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The Round Turbulent Jet

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(7)

The Round Turbulent Jet

Objective:

The purpose of this experiment to study the behavior of turbulent air

flow that exit from round pipe and to know the velocity profile of the jet that

exits from that pipe.

Introduction:

The behavior of a jet as it mixes into the fluid which surrounding it

has importance in many engineering applications. The exhaust from a gas

turbine or cars is an obvious example. In this experiment we establish the

shape of an air jet as it mixes in a turbulent manner with the surrounding air.

If the Reynolds number of a jet is sufficiently small, the jet remains laminar

for some length. In this case the mixing with the surrounding fluid is very

slight, and the jet retains its identity. Laminar jets are important in certain

fluidic applications, where a typical diameter of pipe may be equal to 1 mm.

The schematic diagram of turbulent jet is shown in Fig. (1).

Fig. (1)

The jet starts where fluid emerges uniformly at speed U from the end

of a thin-walled tube of cross-sectional radius R, placed in the body of a

large volume of surrounding fluid. The sharp velocity discontinuity at the

edge of the tube gives rise to an annular shear layer which almost

immediately becomes turbulent.

The width of a viscous layer increases in the downstream direction as

shown in that diagram. For a short distance from the end of the tube the

layer does not extend right across the jet, so that at section 1 there is a core

of fluid moving with the undisturbed velocity U at the inside. Further

downstream the shear layer extends right across the jet and the velocity uo on

the jet axis starts to fall as the mixing continues until ultimately the motion

is completely dissipated.

The round jet is produced by discharging air from the air box through

a short tube as indicated in Fig.(2). The inlet of the tube is rounded to

prevent separation so that a substantially uniform velocity distribution is

produced at the tube exit.

A traversing mechanism is supported on the tube so that a pitot tube may be

brought to any desired position in the jet. Measurements are normally made

in one plane.

Fig. (2)

The pitot tube is first brought into the plane of the exit of the jet tube

and the scale readings are noted for which the axial position (X=0) and the

radial position (r=0) are zero. The latter may be obtained by taking the

average of the readings when the tube is set in line with one side and then

the other side of the tube. The pressure Po in the air box is then brought to a

convenient value and traverses are made at various axial stations along the

length of the jet.

Theory:

The atmospheric pressure at Duhok city is equal to 950 mbar, or

o

p atm = 95000 N / m 2 , and the temperature of air inside the duct is equal to15 C,

then the absolute temperature of air is equal to 288K. So the air density is

can be calculated using the ideal gas law as follows:

p = ρ air × R × T …………………………………………………………..(1.1)

Or:

96000

ρ= = 1.14kg / m 3 …………………………………………(1.2)

287 × (15 + 273)

The total pressure can be measured at end of pipe by using fine Pitot tube

and manometer as follows:

Pt = γ water × H ……………………………………………………………(1.3)

Where: H is the manometer pressure head in mm.

1

Pt = ρ × V 2 ……………………………………………………….……(1.4)

2

Then the Reynolds number at end section of the pipe is equal to:

V ×D

Re = …………………………………………………………..….(1.5)

υ

Where υ is the air kinematic viscosity (m2/s).

The pressure values (Po) at different (X) sections can be measured by using

fine pitot tube and manometers as follows:

1

Po = ρ × vo2 ………………………………………………………….…(1.6)

2

While, the pressure values (P) at different (r) sections can be measured by

using fine pitot tube and manometers as follows:

1

P = ρ × v 2 ………………………………………………………….…(1.7)

2

Sample of Calculations:

Radius of tube, R=25.8 mm.

Kinematic viscosity, υ =1.48×10-5 m2/s. ……….. Constant

Total head, H = mm,

Total pressure, P = γ water × H =

1

Uniform velocity, P = ρ × V 2

2

2p

Then, V = =

ρ

Table (1) Velocity distribution along a center line of the jet (X) .

X↓ h p v 𝑣

(mm) (mm) (N/m) (m/s) 𝑉

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Notes: All elevations or pressure readings (h) must subtracted from (100 mm).

Table (2) Velocity distribution at various (r) sections of the jet.

r X=75 mm X=150 mm X=225 mm X=300 mm X=375 mm

mm h 𝑣 h 𝑣 h 𝑣 h 𝑣 h 𝑣

mm 𝑣o mm 𝑣o mm 𝑣o mm 𝑣 o mm 𝑣o

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Discussions:

1. At any value of (x) on the centerline, the velocity is starting to change

along the jet axis?

2. Is the flow velocity increased or decreased as we keeping away from

the tube end?

!

3. Show the relationship between x (mm) and velocity ratio on (x-y)

!

diagram.

!

4. Draw the relationship between and r (mm) on (x-y) diagram using

!!

scale paper, for five (x) values.

5. Find the value of constant (c) if you know that it value can be

estimated from the following equation:

v c

=

V X

6. Estimate the value oijkl;f Reynolds number Re at each (x) value.

V

7. Find the values of (r) and (x) which makes the velocity ratio ( = 0.5 )

vo

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