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International Journal of Occupational Safety and

Ergonomics

ISSN: 1080-3548 (Print) 2376-9130 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tose20

An application of the Pareto method in surveys to


diagnose managers’ and workers’ perception of
occupational safety and health on selected Polish
construction sites

Jerzy Obolewicz & Andrzej Dąbrowski

To cite this article: Jerzy Obolewicz & Andrzej Dąbrowski (2017): An application of the Pareto
method in surveys to diagnose managers’ and workers’ perception of occupational safety and
health on selected Polish construction sites, International Journal of Occupational Safety and
Ergonomics, DOI: 10.1080/10803548.2017.1375781

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2017.1375781

© 2017 Central Institute for Labour


Protection – National Research Institute
(CIOP-PIB). Published by Informa UK
Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Accepted author version posted online: 06


Sep 2017.
Published online: 16 Nov 2017.

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International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), 2017
https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2017.1375781

An application of the Pareto method in surveys to diagnose managers’ and workers’ perception
of occupational safety and health on selected Polish construction sites
Jerzy Obolewicza and Andrzej Dabrowski
˛ b∗

a Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Białystok University of Technology, Poland b Central Institute for Labour Protection
– National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland

The construction industry is an important sector of the economy in Poland. According to the National Labour Inspectorate
(PIP) data of 2014, the number of victims of fatal accidents in the construction sector amounted to 80 as compared with 187
injured in all other sectors of economy in Poland. This article presents the results of surveys on the impact of construction
worker behaviour on the occupational safety and health outcomes. The surveys took into account the point of view of
both construction site management (tactical level) and construction workers (operational level). For the analysis of results,
the method of numerical taxonomy and Pareto charts was employed, which allowed the authors to identify the areas of
occupational safety and health at both an operational and a tactical level, in which improvement actions needed to be
proposed for workers employed in micro, small, medium and large construction enterprises.
Keywords: occupational safety and health diagnosis; survey research; Pareto method; construction site

1. Introduction employees, is an important source of information on the


The construction industry is an important sector of the causes of emerging hazards and the prevention thereof.
economy, which involves a significant proportion of Moreover, workers’ behaviour and their perception of mat-
employees globally. In the European Union it is consid- ters on the construction site have a significant impact on
ered a particularly hazardous sector. This is due to various the state of safety and health protection in the construction
significant hazards caused by, e.g., working at heights, in industry.
excavations or on traffic routes.
According to statistics from around the world, con- 1.1. State of the art
struction workers are three times more prone to fatal An analysis of publications from recent years allows one
accidents and two times more prone to injuries as com- to note the significance attributed by researchers to work-
pared with workers employed in other economy sectors. ers’ opinions, attitudes and behaviour on the construction
According to European data, each year in the construc- site. To this end, methods involving surveys, interviews
tion sector over 1000 workers are killed in accidents, and and accident analysis are employed.
over 800,000 are injured [1]. According to global data, There is a focus on the role for shaping the so-called
each year 60,000 employees are killed in the construction culture of OSH, played by the so-called safety leadership
industry worldwide. The construction sector employs 10% of various participants in the construction process, such as
of workers globally, yet 20–40% of the total number of owners of subcontracting companies or the general con-
fatal accidents taking place in all economic sectors occur tractor’s companies. However, this is of importance where
therein [2]. proper communication between various organizational lev-
According to the National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) els on the construction site is maintained [2].
data of 2014 [3], the number of victims of fatal accidents In order to create the right climate to ensure OSH,
in the construction sector amounted to 80 as compared appropriate institutional pressure in this regard is required.
with 187 injured in all other sectors of economy in Poland The research on this issue was carried out using 186 ques-
(Figure 1). tionnaires completed in various construction companies,
As such, the diagnosis of the state of occupational which related to the application of coercive and legislative
safety and health (OSH), taking account of the opinions measures. These questionnaires indicated various ways
of both interested construction company owners and their in which institutions may contribute to facilitating the

