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Sector TOURISM

Qualification Title COOKERY NC II


Unit of PREPARE VEGETABLES DISHES
Competency
Module Title Preparing Vegetables Dishes
Surigao Doctor’s College
3/Floor City Arcade Building, Borromeo St., Surigao City

HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY- BASED LEARNING


MATERIALS

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Greetings!
This module contains training materials and activities for you to complete.
The unit of competency “PREPARE VEGETABLES DISHES” contains the
knowledge, skills and attitudes required for COOKERY NCII qualification
required to obtain the National Certificate (NC level II). You are required to go
through a series of learning activity. If you have questions, do not hesitate to
ask your trainer for assistance.
May be you have already some basic knowledge and skills covered in this
module. If you can demonstrate competence to your trainer in a particular
skill talk to him/her so you will no longer undergo the same training again. If
you have a qualification or Certificate of Competency from previous trainings
show it to him/her. If the skills you required are consistent with and relevant
to this module, they become part of the evidence. You can present these RPL.
If you are not sure about your competence skills, discuss this with your
trainer.
After completing this module ask your trainer to assess your competence.
Result of your assessment will be recorded in your competency profile. All the
learning activities are designed for you to complete at your own pace.
In this module, you will find activities for you to accomplish and relevant
information sheets for each learning outcome. Each learning outcome may
have more than one learning activity.
This module is prepared to help you achieve the required competency in
receiving and relaying information. This will be the source of information that
will enable you to acquire the knowledge and skills in COOKERY NCII
independently at your own pace with minimum supervision from your trainer.

COOKERY NC II
COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIALS

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List of Competencies

No. Unit of Competency Module Title Code

Cleaning and
Clean and Maintain TRS512328
1. Maintaining Kitchen
Kitchen Premises
Premises

Prepare stocks, sauces Preparing stocks, TRS512331


2.
and soups sauces and soups

3. Prepare appetizer Preparing appetizer TRS512381

Prepare salads and Preparing salad and TRS512382


4.
dressing dressing

5. Prepare sandwiches Preparing sandwiches TRS512330


Prepare meat
6. dishes Preparing meat dishes TRS512383

Prepare
vegetables Preparing vegetables TRS512384
7.
dishes dishes
Prepare egg
8. dishes Preparing egg dishes TRS512385

Prepare
9. starch dishes Preparing starch dishes TRS512386

Prepare
poultry and Preparing poultry and TRS512333
10.
game dishes game dishes

Prepare Preparing seafood TRS512334


11. seafood dishes dishes
Prepare
12. desserts Preparing desserts TRS512335

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Package Packaging prepared TRS512340
13. prepared food food

MODULE CONTENT

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: PREPARE VEGETABLES DISHES

MODULE TITLE: Preparing Vegetables Dishes

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MODULE DESCRIPTOR: This unit deals with the skills, knowledge and
attitude required in cooking, presenting and
storing various vegetables dishes.

NOMINAL DURATION: 24 Hours


PREREQUISITE: Trainees or students wishing to gain entry into this
course should possess the following requirements:

 Should be physically and mentally fit


 With good moral character
 With pleasing personality

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this module you MUST be able to:
LO1. Perform Mise’ en place
LO2. Prepare vegetable dishes
LO3. Present vegetable dishes
LO4. Store vegetable dishes

List of Competency-based Learning Materials


Content/topics Learning Activities CBLM (Print) CBLM(non-
print)
1.1 Tools, utensils Read Information
and equipment are Sheet 7.1-1 on
cleaned, sanitized Equipment and
and prepared based
on the required tasks Utensil cleaning and
sanitation
ment
1.2 Ingredients are Read Information
identified and Sheet 7.1-2 Recipe
assembled correctly, Standardization
according to
standard recipes,
recipe cards, correct
quantity and type,
quality type or

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enterprise
requirements
1.3 Ingredients are Read Information
prepared based on Sheet 7.1-3 Accurate
the required form Ingredient Settings
and time frame
1.4 Frozen Read Information
ingredients are Sheet 7.1-4 Correct
thawed and raw Thawing Procedures
ingredients are
washed in following
enterprise
procedures
2.1 Vegetables are Read Information
selected according to Sheet 7.2-1
quality Selecting-Fresh
Vegetables
2.2 Vegetable Read Information
accompaniments are Sheet 7.2-2
selected to Vegetables as
complement and
enhance menu items addition in menu
enhancement

2.3 Variety of Read Information


vegetable dishes are Sheet 7.2-3 Methods
prepared following in cooking vegetables
appropriate cooking
methods to preserve
optimum quality and
nutrition

2.4 Suitable sauces Read Information


and accompaniments Sheet 7.2-4
are selected and Vegetable
served with presentation styles
vegetables

2.5 Cooked dishes Read Information


are tasted and Sheet 7.2-5
seasoned in Procedures on how
accordance with the to season vegetable
dishes
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required taste of the
dishes

2.6 Workplace safety Read Information


and hygienic Sheet 7.2-6
procedures are Maintaining safe and
followed according to hygienic workplace
enterprise and legal
requirements

3.1 Vegetables are Read Information


uniformly cut and Sheet 7.3-1
attractively Vegetable cutting
presented
techniques

3.2 Factors in plating Read Information


dishes are observed Sheet 7.3-2
in presenting poultry Vegetable Plating
and game dishes
Techniques

3.3 Vegetables Read Information


dishes are presented Sheet 7.3-3 Hygienic
hygienically, logically Food Handling
and sequentially
within the required Practices
time frame

4.1 Quality Read Information


trimmings and other Sheet 7.4-1
leftovers are utilized Utilization of
where and when leftovers and
appropriate trimmings

4.2 Optimum Read Information


freshness and Sheet 7.4-2
quality is maintained Nutritional content of
in accordance with vegetables
enterprise storing
techniques and
procedure

4.3 Vegetables are Read Information


stored at the correct Sheet 7.4-3
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temperature and in Principles and
accordance with practices in storing
FIFO operating and handling of
procedures and vegetables
storage of vegetable
requirements

Note: For UC # 1
Information Sheet 7.1-1
Equipment and Utensil Cleaning and Sanitation

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Deffirentiate cleaning and sanitation
 Enumerate the factors that affects the cleaning efficiency.
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 Explain the principles in cleaning and sanitizing. (include this in the
self-check questions)

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT ……..

Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipment


Cleaning is a process of removing
food and other types of soil from a
surface.
Sanitizing is a process of reducing
the number of microorganisms on a
clean surface to safe levels.
 Surfaces must be cleaned first
and rinsed before sanitized.

Remember:
“soiled” particles
include
An acceptable food
manual method of
debris, saliva, oil,
cleaning and sanitizingwater
dust, equipment,
marks,
utensils and etc
tableware is to use a three-
compartment sink; To wash in the first
compartment with hot water and a detergent; Rinse in clean hot water in the
second compartment; and Sanitize in the third compartment, using an
accepted procedure.
The following are acceptable procedures of cleaning and sanitizing:
a. Tableware is to be washed, rinsed and sanitized after each use and
whenever subjected to contamination.
b. Food contact surfaces are to be washed, rinsed and sanitized after each
use and following any interruption of operations when contamination may
have occurred. When eggs are processed in a blender or similar mixing
machinery, the food container shall be disassembled, cleaned, rinsed, and
sanitized after each use.

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c. Equipment and utensils used for the preparation of potentially hazardous
foods on a continuous or production-line basis are to be washed, rinsed and
sanitized at intervals throughout the day on a schedule based on food
temperature, type of food, and the amount of food particle accumulation. The
food-contact surfaces of grills, griddles and similar cooking devices and the
cavities and door seals of microwave ovens are to be cleaned at least once a
day. This does not apply to hot oil cooking equipment and hot oil filtering
systems. Food-contact surfaces of all cooking equipment are to be kept free
of encrusted grease deposits and other accumulated soil.
d. Clean and sanitized equipment and utensils, including single-service
articles, are to be handled, transported and stored so they are protected from
contamination.
e. Machines are to have the wash water and the pumped rinse water kept
clean. The final rinse water, when used as the sanitizer, is to be maintained
at the temperature required by the manufacturer to sanitize under normal
conditions of operation.
Drainboards
Drainboards of adequate size are to be provided and used for the proper
handling of soiled items prior to washing and of clean items following
sanitization. Drainboards are to be self-draining and to be located and
constructed so that they do not interfere with the proper use of the
dishwashing facilities. Use of easily movable tables for the storage of soiled
items or the use of easily movable tables for the storage of clean items
following sanitization is allowed.
Drying
All equipment and utensils are to be air-dried after sanitizing.
Wiping cloths
a) Clean, dry cloths used for wiping food spills from tableware, plates or bowls
served to the consumer are to be used only for this purpose.
b) Moist cloths used for wiping food spills on kitchenware and food-contact
surfaces of equipment are to be used only for this purpose. These cloths are
to be stored in a sanitizing solution between uses.
c) Moist cloths used for cleaning non-food-contact surfaces of equipment such
as counters, dining table tops and shelves are to be stored in a sanitizing
solution between uses and are to be used only for this purpose.
When considering a good cleaner the following properties should be considered:
Quick and complete solubility.
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Good wetting or penetrating action.
Dissolving action of food solids.
Emulsifying action on fat.
Deflocculating, dispersing, or suspending action.
Good rinsing properties.
Complete water softening power.
Noncorrosive on metal surfaces.
Germicidal action.
Economical to use.
The factors that affect cleaning efficiency are:
1. Selecting the right cleaner for the job.
2. Increasing the temperature of the cleaning solution so that the strength of
the bond between the soil and surface is decreased, the viscosity is decreased,
and the solubility of the soluble materials and the chemical reaction rate is
increased.
3. Increasing the turbulence “elbow grease”.
4. Increasing the time the cleaner has contact with the surface needing
cleaned.
5. Increasing the concentration. Concentration is the least effective variable
to change in cleaning.

Self Check 7.1-1

1. List factors that affect cleaning efficiency.

2. Differentiate cleaning and sanitizing.

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Answer key 7.1-1

*The factors that affect cleaning efficiency are:


1. Selecting the right cleaner for the job.
2. Increasing the temperature of the cleaning solution so that the strength of
the bond between the soil and surface is decreased, the viscosity is decreased,
and the solubility of the soluble materials and the chemical reaction rate is
increased.
3. Increasing the turbulence “elbow grease”.
4. Increasing the time the cleaner has contact with the surface needing
cleaned.
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5. Increasing the concentration. Concentration is the least effective variable
to change in cleaning.

*Differentiate cleaning and sanitizing.


Cleaning is a process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface
while sanitizing is a process of reducing the number of microorganisms on a
clean surface to safe levels

Information Sheet 7.1-1


Recipe Standardization Steps

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 To enumerate the recipe standardization steps.

