Corte directo y young

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Corte directo y young

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9, 1972

Shear Test

D. K. J . NOONAN'

H , Q . Golrler mrd Associnlcs, Missi.ssnrlga, O i ~ t o r i o

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AND

J . F. N I X O N

D q m l ~ i ~ of'

c ~Civil

l E~rgi~lao.i~lg,

UirivcwiLv o J ' A l / ~ o . l oE, t / ~ ) ~ o i ~ lAlberto

oii,

Received April 4, 1972

Accepted June 22, 1972

A method is developed for determining Young's Modulus froni a direct shear test. The finite

element method is employed to coniputc stresses in a samplc of rock subjected to direct shear. Froni

thc scsults of the analysis, the relationship bctween thc shear load, horizontal displacement and thc

Young's M o d u l ~ ~iss established for different sample geometries. T h e use of the solution is illus-

trated. Since direct shear tests arc often ~ ~ s efor

d strength testing thc ncccssity for conducting alter-

native tests to deterniinc the deforniability characteristics of a rock mass is reduced.

S L Ila~base de I'analysc, par la methodc deselements finis, des contraintes dans u n echantillon de roc

sournis <t un cisaillement direct, une mtthode de determination ~ L niodule I d'Young A partir d'un

essai de cisaillenient direct a CtC d~veloppec.Lcs relations entrc la force de cisaillenient, le deplacement

For personal use only.

horizontal e t lc module d'Young ont etc etablics pour differentes geomttries d'echantillons. L'utili-

sation de la s o l ~ ~ t i oest

n illustree dans I'article. Les cssais de cisaillenient direct i t a n t frequemment

~~tiliskspour I'Ctude de la risistancc du roc, la necessite d'avoir recours i d ' a ~ ~ t r eessais

s pour deter-

miner les caracteristiq~lesde deformation d ' ~ ~ nmasse e r o c h e ~ ~ scst

c donc reduite.

[Traduit p a r Ic journal]

Direct shear tests are performed on many The analysis utilizes the theory of linear

major civil engineering works involving rock elasticity to predict stresses and displacements

masses. The information derived from these tl~roughouta sample of rock i n a direct shear

tests with regard to the strength and defor- box before peak strength is reached. When a

mation properties of the rock mass is of rigid body displacement is imposed on a

particulai interest when dealing with en,'01neer- linearly elastic body as shown in Fig. 1,

ing problems concerning slide probability, tlie applied shear load T will be directly

safe foundation conditions, and structural proportional to the imposed displacement

stability in tunnels and mines. 0'. The shear load inust also be proportional

The method of determining the strength to tlie shear modulus of the sample material.

characteristics from direct shear tests is well Tlius a relationship of the following form

established. It is common ~ r a c t i c eto ~ e r f o r m holds:

jacking o r plate loading tests in conjunction

with direct shear tests to determine the

Young's Modulus, a measure of the de- where G is the shear modulus and I<' is a

formability of tlie rock mass. constant.

However, the prefailure data from a direct However,

shear test also contains information regarding

the stiffness of the rock but this is seldom used.

In the following, a method for evaluating the

Young's Modulus from the direct shear test

is presented.

and therefore

1Formerly Departnient of Civil Enginecring, University

of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. PI T = kEd

Ca~intlinnGcotcch~iicnlJournal, 9 , .iO+ ( 1 0 i l )

TECHNICAL XOTES 505

Ratio, li is a conslant depending on p a n d

the geometry of the test configuration. a n d

T is the shear load o n the sanlple per unit

width.

As the possible variations in the geometry

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H I L and BIH, then we may write

L is the length, and B is the gap between the FIG. 1 . Sample subjected to direct shear.

upper a n d lower halves of the shear box.

Equation [3] may now be written as

For personal use only.

t o the correct boundary conditions, a value

of T is obtained from the solution. T h u s li

may be evaluated f r o m Eq. [5] for different

values of p, B I H and H I L .

A finite element program employing a

L X

constant strain triangle as developed by

Wilson (1963) was used t o solve the elasticity FIG. 2. Finite element grid

problem. T h e grid is shown in Fig. 2. l'he

body is assumed to be in equilibrium with TABLEI. S ~ u n m a r y of b o u n d a ~ y condit~ons ~ ~ s eind

any normal stress which is applied vertically, finite element analys~s

--. -

a n d we need only concern ourselves with the

Boundary condition

changes in stress resulting from the rigid

body displacement at the smooth boundary s-displacement s f o r c e y-displacement )'-force

J K in Fig. 2. The surfaces A M and GH are Boundary 11 F.c v F?

assumed t o lose contact with the shear box,

AB 0 0

a n d the upper surface HJ is not constrained.

