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SECADO CONVECTIVO

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V. T. KARATHANOS, G. VILLALOBOS, and G.D. SARAVACOS

The effective moisture diffusivity (D) in starch materialswas esti- the slopes of the drying curve (Saravacosand Raouzeos, 1984),

mated by the methodof slopesof the drying curve and a computer by computer optimization (Bakshi and Singh, 1982) and by

simulationtechnique.Dlying data (moisturevs time) were obtained the regular regime technique (Singh et al., 1984).

on slabs and sphericalsampIesof hydratedand gelatinizedstarches The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the

in an air-dryer operatedat 60-100°C and air velocity 2 m/set. The first two methods using drying data of starch materials of known

two methodsgave similar resultsin high-amyIopectinstarchgels of chemical and physical structure.

low porosity,whereliquid diffusionmight predominateduring drying.

Considerabledifferencesbehveenthe two methodswere found in hy-

dratedgranularstarchesandin poroushigh-amylosegels,wherevapor THEORY

diffusion might be the main water transportmechanism.

MOST FOOD dehydration processes take place in the falling

rate period, during which water is transported from the interior

INTRODUCTION to the surface of the material by various mechanisms. Usually

the transport of water can be described by the Fick’s equation

THE MOISTURE DIFFUSIVITY is an important transport of unsteady state diffusion (Crank, 1975), which for the case

property needed in calculations and modeling of various food of drying can be written as follows,

processes, such as drying, rehydration, packaging and storage.

Since theoretical prediction of moisture diffusivity in the com- ax

plex food materials is not feasible, experimental values are - ?(Dz) (1)

T - ar

necessary. Limited data on moisture diffusivity are available

in the literature, with a wide variation of the reported values, where X is the moisture content (kg water/kg dry solids), r is

due to the complexity of the foods and the different methods the diffusion path (m), t is the time (set) and D is the moisture-

of estimation (Saravacos, 1986). dependent diffusivity (m%ec).

Three experimental methods have been applied for the de- The diffusivity (D) varies considerably with moisture and

termination of moisture diffusivity in food materials: analysis can be estimated by an analysis of the drying data (moisture

of the drying data, sorption kinetics and permeability mea- X vs time t) applying one of the following methods: (1) the

surements. The first two methods can be applied to various method of slopes (Perry and Green, 1984; Saravacos and Ra-

shapes of foods, while the permeability method is limited to ouzeos, 1984), (2) a computer optimization method (Bakshi

films of food materials. and Singh, 1982) and (3) the regular regime method (Singh et

The moisture diffusivity has been found to vary considerably al., 1984; Coumans and Luyben, 1988). The first two methods

with the moisture of the food material, due to the complex will be described in more detail, since they were utilized and

structure of the food polymers (starch, cellulose or protein) compared in the present investigation.

and their interaction with water. Fish (1957), using a sorption

technique, found that the moisture diffusivity of starch gels

increasedconsiderably as moisture increased. Saravacos(1967), Simplified method of slopes

using the same technique, found that the variation of moisture The method of slopes is based on the solution of the Fick’s

diffusivity with moisture content dependson the physical struc- equation for unsteady-state diffusion (Eq. 1) under the follow-

ture of the material (e.g., method of drying). ing initial and boundary conditions:

The effective moisture diffusivities in starch materials, es-

timated from drying data, pass through a maximum at low t=o 0 < r < r0 x=x, (2)

moistures, due to the porous structure of the dried material

(Saravacos and Raouzeos, 1984; Marousis et al., 1989). t>O r=O ax/ar = 0 (3)

The variation of the moisture diffusivity with the moisture

of the food material can in some cases be expressed by an t>o r=r 0 x = x, (4)

exponential model (Hsu, 1983), a power-law function (Cou- The solution of Eq. (1) for a slab, for constant diffusivity

mans and Luyben, 1988) or a gamma function (Villalobos, (D); in terms of an infinite series is given by Crank (1975):