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT:

tandardized recipes are an important part of a well-managed food


service program. A standardized recipe specifically describes the exact,

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measurable amount of ingredients and the method of preparation needed to
consistently produce a high-quality product.
Steps in recipe standardization:
1. Prepare the menu item using the quantity recipe that you have selected
to standardize. Test the recipe, making adjustments until a high quality
product is produced that is acceptable to students. This step should
include taste testing by students to judge the appearance, texture,
flavor, and overall acceptability of the product. In addition, evaluate
ease of preparation and time commitment to prepare the recipe.
2. Determine the portion size if it is not indicated on the quantity recipe
or if you wish to change the portion size.
3. Determine how one portion credits toward the meal pattern. If the result
is not desirable, make adjustments to the recipe or portion size as
needed to increase or decrease the crediting per portion
4. Determine if portion size will vary by grade groups and do necessary
computations to determine the number of portions in the recipe for the
different portion sizes.
5. Retest the recipe after making changes to verify that a high quality
outcome is still produced.
6. Develop a written recipe that includes:
a. Name of recipe (reflects contents and appeals to customers).
b. Number/Category/Meal Type for easy reference.
c. Exact ingredients by form (canned, frozen, dehydrated) and any
prepreparation steps needed (diced, chopped, grated).
d. Detailed step-by-step procedures for preparation, cooking and
serving. Include all steps for assembling ingredients.
e. Cooking temperatures, cook time, and holding temperatures.
f. Portion sizes(s) for single serving.
g. Total recipe yield (measured or weighed), pans size, number of pans
(if more than one), weight or measure in a pan.
h. Equipment and specific serving utensil(s).
Other Considerations
1. Recipe variations, alternative ingredients, optional ingredients which will
not alter yield, meat pattern crediting, and/or nutrient content. If changes
will alter the yield, crediting, or nutrient content, or if different procedures or
equipment are used, test and re-standardize the recipe.
2. Food safety job aids that designate if recipe is categorized as Process 1 (no
cook), Process 2 (heated and served the same day) or Process 3 (includes a
cooling stage).
3. Special diet information (allergens, gluten-free, etc.).
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Helpful Hints
1. When portion size is not known, measure the volume in
gallons, convert gallons to cups and divide by number of
expected servings. Remember: 1 gallon = 16 cups Example: 4
gallons × 16 cups/gallon = 64 cups ÷125 servings = 0.51 cups
per serving = ½ cup per serving
2. Consider adjustments to the recipe if the original recipe no
longer fits the operation. For example, a recipe developed
when participation was at 300 is not appropriate if you now
serve an average of 150 customers. Re-size the recipe if there
are significant leftovers after meal service.

Self Check 7.1-2

1. Enumerate the steps in recipe standardization

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Answer key 7.1-2

Steps in recipe standardization


1. Prepare the menu item using the quantity recipe that you have selected
to standardize. Test the recipe, making adjustments until a high quality
product is produced that is acceptable to students. This step should
include taste testing by students to judge the appearance, texture,
flavor, and overall acceptability of the product. In addition, evaluate
ease of preparation and time commitment to prepare the recipe.
2. Determine the portion size if it is not indicated on the quantity recipe
or if you wish to change the portion size.
3. Determine how one portion credits toward the meal pattern. If the result
is not desirable, make adjustments to the recipe or portion size as
needed to increase or decrease the crediting per portion
4. Determine if portion size will vary by grade groups and do necessary
computations to determine the number of portions in the recipe for the
different portion sizes.
5. Retest the recipe after making changes to verify that a high quality
outcome is still produced.
6. Develop a written recipe that includes:
a. Name of recipe (reflects contents and appeals to customers).
b. Number/Category/Meal Type for easy reference.
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c. Exact ingredients by form (canned, frozen, dehydrated) and any
prepreparation steps needed (diced, chopped, grated).
d. Detailed step-by-step procedures for preparation, cooking and
serving. Include all steps for assembling ingredients.
e. Cooking temperatures, cook time, and holding temperatures.
f. Portion sizes(s) for single serving.
g. Total recipe yield (measured or weighed), pans size, number of pans
(if more than one), weight or measure in a pan.
h. Equipment and specific serving utensil(s).

Information Sheet 7.1-2


Maintaining Nutritional Contents of Vegetables

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:

 Enumerate the basic principles of cooking vegetables to maintain its


nutritional content.
 Explain the importance of maintaining the nutritional content of
vegetables in cooking. (please include this objective in the content of the
information sheet and self-check)
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT

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The most tedious task when
preparing a dish is without a
doubt peeling and chopping the
vegetables. So it comes as no
surprise to see that mechanical
devices for vegetables (and
fruit) began to be developed in
the late 19th century.
Vegetables are churned out in
particular shapes depending on
how they are used in a recipe.
All of this preparation is part of
getting everything ready to
make a recipe. In Asian cuisine,
vegetables are carved into
genuine works of art and
decorate both dishes and
tables.
Getting the ingredients ready and preparing them is a major task when
making a dish from a recipe. (REVISED INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT THAT
FITS THE TITLE OF THE INFORMATION SHEET)

Vegetables of different shapes, sizes and names (THIS IS I THINK TO BE


INCLUDED IN CUTTING TECHNIQUES TOPIC)
Diced into two, five or eight millimetre cubes, in the culinary world, such
vegetables are called Brunoise, Jardiniere and Macedoine respectively and are
used either as a garnish or as ingredients. Mirepoix vegetables are diced and
used to flavour brown stock. Cutting is therefore less precise and the size is
determined by the cooking time. Thinly sliced, they are called paysanne
vegetables for a garnish or matignon vegetables if they are to be ingredients
for stock or soups.
Once washed and peeled, potatoes can be diced, cut into sticks, sliced into
rounds, scooped into balls and even turned. Cut into sticks, they are called
straws, matchsticks, chips or Pommes Pont-Neuf (thickly cut French fries). In
rounds, they are used, for example, to make gratins. Pommes parisiennes are
shaped into small, round balls. They are scooped out of potatoes with a half
spherical spoon. A turned potato is carved with a knife and traditionally has
seven sides. Depending on its length, it is called a cocotte, château, vapeur or
fondante potato.

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A paring knife is used not just for peeling, but also for making ‘spaghetti’ with
carrots, courgettes or other vegetables.
Vegetables can also be carved into truly ephemeral works of art for decorating
dishes and tables. In Asian countries, vegetable carving is an ancestral art
which originated in China between the 10th and 13th centuries CE. Carvings
were then created for the Emperor and his Court. During the 20th century,
this art became increasingly popular for fruit as well, cut to resemble leaves,
flowers or geometric shapes.
Nutrition
In preparing vegetables, the smaller the pieces they are cut into, the greater
the risk of losing vitamins.

Basic Principles of Cooking Vegetables to Maintain Nutrients

 Cook vegetables in the smallest amount of


liquid possible.
Vegetables have some vitamins that dissolve in water and are lost when the
cooking liquid is discarded.Water soluble vitamins are vitamins that dissolve
in water. The common water soluble vitamins are C and the B vitamins
riboflavin, thiamin, and niacin.
 Cook vegetables the shortest amount of time for the desired
tenderness.
Vegetables have some vitamins that are destroyed by heat so long cooking
means they provide less vitamins.
 For vegetables that have a skin, scrub well and cook with the skin
on whenever possible. If the vegetable must be peeled, peel as
thinly as possible.
Vegetables usually have a valuable layer of nutrients which is right under the
skin. Peeling can remove many nutrients. (Examples: potatoes, carrots,
parsnips, turnips.)
 When vegetables are cut, use a sharp blade and cut in the largest
pieces that are desirable for the recipe. Pieces should be uniform
to allow for even cooking. Large pieces help preserve the nutrient
content of the vegetable.

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A sharp blade in a piece of equipment or a knife will make a clean cut instead
of bruising the vegetable. Bruising causes a rapid loss of vitamin C from some
green, leafy vegetables such as cabbage and other greens.
 Follow the recipe or directions for cooking a Vegetable.
Recipes and general directions for cooking a vegetable are based on using the
right culinary technique. Adding some ingredients actually destroys certain
nutrients. For example, adding baking soda to green vegetables during
cooking destroys some B vitamins as well as vitamin C.
 Serve vegetables at the right temperature.
When vegetables are placed on the serving line, they should be between 160
°F and 180 °F. By cooking vegetables just in time for service, they do not have
to be held long and will have better quality as well as maintain their
temperature. The serving line should be set to hold the hot foods above an
internal temperature of 135 °F.

Importance of maintaining nutritional contents of vegetable:


……………..

Self Check 7.1-2

1. Enumerate the basic principles of cooking vegetables to maintain


nutrients.

2. Explain the importance of maintaining nutritional contents of


vegetables while cooking.

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Answer key 7.1-2

* List the basic principles of cooking vegetables to maintain nutrients.

1. Cook vegetables in the smallest amount of liquid possible.


2. Cook vegetables the shortest amount of time for the desired tenderness.
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3. For vegetables that have a skin, scrub well and cook with the skin on
whenever possible. If the vegetable must be peeled, peel as thinly as
possible.
4. When vegetables are cut, use a sharp blade and cut in the largest pieces
that are desirable for the recipe. Pieces should be uniform to allow for
even cooking. Large pieces help preserve the nutrient content of the
vegetable.
5. Follow the recipe or directions for cooking a vegetable.
6. Serve vegetables at the right temperature.

2. Answer

Information Sheet 7.1-3


Vegetable Thawing and Washing Procedures

Learning Objectives:

After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:


 Identify methods of thawing vegetables.
 Explain the proper ways of vegetable thawing. (include this in the
self-check questions)
 Explain the best way to wash raw vegetables. (include this in the self-
check questions)

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INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT:
Thawing frozen vegetables is actually a little more complicated than the
standard method of thawing meats and seafood overnight in the refrigerator.
Doing this with veggies makes once crisp snow peas, red peppers and water
chestnuts limp. A different approach is needed to preserve the delicate cell
walls of frozen vegetables.