*Corresponding author. Email: andab@ciop.pl


© 2017 Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed,
or built upon in any way.
2 J. Obolewicz and A. Dabrowski
˛

Figure 1. Number of fatal accidents victims which occurred in Poland in 2014 and were investigated by the National Labour
Inspectorate (PIP) [3].

creation of the climate to improve the conditions of OSH companies, particularly those employing from 20 to 49
within construction companies [4]. workers [8].
Various research methods were also used to determine Statistics of occupational accidents were also used for
the factors impacting construction workers’ safety as well an analysis of the interdependencies of the risk of injury
as their dangerous behaviour, including interviews and sur- and the construction workers’ age and experience. It was
veys. A statistical analysis of the research results helped to found that in activities requiring specialized training, the
identify 14 such factors which were grouped into aspects number of injured among workers with a length of employ-
of: the subjective perception of hazards, knowledge and ment under 4 years was higher than in the work involving
experience, the specific nature of the executed work and simple physical activities. The workers fraught with the
safety management [5]. highest risk are those with a length of employment under 4
In order to develop a safety strategy in construction years, within the age group of 20–34 years [9].
companies, an analysis and selection of 221 safety prac- Surveys were also used for investigating the state of
tices applied in construction companies in Chile, which, safety in small construction companies. Selected important
according to the authors, may also be applied in other aspects of occupational safety in small Polish construc-
countries [6], was also used. tion companies were also investigated, such as cooperation
What is also important to the improvement in occupa- with the general contractor, OSH documentation, occu-
tional safety is analysis of the causes of accidents resulting pational risk assessment, organization of work, protective
from specific characteristics of the groups of emigrants equipment and work equipment [10].
working on the construction site. The method employed In New Zealand, approximately 215 questionnaires
in this case involved interviews in the work environ- were collected from workers attending safety training
ment, supported by appropriate photographic documenta- programmes at three different training centres. The pro-
tion. The article suggests that for groups of emigrants, the grammes were provided by a national not-for-profit orga-
factors responsible for accidents include: (a) the time pres- nization. Eight competing models were tested using struc-
sure combined with their inexperience gained in their home tural equation modelling (SEM). They aimed to explore
country; (b) assignment of more dangerous tasks to emi- how safety climate factors positively affected safety
grants due to racism and discrimination; (c) willingness to behaviour. The developed integrative model suggests a
accept an increased risk for fear of losing their job and, combination of a safe organization, safe groups and safe
thus, an opportunity to support extended family; (d) unwill- workers’ strategies to reduce unsafe behaviour on con-
ingness to express their opinion to superiors in fear of struction sites [11].
restrictions; (e) difficulties arising from family trouble; (f) The results from a comprehensive analysis including
difficulties with asking for help resulting from the so-called surveys of 1018 apprentice carpenters and observational
national pride [7]. audits on 197 residential construction sites were used for
The surveys were also used to investigate the causes of fall prevention. This research supports growing evidence
injuries in students undertaking work in construction com- that worksite safety can be improved by training pro-
panies in Norway. With a high coefficient, it was found that grammes geared towards boosting knowledge, changing
the highest risk to students occurred in small construction attitudes and behaviours that affect construction falls [12].
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 3

Table 1. Aspects and issues for the operational and tactical levels included in the survey.

