. Rajgir was surrounded by a group of five hills and so it was rendered impregnable in those days
when there was no easy means of storming citadels. Pataliputra commanded communications on all sides.
It was situated at the confluence of Ganga, Gandak and Son and a fourth river Sarayu joined Ganga. The
army could move north, south, east and westby following the courses of the rivers.
 Magadha lay at the middle of the Gangetic plain. The alluvium proved immensely fertile. This
naturally enabled peasants to produce considerable surplus, which could be mopped up by the rulers in the
form of taxes.
 The princes of Magadha also benefited from the rise of towns and use of metal money. A Pali text speaks
of twenty towns in the age of the Buddha. Most of them were located in the mid-Gangetic plains. They
contributed to trade and commerce in north-east India. This enabled the princes to levy tolls on the sale of
commodities and accumulate wealth to pay and maintain their army.
 Magadha enjoyed a special advantage in military organization. Although the Indian states were well
acquainted with the use of horses and chariots, it was Magadha which first used elephants on a large scale
in its wars against its neighbours. The eastern part of the country could supply elephants to the princes of
Magadha, and we learn from Greek sources that the Nandas maintained 6000 elephants. Elephants could
be used to storm fortresses and to March across marshy and other areas lacking roads and other means of

Q 92.C

 The Suhrawardi sufis did not reject government service. The founder of the silsilah, Shihabuddin
Subrawardi, had close contact with the Caliph, preached in Baghdad under court patronage, and
continued in government service. Bahauddin Zakariya, the founder of this Suhrawardi silsilah in India
argued that visits to royal courts provided the saints an opportunities to help the poor people by
getting their grievances redressed by the sultan. He also felt that there was no reason why the sultan
and his associates should be deprived of the spiritual ministrations of the saints. The Suhrawardi saints
also took active part in politics. It was considered as more orthodox than the Chisti silsila. They accepted
royal patronage and donations and hated sama and other practices of Chisti's like shaving of head etc.
 CHISTI SAINTS: Khwaja Muin-ud-din-Chisti established Chisti Silsila in India. Made Ajmer its
headquarters. One of his disciple Hamidudin Nagori established his Khanqah in Nagaur (Rajasthan).
Became non-vegeterian and live the life of simple peaseant. Khwaja's other disciple Qutub-din-Baktiyar
Kaki established Chisti Silsila in Delhi. Qutub Minar is named after him. Kaki's disciple Baba Farid Ganj-
e-shakar based himself in Ajodhan. Known as founder of Punjabi language and his verses are found in
Guru Granth Sahib. His famous diciple was Nizamudin Auliya in Delhi. Also known as Mehboob-e-Illahi.
Amir Khusaro was diciple of auliya. Auliya conversed with Nathpanti Sadhu's and was venerated by
people of all religions. He was given title SIDH by Nathpantis. Last important Chisti suffi of Delhi was
Nasserudin Chirag-e- Delhi.

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 NAQSHBANDI SILSILA: POPULARIZED BY BABUR. Khwaja Baqu Billah came to India to

oppose Akbar's liberal policies [1563-1603] His disciple Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi called himself Mujaddin
(renovator of I millennium of Islam). They opposed both Shias and Hindus, Orthodox in outlook.
Aurangzeb was initiated into Naqshbandiya order.
 QADARIYA SILSILA: MIYA MIR or MIR MOHD. was important saint of the silsila. He was
associated with Guru Ramdas in laying the foundation of the Golden Temple at Amritsar. Dara Shukoh
and Jahanara joined Qadariya silsila under the influence of Mullan Shah Badakshi.

Q 93.C

 Both the statements are correct.

 Greek and Roman accounts of the first and second century A.D. mention many Indian ports and
enumerate items of trade between India and Roman empire.
 The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea and Ptolemy's Geography both written in Greek, provide valuable data
for the study of Indian geography and commerce.
 Pliny's Naturalis Historia, which belongs to 1st century A.D. ,written in Latin tells us about trade between
India and Italy.