(Include brief introduction about washing vegetables)

How to Thaw Frozen Vegetables

There are four methods for thawing frozen foods which are recognized as
safe:
o In a refrigerator
o In the microwave
o Under cool running water

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o Cook From Frozen
In the refrigerator
Thawing food in the refrigerator is slow; it can take a day to thaw several
pounds (a kilogram or two), and even more time for larger foods like a whole
frozen turkey.
The advantage is that the refrigerator is at a safe temperature, and bacterial
growth is already inhibited, so there is little risk.
This is probably the preferred method for many foods, if you have the time.
In the microwave
Microwave frozen vegetables as an alternative method of cooking direct from
frozen. Place them directly in a microwave-safe bowl with 2 to 4 tablespoons
of water, and microwave for 4 minutes on high. Check the vegetables and stir.
Continue cooking minute by minute until heated through.
Thaw large ears of corn on the cob partially in the microwave if you plan to
boil them on the stove top, and eat them immediately after cooking. This lets
the cobs heat through before the kernels turn mushy. Smaller ears may be
okay to boil directly from frozen. Microwave frozen ears of corn in 1/4 cup of
water. Start with 4 to 6 minutes for two ears, 8 to 10 minutes for four ears
and 11 to 14 minutes for six ears.
Under cool running water
This one is most surprising, but it is true: the fastest way to thaw food safely
is under cool running water (at or below 70 F / 21 C), like the cold water from
your tap.
The reason is that that water has an extremely high capacity for carrying heat,
and the forced convection from running water ensures that it transfers heat
from the food item as rapidly as possible.
It is important that the water be running, to ensure strong convection. You
can do this by setting the food in the sink under a very small stream of water.
If the food should not get wet, you can put it in a zip-type bag or similar to
keep it dry. Try to remove as much air as possible, to get the best contact
between the water and the food (through the bag).
This is the best method for forced, rapid thawing (at least when microwaving
is not appropriate or inconvenient), but it is probably less convenient that the
refrigerator method. You also have to monitor the food, and remove it when it
is thawed, or it will come to the ambient temperature of the water, which is
probably in the danger zone.
Cook From Frozen
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The preferred method of thawing frozen vegetables is to cook them direct from
frozen. Bring a little water—generally 1/2 to 2/3 cup per 16 ounces of frozen
vegetables—to boil in a covered saucepan over medium heat. Add the
vegetables and cover. Occasionally separate the pieces as they cook. Continue
until the veggies are tender, typically 7 to 10 minutes.
To stir-fry frozen veggies, heat a wok or skillet and add peanut oil. Add the
frozen vegetables and cook for 5 to 7 minutes until crisp.

Best Ways to Wash Vegetables


According to the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), you should wash raw
fruits and vegetables very well before you peel, cut, eat or cook with them.
Washing reduces the bacteria that may be present on fresh produce.
Best ways to keep raw vegetables safe
 Wash your hands with hot soapy water before and after preparing food.
 Clean your counter top, cutting boards, and utensils after peeling
produce and before cutting and chopping. Bacteria from the outside of
raw produce can be transferred to the inside when it is cut or peeled.
Wash kitchen surfaces and utensils with hot, soapy water after
preparing each food item.
 Do not wash produce with soaps or detergents.
 Use clean potable cold water to wash items.
 For produce with thick skin, use a vegetable brush to help wash away
hard-to-remove microbes.
 Produce with a lot of nooks and crannies like cauliflower, broccoli or
lettuce should be soaked for 1 to 2 minutes in cold clean water.
 Some produce such as raspberries should not be soaked in water. Put
fragile produce in a colander and spray it with distilled water.
 After washing, dry with clean paper towel. This can remove more
bacteria.
 Don’t forget that homegrown, farmers market, and grocery store fruits
and vegetables should also be well washed.
 Do not rewash packaged products labeled “ready-to-eat,” “washed” or
“triple washed.”
 Once cut or peeled, refrigerate as soon as possible at 40ºF or below.

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 Do not purchase cut produce that is not refrigerated.
Best ways to wash leafy greens

 Leafy greens from the farmers market, grocery store, farm or garden
should be stored at 35-40°F within two hours of harvesting or
purchasing.
 Wash greens by separating leaves and soaking them in a bowl of cool
water for a few minutes. Drain the greens using a strainer or colander
and repeat this process. The goal here is dilution.
o Another technique is to presoak greens for five minutes in a
mixture of vinegar and water (1/2 cup distilled white vinegar per
two cups water), which should be followed by a clean water rinse.
This has been shown to REDUCE but NOT eliminate bacteria
contamination, and it may slightly affect texture and taste.
 Drain leafy greens with a clean strainer or colander, then dry with a
clean towel or salad spinner. Salad spinners should be thoroughly
cleaned with warm soapy water after every use.

Self Check 7.1-4

1. List the four methods for thawing frozen foods which are recognized
as safe.
2. …..
3. ….

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Answer key 7.1-4

* List the four methods for thawing frozen foods which are recognized as
safe.
1. In a refrigerator
2. In the microwave
3. Under cool running water
4. Cook From Frozen

* Give atleast Five (5) best ways to keep raw vegetables safe? NOT IN THE
OBJECTIVES
Students may answer these:
•Wash your hands with hot soapy water before and after preparing food.
•Clean your counter top, cutting boards, and utensils after peeling produce
and before cutting and chopping. Bacteria from the outside of raw produce
can be transferred to the inside when it is cut or peeled. Wash kitchen
surfaces and utensils with hot, soapy water after preparing each food item.
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•Do not wash produce with soaps or detergents.
•Use clean potable cold water to wash items.
•For produce with thick skin, use a vegetable brush to help wash away hard-
to-remove microbes.
•Produce with a lot of nooks and crannies like cauliflower, broccoli or lettuce
should be soaked for 1 to 2 minutes in cold clean water.
•Some produce such as raspberries should not be soaked in water. Put fragile
produce in a colander and spray it with distilled water.
•After washing, dry with clean paper towel. This can remove more bacteria.
•Don’t forget that homegrown, farmers market, and grocery store fruits and
vegetables should also be well washed.
•Do not rewash packaged products labeled “ready-to-eat,” “washed” or “triple
washed.”
•Once cut or peeled, refrigerate as soon as possible at 40ºF or below.
•Do not purchase cut produce that is not refrigerated.

Information Sheet 7.2-1


Characteristics of Good Quality Vegetables

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Identify characteristics of good quality vegetables.
 Select fresh vegetables

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INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT:

Fresh vegetables provide vitamins, minerals and fiber to help keep your body
healthy. To make sure that your vegetables are safe to eat, it is important to
know how to select good-quality produce.

Note:
Revise the content of the Information sheet based on the learning objectives.

Occasionally, fresh vegetables can become contaminated by harmful bacteria


or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. Examples of pathogens
include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. Produce can be
contaminated at any point, from the field to your table.
If you eat a contaminated fruit or vegetable, it could make you ill. Common
signs of foodborne illness include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and
fever. These symptoms usually appear within 12 to 72 hours after you have
eaten contaminated food.
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When buying fresh vegetables, choose those that have a good shape, texture
and color and a fresh smell. It is best to shop for fresh produce often and buy
only what you will use within a few days. This will cut down on the amount
wasted because of spoilage
Do not buy fresh produce that is moldy, bruised or injured or that shows signs
of insect damage. Handle produce gently to avoid bruising and other damage.
Bruises and cuts may allow pathogens to enter a fruit or vegetable and cause
it to spoil quickly.
When buying pre-cut or prepackaged fruits and vegetables, make sure they
are refrigerated or surrounded by ice at the grocery store. Avoid damaged
items and open or torn packages
Be sure to check the use-by dates on packages of pre-cut fruits and
vegetables. Choose the freshest items, and eat them by the use-by date
Selecting quality fruits and vegetables may take a few more minutes, but it
will be well worth your time.

Self Check 7.2-1

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1. Examples of pathogens that can be found in vegetables.
2. What are the qualities of fresh vegetables?

Note: revised according to the learning objectives.

Answer key 7.2-1

* Examples of pathogens that can be found in vegetables.

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Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A.

*What are the qualities of fresh vegetables?


When buying fresh vegetables, choose those that have a good shape, texture
and color and a fresh smell.

NOT INCLUDED
Information Sheet 7.2-2
Vegetables as Addition in Menu Enhancement

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Know the tips in menu enhancement
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Vegetables deserve center
stage because they're
amazing, delicious, colorful,
good for you and taste great,
too.
Mix and Match Colors,
Textures and Flavors
Enjoy a variety of veggies at
the same time to truly
showcase the wonder of a
veggie-powered plate.
Incorporating many different
veggies brings flavor, crunch
and a nutritious punch to
almost any dish.

Build a Menu: 5 Tips for Matching Side Dishes with Main Dishes
1. Think different.
The most obvious way to choose a side dish is to look at your main dish (pasta,
chicken, seared tofu) and choose something different. If you're making pasta,
go for a simple vegetable. Making steak? Go for something light. If you're
making stir-fry with rice, then it's probably not a good idea to also make a rice
salad. If much of the meal is dark, with rich, roasted flavors (braised short
ribs, French onion soup) balance it out with an acidic salad or vegetable. If
it's very light, like a fresh salad with cheese and fruit, add a little weight with
a hearty whole-grain bread or a cheesy gratin.
2. Think similar.
On the other hand, it's nice to pick a theme and carry it through dinner. For
instance, I often use lemon. So if I am making chicken with lemon, for
example, I may add lemon juice to a salad dressing, or lemon zest to the bread
I make for dinner.
3. Think seasonal.
The simplest way to pick a side dish.
4. Think complete meal.
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The food groups offer a traditional way to put a meal together, of course, but
they really are helpful. The point is, think of the major food groups (meat,
starch, dairy, vegetables, fruit) and try to include no more than one dish from
each group
5. When in doubt, make a simple green salad.
It is the perfect accompaniment to almost any dish — pasta, soup, meat, even
grilled vegetables or a cheese sandwich.

Self Check 7.2-2

1. What are the 5 tips for matching side dishes with Main Dishes for
menu enhancement.

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Answer key 7.2-2

* What are the 5 tips for matching side dishes with Main Dishes for
menu enhancement.

The five tips for matching side dishes with main dishes for menu
enhacement are:
1) Think different
2) Think similar

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3) Think seasonal
4) Think complete meal
5) When in doubt, make a simple green salad

Information Sheet 7.2-3


Suitable Seasonings for Vegetables

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Identify suitable seasonings of vegetables according to its kind.

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INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT:
We all know we should eat our
vegetables and they are delicious
just the way they are. However, just
like other foods we cook and eat,
their flavors can be enhanced.
Adding herbs and spices adds a
depth of flavor that turns a
vegetable dish from ordinary to
extraordinary. Cooking veggies
with onions, garlic, salt and pepper
is most common but what about all
the other herbs and spices
available? There are so many it can
seem daunting. How do you know
which herbs and spices to use with
which vegetables? If you are going
for a certain ethnic flavor profile,
there are combinations of herbs
and spices that make it easy. If you
just want to enhance the flavor of
the veggies, however, it may be more difficult to know which to use.

Use this guide on how to match the right herbs and spices with the right
vegetables to make your most amazing meals yet.
Artichokes
Artichokes pair well with bay leaf, garlic, coriander, paprika and
parsley.

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Asparagus
Asparagus has a strong flavor and pairs well with basil, curry,
dill, marjoram, mustard, nutmeg, oregano, rosemary and
tarragon.

Beets
Beets are sweet and earthy. They pair well with spicy,
fragrant and warm herbs and spices. Use basil, caraway,
chives, cloves, coriander, cumin, dill, ginger, fennel,
allspice, sage, thyme and tarragon.

Broccoli
Broccoli, broccolini and broccoli rabe are all grassy and
verdant vegetables. You can use pretty much any herbs
and spices with them and not go wrong. They pair best
with basil, chives, curry, dill, garlic, ginger, marjoram,
oregano, red pepper flakes, rosemary, sage, tarragon and
thyme.