Aspects and issues included in the survey


Operational level Tactical level
The aspect of preparation and organization of the The aspect of effectiveness and efficiency of actions taken by
construction construction site management in the field of OSH
1.A Construction site A1 Management commitment in the issues related to OSH protection
1.B Sanitary facilities A2 Specified aims in the area of OSH
1.C Lighting, electrical power equipment A3 Plans for achieving the OSH aims (tasks, deadlines, measures, responsibil-
1.D Storage of materials on site ity, etc.)
1.E OSH plan during the execution of con- A4 Person responsible for safety and health protection on site/during the
struction works execution of construction works
1.F Machinery and equipment A5 OSH policy in writing
1.G Construction media A6 Construction site management/construction works management commit-
1.H Transportation works ment in maintaining the OSH level on site/during the execution of works
1.I Earthworks A7 OSH procedures and training programmes on site
1.J Foundation works A8 External communication regarding OSH on site
1.K Concreting and reinforced concreting A9 Internal communication regarding OSH on site
works A10 Documenting of safety and health protection on site/during the execution of
1.L Assembly works works
1.M Finishing works A11 Assessment of occupational risk at workstations on the construction site
The aspect of OSH requirements of work- A12 Supervising the activities which are accompanied by hazards to OSH
ers executing construction works: A13 Prevention of accidents on site
2.N Qualifications of employees A14 Safety of materials
2.O Medical examinations A15 Assessment of subcontractors regarding OSH
2.P OSH training A16 Monitoring OSH on site
2.R Employee’s personal protection equip- A17 OSH audits
ment A18 Prevention and corrective actions regarding hazards to OSH on site
2.S Workstations and work processes; risks at A19 Inspections of occupational safety and healthOSH protection on site
workstations A20 Compliance with OSH regulations on site
2.T Burdensome, harmful and dangerous fac- A21 Coordination of actions in the event of a hazard
tors A22 Compliance with OSH recommendations on site
A23 Changes to information on OSH and the OSH plan, resulting from the
progress of works on site
The aspect of the assessment of actions taken by The aspect of managers’ knowledge of OSH:
construction site management knowledge of hazards and risks occurring at workstations
3.U Assessment of actions taken by construc- B24 Knowledge of hazards and results of risk assessment at workstations on site
tion site management/construction works B25 Knowledge of consequences of the exposure to hazards occurring in the
management work environment on site
B26 The compliance of activities and tasks performed at the workstation on site
with OSH requirements
B27 Corrective and preventive actions taken on site regarding OSH
B28 Accidents at work which occurred on site (types of accidents, number of
the injured, consequences of accidents, etc.)
B29 The causes of accidents at work which occurred on site
B30 Consequences (to the health and life, financial consequences) of failure to
adapt to the site procedures, instructions, regulations, etc
B31 Responsibility for issues related to OSH
B32 Benefits associated with maintaining a proper level of OSH on site
B33 Costs incurred on construction workers’ OSH, e.g., capital expenditures,
costs of training, preventive measures
B34 Adaptation of work conditions on site to legal requirements regarding OSH
B35 Results of site inspections carried out by external institutions, e.g., the
National Labour Inspectorate (PIP), the National Sanitary Inspectorate, the
Office of Technical Inspection, etc.
B36 Results of the assessment of OSH on particular sites
B37 Results of internal audits, inspections of OSH on site, e.g., those carried out
by OSH services
B38 Knowledge of the OSH plan
B39 Other categories of knowledge related to OSH, not included in the ques-
tionnaire
B40 Compliance with OSH requirements

(Continued).
4 J. Obolewicz and A. Dabrowski
˛

Table 1. Continued.

Aspects and issues included in the survey


Operational level Tactical level

Comprehensive assessment of OSH at The aspect of the assessment of the construction site by management
workstations on the construction site
4.W Comprehensive assessment of OSH plan at C41 Assessment of the construction site by construction site manage-
workstations on the construction site ment/construction works management.

Note: OSH = occupational safety and health.

