City & Guilds Paper-Graduate Diploma

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City & Guilds Paper-Graduate Diploma

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Electro techniques

following for this examination

• one answer book

• non-programmable calculator

• pen, pencil, drawing

instruments

General instructions

• This paper consists of nine questions.

• Answer any five questions.

• A non-programmable electronic calculator may be used but candidates must show

sufficient steps to justify their answers.

• Drawings should be clear, in good proportion and in pencil. Do not use red ink.

• All questions carry equal marks. The maximum marks for each section within a

question are shown.

1 An ac circuit is shown in Figure Q1, where resistances, inductances and capacitance

are indicated. Voltage sources connected to the circuit are given as e1(t) =120sin(314t)

V,e2(t)=80sin(314t+30°) V, and e3(t)=100sin(314t-120°) V.

Figure Q1

b) Express time domain quantities e1(t) e2(t) and e3(t) in phasor domain. (2 marks)

c) Calculate currents I1, I2 and I3 using mesh method. (8 marks)

d) Determine the voltage at point P. (4 marks)

e) Calculate complex power developed by the sources. (3 marks)

b) Explain briefly the losses in transformers. (4 marks)

c) With the help of suitable sketches, show the following two winding types

of transformers.

i) Concentric windings. (1 mark)

ii) Sandwiched windings. (1 mark)

d) Prove that the emf induced in windings of a transformer is given by Erms = 4.44Nf Φm,

where N-number of turns, f-frequency, Φm - peak value of net magnetic flux through

the core. (4 marks)

e) A 400 kVA, 11000 V/400 V three-phase transformer has per-phase primary and

secondary resistance of 0.48 Ω and 0.0023 Ω respectively. When the transformer

is at no-load it consumes 3.8 kW from the supply.

i) Calculate the power loss and efficiency when the transformer is connected

to rated load at 0.88 power factor lagging. (5 marks)

ii) What is the new power loss when the load is reduced to 50% of the rated load? (2 marks)

b) List the methods of speed control of induction motors. (3 marks)

c) Sketch the per-phase equivalent circuit of a three-phase induction motor and

identify its parameters. (3 marks)

d) A 400 V, 20 kW, 50 Hz, eight pole, three-phase, star connected induction motor

has stator and rotor resistance of 0.35 Ω and 0.15 Ω and leakage reactance of

0.6 Ω and 0.225 Ω respectively. Magnetizing reactance is 15 Ω. Friction and

windage losses are 260 W. The rotor parameters are referred to the stator side.

Calculate the following when the motor is operating at 1.5% slip.

i) Per-phase equivalent impedance of the motor. (3 marks)

ii) Input power and air gap power. (4 marks)

iii) Stator and rotor copper loss. (2 marks)

iv) Output torque. (3 marks)

2

4 a) Explain with necessary sketches how a megger is used to measure insulation

resistance between conductor and sheath of a two core cable. (4 marks)

b) i) Show how two wattmeters can be used to measure power of a three-phase

balanced system. (4 marks)

ii) Derive a formula to determine power factor of the load using readings of the

two wattmeters. (4 marks)

c) A star connected three-phase balanced load is fed by a 400 V (line-line) three

phase three wire system. The power absorbed by the load is measured using

two wattmeters. The reading of the wattmeters are –1800 W and 3600 W.

Calculate the following.

i) Three phase power. (2 marks)

ii) Power factor. (3 marks)

iii) Per-phase impedance. (3 marks)

5 a) Write down the three NPN BJT configurations, and draw a circuit diagram for each

of them. (6 marks)

b) Consider the circuit shown in Figure Q5a and convert it into the circuit shown in

Figure Q5b by using Thevenin’s theorem. Calculate the following assuming

VCC = 20 V, VBE = 0.3 V, R1 = 100 K, R2 = 25 K, RC = 4 K, RE = 6 K, β = 50.

i) Rth (2 marks)

ii) Vth (2 marks)

iii) IB (2 marks)

iv) IC (2 marks)

v) IE (3 marks)

vi) VCE (3 marks)

6 a) Write down four characteristics of an ideal Op-amp. (4 marks)

b) Explain the following terms of an Op-amp.

i) Input offset current. (2 marks)

ii) Output offset voltage (2 marks)

c) Consider the following circuit shown in Figure Q6 and derive the expression for

the output voltage (V0) as (12 marks)

VO = –CR d(vin)

dt

Figure Q6

7 a) Simplify the following Boolean expressions using Boolean algebra and K – map.

–– – –

i) AC + BC + ABC + ABC. (2 marks)

–– –– – ––– – –

ii) ABD + ABC D + ABCD + ABD + A BCD. (2 marks)

b) Minimise the following function using K – map and implement the minimised

function using NAND gates.

f (A, B, C) = ∑ 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 (3 marks)

c) Implement the following functions using NOR gates having a maximum fan-in

of three.

– – ––

f = AB + BC D +ABD (3 marks)

d) A device accepts numbers in the range 0000 to 1111 that represent 0 to 15. The

output of the circuit is true if the inputs to the circuit represent a prime number

and is false otherwise. Design a circuit using AND, OR and NOT gates to carry out

this function.

(Note: A prime number is an integer that is greater than 1 and is divisible only by

itself and 1. Zero and 1 are not prime numbers) (10 marks)

b) Why does a PLC usually have isolation at its digital inputs and outputs? (2 marks)

c) Suggest and justify two types of isolation that can be used, one for inputs and one

for outputs. (3 marks)

d) A four-way junction has a basic set of traffic lights with only ‘red’ and ‘green’.

Initially, road A is ‘green’ and road B is ‘red’. The lights stay that way until a vehicle

is detected on road B. The lights then change, so that road A is ‘red’ and road B is

‘green’. The lights stay that way until a vehicle is detected on road ‘A’. The lights

then change to road A ‘green’ and road B ‘red’, and so on.

Draw a flow chart showing the logic of the controller. (10 marks)

e) Suggest one design to improve the logic of the controller at the road junction.

Explain the functionality of yours. (3 marks)

4

9 a) Explain the working principle of a thermistor. (2 marks)

b) Give one reason why it might be preferred as a thermometric device instead of a

platinum resistance thermometer. (2 marks)

c) Give one reason why a platinum resistance thermometer might be preferred

instead of a thermistor. (2 marks)

Figure Q9a

Figure Q9b

temperature in °C. Two thermistors R1 and R2 of that type are connected in a

circuit as shown in Figure Q9b and are used to measure the difference in

temperature between the environment of R1 and the environment of R2.

Resistors R3 and R4 are 33 kΩ. The supply voltage V is +10 V. You may neglect

the self-heating of the thermistors.

i) Using the graph, estimate the resistance of R1 at 10 °C and R2 at 20 °C.

Then use your results to calculate the voltage difference at the output. (5 marks)

ii) Repeat your work for R1 at 20 °C and R2 at 30 °C. Calculate the voltage

difference at the output. (5 marks)

iii) How do your results show the suitability of this method for measuring

temperature difference? (4 marks)

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