Brussels Sprouts
These little tiny cabbages are so cute and so delicious,
especially baby sprouts. It’s not their fault that so many
people cook them wrong and they end up gray, mushy and
smelly. Pair Brussels sprouts with caraway, garlic,
marjoram, mustard, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, rosemary
and thyme

Cabbage
Cabbage has a mild flavor so it can really use some help
with herbs and spices. Try flavoring cabbage with bay leaf,
caraway, chives, coriander, curry, dill, fennel, garlic,
ginger, marjoram, mint, nutmeg, parsley, and thyme.

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Carrots
Carrots are naturally sweet and pair well with both
mild and strong flavors. Use basil, cinnamon,
coriander, cumin, curry, dill, fennel, garlic, ginger,
mace, nutmeg, paprika, parsley, rosemary, sage,
and thyme.
Cauliflower
Cauliflower has a very mild taste. It takes on the
flavors of whatever it is cooked with so add lots of
flavor. Cook cauliflower with any herbs and spices
you like. Try it with basil, coriander, cumin, dill,
fennel, garlic, ginger, mint, nutmeg, oregano, paprika,
parsley, tarragon, and thyme.
Corn
Corn is sweet, mild and taste best with bright herbs and hot
spices. Pair corn with dill, basil, rosemary, thyme, garlic,
cilantro, sage, and paprika
Cucumber
Cucumbers are mild and watery. They can be paired with
light and refreshing or hot and spicy herbs and spices.
Prepare cucumbers with basil, chives, dill, coriander,
parsley, tarragon, rosemary, mustard, garlic, and mint.
Eggplant
Eggplant is rich and flavorful on its own but it’s even better with
strong herbs and spices. Combine eggplant with basil, garlic,
ginger, oregano, parsley, cilantro, curry, mint and sage.
Green Beans
Green beans don’t need a lot of help but you can use herbs
and spices to make them simply fresh and flavorful or hot
and spicy. Flavor green beans with basil, chives, dill,
nutmeg, garlic, pepper, mustard, oregano, red pepper
flakes, rosemary and thyme.

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Spinach
Spinach has a strong flavor and does well with strong herbs
and spices. Use spinach with basil, dill, chives, garlic, ginger,
nutmeg, allspice, red pepper flakes and thyme.
Pumpkin and Winter Squash
Pumpkin and winter squash are on the sweet side so they do
best with warm, spicy flavors. Pair them with basil, curry,
cumin, coriander, garlic, ginger, allspice, nutmeg, cinnamon,
paprika, thyme, rosemary, sage, curry and parsley.
Peas
Peas are mild and sweet They pair well with dill, mint, parsley,
sage, basil, marjoram, nutmeg, onion and curry.
Mushrooms
Mushrooms are rich, earthy and meaty. They have definite strong
flavors that can be brightened up with herbs or spiced up with
hotter spices. Pair mushrooms with garlic, thyme, ginger, cumin,
curry, coriander, pepper, red pepper flakes and parsley.
Leeks
Leeks are relatives of onions and garlic, but they have a milder taste
than either of them. Pair them with bay leaf, celery salt, dill, mustard,
nutmeg, paprika, parsley, sage and thyme.
Leafy Greens
The category of leafy greens is quite large and includes kale, Swiss
chard, collard greens and mustard greens, just to name a few. Pair
greens with basil, bay leaf, coriander, garlic, ginger, red pepper
flakes, marjoram, oregano, nutmeg and rosemary.
Radishes
Radishes are crunchy and peppery. There is a wide variety of
sizes, shapes and colors including white daikon. Enhance the
flavor of radishes with basil, chives, dill, garlic, mint, and
parsley.
Tomatoes
Tomatoes are mild and sweet. They are delicious as is or with just a
touch of salt but they can also be jazzed up with herbs and spices.

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Eat tomatoes with basil, cilantro, chives, dill, garlic, mint, curry, paprika,
pepper, rosemary, oregano, parsley, thyme, red pepper flakes, fennel and
tarragon.
Zucchini
Zucchini, or summer squash, is very mild and takes on the flavor
of whatever it cooks with. Enhance the flavor of zucchini with basil,
chives, dill, marjoram, onions, oregano, red pepper flakes, garlic,
coriander, pepper and thyme.
Sweet Potatoes
Sweet potatoes are, as their name suggests, sweet.
They do well with warm and spicy flavors. Cook
them with allspice, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, red
pepper flakes, paprika, thyme, sage and nutmeg.
Vegetables with herbs make a wonderful side dish at any meal. Whether you
are using fresh, frozen or canned vegetables their flavor will always be
enhanced with the addition of herbs. Fresh herbs can always be substituted
with dried ones. Just be careful not to use too much of the dried herbs
because they are more condensed than in the fresh form and can easily
overpower the flavor of vegetables.
Using herbs and spices will turn your meals into an extraordinary health food
experience that is as rich in vitamins and nutrients as it is in color and flavor.

Self Check 7.2-3

1. What are the suitable seasonings of vegetables according to its kind?

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Answer key 7.2-3

1. Suitable seasonings of vegertables according to its kind


Seasoning vegetables may differ according to its kind and cooking method.
But it is important to note such basics in seasoning.

Vegetables & Herbs


Sweet Potatoes- nutmeg or cinnamon
Potatoes -garlic and basil, mint and sage
Squash (orange)-thyme, basil and rosemary
Squash (yellow)-basil, parsley and oregano
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Cabbage -cilantro and cumin
Carrots -cumin, sage, ginger
Corn -marjoram or sage, dill seed & thyme, basil and rosemary
Broccoli -basil and oregano (with tomatoes)
Peas -thyme
Beans -oregano and basil, onion and garlic (add chopped nuts)
Egg Plant -Basil and parsley
Leeks -Garlic and ginger
Asparagus-Tarragon, basil (add tomatoes and cheese)
Brussel Sprouts-Parsley and Garlic (add walnuts, orange zest with sweet
peppers)
Beets -ginger and cinnamon (add lemon juice to retain color)
Spinach -Basil and garlic, Dill and lemon

Information Sheet 7.2-4


Methods of Cooking Vegetables

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Discuss different methods of cooking vegetables

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INTRODUCTORY
STATEMENT:
There are over a dozen different
ways to cook vegetables, so if
you usually steam or saute
them, maybe it’s time to try
something new. All veggies are
not created equal, and some
may taste better roasted while
others are best grilled. The
more you know, the more you
will get the most delicious taste
out of your veggies. Let’s go
over the different methods of
cooking vegetables and pick up
some recipe ideas along the
way.

METHODS OF COOKING VEGETABLES:

1. Raw Veggies
Sometimes the best way to enjoy vegetables is to not cook them at all. Of
course, not cooking veggies doesn’t mean you have to just eat them plain like
a rabbit. Enjoy all sorts of greens and other vegetables in refreshing salads
tossed in amazing dressings. Make soups in the blender or noodles out of
squash. There are plenty of ways to prepare raw vegetables with marinades,
sauces, herbs and spices and turn them into a beautifully composed dish.

2. Boiling Veggies
Boiling is an easy and fast way to get crisp, bright veggies, though you need
to do it right or they could end up gray and mushy with no nutrients left inside
them. The key is to make sure the vegetables spend the minimum amount of
time necessary in the boiling water. Hearty vegetables like broccoli, green
beans and cauliflower are good choices for boiling. To boil vegetables, simply
bring a pot of water to a boil, add salt, and add your veggies.

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Simmering is similar, except you add the veggies before the water boils and
let them cook at a lower temperature for a longer time. This method works
well with veggies that need longer to cook like potatoes, beets, turnips and
yams.
3. Steaming Veggies
If you don’t want to submerge your veggies in water or cook them in oil,
steaming might be the choice for you. Steaming cooks vegetables, making
them tender, bright, flavorful and retains many of their nutrients. Steaming
is a good method for delicate vegetables such as asparagus or greens, or those
that need to get softened before sautéing like Brussels sprouts or carrots.
To steam vegetables, bring some water in a pot to a rapid simmer or easy boil,
add a steamer basket or colander on top and place the veggies in the basket.
You can add aromatics like garlic or ginger to the water to add flavor to the
vegetables. Let the veggies steam until they are bright in color and as tender
as you want them. After steaming, sprinkle your veggies with salt, fresh
lemon, herbs or dip them in a savory sauce.
3. Sautéing Veggies
Sautéing allows for the addition of everything from garlic to herbs but requires
constant attention and a nonstick pan. They also keep a lot of their nutrients
since it is such a fast method of cooking. Sautéing involves cooking veggies
over high heat in a pan with a bit of oil and aromatics. This method works for
almost any vegetable including greens, asparagus, mushrooms, peppers,
zucchini, onions and green beans.
Heat your pan over medium-high heat, add oil and let the oil heat up until it
starts to shimmer. Add any aromatics such as onion, garlic, ginger or chili
pepper, and saute them until they are softened. Add the veggies, being careful
not to crowd the pan. Season the veggies with your favorite herbs and spices.
Stir the veggies often in the pan and cook until they are crisp-tender.
4. Stir-Frying Veggies
Some people use the terms “saute” and “stir-fry” interchangeably, but they
are not the same thing. Stir-frying happens at a much higher heat than
sautéing does and at a much faster speed. The food also has to be constantly
stirred and tossed so it doesn’t burn. Stir-frying is seen in Asian cuisine, and
it is a fast way to make dinner for the whole family. With stir-frying, it is
important to prep all your ingredients before you start cooking. Since the food
cooks so fast, there is no time to chop veggies during the process. While stir-
frying is usually done in a wok, a saute pan works just as well as long as there
is lots of surface area for the food.