Interviews formed the basis for the analysis of safety Table 2. Location of construction sites at which the
leaders’ perceptions of safety culture in an Australasian research was carried out.
large construction organization. The interviews followed a Voivodeship Construction sites (%)
semi-structured format consisting of open-ended questions
about various aspects of safety culture. The data collected Podlaskie 43.08
from the interview responses helped to design and perform Mazowieckie 4.55
Kujawsko-Pomorskie 0.20
an online questionnaire [13].
Łódzkie 0.40
To ensure that work executed by subcontractors, Lubelskie 0.20
namely small construction companies, is fraught with less Dolnoślaskie
˛ 0.20
risk and does not deteriorate accident statistics, it is neces- Wielkopolskie 0.20
sary to take into account the specifics of the operation of Pomorskie 0.20
Małopolskie 0.40
such companies. There are many opportunities for gradual
Opolskie 0.20
improvement of the unsatisfactory state of safety on con- Warmińsko-Mazurskie 50.40
struction sites. This, however, requires action on the part
of all participants in the construction process, including Note: Voivodeship is the highest-level administrative
general contractors, construction site managers, investors subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a ‘province’ in
many other countries.
and OSH services. Reduction in occupational risk on site
may also be the result of the activities of other institu- Research also shows that further changes in legislation
tions such as corporate training and OSH service providers could also bring an improvement in the existing situation
[14,15]. [16,17].

Figure 2. Quantitative structure of respondents representing the operational level (workers) in terms of the enterprise size.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 5

1.2. Research aims and hypotheses • construction site management (tactical level);
The aim of the research was to identify the OSH status on • construction workers (operational level).
construction sites in Poland for the purposes of diagnosis
of the OSH status in the construction sector [18]. The research hypothesis was formulated as follows:
The article presents the results of research on the impact OSH in the construction sector is influenced among other
of construction workers on the OSH status on the construc- factors by both construction site managers’ and construc-
tion site. The research was to provide an answer to the fol- tion workers’ knowledge of rules and regulations as well
lowing question: how does construction worker behaviour as their behaviour.
affect the level of OSH protection on construction sites?
The qualitative research performed focused on opin- 2. Research method
ions on and attitudes towards the OSH protection on The research was carried out among workers and con-
construction sites, and on the ways they are perceived and struction site managers on randomly selected constructions
interpreted by, respectively: underway in Poland.

Figure 3. Percentage structure of respondents representing the tactical level (management) in terms of the enterprise size.

Figure 4. Age structure of respondents.


Note: N = 506; mean age = 34.21 years; SD = 9.44; range = 19–65.
6 J. Obolewicz and A. Dabrowski
˛

For the research, the data were collected at construc- works management) and the operational level (construc-
tion sites. A site was regarded as an organization com- tion workers). The aspects and issues included in the
posed of people, machinery and materials used to erect a survey for the operational and tactical level are presented
structure/execute construction works. in Table 1.
The research tool was a widely available survey. Con-
struction workers completed surveys under the supervision
of direct management, while respondents from the con- 3. Range of the research method
struction site management group completed them indepen- 3.1. Groups of respondents and their location
dently in their free time. The research covered respondents
from two construction site management levels, namely the The research covered two groups of respondents – workers
tactical level (construction site management/construction on construction sites located in Poland (Table 2), employed

Figure 5. Level of education of respondents.

Figure 6. Length of employment of respondents.


International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 7

Figure 7. Period of respondents’ work for one employer.

Table 3. Summary of coded answers concerning the issues of the operational level in
particular areas, broken down by size of the enterprise.

Enterprise (number of workers)


Issue* Micro (1–9) Small (10–49) Medium (50–249) Large (≥250) M

1.A 6.48 7.05 8.10 7.42 7.35


1.B 7.00 7.00 8.00 8.00 7.35
1.C 8.25 8.50 9.00 9.00 8.68
1.D 7.93 8.50 9.14 9.07 8.62
1.E 8.18 8.73 9.24 9.38 8.88
1.F 9.38 9.25 9.73 9.93 9.34
1.G 9.26 8.21 8.73 9.53 8.89
1.H 9.33 8.05 8.70 9.19 8.81
1.I 8.38 8.49 9.18 9.46 8.88
1.J 9.29 8.49 9.16 9.46 8.98
1.K 5.67 8.43 9.25 9.61 8.24
1.L 10.00 8.22 9.50 9.66 9.34
1.M 8.71 8.61 8.47 9.41 8.80
2.N 8.98 8.53 9.13 9.23 8.96
2.O 8.28 9.20 9.94 9.92 9.34
2.P 8.36 5.20 9.55 9.53 8.16
2.R 8.24 6.44 9.12 9.26 8.26
2.S 8.35 6.58 9.30 9.29 8.38
2.T 8.05 5.93 9.07 9.26 8.09
3.U 8.51 6.07 9.03 9.44 8.26
4.W 9.85 9.44 9.90 8.43 9.39

