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1. Modal Shall 5.

Modal Can
Dipakai untuk: Mengandung arti:
1. Menyatakan future dengan subjek I atau we 1. Ability dalam bentuk present
Contoh: I shall leave for America tomorrow. Contoh: I can speak English.
2. Janji 2. Permission
Contoh: You shall have a motorbike. Contoh: Can I go out?
3. Ancaman
Contoh: You shall be punished if you do that.
6. Modal Could
Mengandung arti:
2. Modal Should 1. Bentuk lampau dari can jika berada pada anak kalimat.
Dipakai untuk: Contoh: I said that I could go with you.
1. Bentuk lampau dari shall, jika berada pada anak kalimat 2. Ability dalam bentuk lampau.
2. Mengandung arti ”seharusnya” dalam bentuk present Contoh: When I was young I could play tennis well.
3. Mengandung arti “sebaiknya” (suggestion) 3. Permission (izin yang lebih halus dari can)
o I said that I should leave. Contoh: Could I borrow your pen?
o You should obey your parents.
 If you are tired, you should take a rest.
7. Modal May
Mengandung arti:
1. Permission (izin)
3. Modal Will Contoh: May I go home now? (Bolehkah.....)
Dipakai untuk: 2. Possibility (kemungkinan)
1. Bentuk future Contoh: He may come late (Mungkin)
Contoh: I will go to Jakarta tomorrow.
2. Menyatakan janji
Contoh: I will come to your house if it doesn’t rain. 8. Modal Might
3. Polite request Mengandung arti:
Contoh: Will you open the window please! 1. Bentuk lampau dari may jika berada pada anak kalimat.
Contoh: He said that he might go home (boleh)
2. Probability (kemungkinan)
4. Modal Would Contoh: She might be late (mungkin)
Dipakai untuk:
1. Bentuk past dari will jika berada pada anak kalimat
Contoh: 9. Modal Must
- He says he will come. Mengandung arti:
- He said he would come. 1. Harus
2. Polite request Contoh: You must study hard.
- Would you open the door, please? 2. Pasti
3. Menunjukkan keinginan want jika beriringan dengan like (would like = want) Contoh: Andi bought a new car, he must be rich.
- Would you like a cup of tea? = Do you want a cup of tea?
10. Modal Need
Dapat dipakai:
1. Sebagai kata kerja biasa
Contoh: Do you need a new book?
2. Sebagai kata kerja bantu
Contoh: Need to go so soon?

11. Modal PERFECT (Subject + Modal + Have + Verb 3 + Object etc.)


1. Misal:
I could have lifted the box just now.
= Saya bisa mengangkat peti itu (tetapi tidak saya lakukan).
Artinya suatu kemampuan di waktu lampau yang tidak dikerjakan.
2. Misal:
He might have gone by train early this morning.
= Mungkin dia pergi dengan kereta api tadi pagi.
Artinya suatu kemungkinan di waktu lampau.
3. Misal:
It must have rained last night.
= Pasti tadi malam hujan (terbukti dengan jalan yang basah, misalnya).
Suatu kesimpulan atau kepastian di waktu lampau.
4. Misal:
I would have returned your bicycle.
= Saya ingin mengembalikan sepedamu (tetapi tidak bisa).
Suatu keinginan yang tidak terpenuhi.
5. Misal:
I should have given some money.
= Seharusnya saya memberi dia uang (tetapi tidak saya lakukan).
Suatu keharusan yang tidak terpenuhi
1. Look at this street, it is very muddy, it ______ have rained heavily last night.
A. will
B. would
C. could
D. must

2. The child ate up all the meal we had served. He ______ very hungry.
A. will have been
B. could have been
C. must have been
D. would have been

3. Alfred visited some countries in Asia, Europe and America. He bought luxurious things for his
wife and children. He ______ a lot of money.
A. could have
B. would have
C. ought have
D. must have had

4. Berta : “Can I have your report soon?”


Jono : “Sure, I ______ it before you go to the meeting.
A. will finished
B. will have finished
C. am going to finish
D. am finishing

5. Dina : Roni, that is the most popular book nowadays.


Roni : Oh yes. It must have been written by a distinguished professor.
From the dialogue we know that indeed a distinguished professor ______ that book.
A. wrote
B. would write
C. should write
D. planned to write

6. Mom and Dad just left for the airport twenty minutes ago, so they _____ there yet.
A. can’t have gotten
B. shouldn’t have gotten
C. had better have gotten
D. could have gotten
7. Although research scientists had hoped that the new drug interferon _____ to be a cure for
cancer, its applications now appear to be more limited.
A. prove
B. had proven
C. would prove
D. will prove

8. Henry will not able to attend the meeting tonight because _____
A. he must to teach a class
B. he will be teaching a class
C. of he will teach a class
D. he will have teaching a class

9. The Theory of Continental Drift assumes that there _____ long-term climatic changes in many
areas during the past.
A. must have been
B. must be
C. must have
D. must.