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To stir-fry, have all your veggies and aromatics ready as well as any sauce you
are adding to the dish. Heat the pan on high heat and then add oil that can
stand up to the high cooking temperature such as vegetable or peanut oil.
Add the vegetables to the pan in order of longest to shortest cooking times.
Stir the veggies constantly until they are crisp-tender and bright. Add any
stir-fry sauce at the end and toss the veggies to coat them.
5. Braising and Stewing Veggies
Braising and stewing involve cooking ingredients slowly in flavorful liquid. It
is done over low heat and may take up to several hours. Vegetables that are
cooked in these methods become soft, tender and full of flavor. These are
also methods that allow you to walk away from the stove and do something
else while the food cooks. Since the food cooks in liquid for a long time,
braising and stewing are best done with heartier veggies like root vegetables,
potatoes, beans, squash and celery. You can braise veggies in water, broth,
wine or any flavorful liquid. For the most flavor, saute the ingredients in oil
with aromatics until they are browned and then add the liquids for them to
cook in.
6. Roasting and Baking Veggies
Roasting veggies is probably the easiest way to cook them. Roasting vegetables
involves caramelizing them in a hot oven. The natural sugars of the veggies
come out leading to a sweet, savory intense flavor that is like no other.
Roasting is also a great method because you don’t need to be there for the
cooking. Simply preheat the oven to 400 degrees or so, line a baking sheet
with parchment paper and chop your veggies into whatever shape you want.
Toss them in a bit of oil and season them with your favorite herbs and spices.
Let them roast until they are tender on the inside with a crisp crust. You can
roast any vegetable including onions, garlic, tomatoes, broccoli, potatoes, and
squash.
Baking veggies is similar to roasting, except the food doesn’t get caramelized
so you don’t need to use lots of oil.
7. Frying Veggies
Fried food may not be the healthiest way to eat, but when you’re eating fried
vegetables, it becomes a balance of nutritious and indulgent. If you really want
to get someone who is resistant to eat vegetables, frying may be a good way to
introduce them to it. Frying doesn’t have to mean deep-frying in quarts of oil.
Pan-frying will give you delicious, crispy coated veggies with not a lot of oil.
To fry veggies so they are golden brown, make sure the oil is around 375
degrees. Any higher and the food will burn rather than become golden. Any
lower and you will get greasy, soggy veggies.
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8. Grilling Veggies
Grilling veggies is easy and you get food with a rich, deep, smoky flavor. The
veggies caramelize so they get sweet and crisp. You can grill indoors or out
and almost every vegetable can be cooked this way. To grill veggies, let them
sit in a tasty marinade for at least 30 minutes or toss them in oil and
seasonings and grill them according to the time necessary for that particular
vegetable. When grill marks form, flip the veggies to cook on the other side
until they are tender.

Self Check 7.2-4

1. Discuss the different methods in cooking vegetables.

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Answer key 7.2-4

* Discuss the different methods in cooking vegetables.

In raw vegetables it is making refreshing salads tossed in amazing dressings.


Make soups in the blender or noodles out of squash.
Boiling Veggies’ key is to make sure the vegetables spend the minimum
amount of time necessary in the boiling water. Simply bring a pot of water to
a boil, add salt, and add your veggies.
Steaming Veggies cooks vegetables, making them tender, bright, flavorful and
retains many of their nutrients. Steaming is a good method for delicate
vegetables. To steam vegetables, bring some water in a pot to a rapid simmer

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or easy boil, add a steamer basket or colander on top and place the veggies in
the basket.
Sautéing Veggies involves cooking veggies over high heat in a pan with a bit
of oil and aromatics.
Stir-Frying Veggies is usually done in a wok, a saute pan works just as well
as long as there is lots of surface area for the food. To stir-fry, have all your
veggies and aromatics ready as well as any sauce you are adding to the dish.
Heat the pan on high heat and then add oil that can stand up to the high
cooking temperature such as vegetable or peanut oil.
Braising and Stewing Veggies involve cooking ingredients slowly in flavorful
liquid. It is done over low heat and may take up to several hours. Vegetables
that are cooked in these methods become soft, tender and full of flavor.
Roasting and Baking Veggies. Roasting vegetables involves caramelizing them
in a hot oven. The natural sugars of the veggies come out leading to a sweet,
savory intense flavor that is like no other. Baking veggies is similar to roasting,
except the food doesn’t get caramelized so you don’t need to use lots of oil.
Frying Veggies doesn’t have to mean deep-frying in quarts of oil. Pan-frying
will give you delicious, crispy coated veggies with not a lot of oil. To fry veggies
so they are golden brown, make sure the oil is around 375 degrees. Any higher
and the food will burn rather than become golden. Any lower and you will get
greasy, soggy veggies.
Grilling Veggies is easy and you get food with a rich, deep, smoky flavor. The
veggies caramelize so they get sweet and crisp. To grill veggies, let them sit in
a tasty marinade for at least 30 minutes or toss them in oil and seasonings
and grill them according to the time necessary for that particular vegetable.
JOB SHEET 7.2-3
Title: Methods in Cooking Vegetables
Performance Objective: Given the different kinds of vegetable you should
be able to cook vegetables according to the different methods of cooking
Supplies/ Materials: Vegetables, Pots, steamer, frying pan, griller, wok
Equipment: Oven, gas and burner

Steps/ Procedure:
1. Mise’ en place
2. Apply the different methods of cooking vegetables;

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 Boiling Veggies- simply bring a pot of water to a boil, add salt and
your veggies.
 Steaming Veggies- bring some water in a pot to a rapid simmer or
easy boil, add a steamer basket or colander on top and place the
veggies in the basket.
 Sautéing Veggies- heat your pan over medium-high heat, add oil
and let the oil heat up until it starts to shimmer. Add any aromatics
such as onion, garlic, ginger or chili pepper, and saute them until
they are softened. Add the veggies, being careful not to crowd the
pan.
 Stir-Frying Veggies- Heat the pan on high heat and then add oil
that can stand up to the high cooking temperature such as
vegetable or peanut oil. Add the vegetables to the pan in order of
longest to shortest cooking times. Stir the veggies constantly until
they are crisp-tender and bright. Add any stir-fry sauce at the end
and toss the veggies to coat them.
 Braising and Stewing Veggies- cooking ingredients slowly in
flavorful liquid. It is done over low heat and may take up to several
hours. Vegetables that are cooked in these methods become soft,
tender and full of flavor.
 Roasting and Baking Veggies- Simply preheat the oven to 400
degrees or so, line a baking sheet with parchment paper and chop
your veggies into whatever shape you want.
 Frying Veggies- To fry veggies so they are golden brown, make sure
the oil is around 375 degrees. Any higher and the food will burn
rather than become golden. Any lower and you will get greasy, soggy
veggies.
 Grilling Veggies- To grill veggies, let them sit in a tasty marinade
for at least 30 minutes or toss them in oil and seasonings and grill
them according to the time necessary for that particular vegetable.
When grill marks form, flip the veggies to cook on the other side
until they are tender.

Assessment Method: Demonstration and Performance Criteria Checklist

Performance Criteria Checklist 7.2-3

CRITERIA YES NO

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Did the trainee…
Boiling vegetables:
1. Follow the proper method in boiling vegetables?
Steaming vegetables:
2. Follow the proper method in steaming vegetables?
Sauteing Vegetables:
3. Follow the proper method in sautéing Veggies vegetables?
Stir-Frying Vegetables:
4. Follow the proper method in stir-Frying Veggies vegetables?
Braising and Stewing Vegetables:
5. Follow the proper method in braising and Stewing
vegetables?
Roasting and Baking Vegetables:
6. Follow the proper method in roasting and baking
vegetables?
Frying Vegetables:
7. Follow the proper method in frying vegetables?

Grilling Vegetables:
8. Follow the proper method in grilling vegetables?

Note: Identify the criterias per cooking methods.

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Note: This can be included in LO3- present vegetables based
on what is asked in the performance criteria
Information Sheet 7.2-4
Vegetable Presentation Styles

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Know and understand the techniques in food presentation

Note: KNOW AND UNDERSTAND are not specific objectives

The Art of Styling a Dish: How to Create Envy Through Food


Presentation?

E ating with the eyes. What a strange expression when we know that we
obviously eat with our mouth! Vision is the sense that makes us look
insistently. This is the sense that reveals envy. The presentation of the dish
becomes a paramount importance.

The keys of a great food presentation


Caterers, photographers and advertisers have understood this for a long time!
Just look at a picture from a culinary magazine… There are techniques to
embellish the dish, evoke emotion, stimulate appetite and encourage the
purchase. Without studying the practices of marketers, I drew up some key
points you can use to enhance your food presentations.
Here are the components of a great food styling:
 The support
 The focal point
 Colors
 Flavors
 Textures
 Decoration
 The garnish
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The Support
The support’s function is to present and reveal the culinary preparation. Its
patterns and colors should not interfere with food. Its size should be
proportional to the food volume and not give the effect of excess or insufficient
food.
For these reasons, professionals use most often plain white plates to express
their creativity.
The Focal Point
The focal point is the thing that will mainly attract the eye. It may be the
highest element of the composition. It will be located preferably at the end of
the dish so as not to hide the lower items.
It can also be the most voluminous. For a main dish, this place is often
occupied by the piece of meat or fish.
In all cases, the focal point must be accessible without having to break all the
staging.
The Colors
The color is very important because it creates the envy. Green brings coolness
and calms down. Red stands for passion and excitement. Black is a sign of
elegance. Blue is a natural appetite suppressant and makes food
unappetizing.
Vegetables are so important with their contrasts of colors and shapes. Care
must be taken to use their geometry and color wisely, in a way that presents
them without hiding others.
The Flavors
The flavors can come together because they are close, because they
complement each other, or because they confront.
The Textures
Texture is a critical component of good food presentation, just as is the
pleasure of eating.
By contrasting firm and soft, silky and rigid textures, the whole dish takes a
higher dimension and adds a visual interest.
These contrasts are made by different preparation methods. A crunchy
texture builds happily on a creamy and smooth cushion while a creamy
ganache resting on a foundation of nougatine doubles the pleasure of tasting.

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The Decoration
The decoration must be edible and remember the flavors contained in the
preparation. It can be herbs, spices or ingredients used in another form.
The usual sprig of parsley, leaf lettuce, cherry tomatoes or lemon slice should
not be exclusive in decoration!
The Garnish
The garnish increases the texture and flavor of a dish. It must be thought
about with the two rules of culinary art.
Finally, with all these considerations taken into account, the plate must have
a balanced and clear appearance. At that time, the eyes “eat” the plate and
silence reigns around the table.
You have reached your first goal! After the food styling, the next step will be
the tasting…

Self Check 7.2-4

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1. Discuss the different styles in food presentation?

Answer key 7.2-4

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* Discuss the different styles in food presentation?
In styling the food for presentation it is important to always consider all the
components to a successful plating.
Food presentation includes support, to which present and reveal the culinary
preparation. Its patterns and colors should not interfere with food. Its size
should be proportional to the food volume and not give the effect of excess or
insufficient food.
Another is the focal point, that will mainly attract the eye. It will be located
preferably at the end of the dish so as not to hide the lower items.
It can also be the most voluminous. In all cases, the focal point must be
accessible without having to break all the staging.
The colors is also one of the components to be considered and is very
important because it creates the envy. Green brings coolness and calms down.
Red stands for passion and excitement. Black is a sign of elegance. Blue is a
natural appetite suppressant and makes food unappetizing.
Then the flavors, it must complement each other-on what’s on the plate.
Texture is a critical component of good food presentation, just as is the
pleasure of eating. By contrasting firm and soft, silky and rigid textures, the
whole dish takes a higher dimension and adds a visual interest. These
contrasts are made by different preparation methods.
The decoration must be edible and remember the flavors contained in the
preparation. It can be herbs, spices or ingredients used in another form.
Lastly, the garnish. The garnish increases the texture and flavor of a dish. It
must be thought about with the two rules of culinary art.