*See Table 1 – operational level.


8 J. Obolewicz and A. Dabrowski
˛

in four categories of enterprises: micro, small, medium and with a diverse age range (Figure 4), mainly with sec-
large. ondary education (Figure 5). Figures 6 and 7 present length
These respondents included: of employment and period of work for one employer of
respondents.
• 300 construction workers who represented the oper-
ational level of the construction site (Figure 2);
• 50 construction site management staff from the tac- 4. The research using a survey – the course and
tical level, including management of contractors and results
subcontractors (Figure 3). 4.1. Stages of the research
The research was carried out in three stages:
3.2. Characteristics of respondents
Based on preliminary research, it was found that the (1) identification of knowledge and legal regulations con-
respondents were employees of construction enterprises cerning OSH in the polish construction sector;

Table 4. Summary of coded answers concerning issues at a tactical level in particular


areas, broken down by size of the enterprise.

Enterprise (number of workers)


Issue* Micro (1–9) Small (10–49) Medium (50–249) Large (≥250) M

A1 9.00 8.94 10.00 8.83 9.19


A2 6.50 7.59 6.00 8.42 7.12
A3 6.00 6.13 6.29 8.73 6.78
A4 0.00 7.09 6.00 9.75 5.71
A5 0.00 6.44 6.00 9.58 5.50
A6 7.00 7.41 8.56 8.36 7.83
A7 4.50 6.29 8.14 8.00 6.73
A8 5.00 6.07 7.29 7.55 6.48
A9 0.00 5.69 8.00 7.10 5.19
A10 6.00 6.92 9.20 8.00 7.53
A11 4.00 6.61 8.50 8.55 6.92
A12 6.00 6.61 8.50 8.55 6.92
A13 7.00 5.13 9.33 8.00 7.36
A14 5.00 5.35 6.50 7.90 6.19
A15 8.00 4.75 4.60 7.55 6.23
A16 0.00 6.07 6.63 9.00 5.43
A17 2.00 4.46 7.75 9.00 5.80
A18 3.00 4.17 7.75 8.91 5.96
A19 0.00 6.07 5.63 8.17 4.97
A20 9.00 7.29 6.78 9.00 8.02
A21 0.00 4.60 8.25 8.78 5.41
A22 6.50 6.94 7.44 8.67 7.39
A23 4.00 5.00 7.86 8.42 6.32
B24 4.67 6.79 7.25 8.00 6.68
B25 7.50 7.71 7.50 8.50 7.80
B26 4.00 8.14 7.89 8.17 7.05
B27 6.00 5.67 8.00 8.58 7.06
B28 6.50 6.16 6.00 8.67 6.71
B29 4.50 6.00 6.25 8.56 6.33
B30 6.00 6.31 7.33 7.50 6.78
B31 4.00 6.00 7.50 8.33 6.46
B32 6.50 5.88 7.67 8.50 7.14
B33 7.00 5.94 6.75 7.33 6.76
B34 6.50 5.88 7.44 8.00 6.95
B35 7.00 6.44 8.00 8.00 7.35
B36 6.50 5.25 6.67 7.33 6.44
B27 6.00 5.25 6.75 7.75 6.44
B38 6.00 6.09 8.56 9.42 7.52
B39 0.00 10.00 0.00 0.00 2.50
B40 9.67 5.79 6.38 8.08 7.48
C41 9.67 6.94 7.13 9.17 8.23

*See Table 1 – tactical level.