C 0 0

Along the base of the shear box A C , a smooth DE 0 0

contact is assumed between the sample a n d FH. 0 0

the box, a n d no vertical movement occurs. HJ 0 0

F o r the shear box under consideration, as the SK 6 0

LA 0 0

lower half of the shear box is not allowed t o

move, lateral displacements along the smooth

surface CE are zero (see Table 1). ed from the shear stresses along the midplane

Using these boundary conditions in a of the sample. However, this js found t o be

finite element computer program, nodal inaccurate due t o the singularities in the shear

displacements a n d the stresses in each element stress existing at the points L a n d F shown

are found. T h e program then evaluates the in Fig. 2. T h e shear load on the sample can

stresses at each nodal point by averaging be calculated most accurately by integration

the stresses in the elements adjacent to the of the normal stresses along the left hand

node. A value of the shear load T is required boundary A J , as the effects of the singularities

from the solution. T might possibly be evaluat- are less pronounced on these stresses.

506 C:\hrADIXN GEOTECHNICAL JOURX.\L. VOL. 9, l 9 i 2

Hence at s = 0,

,I 0

the boundary A J . Typical examples o f the

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y given in Figs. ~ ( c I and

b o ~ ~ n d a rare ) 3(/1).

A unit width of sample is considered in the

finite element analysis, so T is the shear load

per unit width of sample. The values of 1;

are evaluated using Eq. [5], and the results

are plotted in Figs. 4. 5 and 6.

Application of Method

FIG. 3. /i v a l ~ mfor p = 0.2.

A correction t o the observed horizontal

displacement must be applied t o account for

the compliance of the direct shear apparatus.

I 1 BIH

This may be found experiinentally by placing

For personal use only.

material such as a high grade steel of the same

dimensions as the rock sample. T h e displace-

ment over the correct stress range due t o

compliance of the test machine may then be

observed.

I I I F

FIG. 5. k values for = 0.3.

025 05 0.75 1.O

H O R I Z O N T A L DISTANCE f BIH

H I L = 0.5

B / H = 0 15

E = 10'0si

VERTICAL

o5 DISTANCE

Y

H

I I I

0

3000 2000 1000

C O M P R E S S I V E STRESS V~ psi

FIG. 3(h) Typical normal stress distribution. FIG. 6. k values for p = 0.45.

TECHNICAL XOTES 507

described above, a sample calculation o f

Young's Modulus from test results obtained

by Noonan (1972) is given.

A sample of jointed coal 7 . 8 ~ 7 . ~8 3 . in.

6

thick (20 ~ 2 x 09 cnl) was tested in direct

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displacement curve is plotted in Fig. 7. In

this test, for the linear portion o f the curve

before peak strength was attained, tlie shear SHEAR

load per unit width from Fig. 7 is LOAD

(Ib)

for compliance is

6 = 0.0433 in.

F o r this sample,

For personal use only.

curve.

and

Young's Modulus may be calculated for

other laboratory o r field direct shear test

A reasonable value f o r Poisson's ratio is 0.30. configurations by simply altering the bound-

and from Fig. 5, ary conditions used in the finite element

analysis. Values of k may be obtained from

the solution, a n d a similar set of charts drawn

Substituting these values into Eq. (5) gives up for any test configuration.

Determination of Young's Modulus in

this manner minimizes the need for jacking

tests or plate loading tests, thus reducing the

cost of field investigations by a considerable

amount.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Professor N.

Conclusions R. Morgenstern for his guidance a n d assis-

A method for evaluating E from tlie direct tance. The support of the National Research

shear test has been given. The method has Council of Canada is also acknowledged.

been used by Noonan (1972) on disconti-

nuously fractured coal a n d has been found NOONAN,D. K. J . 1972. Fractured rock subjected to

convenient for assessing the influence of direct shear. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta,

anisotropy a n d normal pressure on the stiff- Edmonton, Alberta.

WILSON, E. L. 1963. Finite elemcnt analysis of two-

ness o f tlie rock. Size effects may also be dimensional structures. SEM Report No. 63-2.

studied. University o l California, Berkeley.

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