Note: not included in the module

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Information Sheet 7.2-6
Maintaining Safe and Hygienic Workplace

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Know why maintaining safe and hygiene is important in workplace

All workplace environments need to be hygienic and safe for employees and
visitors, even those which are not involved in the production and handling of
food and personal products. Implementing a workplace hygiene policy is an
effective way to ensure that all employees follow the same standards. Below
are some key areas your workplace hygiene policy should address.
1. Personal hygiene.
Personal hygiene refers to the cleanliness, appearance and habits of
employees, which can occasionally be a sensitive issue for managers and
business owners. An official policy helps to ease any awkwardness by
establishing precisely what is expected from employees. Criteria may include
showering, using deodorant or perfume, grooming facial hair and hair-

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washing. Hand washing and the use of hand sanitisers also has great
importance as a protection against the spread of illnesses.
2. Work area cleanliness.
Workplace hygiene policies should also make provision for each employee to
clean and maintain their own workstation or work areas. The hygiene policy
could include regular cleaning of surfaces with disinfectant to reduce the risk
of bacterial contamination. Policies typically also include keeping the area tidy
and free of clutter.
3. Restroom facilities.
The workplace hygiene policies and requirements should provide restrooms
for all employees to be equipped with hot and cold running water, hand soap,
toilet paper and hand drying towels or equipment. This is to ensure that
workers have the opportunity to practice personal hygiene after using the
facilities. Some businesses hire an external cleaning service to attend to the
restrooms. If employees are required to maintain the facilities themselves,
however, the workplace hygiene policy could include details such as the
frequency of cleaning and the type of products to use for cleaning the floor,
toilet bowls and sinks.
4. Kitchen.
Hygiene policies for the kitchen area in a workplace environment need to cover
regular cleaning and maintenance of utensils and equipment. This allocates
accountability for the task of cleaning and helps to ensure that it gets done.
Employees who are unhappy about the levels of workplace hygiene can
complain if they believe the standards of cleanliness are poor enough to
constitute a health risk.

5 REASONS WHY YOU NEED TO TAKE WORKPLACE HYGIENE SERIOUSLY


1. MAKE EMPLOYEES STAY
Workplace environment can greatly influence an employee’s happiness at
work. Happy and content workers are productive and are always inspired to
do their jobs well.
When people are happy at their workplace, they don’t think about changing
jobs. They stay loyal to the company where they are treated well and that
reduces the employee turnover.
The simple act of keeping the workplace clean is one way you can give your
employees the kind of environment that will make them want to stay.

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Below are simple tasks that when turned into a daily habit, will create a good
level of comfort for everyone in the workplace:
 Cleaning restrooms on a regular basis
 Regularly emptying the trash cans
 Scenting rooms with light air freshener in intervals
 Cleaning the windows regularly to let the natural light in
2. GIVE YOUR COMPANY A GOOD IMAGE
Employees are not the only ones that roam around in the office. Possible
clients, suppliers, and investors sometimes pay a visit, too. The last thing you
want is for them to be turned off by a messy, unorganised, and dirty
workplace.
As it is said, ‘First impression is the last impression’ and poor workplace
hygiene can create a very bad first impression for your company. Not to
mention, words travel faster than light.
Your workplace cleanliness and hygiene reflects directly on your company’s
core values so make sure people will have only good things to say about you.
Things can get even worse! If your workplace is unhygienic, there is a
possibility that an important visitor catches germs and gets sick, creating
even bigger problems for your company image.
3. STOP THE SPREAD OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES
Making sure that your workplace adheres to basic standards of hygiene will
help diminish the spread of disease-carrying bacteria and viruses that can be
rampant in shared spaces like office kitchens and washrooms.
Aside from having cleaning rules for everyone to follow, it’s also best to get
everyone educated on the importance of keeping every corner of the office
clean and treating these shared facilities with a high level of respect.
Many employees are oblivious to the fact that their workstations, especially
their desks, are common breeding ground for germs and bacteria. Let them
know that! Help them keep their workplace environment sanitary at all times.
4. PREVENTS ILLNESS IN THE OFFICE
An unhygienic workplace increases cases of employee absenteeism, costing
the business a considerable amount of money. If you have substandard
hygiene in the office, expect more and more employees taking sick days.

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By implementing proper work hygiene, you will be able to stop harmful viruses
and bacteria from spreading all over the office, ensure a safe and healthy work
environment, and reduce health risks for everyone.
Maintaining workplace hygiene effectively by investing in hygienic workplace
facilities may cost money initially but this amount will pay for itself eventually
through your employees’ improved productivity and reduced absenteeism.
The benefits you will be reaping from a hygienic workplace definitely makes it
worth it.
5. PREVENTS INCIDENTS OF SLIPS, TRIPS, AND FALLS
If your workplace is being cleaned on a regular basis, there are very slim
chances of accidents happening and employees getting injured.
Looking from another angle, this also means that a filthy office increases
chances of accidents such as slips, trips, and falls. The culprit behind these
horrible and dangerous incidents? Dirty and slippery floors.
To prevent injuries, make sure all your office floors are cleaned on a regular
basis and that you have anti-slip mats placed in areas where slips, trips,
and falls are most likely to happen.
A clean workplace is a safe and healthy workplace. And a healthy workplace
helps grow a business and achieve its bottom line goals.

Self Check 7.2-6


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1. List down five (5) reasons why you need to take workplace hygiene
seriously.

Answer key 7.2-6

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* List down five (5) reasons why you need to take workplace hygiene
seriously.

The five (5) reasons why you need to take workplace hygiene seriously are:
1. To make employees stay
2. To give your company a good image
3. To stop the spread of bacteria and viruses
4. To prevent illness in the office
5. To prevent incidents of slips, trips, and falls

Information Sheet 7.3-1


Vegetable Cutting Techniques

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Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Discover different techniques in cutting the vegetables

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT:

When it comes to cutting vegetables, or anything in general, the possibilities


are endless. There are so many different ways to cut one thing that sometimes
we don’t see the benefits of cutting them a certain way. If you’re looking to
impress someone with chef-like cooking styles or simply learn about cutting
vegetables in the proper way, take a look at these different ways that will add
taste and style to your otherwise normal cooking.
Note: insert picture per cutting techniques
CHIFFONADE (SHREDDING)
Let’s start off with one of the easier cutting styles around, this technique is
most commonly used as a way to cut leafy vegetables into small pieces that
are easy to chew. Simply pile up some pieces of the vegetable being used and
cut them into long, thin strips that aren’t too thick. Generally, this technique
is used on vegetables such as lettuce, spinach, cabbage or also for herbs.

BRUNOISE (FINE DICE)


If you’ve got the Julienne technique mastered, then this technique should be
a breeze. Simply line up the vegetables you’ve cut into Julienne slices then,
using your knuckles as a guide, cut approximately 1/8-inch cubes from the
stick. While you can use this technique on any vegetable you’d like, it’s most
commonly used on onions, carrots, celery and tomatoes.

JULIENNE (MATCH STICK CUTS)


Also referred to as “the matchstick cut,” this particular style is one of the most
complicated cutting techniques as you’re required to cut each piece into the
same sizes. A julienne cut is when you cut your vegetable into long,
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rectangular pieces that appear square when you’re looking at it head on. It is
primarily used when people are looking to cook their vegetables quickly. The
most common vegetables cut in this style include celery, carrots, and
potatoes.

MACEDOINE (LARGE DICE)


This particular technique is used to cut vegetables and fruit into large cubes,
which is ideal for preparing vegetables that will be used in soups. Cooks also
cut melons and other types of large fruit using this technique. When using
this technique, it is important to have aflat surface to cut on. Slicing Slicing
is a technique in which you cut food into thin slices that are relatively broad
in comparison to the slice depth. You can use this technique on meats, fruit
and vegetables for use in any number of vegetables. Mincing Mincing creates
a food with An even smaller consistence that you would be able to using the
brunoise technique. To use this technique effectively, you will need to
holdyour knife handle with one hand and use your other hand to keep the
blade's tip in contact with the cutting surface — while bringing your blade
down into the food.

SLICING
The first time you picked up a knife and cut a vegetable you most likely used
this technique without even realizing it. It’s very easy, you simply slice your
vegetable into flat, round discs. The width of the slice depends mainly on what
you’re cooking but also on your likes. Common vegetables cut in this
technique include onions, tomatoes and potatoes.

CRUSHING
This is a technique that is used to crush foods like garlic and ginger, and it is
best accomplished by using a flat surface like a walnut cutting board and
using a large blade to press downward on the food.

Self Check 7.3-1

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1. List down the techniques in vegetable cutting.

Suggestion:

- Show picture of cutting technique and let the trainee


identify what cutting technique it is.

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Answer key 7.3-1

* List down the techniques in vegetable cutting.

The techniques in vegetable cutting are:


1. Chiffonade (Shredding)
2. Julienne (Match stick cuts)
3. Brunoise (Fine dice)
4. Macedoine (Large dice)
5. Slicing
6. Crushing
Each of these techniques are designed to produce foods with different sizes
and consistencies in order to improve taste and cooking consistency.

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JOB SHEET 7.3-1
Title: Vegetable Cutting Techniques
Performance Objective: Given the different kinds of vegetable you should
be able to cut vegetables it according to different cutting techniques.
Supplies/ Materials: Chef knife, cutting board, fruit and leafyvvegetables
Equipment:

Steps/ Procedure:

1. Mise’ en place
2. Choose fruit vegetables ie. (potato, carrots, ginger) and leafy ie.
(cabbage, spinach, lettuce)
3. Apply the vegetable cutting techniques
 CHIFFONADE (SHREDDING)- start off with one of the easier cutting
styles around, this technique is most commonly used as a way to
cut leafy vegetables into small pieces that are easy to chew. Simply
pile up some pieces of the vegetable being used and cut them into
long, thin strips that aren’t too thick.
 JULIENNE (MATCH STICK CUTS)- referred to as “the matchstick
cut,” this particular style is one of the most complicated cutting
techniques as you’re required to cut each piece into the same sizes.
A julienne cut is when you cut your vegetable into long, rectangular
pieces that appear square when you’re looking at it head on.
 BRUNOISE (FINE DICE)- if you’ve got the Julienne technique
mastered, then this technique should be a breeze. Simply line up
the vegetables you’ve cut into Julienne slices then, using your
knuckles as a guide, cut approximately 1/8-inch cubes from the
stick.
 MACEDOINE (LARGE DICE)- cut the vegetables and fruits into big
cubes.
 SLICING- simply slice your vegetable into flat, round discs.
 CRUSHING- this is a technique that is used to crush foods like
garlic and ginger

Assessment Method:

Demonstration, Performance and Performance Criteria


Checklist
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Performance Criteria Checklist 7.3-1

CRITERIA YES NO
Did the trainee…
1. Follow the proper cutting techniques of Chiffonade
2. Follow the proper cutting techniques of Julienne
3. Follow the proper cutting techniques of Brunoise
4. Follow the proper cutting techniques of Macedoine
5. Follow the proper cutting techniques of Slicing
6. Follow the proper techniques in crushing