International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 9

(2) design of the research tool (survey), performance of 4.2. Research results
research in construction enterprises and conducting The research results are presented in two groups:
survey research;
(3) compilation of questionnaire data and analysis of the • construction workers (operational level);
research results, and preparation of a model of safety • construction site management/construction works
and health protection management. management (tactical level).

Figure 8. Pareto chart for the operational level (general).

Figure 9. Pareto chart for the operational level (small enterprises).


10 J. Obolewicz and A. Dabrowski
˛

At the operational level, the research covered 300 research were employed in medium enterprises, i.e., enter-
respondents, and the return rate of completed surveys was prises employing between 50 and 249 people, and nearly
91%. This means that 272 workers employed in construc- 20% were workers from large companies with the greater
tion companies participated in the research. They princi- than or equal to 250 employees. In the research, the small-
pally represented small companies employing from 10 to est group was workers employed in micro-enterprises with
49 workers. Nearly 1/4 of the workers included in the fewer than 10 employees.

Figure 10. Pareto chart for the operational level (micro-enterprises).

Figure 11. Pareto chart for the operational level (large enterprises).
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 11

The research participants were employed in enterprises service companies and the remaining 7% were employed
representing a diverse type of business activities. More in production companies.
than half (60%) of respondents were employed in ser- The workers under research represented companies
vice companies, 1/3 of workers represented trade and which varied in terms of legal status. Slightly more than

Figure 12. Pareto chart for the operational level (medium enterprises).

Figure 13. Pareto chart for the tactical level (micro-enterprises).


12 J. Obolewicz and A. Dabrowski
˛

half of the workers (51%) were employed in commercial During the research, issues of importance to safety and
enterprises. Slightly fewer, i.e., 42% of workers, repre- health protection in terms of the frequency of their occur-
sented employers engaged in individual business activity, rence at a particular workstation were assessed. In each
while 7% of respondents worked in civil law companies. area, questions concerning the areas of importance from

Figure 14. Pareto chart for the tactical level (small enterprises).

Figure 15. Pareto chart for the tactical level (medium enterprises).
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 13

the OSH protection were formulated, and codes of meaning size of enterprise in which respondents were employed, is
were assigned to them. Respondents assigned numerical presented in Table 4.
values 1–10 to their answers, where 1 = low levelof ful-
filment and 10 = high level of fulfilment (the assessment
was based on subjective perceptions of the respondents). 5. Research results discussion
A summary of coded answers (mean values) concern- The analysis of research results employed numerical tax-
ing the issues of particular aspects, broken down by the onomy methods. To this end, the following terms were
size of enterprise in which respondents were employed, is specified:
presented in Table 3.
At the tactical level, 50 respondents, namely represen- • objects – elements belonging to the OSH set, inves-
tatives of construction site management, were included in tigated in terms of OSH;
the research. They were mainly employees of small (43%) • characteristics – the investigated properties of OSH.
and medium (21%) enterprises engaged principally in ser-
vice functions (50%). The survey focused on the assess- The external image of results of the research on con-
ment of factors determining the effectiveness and efficiency struction workers was numerical values presented in the
of actions taken by construction site management in the form of a layout of data sets. One set consisted of objects
field of safety and health protection, and the assessment (a set of objects), while the characteristics assigned to these
of construction site manager/construction works manager objects were a set of characteristics.
knowledge of OSH protection. The results of the discussion were based on the Pareto
Similarly to the research at the operational level of the principle, which made it possible to identify the key factors
construction site, in each area of the research at the tactical influencing the OSH level. A Pareto chart is a vertical bar
level questions concerning the issues of importance from graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order (from
the OSH protection were formulated, and codes of meaning left to right). Pareto charts are very useful for analysing
were assigned to them. Respondents assigned numerical which problems need attention first, because the taller bars
values 1–10 to their answers, where 1 = low level of ful- on the chart clearly illustrate which variables have the
filment and 10 = high level of fulfilment (the assessment greatest cumulative effect on a given system. The Pareto
was based on subjective perceptions of the respondents). chart provides a graphic depiction of the Pareto principle,
A summary of coded answers (mean values) concern- a theory maintaining that 80% of the output in a given
ing the issues in particular areas, broken down by the situation or system is produced by 20% of the input.