10. The man standing over there asked me whether he _____ the flowers from my garden.
A. took
B. might take
C. ought to take
D. would take
1. Look at this street, it is very muddy, it ______ have rained heavily last night.
A. will
B. would
C. could
D. must

Jawaban : D
Key word : muddy; last night
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat terdapat kata muddy (berlumpur) dan frasa rained heavily last night (hujan deras tadi
malam) yang merupakan dugaan penyebab berlumpurnya jalan itu. Jadi rained heavily last night menjadi kepastian
(must).

2. The child ate up all the meal we had served. He ______ very hungry.
A. will have been
B. could have been
C. must have been
D. would have been

Jawaban : C
Key word : ate up all; very hungry
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat dikatakan si anak memakan semua masakan yang dihidangkan. Karena itu dapat
disimpulkan bahwa anak itu pasti (must) sangat kelaparan.

3. Alfred visited some countries in Asia, Europe and America. He bought luxurious things for his wife and children.
He ______ a lot of money.
A. could have
B. would have
C. ought have
D. must have had

Jawaban : D
Key word : bought luxurious things
Pembahasan : Frasa bought luxurious things (membeli barang-barang mahal) sudah pasti (must) dikaitkan dengan
mempunyai banyak uang (a lot of money).

4. Berta : “Can I have your report soon?”


Jono : “Sure, I ______ it before you go to the meeting.
A. will finished
B. will have finished
C. am going to finish
D. am finishing

Jawaban : B
Key word : before you go
Pembahasan : Frasa before you go to the office (sebelum kau pergi ke kantor) menunjukkan prediksi atas aktivitas
yang terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Namun penggunaan before juga menunjukkan suasana future perfect (telah
selesai dilakukan di masa yang akan datang).
5. Dina : Roni, that is the most popular book nowadays.
Roni : Oh yes. It must have been written by a distinguished professor.
From the dialogue we know that indeed a distinguished professor ______ that book.
A. wrote
B. would write
C. should write
D. planned to write

Jawaban : A
Key word : It must have been written
Pembahasan : Frasa pada kata kunci menunjukkan bahwa proses penulisan buku ini telah selesai. Satu-satunya
pilihan jawaban yang menunjukkan proses itu telah selesai adalah wrote (dalam bentuk lampau).

6. Mom and Dad just left for the airport twenty minutes ago, so they _____ there yet.
A. can’t have gotten
B. shouldn’t have gotten
C. had better have gotten
D. could have gotten

Jawaban : B
Key word : just; so
Pembahasan : Frasa just left berarti “baru saja pergi”. Kata sambung so menunjukkan kesimpulan bahwa Ibu dan
Ayah pastinya belum akan sampai di bandara (shouldn’t have gotten).

7. Although research scientists had hoped that the new drug interferon _____ to be a cure for cancer, its applications
now appear to be more limited.
A. prove
B. had proven
C. would prove
D. will prove

Jawaban : C
Key word : had hoped
Pembahasan : Karena pada anak kalimat terdapat harapan dalam bentuk past perfect (had hoped), maka induk
kalimatnya pasti berbentuk past future (would prove).

8. Henry will not able to attend the meeting tonight because _____
A. he must to teach a class
B. he will be teaching a class
C. of he will teach a class
D. he will have teaching a class

Jawaban : B
Key word : because
Pembahasan : Setelah kata sambung because kita membutuhkan klausa. Dari pilihan jawaban yang ada, (A) tidak
tepat karena must tidak diikuti to, (C) diawali dengan of, dan bentuk will have teaching pada (D) tidak tepat. Satu-
satunya yang berpola benar adalah he will be teaching a class.
9. The Theory of Continental Drift assumes that there _____ long-term climatic changes in many areas during the
past.
A. must have been
B. must be
C. must have
D. must

Jawaban : A
Key word : assumes; during the past
Pembahasan : Kata assume (menduga) mempunyai nuansa kepastian. Karena menyatakan suatu kepastian yang
terjadi di waktu lampau maka polanya adalah must have + V3.

10. The man standing over there asked me whether he _____ the flowers from my garden.
A. took
B. might take
C. ought to take
D. would take

Jawaban : B
Key word : asked me; whether
Pembahasan : Kalimat tersebut menunjukkan permintaan izin dari laki-laki tersebut. Karena kalimat ini berbentuk
lampau, maka pilihan yang tepat adalah might take.