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Information Sheet 7.3-2
Guidelines in Vegetable Plating

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Explain the guidelines in food plating/presentation
 Appreciate the guidelines in food plating/presentation
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT:
Things to Remember Before You Begin Plating Food
Before you begin preparing your dish, you should consider the kind of cuisine
you're serving. Are you making a hearty steak dinner, or are you preparing a
delicate side dish or appetizer? You can't start building your plate until all of
your flavors are finalized, so it's wise to have your ingredients prepared before
you begin the actual plating process.
Additionally, you'll want to consider portion sizes before you begin plating. To
do so, focus on balancing your protein, carbohydrate, and vegetable to create
a nutritionally balanced meal. Ultimately, carefully placed ingredients create
art, but presentation should never overshadow taste.
Guidelines for Plating Food
1. Choose the Perfect Plate
Selecting the right plate for your meal is key to attractive food presentation.
Here are some things to keep in mind:
Choose the right plate. One way to conceptualize plating is to think of
yourself as an artist, the plate as your canvas, and the food as your medium.
Choose the right size plate. Choose your plate wisely by making sure it's big
enough to allow your food to stand out, but small enough that your portions
don't look too small.
Choose a complementary plate color. The color of your plate is also
significant. White plates are popular because they create high contrast and
provide a neutral background for your colorful creations. Utilize white space
by thinking of the rim as your frame, and consider using the rule of thirds to
highlight your plate's focal point(s). When applied to cooking, the rule of thirds
prescribes placing the focal point of your dish to either the left or right side of
the plate, rather than the center.
2. Placing Your Ingredients
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Here are a few of the most important aspects to consider as you build your
dish:
Plate with a clock in mind. As you begin plating your ingredients, picture
the face of a clock. From the diner's point of view, your protein should be
between 3 and 9, your starch or carbohydrate from 9 and 12, and your
vegetable from 12 and 3.
Use moist ingredients as your base. Another rule of thumb is to plate moist
or runny ingredients first, as they tend to move during delivery if they aren't
held down by other foods. One way to anchor runny ingredients is by placing
other foods on top of them. For example, you can angle sliced meat or
vegetables against purees and mashed vegetables.
Serve odd amounts of food. If you're serving small foods like shrimp,
scallops, or bite-sized appetizers, always give guests odd quantities. Serving
7 brussels sprouts instead of 6 creates more visual appeal, and diners will
also perceive that they're getting more food.
Place food to create flavor bites. Essentially, flavor bites are forkfuls of food
that combine all of the ingredients in your dish into one bite. Creating flavor
bites is the perfect accompaniment to creative plating as it pleases both the
eye and the taste buds.
Don't overcrowd your plate. Be sure to never overcrowd your canvas, and
keep it simple by focusing on one ingredient - usually the protein. Finding a
focal point also ensures that the accompanying ingredients will play a
complementary, supporting role.
3. Pay Attention to the Details
As you plate your dish, you'll also want to pay attention to the details:
Think about color and contrast. One of the best-kept secrets to beautiful
plating is paying close attention to the details. While your focus will obviously
be on the protein, considering how the other elements of the plate create color
and contrast is also very important.
You can create a beautiful background for your plate by adding green
vegetables or brightly colored fruits as accent points. Similarly, try to pair
ingredients with complementary colors as this will further enhance your
dish's visual appeal.
Create height on your plate. Another way to catch your guests' eyes is to
utilize the power of height. While compactly stacking ingredients isn't as
popular as it was 5-10 years ago, creating a tall plate can go a long way
towards enhancing visual appeal.

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You can also balance out taller ingredients by leaning long, flat items against
them. For example, you can plate your steak on top of polenta and lean
asparagus spears against them at a 45-degree angle.
Use texture to enhance your dish. Finally, don't forget about texture.
Contrasting a smooth vegetable puree with crunchy onion straws or topping
a steak with crumbled blue cheese creates appealing texture combinations
that are classic in high-end cuisine.
4. Design and Create with Sauces
Once you've plated your main ingredients, you're ready to top your dish with
delicious sauces. Don't just pour the sauce carelessly all over the plate,
though. Instead, think of your squeeze bottle or spoon as a paintbrush, and
your sauce as a medium. Then, use them to enhance your plate.
One way to do this is to create accent dots on one side of your plate (while
considering the rule of thirds) or by lightly drizzling sauce over the main
ingredients so guests get a little bit of sauce in every bite.
5. Use Garnishes Purposefully
In the past, chefs casually threw a piece of kale and an orange slice onto every
plate as it left their kitchen. However, these garnishes didn't add anything
exciting to the dish, and few guests even ate them in the first place. Here are
a few examples of smart garnishes and how to incorporate them:
Choose edible garnishes. As you finish plating, remember that garnishes
must be related to the dish and should always be edible. Ultimately, they're
designed to enhance and complement the flavors of the entree you've created,
not distract from them.
Place garnishes purposefully. Similarly, never heap garnishes in one corner
of the plate. Instead, disperse them thoughtfully in order to add color or
texture. Also, avoid using unappetizing garnishes like raw herbs, large chunks
of citrus, and anything with a strong odor. Lastly, make sure your garnishes
are quick and easy to apply, so food still goes out piping hot.

Plating Tools of the Trade


Having the proper food presentation and plating tools is essential to high-
quality plating. Here are a few items you should be sure to purchase if you
don't already own them:
Decorating Brushes

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As one of the most important products in any chef's toolkit, decorating
brushes have a variety of applications. You can use them for both detailed
line work and broad strokes as you apply sauces, or when plating purees and
coulis beneath meat or vegetables.
Garnishing Kits

Garnishing kits come with everything you need to garnish all of your signature
dishes, including plating wedges, tongs, squeeze bottles, and brushes.
Molds
Molds are also very important when plating food. By cutting ingredients to a
specific shape and size, you'll provide visual appeal and keep your plate tidy.
Ring molds also help you develop height and structure when stacking
ingredients.
Plating and Precision Tongs
Last but not least, you'll want to have precision tongs on hand for placing
garnishes or small, delicate foods. Many tongs also feature micro-serrations
for improved grip and stability.
Plating Wedges
Plating wedges come pre-cut with flat, round, or pointed edges and are perfect
for smearing sauces and other soft ingredients into designs on your plate.
Shavers
Shavers work well when shaving or grating chocolate, hard cheeses, or soft
vegetables on top of your finished creations.
Spoons
You'll also want to have a variety of spoons on hand. Saucier spoons help you
drag smears of sauce across your plate, and you can also choose a utensil
with a tapered bowl that's perfect for drizzling and pouring. Additionally,
slotted spoons quickly separate solids from liquids as you complete your
presentation.

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Self Check 7.3-2

1. What are the guidelines in plating food?

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Answer key 7.3-2

*What are the guidelines in plating food?

The guidelines in plating food are:


1. Choose the perfect plate
2. Placing your ingredients
3. Pay attention to the details
4. design and create with sauces
5. Use garnishing purposefully

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TASK SHEET 7.3-2
Title: Vegetable Plating Techniques
Performance Objective: Given the a certain vegetable dish, should be able
to present vegetable it according to its proper guidelines.
Supplies/ Materials: Dinner wares, ……..( lacking)
Equipment:

Steps/ Procedure:

1. Mise’ en place

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2. Before you begin preparing your dish, you should consider the kind of
cuisine you're serving.
3. Consider portion sizes before you begin plating.
4. Focus on balancing your protein, carbohydrate, and vegetable to create
a nutritionally balanced meal.
5. Ultimately, carefully placed ingredients create art, but presentation
should never overshadow taste.

Assessment Method:

Demonstration, Performance and Performance Criteria Checklist

Performance Criteria Checklist 7.3-2

CRITERIA YES NO
Did the trainee…
1. Choose the perfect plate
2. Choose the right plate
3. Choose the right size of plate
4. Choose a complementary plate color
5. Plate with a clock in mind

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6. Serve odd amounts of food
7. Overcrowd the plate
8. Pay attention to the details
9. Think about color and contrast
10. Use texture to enhance the dish
11. Design and create with sauces
12. Use garnishes purposefully
13. Choose edible garnishes
14. Place garnishes purposefully

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NOT INCLUDED IN THE MODULE
Information Sheet 7.3-3
Hygienic Food Handling Practices

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:
 Understand the importance of safety food handling practices
 Know safe food handling tips

Food Hygiene
Food hygiene are the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety
of food from production to consumption. Food can become contaminated at
any point during slaughtering or harvesting, processing, storage, distribution,
transportation and preparation. Lack of adequate food hygiene can lead to
foodborne diseases and death of the consumer.

Safe food handling


All foods, if handled properly, can be safe. Most instances of food poisoning
do not have to happen at all, and can be avoided by following simple
guidelines.
 Preparing food in a safe manner.
 Serving food in a safe manner
 Stopping the spread of bacteria through cross contamination
 Routines to follow and habits to avoid.
 Presenting food in a hygienic and appetising way.

The Importance of following proper safe food handling procedures


From the time the food is delivered to the minute it is served to the customer,
food safety should be at the top of the list. Food business operators in
particular should bear in mind that they are required by law, to ensure that
any of their staff who handle food receive appropriate training in hygiene
matters that are in line with their work activity.

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There is little margin for error in any stage of food handling, whether it is
preparation, processing, packaging, storage, transportation or offering it for
sale. Also, note that if you prepare high risk foods the standards required of
you will be much stricter than if you only prepare low risk foods.
 Protects people from getting sick.
 Protects your businesses reputation with customers.
 Protects your job.
The handling of food can take place during;
 Cooking
 Cooling
 Hot holding
 Preparation
 Purchase
 Receipt
 Re-heating
 Serving
 Storage

General safe food handling tips:


 Do not wipe your hands on your clothing as this can easily transfer
microbes and bacteria.
 Use paper towels to clean up during food preparation and serving.
 Change gloves, utensils and dishes when changing functions. For
instance use one pair of gloves for handling raw meat, and another pair
handling fresh vegetables.
 Never run in food production or service areas
 Try to have just one person serve food that is about to be eaten.
 Prepare precooked frozen foods exactly as the directions/instructions
on the packaging state.
 Have foods ready not any longer than necessary before serving time.
 Prepare and cook only as much food as you intend to use.
 Wash and sanitize flatware or other utensils, which fall to the floor.
 Do not taste foods with any utensil used either to mix or stir food.
 Pick up and hold all tableware by the handles.

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 Store tableware away from dust.
 Be careful when lifting lids from hot food.
 Turn handles of saucepans away from the front of the stove when
cooking.
Picking up ready to eat food
Whenever possible always try to handle any food items that are about to be
eaten, with a utensil (i.e. tongs) rather than your bare hands.
Hand washing
Clean hands are essential for working in a kitchen environment. It’s very easy
for bacteria to spread from the food we touch to door handles, plates, cutlery
and so on. Hand washing is one of the best ways to prevent the spread of
germs between people.
When washing your hands try to;
 Use a soap dispenser rather than a bar of soap.
 Wash in a sink that has hot and cold running water.
 Wash in a sink that is separate from one that is used to wash foodstuff
and utensils.
 Dry your hands with paper towels.