Q 94.C

 The Jataka stories are a voluminous body of literature concerning the previous births of Buddha in
both human and animal form. Among the Jataka stories that are frequently depicted are Chhadanta
Jataka, Vidurpundita Jataka, Ruru Jataka, Sibi Jataka, Vessantara Jataka and Shama Jataka.
 Jataka stories were depicted on the railings and torans of the stupas.
 Mainly synoptic narrative, continuous narrative and episodic narrative are used in the pictorial tradition.
While events from the life of the Buddha became an important theme in all the Buddhist monuments, the
Jataka stories also became equally important for sculptural decorations. The main events associated with
the Buddha‘s life which were frequently depicted were events related to the birth, renunciation,
enlightenment, dhammachakra- pravartana, and mahaparinibbana (death).

Q 95.B

 Tappa (for camel riders): Tappa is a form of semi classical vocal music inspired by the folk songs of
camel riders in the Punjab area. Tappa, in Punjabi and Pashto language, is set in ragas generally used for
the semi classical forms. It is characterized by jumpy and flashy tonal movements with rhythmic and rapid
 Qawwali: Originally, Qawwalis were sung in praise of God. In India Qawwali was brought from Persia
around thirteenth century and Sufis enlisted its services to spread their message. Amir Khusro (1254-
1325) a Sufi and an innovator contributed to the evolution of Qawwali. It is a mode of singing rather than
a form of composition. In performance Qawwali presents a fascinating, interchanging use of the solo and
choral modalities.
 Pandavani, Chhattisgarh: In Pandavani, tales from Mahabharata are sung as a ballad and one or two
episodes are chosen for the night‘s performance. The main singer continuously sits throughout the
performance and with powerful singing and symbolic gestures he assumes all the characters of the episode
one after another.
 Kajri, Uttar Pradesh: Kajri is a folk song sung by women, from Uttar Pradesh and adjacent region,
during rainy season. On the third day in the second half of the bhadra, women sing Kajri songs all
through the night, while dancing in a semi-circle.

Q 96 C

 Sangam was a college or assembly of Tamil poets and was attended by Pandya kings as patrons
in Madurai. The main language used was Tamil. In the Sangam age, the Tamil language had reached a
level of maturity. Hence, statement 1 and 2 are correct and 3 is not correct.

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Q 97.B

 Several tribal assemblies such as the sabha, samiti, vidatha, gana are mentioned in the Rig Veda.Hence,
statement 1 is correct.
 These assemblies exercised deliberative, military and religious functions. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
 Women participated in these assemblies (sabha and samiti) during the Rig Vedic times though they were
prohibited from the same during the later Vedic phase. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.

Q 98.D

 Brahmadeya was tax free land gift either in form of single plot or whole villages donated to Brahmans. It
was initially practiced by the ruling dynasties and was soon followed up by the chiefs, merchants,
feudatories, etc. Brahmadeya was devised by the Brahmanical texts as the surest mean to achieve merit
and destroy sin.
 Brahmadeya helped the expansion of agrarian economy and the emergence of urban settlements. It also
helped the Kings to gain the ideological support for their rule. Brahamdeya sometimes also resulted in
alienation of peasant land rights and created social tension and clash leading even to death between
peasant, Brahmans and the Kings. Hence option (d) is correct.

Q 99.D

 Diwan-i-Risalat: Department of religious affairs headed by the chief Qazi. Hence, pair 1 is correctly
 Diwan-i-Arz: Department of Military headed by Ariz-i-Mamalik. Hence, pair 2 is correctly matched.
 Diwan-i- Insha: Department of royal correspondence headed by Dabir-i-lnsha. Hence, pair 3 is correctly

Q 100.B

 The institution of ‗gotra‘ appeared in the later Vedic times. Literally it means the cow-pen or the place
where cattle belonging to the whole clan are kept, but in course of time it signified descent from the
common ancestor. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
 Ashramas or four stages of life were not well established in Vedic times. In the post-Vedic times we hear
of four ashramas- brahmacharya, grihastha, vanaprastha and sanyas. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
 The family became increasingly patriarchal. The father became powerful who could even disinherit his
son. Male ancestors came to be worshipped. Women were generally given lower position. Hence,
statement 3 is not correct.

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