1986). The parameters of the model can be estimated by an

optimization technique between the predicted and the experi- x-x,

mental values of a drying or a sorption process (Bakshi and

Singh, 1982). However, the variation of the moisture diffusiv-

w = x,-x,

ity with moisture may be quite complex, especially in porous =- z* jl

food materials. & exp [ -(2n+;Jiot] (5)

0

The estimation of the moisture diffusivity from drying data

where W is the fractional moisture ratio, X, is the initial mois-

ture, X is the mean moisture at time t, X, is the moisture at

The authors are affiliated with the Dept. of Food Science & the equilibrium and r, is the half thickness of the slab for drying

Center for Advanced Food Technology, Cook College, New Jer- from both sides or the thickness of the slab for drying from

sey Aaricultural Experimental Station, Rutgers the State Univ., one side.

New Brunswick, Nj 08903. For a sphere of radius rO, the solution of Fick’s equation,

for constant diffusivity (D), yields: at moisture W (X).

Fo = Dt/r,* = Fourier number for diffusion.

w _ x-x,

--=$il$exp[-F] (6) The method of slopes estimates the effective moisture dif-

x,-X, 0

fusivity at each moisture W (X) essentially by applying re-

Equations (5) or (6) are evaluated numerically for Fourier peatedly the diffusion equation (5 or 6) from W = 1 to W = W

numbers, Fo (Fo = Dt/r*), using the Newton-Raphson method. (or from X=X, to X =X). Since the slope of the drying curve

In the drying of food materials, the moisture diffusivity (D) and the dimensions of the sample change during drying, the

estimated values of D,, will vary with the moisture content

may vary considerably with the moisture ratio (W), i.e., the

moisture content (X). This became evident from the nonlinear (X) of the sample.

drying curves (log W vs time) obtained with starch materials A similar technique was used by Hanson et al. (1971) to

(Marousis et al., 1989), while the diffusion equations (5 or 6) estimate the moisture diffusivity in granular starch during ab-

sorption of water vapor. The diffusion equation for spherical

with constant diffusivity yielded linear curves at W ~0.6. In

some casesthe drying curve may consist of two linear sections, granules (6) was applied repeatedly from dryness (X = 0) to

and two diffusivitives can be estimated from the diffusion various final moistures (X).

equation (Jason and Peters, 1973).

In the general case of nonlinear drying curves, the method Computer simulation method

of slopes (Perry and Green, 1984; Saravacos and Raouzeos,

1984) can be applied to estimate the effective moisture diffu- The sample (slab or sphere) was divided into ten equal parts

sivity at various moisture contents. The application of this (11 nodal points), and ten moisture diffusivity values were

method is illustrated in Fig. 1. The experimental drying curve assumed, each corresponding to a different moisture (X). The

(log W vs t) is compared to the theoretical diffusion curve (W maximum level was the initial moisture (X,) and the lowest

vs. Fo) for the given shape of the material (slab or sphere). the equilibrium moisture (X,).

The slopes of the experimental drying curve (dW/dt),, and The Fick’s equation of unsteady diffusion (1) was solved by

the theoretical curve (dW/dFo),, are estimated at a given mois- an iterative technique using the general implicit Euler’s method

ture ratio (W), using numerical differentiation (Langrange of finite differences (Crank, 1975). A uniform moisture con-

method). The effective moisture diffusivity (D&J at a given centration (X=X,) was assumed at the beginning of the dif-

moisture ratio W (or moisture X) is estimated from the equa- fusion process (Eq. 2). This is a valid assumption for the

tion, experimental drying conditions of this investigation, since all

drying took place in the falling rate period (relatively low in-

D cff= itial moisture of the samples).

[ (dWld%,d

(dW~dFohlr, (7) At the exposed sample surface(s), the boundary condition

(4) can be applied (X=X,), since the drying experiments were

where r0 = slab half-thickness (drying from both sides) or slab performed on individual samples at high air velocity. Under

thickness (drying from one side) or sphere radius of the sample these conditions, the interphase resistance to mass transfer is

negligible and the drying process is controlled by the diffusion

within the sample.

At the center of the sphere or the center of the slab (two-

side drying) or the unexposed surface of the slab (one-side

drying) the following boundary condition applies:

3X xR+l

0 or n = X:2;

dr=

where R represents the R-th time interval and n the n-th nodal

point (n= 11).

A computer program was written to estimate the transient

moisture at the nodal points during the experimental drying

time. The average moisture of the sample (X) at any time was

estimated by integrating (volume average moisture) the mois-

tures of the nodal points, using the Simpson’s rule. Ten mois-

ture diffusivities were estimated for ten moistures lying between

the initial and the final moistures of the sample. These moisture

diffusivities were used subsequently for the estimation of the

moisture transfer among the nodal points during the simula-

tion. The diffusivity Dj.l,j, which is used in the finite difference

equations, is the mean diffusivity between the (j-1) and (‘j)

nodal points.

.Ol _ The set of the ten equations was solved for ten moistures,

0 200 400 6 I each corresponding to one of the ten nodal points (the ll-th

I 1, (mln) nodal point has, always, a moisture concentration equal to the

1. ., .., .., .., J equilibrium moisture content). A Gauss elimination technique

was used to solve the set of the ten (simultaneous) equations.

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 1.0

The calculations are repeated for the next time intervals as-

Fo = Dtlr,l suming that the initial values are the results from the previous

Fig. 7. -Experimental drying curve (log W vs t) of hydrated mix-

time interval. The ten diffusivities have new values that cor-

ture of 75% Amioca/25% sucrose at 60°C and theoretical curve respond to moistures found in the previous step.

(fog W vs Fo) for diffusion in a sphere (Eq. 61. The slopes of the An optimization technique, based on the modified Leven-

two curves are estimated at a moisture ratio W (points A and B berg-Marquardt method, was used for the estimation of the

respectively). W = (X-XJ/(X,-XJ, X = mean moisture at time t, diffusivity values (Villalobos, 1986). For this purpose, the

X, X. = initial and equilibrium moistures. computer program was used in conjunction with the subroutine

EST. EFFECTIVE MOISTURE DIFFUSIVIW. ..

ZXSSQ of the International Mathematical and Statistical Li- The equilibrium moisture content (X.) of the samples in the air-

braries (IMSL, 1984), which estimates the solution of a prob- dryer was determined by extrapolation of the drying curves, using the

lem by solving nonlinear least squares of given functions. In graphical technique, described by Jason and Peters (1973).

this case, the average moisture, estimated by integrating the The bulk porosity (a) of the samples was estimated from the equa-

tion,

moisture profile at all nodal points, was compared to the ex-

perimental values of the drying experiment. Therefore, the c = 1 - PdPp (10)

moisture diffusivities, estimated by the computer program, are

the values that best fit the transient moisture distribution at the where, pb is the bulk density and pp is the particle (solid) density of

nodal points during the entire experimental run. the sample. The bulk density was determined from the weight and the

Inputs to the computer program were the drying time and geometric volume of the sample (slab or sphere) at various moistures. I

the moisture, the shape of the sample (slab, sphere or cylin- The particle density was determined using a steropycnometer (Quan-

tachrome Corp. SPY-2), operated under helium pressure.

der), the sample dimensions, the equilibrium moisture, and the

initial guess of the ten moisture diffusivity values to be esti-

mated. RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The computer program can also be applied with different I

initial and boundary conditions: for example if, in addition to Method of slopes

diffusion, the mass evaporation from the surface to the air- All drying experiments were performed in the falling rate

stream is also important, then boundary condition (4) becomes: period of drying, since the initial moisture of the starch ma-

terials was relatively low (Xc 1 kg water/kg dry starch). Under

-D g = k, (X-x) the experimental drying conditions used in this investigation

(high air velocity, low relative humidity, drying of individual

slab or spherical samples) the controlling resistance to mass

where, k, is the interphase mass transfer coefficient. transfer was internal diffusion of moisture. The nonlinear shape

Under the experimental conditions of the presentinvestigation, of the drying curves (Fig. 1) indicated a variable moisture

water diffusion within the starch samples was the controlling diffusivity. The method of slopes yielded indicative values of

mechanism of mass transfer. This was confirmed by the very the effective moisture diffusivity (D), assuming that the dif-

high Biot number, which is the ratio of internal to external re- fusion equation could be applied to sections of the drying curve.

sistancesto mass transfer. For wet spherical samples of diameter The approximate D values, obtained at various moistures, were

d = 2cm, dried at 60°C and air-velocity 2 m/set, the estimated used as first guesses in the computer (numerical) method.

mass transfer coefficient was k, = 0.035 m/set (Saravacoset al., The effective moisture diffusivity (D), estimated from drying

1988). For a moisture diffusivity D = 10 x lo-lo m*/sec the Biot data, represents an over-all mass transport property of water

number (Bi) becomes Bi = k&D = 0.035 x O.Ol/lO x lo-lo = 350 in the material, which may include liquid diffusion, vapor dif-

000. fusion, hydrodynamic flow and other possible mass transfer

mechanisms. The experimental D values of the starch samples,

MATERL4LS & METHODS obtained by the method of slopes of the drying curve, varied

Materials considerably with moisture content (X) and the physical struc-

Two native granular starches were the principal materials used in ture of the material (0.1 x lo-lo to 70x lo-r0 m*/sec).

the experimental measurements: Hylon 7, a high-amylose starch pow- Two different patterns (types of curves) of D vs X were

der containing about 63% amylose, and Amioca, a high-amylopectin obtained. The first pattern characterized the drying behavior

powder, containing about 98% amylopectin. Both starches were sup- of the Amioca (high-amylopectin) starch gels and the second

plied by National Starch and Chemical Corp. In addition, mixtures of type was observed on the Hylon 7 (high-amylose) gels and the

the starch materials with 25% aucroaewere used in some experiments. hydrated starches (both Hylon 7 and Amioca). A typical pat-

Two types of samples were prepared, hydrated and gelatinized tern of the moisture diffusivity of Amioca gel, which decreased

starches. The hydrated starches were prepared by thorough mixing of gradually as the moisture content was reduced is shown in Fig.

the starch materials with distilled water to moisture of about 0.8 g 2. Low moisture diffusivity values were obtained in Amioca

water/g dry solids. The gelatinized samples of Amioca were prepared

by heating a starch/water mixture (starch : water = 1:l) at 100°C for and Amioca/sucrose gels, which increased with temperature,

10 min. Hylon 7 required more water (starch:water = 2/l) and heating following an Arrhenius-type equation (Marousis et al., 1989).

in an autoclave at 120°C for 10 min for complete gelatinization. The The results of the method of slopes were compared to the

degree of gelatinization was checked by determining the loss of crys- diffusion equation using a numerical solution of Eq. (1). Equa-

tallinity, using polarized microscopy and differential scanning calor- tions 1 to 4 were solved for variable moisture diffusivity, using

imetry. the finite differences method. A good agreement was found

Most of the experiments were performed with either slab or spher- between the estimated and the predicted moistures in the drying

ical samples. Flat samples (slabs) were prepared in 90 mm-diameter of a typical starch gel (Fig. 3), supporting the validity of the

plastic or glass dishes. The hydrated mixtures were spread in the method of slopes.

dishes applying light pressure to form slabs of uniform thickness of

about 44 mm. The hot starch gels were placed into the dishes and The second pattern of moisture diffusivity, observed on hy-

allowed to stand at 4°C and 100% relative humidity for 24 hr. Spher- drated granular Amioca, is shown in Fig. 4. The effective

ical samples of hydrated or gelatinized starches were prepared using diffusivity increased gradually as the drying progressed, reach-

spherical plastic molds of 2 cm diameter. ing a maximum near 10% moisture and decreasing sharply near

the end of drying. The anomalous behavior of the moisture

diffusivity in granular and porous starches might be the result

Drying experiments of the changing mechanism during drying: In the first stage of

The drving experiments were performed in a pilot-plant tray drver drying liquid diffusion of water might be the main mass trans-

(Sargent’s S&s Corp.), which was operated at an air velocity bf 2-m/ fer mechanism. As the drying progresses, a porous structure

sec. temperatures40-100°C and relative humidities S-20%. The drving is formed, in which vapor diffusion of water may predominate.

data (m&sture ratio W vs time t) were obtained by periodic weighing Finally, at low moistures, the diffusivity decreased sharply,

of the samples with a Mettler PE 160 balance, placed on the top of because water was bound strongly on the sorption sites of the

the dryer. The thickness of the samples during the drying was mea-

sured with a micrometer. The hydrated slabs were dried from one (the food polymer.

top) side in the plates, while the gelatinized slabs were dried from The diffusivity of water was related to the porosity of the

both sides on a perforated plastic support. The dry solids of each starch material, which might change considerably during drying.

sample was determined after each experiment by the vacuum oven The porosity of a hydrated and a gelatinized high-amylopectin

method at 70°C for 24 hr. (Amioca) starch is shown in Fig. 5. The low porosities of the

1

04 . I . . 1 . * . 1 ’ . . 1 l

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

MOISTURE CONTENT (g WATER/g DRY SOLIDS)

MOISTURE CONTENT (g WATER/g DRY SOLIDS)

Fig. 4. -Effective moisture diffusivity in slabs of hydrated Amioca

Fig. 2.-Effective moisture diffusivitv in spherical samples of (method of slopes).

75% Amioca/25% sucrose gel (method of slopes).

0.5

0.4

HYDRATED MIXlURE

0.3

\

E

m

2

8 0.2

0.1

O.Or

0 5 10

0.0

I I 0.2 0.4 0.6

0.0 1.0 1 I

Fig. 5. -Porosity developed during drying at 90°C of Amioca

Fig. 3. -Mean moistures of a spherical sample of 75% Amiocai slabs.

25% sucrose gel predicted by the method of slopes.

Amioca gel corresponded to the low moisture diffusivities. tive function F) was less than lo-‘.

High porosities were observed in hydrated starches and in ge-

latinized high-amylose (Hylon 7) starch. The void space (po- F = C (K,exp- Xi.ca2 (11)

rosity) of the hydrated starches evidently facilitated the transfer

I

of water vapor within the samples, resulting in high effective where Xi is the moisture at the i-th experimental point.

moisture diffusivities. The optimization of the diffusivity values converged to a

unique solution. The assumed initial values of moisture dif-

Computer simulation fusivity did not have a large effect on the final solution, al-

though better predictions resulted in faster convergence and

A typical plot of the predicted and experimental moistures smoother curves of predicted moisture content (X) vs time (t).

during the drying of a sample of Amioca gel at 100°C is shown The moisture profile of a spherical sample of starch gel,

in Fig. 6. In most cases, the sum of squares of the differences predicted by the computer model, is shown in Fig. 7. A uni-

between the experimental and the calculated moistures (objec- form moisture profile was.assumed at the beginning of drying,

EST. EFFECTIVE MOISTURE DIFFUSIVITY. . v

. o SLOPEMElMOD

. q COMPUTERMIZHOD

roo”c q .

.

0-l . . 1 . 1 . . I I . ’ 1 ’ . I . I ’ .

0 3 6 9 12 15 16 21 :14 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6

TIME (hr)

MOISTURE CONTENT (g WATER/ g DRY SOUDS)

Fig. 6:-Mean moistures of a soherical sample of 75% Amiocal Fig. 8. -Effective moisture diffusivities in spherical samples of

25% sucrose gelpredicted by the computer’method. 75% Amioca/25% sucrose gel (computer and slope method).’

50

0 hr

0

. 0

.

.

I . a

60°C .

. 0

0 .

.

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.2

Fig. 7. -Moisture distribution at various times in a spherical Fig. 9. -Effective moisture diffusivity in slabs of hydrated gran-

sample of Amioca/25% sucrose gel, calculated by the computer ular Amioca (computer method).

simulation method.

followed by parabolic curves, which were characteristic of the of a hydrated granular starch, obtained by the computer method,

molecular diffusion (Fick’s equation). is shown in Fig. 9. The scattered D values indicated that the

The effective moisture diffusivity (D) at various moistures molecular diffusion model was inadequate in describing the

(X), in an Amioca/sucrose gel, dried at 80°C and 100°C ob- transport of water in drying porous starch materials.

tained by the computer simulation technique is shown in Fig.

8, along with the D values of the method of slopes (Fig. 2). Comparison of the two methods

Good agreement between the two methods was found at mois-

tures higher than X = 0.3, where liquid diffusion may predom- A good agreement between the method of slopes and the

inate. The differences in D values, observed at low moistures, computer simulation method was obtained for high-amylopec-

may be caused by vapor diffusion through the pores and cracks tin (Amioca) gels and Amioca/sugar gels (Fig. 2 and 8). Sig-

of the samples, formed during the last stage of drying: nificant differences between the two methods were found in

hydrated starchesand gelatinized high-amylose (Hylon 7) starch,

evidently due to more porous structure of the hydrated starches.

The F values (Eq. 11) in Amioca gels varied from 0.5 x 1O-4

to 1 x 10-4, while much higher values (F= 3 x 1O-4 to 5 x 10-4)

were obtained in the hydrated starches.

In gelatinized Amioca starch and Amioca/sucrose mixtures

the main mechanism of water transport appearedto be by liquid

diffusion. This was supported by the observed low porosity of

the gelatinized samples and the gradual decrease of moisture

diffusivity at lower moistures. Thus, the diffusion equation (1)

can describe adequately the moisture transport process within

the starch material.

An entirely different physical structure was developed dur-

ing the drying of hydrated granular starches or gelatinized Hy- MEfHOO

OFSLOPES

lon 7 materials, which affected the water transfer mechanism.

The high porosity and the cracks, developed in the dried layer

of the sample, allowed the rapid transfer of water vapor, re-

sulting in high effective moisture diffusivities. Thus, the dif-

fusion equation failed, at least in part, to predict the transport

of water (Bruin and Luyben, 1980). In this case, the moisture

profile in the sample is not expected to follow the predicted

pattern of molecular diffusion (Fig. 7).

The method of slopes assumes an “effective” diffusion

coefficient, (Den), representing mass transfer by diffusion in- 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6

side a sample during drying. While in the low-porosity samples

MOISTURE CONTENT (g WATER/g DRY SOLIDS)

(gels) De, is very close to the liquid diffusivity (Bruin and

Luyben, 1980), in the high-porosity samples Defr represents an Fig. 10. -Comparison of the effective moisture diffusivity in hy-

drated granular Hylon7 slabs dried at 60°C.

overall transport of moisture by different mechanisms and,

among others, vapor diffusion. Therefore, in the low-porosity

samples the Fick’s second law could be applied successfully because it optimizes only two parameters. By contrast, the

and thus the computer program was adequate. On the other simulation method used in this paper is based on the optimi-

hand, in the high-porosity samples the failure of the Fick’s law zation of 10 parameters (predicted diffusivities), yielding less

to describe the process resulted in partial failure of the com- smooth curves, especially when moisture transport is not ad-

puter program. In the latter case, the method of slopes, based equately described by the diffusion equation (Fig. 9). The 2-

on the slopes of the experimental drying curve, provided ap- parameter simulation method can be used properly when the

proximate values of water transport (effective moisture diffu- shape of the diffusivity vs moisture curves has been estab-

sivity), which incorporated the effects of high porosity and lished. Otherwise the sum of errors (deviation) from the ex-

cracks of the sample, perimental values is larger than in the lo-parameter computer

Once the water transport (diffusion) behavior in a material simulation method.

has been established, either by the slope method or by com-

puter simulation, a mathematical model can be proposed to

describe the variation of the effective diffusivity (D) with the CONCLUSIONS

mean moisture (X) of the material. For materials of low po- THE TWO METHODS of estimations of the effective moisture

rosity (e.g., food gels, high-suger foods, in which liquid dif- diffusivity from drying data gave similar results in materials

fusion predominates during drying) a two-parameter power- where liquid diffusion predominated. The simple method of

law or exponential equation can be proposed: slopes could be used for preliminary estimation of the moisture

D = c1 XF (12) diffusivity, since it was easier and less computer-time consum-

ing. This method could provide quantitative information on the

D = czexp (b,X) (13) mass transport of water and the type of moisture diffusion

(liquid or vapor). In materials where liquid diffusion predom-

where c,; c,, b,, b, constants, X = moisture, and D = ef- inated, as manifested by a gradual decrease of the diffusivity

fective moisture diffusivity. at lower moistures and by low porosities, the computer sim-

For granular and porous materials (e.g., food powders, gran- ulation technique could be used for more accurate predictions

ular or porous foods), where water is transported mainly by and simulation of the drying process.

vapor diffusion through the void spaces, the two-parameter

gamma function has been applied successfully (Villalobos,

1986): REFERENCES

Bakshi, AS. and Singh R.P. 1982. Modelling rice parboiling process. Le-

D = xp * 2-1 * 10-s * bensm. Wiss. u-Technol. 15: 89.

exp( - h * X,) (14) Bruin, S. and Luyben, K.Ch.A.M. 1980. Drying of food materials. A review

r(p) of recent developments. In “Advances in Drying,” Vol. 1, p. 155. A. Mu-

jumdar (Ed.). Hemisphere Publ. Corp., New York.

where X, /3 are constants, D = effective diffusivity, X = Coumans, W.J. and Luyben, K.Ch.A.M. 1988. Evaluation and prediction

of experimental drying curves of slabs. In “Preconcentration and Drying

moisture, X, = X - XRHZOand r(p) = gamma function. of Food Materials,” p. 163, S. Bruin (Ed.). Elsevier, New York.

The effective moisture diffusivities in hydrated granular starch, Crank, J. 1975. “The Mathematics of Diffusion,” 2nd ed. Oxford University

Press. Oxford.

predicted by a computer method, utilizing the gamma function, Fish, B.P. 1957. “Diffusion and Equilibrium Properties of Water in Starch.?

are compared with the D values obtained by the slope method Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. London.

Hanson, T.P., Cramer, W.D., Abraham, W.H., and Lancaster, E.B. 1971.

directly from the drying curve in Fig. 10. The constants of the Rates of water-vapor absorption in granular cornstarch. In “Food and

gamma function were obtained by regression analysis of the Bioengineerin -Fundamental and Industrial Aspects,” B. Lawrence and

drying data. E.J. Koval (E ii .). Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Series No. 108, Vol. 67, p. 35.

Hsu, K.H. 1983. A diffusion model with a concentration - dependent dif-

A computer simulation program, using a two-parameter fusion coeflicient for describing water movement in legumes during

equation for the diffusivity, yields smooth diffusivity curves, soaking. J. Food Sci. 48: 618.

-Continued on page 231

commercial snack (Table 8). Again, no statistical differences with respect to the commercial corn snack. Formulations 2 and

were found among experimental snacks. 3 were found to be the best alternatives for the preparation of

Experimental products represent different formulations but corn-based snacks with significantly improved nutritive value,

they are submitted to identical nutritional constraints in the acceptable sensory characteristics, and competitive production

linear-programming model. This might explain the close sim- costs.

ilarity in protein quality and confirm the advantages of the

methodology. Tryptophan addition was not necessaryto obtain REFERENCES

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Formulation 1 2.67 a 1.88 b 3.37 a 1.98 b

Formulation 2 2.74 a 2.92 a 3.26 a 2.89 a

Formulation 3 3.05 a 3.24 a 3.47 a 2.89 a

Control snack 2.83 a 2.77 a 2.97 a 2.84 a This project was funded by a CONACYT grant PCALBNA-020786. We thank Mr.

Jesus Alvarez from the Snack Factory “Productos Twist” for allowing us to use his

0 Scores were measured from the interval scale used for each. attribute in which a facilities. Our appreciation to Dr. Luz Vazquez and Arm Maria Cslderon de la Barca

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ter sre significantly different (psO.05).

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