Figure 16. Pareto chart for the tactical level (large enterprises).
14 J. Obolewicz and A. Dabrowski
˛

A discussion of the results was carried out on two Employees of small enterprises at the tactical level
levels: operational and tactical. In the discussion: highlighted the aspects of effectiveness and efficiency of
actions taken by construction site managers in the fol-
• aggregate areas of the operational level (Table 3) and lowing areas: prevention of hazards; audits; coordination
the tactical level (Table 4) were compiled; of activities in the field of OSH; assessment of subcon-
• these areas were arranged in ascending order by the tractors; changes to the safety and health protection plan
values of the characteristics; resulting from the progress of works.
• cumulative values were calculated; Employees of medium enterprises at the tactical level
• the cumulative values were converted into percent- indicated other categories of construction site manager
ages in the overall value for a characteristic; knowledge concerning primarily: coordination of actions
• Pareto charts were developed for: in the event of a hazard; assessment of subcontractors;
• the operational level, including the overall sit- OSH inspections on site.
uation (Figure 8), small enterprises (Figure 9), Employees of large enterprises at the tactical level
micro-enterprises (Figure 10), large enterprises highlighted the aspects of manager knowledge of OSH –
(Figure 11) and medium enterprises (Figure 12); including those concerning: costs; results of OSH assess-
• the tactical level, including micro-enterprises ment on sites; consequences of failure to meet require-
(Figure 13), small enterprises (Figure 14), ments for OSH – as well as the aspects of effectiveness and
medium enterprises (Figure 15) and large enter- efficiency of actions taken by construction site managers
prises (Figure 16). regarding internal communication and the assessment of
subcontractors in terms of OSH.

At the general operational level (mean values presented


in Table 3), the respondents distinguished the aspects of 6. Conclusion
preparation and organization of construction, including:
The presented Pareto chart research results are based on
the construction site; sanitary facilities; harmful, burden-
mean values related to respondents’ opinions and their per-
some and dangerous factors; OSH training.
ception and interpretation of OSH. This is an attempt to set
With regards to small enterprises at the operational
in order these issues and to identify trends in this area. In
level, the respondents indicated the aspects concerning
the case of repeating these studies, detailed analysis will be
workers executing construction works in the follow-
possible, including statistical methods.
ing fields: OSH training; harmful, burdensome and dan-
The applied research method also has its limitations.
gerous factors; personal protection equipment; risks at
Construction companies employing respondents were
workstations.
located in north-eastern Poland. Therefore, the research did
Employees of micro-enterprises at the operational level
not cover the entire country. Moreover, most respondents
highlighted the aspects of safety and health protection
were operational-level employees (construction workers).
requirements for concreting and reinforced concreting
The application of the numerical taxonomy and the Pareto
works, and the aspects concerning the preparation and
principle to analyse the research results allowed the authors
organization of construction, including: the construction
to identify subjective perceptions of employees and man-
site; sanitary facilities; storage of materials; burdensome,
agement regarding the important aspects of OSH. How-
harmful and dangerous factors occurring on the construc-
ever, opinions of the respondents directly involved in the
tion site.
construction process may be the basis to point out areas for
Employees of large enterprises at the operational
improving OSH at both the operational and tactical levels
level also indicated the aspects of the preparation and
of the construction site.
organization of construction, including: the construc-
At the operational level of the construction site, the fol-
tion site; sanitary facilities; electrical power equipment
lowing must be done by the construction site management
on site.
group in the following order:
Employees of medium enterprises at the operational
level drew attention to the aspects of the preparation and
organization of construction, in particular: sanitary facil- • provide workers employed in small enterprises with
ities; the construction site; OSH concerning construction OSH training;
works (finishing and transport works). • monitor construction works, including concret-
Employees of micro-enterprises at the tactical level ing and reinforced concreting works executed by
drew attention to the aspects of effectiveness and efficiency employees of micro-enterprises;
of actions taken by construction site managers, primarily in • inspect the construction site for OSH/works exe-
the following areas: responsible person for OSH; the pol- cuted by employees of large enterprises;
icy; internal communication; inspection, monitoring and • check the sanitary facilities for employees of
prevention of hazards to OSH on site. medium enterprises.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 15