Wash your hands after:


 Starting work
 Using the toilet
 Handling raw and cooked foods
 Taking breaks
 Eating
 Drinking
 Smoking
 Coughing, sneezing or blowing their nose
 Touching your hair
 Playing with pets or handling animals
 Scratching

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 Handling refuse or waste materials
 Handling cleaning chemicals

Procedure to washing your hands properly


 Wet your hands
 Rub your hands and wrists with soap
 Lather the soap for 20 seconds
 Rinse thoroughly
 Dry with paper towels or a hot air dryer (remember that wet hands
can carry and transfer more germs than dry ones)
 Turn of the taps with your elbows (if possible) or use a paper towel to
do so.
Hand basins and sinks
The sink you wash your hands in should be separate from ones where you
prepare food or washing dishes. It should be in an accessible place, as this
encourage people to use it and make it more likely to be used.
Gloves
Gloves are ideal for helping you to minimize bare hand contact with any
cooked and ready-to-eat foods. They are there to protect both the food and the
worker (i.e. they can be used to cover damaged skin or protect hands from
risk of developing skin conditions).
Gloves must not be regarded as a “second skin”. They can become
contaminated with bacteria in exactly the same way that hands can. They are
not a substitute for good personal hygiene and hand washing.
 Replace gloves after each task.
 Wash and dry hands thoroughly before putting on any gloves
 Always use single use fresh gloves.
 Throw away plastic gloves after one use.
 The improper use of gloves can increase rather than reduce food
hygiene risks, for instance a punctured glove can lead to glove material
ending up in food.
 Gloves must only be used for one particular task.
Change gloves:

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 At least once every hour.
 If they become contaminated.
 If they tear.
 When switching between handling raw and ready-to-eat foods.
 When changing tasks.
 After mopping, taking rubbish out, sweeping and cleaning.
Handling dishes, crockery and cutlery
 Try not to touch any part of a dish or plate which will come into contact
with a person’s food or mouth.
 Pick up cups and mugs by their handles, your fingers should be outside
cups.
 Place teaspoons so they protrude from a dish.
 Pull out disposable cups from the base of a tube, this prevents your
fingers from going inside the cup.
 Do not use plates which have become cracked or chipped.
Clothes
Try to avoid wearing outdoor clothes in a food preparation area, instead wear
clean, and where appropriate, washable protective clothing.

Wear:
 A clean apron
 Gloves
 Hairnet
 Closed-in shoes to protect your feet, in case of hot spills or breakages.
 Shoes with slip-resistant soles, to stop you from slipping on hot
spillages, etc.
Do not:
 Use your apron to wipe your hands on.
 Cook in loose fitting clothes.
 Work in the kitchen in soiled clothing.

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Hot holding and cold holding food
If you are holding foods for service, such as on a buffet line or in a cafeteria,
then try to keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Hot holding equipment
along with chafing dishes, slow cookers, and warming trays all help to keep
ready to eat food out of the danger zone. All of this equipment is for hot holding
only, and should not be used to reheat or cook food.
Tips:
 Preheat hot holding equipment before you put any food in it. If you don’t
then you’ll be putting food into cold equipment which encourage
bacteria growth.
 Limit the hot holding of food to a maximum of two hours.
 To distribute the heat evenly, make sure to stir the food at regular
intervals.
 Keep the food covered, this not only retains the heat but also stops
contaminates from falling into the food.
 Bring out the food as close as possible to the time of service.
 Keep platters refrigerated until it is time to warm them up for serving.
Pot handles
Turn pot handles away from the front of the stove. This stops children from
grabbing them, and adults from accidentally bumping into them.
Perishable foods
After, a delivery always unload perishable foods first and immediately
refrigerate them.
Children and non food workers
Do not allow children, and people not involved in any cooking to roam or
loiter around a food preparation area.

Work surfaces
Make sure that work surfaces and equipment are visually clean, this goes a
long way towards ensuring that they are free from high levels of harmful
bacteria.
Clean as you go
Train yourself to 'clean as you go', for instance cleaning up any spillages
immediately.
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Plates
Never place cooked food on a unwashed plate that had previously held raw
meat, poultry, or seafood.

Food labels
Take the time to read product labels very carefully, and look for advisory
statements like ‘may contain ingredient X’.

Ovens
Close oven doors straight after removing or adding food items.

Meat and poultry


Keep meat and poultry in its packaging until just before using.

Towels and sponges


 Replace and wash dish towels and sponges often to prevent the spread
of harmful bacteria throughout the kitchen.
 Do not use damp cloths when lifting hot items of equipment.
Uncovered food
Try not to leave food unattended or uncovered for long periods.

Cutting boards
Use separate cutting boards, dishes, utensils and cooking equipment for
vegetables, raw meat and cooked meats.

Plates
When handling plates and trays do not touch eating surfaces with fingers.

Jewellery
Do not wear any watches, rings, bracelets or other jewellery when working
with food. Germs can hide under them or just as worse they could accidentally
fall off into the food.
Mitts
Use oven mitts when taking hot dishes from an oven or microwave. Do not
use a wet oven mitt, as it can present a scald danger if the moisture in the
mitt is heated.

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Self Check 7.3-3

1. What is the importance of safety food handling?


2. Identify some tips in safe food handling?

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Answer key 7.3-3

* What is the importance of safety food handling?


Handling food properly and safely is essential to preventing food borne illness.
* Identify some tips in safe food handling?
Students may answer these:
 Do not wipe your hands on your clothing as this can easily transfer
microbes and bacteria.
 Use paper towels to clean up during food preparation and serving.
 Change gloves, utensils and dishes when changing functions. For
instance use one pair of gloves for handling raw meat, and another pair
handling fresh vegetables.
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 Never run in food production or service areas
 Try to have just one person serve food that is about to be eaten.
 Prepare precooked frozen foods exactly as the directions/instructions
on the packaging state.
 Have foods ready not any longer than necessary before serving time.
 Prepare and cook only as much food as you intend to use.
 Wash and sanitize flatware or other utensils, which fall to the floor.
 Do not taste foods with any utensil used either to mix or stir food.
 Pick up and hold all tableware by the handles.
 Store tableware away from dust.
 Be careful when lifting lids from hot food.
 Turn handles of saucepans away from the front of the stove when
cooking.

Information Sheet 7.4-1


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Utilization of Leftovers and Trimmings

Learning Objectives:
After reading this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST be able to:

What do we do with Leftover food?


How many times have you peered into the refrigerator and discovered, way in
the back, a container that’s been stashed there for weeks, overlooked and
forgotten?
For all kinds of reasons — environmental, social and financial — it makes
sense for us to get smarter about fully using the food that we purchase. And
that means getting smarter about leftovers. Here are 10 tips for using those
extras:
1. Create leftovers purposefully.
When you’re planning meals, think about what the extras can become. It’s a
real time- and budget-saver: If you prepare twice the vegetables you’ll need
for tonight’s dinner, you’ll have the starting point for a soup or pasta dish
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later in the week. Anticipate using leftover roast chicken on sandwiches; cook
twice as much rice as you need and freeze the extra for later use.
2. Store leftovers smartly.
Glass storage containers are not only reusable and sustainable; they allow
you to see what’s inside. That way, you’re less likely to lose track of leftovers.
For freezing, use zip-top gallon bags (which can be washed and re-used), and
label and date the contents on a piece of tape.
3. Dedicate a leftovers night.
If you find your fridge or freezer stuffed to the gills with leftover food, commit
to “eating down the fridge” one night a week.
4. Turn dinner into lunch.
Another money- and time-saver for busy people: Stash a lunch-able portion
of dinner in a container and pack it for lunch the next day. With a bit of
planning and no extra effort, you can create a week’s worth of healthful take-
it-to-work lunches.
5. Think “ingredients,” not “leftovers.”
Turn extra pasta or cooked vegetables into a frittata. Blend cooked vegetables
with a can of whole tomatoes and create a veggie-packed sauce for pasta.
Create burritos with leftover cooked rice, meat and vegetables, and top them
with sour cream and salsa.
6. Make soup.
The steamed, roasted or grilled vegetables that you served as a side dish one
night can become soup on another day. In a blender, puree the vegetables
with 3 or 4 cups of vegetable or chicken broth, then warm the soup in a pot.
Season to taste with salt and pepper, and finish the soup with a bit of pesto,
olive oil or croutons.
7. Salvage stale bread.
If that loaf of good bakery bread loses its freshness after a day or two, do what
the Italians do: Halve the loaf crosswise, drizzle it with good olive oil and rub
it with the cut side of a halved ripe tomato. Season the bread with salt and
pepper, wrap in foil and bake until warm.
8. Stash vegetable scraps.
As an alternative to composting, keep vegetable scraps to make stock. Keep a
gallon zip-top bag in the freezer and add trimmings: carrot and fennel tops,
ends of onions or leeks, tomato cores, stems of herbs and greens, corn cobs,
and the like. Any produce that’s past its prime in the fridge can go in, as well.

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When the bag is full, defrost the contents, dump into a pot and add water to
cover. Simmer for 2 hours, strain — and you’ll have better-than-store-bought
veggie stock (which can be frozen in that same gallon bag).
9. Create “kitchen sink” meals.
A great way to use extra cooked vegetables, bits of cheese, grilled or roasted
steak, shrimp or chicken is to toss them with lettuce and your favorite
dressing.
10. Portion and store.
Many food products come in extra-large sizes, which can be more economical.
If you won’t use all that sliced bread right away, for example, separate the loaf
into portions your family will use in a day. Place a sheet of waxed paper
between the portions, wrap and freeze. Tortillas, pita bread and similar items
can be saved the same way. Likewise, divide money-saving large packages of
meat into portions and freeze.

Why Use Leftovers?


The National Resources Defense Council estimates that up to 40% of food
grown, processed and transported in the U.S. will never be eaten. According
to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, roughly 70
billion pounds of food is lost in the United States each year — and nearly one-
third of that food waste happens because we purchase, cook or serve more
than we consume. At the same time, about one in six Americans faces hunger,
according to Feeding America. Getting into the habit of using up our leftovers
is one way to have an impact on this important issue.

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Vegetbales Developed by:
Dishes DESIREE S. ESPEJON
Revision No:
CBLMs Document No.
Cookery NC II Date Developed: Issued by:
October 2013 Page 97
Preparing
of 52
Vegetbales Developed by:
Dishes DESIREE S. ESPEJON
Revision No:
CBLMs Document No.
Cookery NC II Date Developed: Issued by:
October 2013 Page 98
Preparing
of 52
Vegetbales Developed by:
Dishes DESIREE S. ESPEJON
Revision No: