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# Shear

**Beam Shear Behaviour
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Reinforced masonry beams must be designed for shear as well as bending. Maximum shear forces generally occur near supports.

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Shear failure is actually a diagonal tension failure that is brittle in nature and should be avoided. o To better understand diagonal tension consider the basic mechanics of a beam with no shear web reinforcing:

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Recall from Mohr's circle - an equivalent state of stress different than that shown above is obtained by rotating the differential element 45r. o This rotated element yields principal tension and compressive stresses which are occurring simultaneously with the previous maximum fv state of VQ / Ib.

resulting in beam collapse. originating at the n. reducing the compression area to an ineffective amount. o Under slight increases of load. y When this happens. before fv exceeds masonry shear strength. begin to occur and grow with increases in beam loading. y This potential for failure by diagonal tension is quantified in terms of shear stress: .a.o In general this ft will exceed the inherent tensile strength of masonry. the diagonal cracks will spread into the compression zone. diagonal cracks. y The three general modes of shear failure in masonry beams are: y When you have diagonal cracking: o The propagation of the tensile cracks is not resisted by the longitudinal flexural steel.

8) .2.17) for flexural members without shear reinforcement (UBC '97 2107.o o o Compare fv to Fv fv = V / b j d (UBC '97 2107.2.

3.5 for anchorage requirements o o The reinforcement shall be located such that every 45r line is crossed. UBC '97 2107.2. o V used to determine s: .17. See reinforcing details and UBC '94 2106. holds the elements together . if you will.The shear steel is provided so that it: o Crosses the diagonal cracks (and.steel is loaded in tension) o it is usually a single bar fitted within the grouted cells of single-wythe hollow construction or within the grouted core of 2-wythe construction. Do this by: o smax = d / 2 o Extend stirrups a distance "d" beyond the point where the masonry can resist the entire shear. but no more than d / 4. o Begin locating webs at s / 2 from face of support.

however. is constrained by the unit cells. 24". 48". 40". .y y If simply supported take V at face of support If fixed or continuous V may be taken at distance "d" from face of support. 16". o The location of web steel. 32". y Spacing should follow the modular dimensions of: 8". etc.

.General trend shows an increase in ultimate shear with maximum size of coarse aggregate from 12 mm to 19mm for SCC beams . and influence of type of concrete and parameters related to coarse aggregate .Failure of Concrete beam in Shear Influence of Concrete type and Coarse aggregate characteristics on Shear The performance of beams is analyzed based on normalized shear at the first flexure crack . though SCC have lower coarse aggregate content than NC and had similar compressive strength Increase of aggregate size seemed to decrease the shear load at first shear crack for SCC beams. the first shear crack.The ultimate shear resistances of SCC beams are comparable to those of NC beams made with same size of Coarse aggregate .

d).5. 1967)(ACI-ASCE Committee 426. and partly by the shear reinforcement.Influence of Shear span to depth ratio on Shear Shear resistance of beams decrease with the increase of shear span to depth ratio It is well established in both British and American design practice ( Evans and Kong. which serve to intercept the diagonal shear crack. failure usually occurs in bending. (b) for 6 >a/d>2. the development of a flexural crack into an inclined flexure-shear crack results in diagonal tension failure. a diagonal crack forms independently but the beam remains stable until shear-compression failure occurs. (c) for 2. (d) fora/d< 1. is dependent on a number of other factors including the concrete strength (fi)the main tension reinforcement ratio (p) and the beam size (b. The shear strength of reinforced concrete beams may be substantially increased by the provision of suitable shear reinforcement. is resisted partly by the concrete. thebehavior approaches that of deep beams In addition to the shear-span to depth ratio. (a) fora/d> 6. V. the external shear force.5 >a/d> 1. Vc. such that V=Vc +Vs . These factors are represented in both the ACI and BSI design formulae for Vc. 1973) that the failure mode of rectangular reinforced concretebeams without shear reinforcement is strongly dependent on the shear span/depth ratio.the contribution of the concrete to the shear strength. V. Vc. Thus. usually in the form of stirrups or links.

where the stirrups could not reach the yield stress . The proportion of the strength that the bonded shear plates contributes is also likely to change.d. In particular . does not increase in the same proportion as the beam size. depending on the number of stirrups intercepted by the primary shearcrack (TompasandFrosch 2002). It is known that the opening of the critical shear crack is not same along its length. and a low value at the end of the crack near the compressed zone. the ultimate shear stress reduces with beam depth .Influence of Beam size on Shear It has been shown by Kani (1967) and Taylor(1972) that larger beams are proportionally weaker in shear than smaller beams. where the stirrups yield . Web reinforcement contribution to Shear Strength Stirrups provide a contribution to shear strength if crossed by a diagonal crack: therefore . that is . the contribution of steel shear reinforcement can be estimated on the basis of the cracking pattern . It is believed that this is because the aggregate interlock contribution to shear strength Vc. the opening of the shear crack has the maximum value at the initiation of the critical crack. Design shear stress values in BS8110 allow for the influence of the effective depth .

and those redistributions is influenced by many factors. 3. 2.e a beam or a slab). (i.Shear Transfer Action and Mechanisms Shear transfer actions and mechanisms in concrete beams are complex and difficult to clearly identify. The contribution of dowel action to shear resistance is a function of the amount of concrete cover beneath the longitudinal bars and the degree to which vertical displacements of those bars at the inclined cracks are restrained by transverse reinforcement. Thus. The contribution of interface shear transfer to shear strength is a function of the crack width and aggregate size. the dowelling action of the longitudinal bars provides a resisting shear force. Interfaceshear transfer: Local roughness in the crack plane provides resistance against slip and thus there is shear transfer across shear cracks. The magnitude of that shear resistance is limited by the depth of compression zone . Complex stress redistributions occur after cracking .Consequently .Shear resistance in the uncracked concrete zone: The uncracked compression zone contributes to shear resistance in a cracked concrete member. in a relatively slender beam without axial compression . Typically the dowel action is provided by reinforcement that is near the tension face of a member without transverse reinforcement because that action is then limited by the ensile strength of concrete. . The five important shear transfer actions for beams with shear reinforcement are 1. the shear contribution by the uncracked compression zone becomes relatively small due to small depth of compression zone. Dowel action When crack forms across longitudinal bars. Consequently this component is called aggregate interlock . the magnitude decreases as the crack width increases and as the aggregate size decreases.

a large portion of the shear is carried by the shear reinforcement after diagonal cracking occurs. Residual Tensile Stresses In concrete tensile stresses can be transmitted directly across cracks because small pieces of concrete bridge the crack. The contribution of shear reinforcement to shear resistance is typically modelled either with 45 degree truss plus a concrete term. even when concrete is cracked and loaded in uni. in the vicinity of the tips of inclined and flexural cracks . Shear reinforcement: In the members with shear reinforcement. it can transmit tensile stresses until crack width reach 0.axial tension.06 to 0. can also carry shear stresses that add to the shear capacity of the concrete.16 mm. 5. due to the presence of these tensile stresses in the concrete. or a variable angle term without a concrete term .4.