When providing employees of small enterprises with • changes to information on OSH and the OSH plan,
OSH training, special attention must be paid to compli- resulting from the progress of works on site;
ance with OSH provisions and rules during the execution • prevention of accidents;
of construction works by broadening the general instruc- • analysis of results of external inspections, audits
tion, periodic training and familiarization with hazards and check-ups regarding OSH;
which may occur during the execution of works. What • safety of construction materials;
is also important is to explain the meaning of harmful, • corrective actions and measures preventing haz-
burdensome and dangerous factors at workstations, when ards;
discussing working and protection clothing, and informing • external communication;
workers of occupational risks. • medium enterprises in the following areas:
During the monitoring of concreting and reinforced • assessment of subcontractors regarding OSH;
concreting works executed by employees of micro- • OSH inspections on site;
enterprises, attention must be paid to the following: • specified safety and health protection policy and
aims, and plans for achieving them;
• preparation and organization of works, including • safety of construction materials;
staying within the pump danger zone and the use of • monitoring OSH on site;
bump rails of truck mixers while pouring concrete • large enterprises in the following areas:
mix; • external OSH communication on site;
• the area of execution of works, including the place • costs of OSH on site;
for storage of materials, parking spaces for con- • results of the assessment of OSH on particular
struction equipment and protection of works against sites;
unauthorized persons. • consequences to health and life, resulting from
hazards;
When inspecting the construction site for OSH/works • results of audits and internal inspections;
executed by employees of large enterprises, the following • safety of construction materials;
must be borne in mind: • OSH procedures and training programmes on site.

• preparation and organization of works, including


storage spaces for construction vehicles, pedestrian The research results show that both construction site
traffic and storage of materials; managers’ and construction workers’ knowledge of rules
• sanitary facilities, including sanitary rooms. and regulations as well as their behaviour affects OSH
significantly in small, medium and large enterprises.
While checking sanitary facilities for employees of
medium enterprises, the following are of importance: san-
Disclosure statement
itary rooms; walkways on the construction site; parking
spaces for construction vehicles; storage of construction No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
materials.
At the tactical level of the construction site, actions
Funding
must be initiated by the construction site management
This article is based on the results of a research task carried
group in the following order with construction site man- out within the scope of: 1) research project No. N N115347038.
agers: Identification of the state of safety and health protection in Pol-
ish construction enterprises after entering the EU and design of
• micro-enterprises in the following areas: OSH management model complying with environmental protec-
• responsible person for safety and health protection tion, ergonomics and labour protection European quality criteria.
Bialystok University of Technology. Bialystok, 2014; and 2)
on site;
the second stage of the National Programme “Improvement of
• safety and health protection policy in writing; safety and working conditions” partly supported in 2011–2013
• external OSH communication; — within the scope of state services — by the Ministry of Labour
• monitoring, inspections, audits and coordination and Social Policy. The Central Institute for Labour Protection
of OSH on site; - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB) was the Programme’s
main co-ordinator.
• occupational risk assessment;
• changes to information on OSH and the OSH plan,
resulting from the progress of works on site;
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