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Question 1

From flow factor chart of W = 10° and 𝛿 = 50°

And considering 3° safety margin _ _ _ _ _ 1m

Θ = 35° _ _ _ _ _ 1m

ff = 1.4 _ __ _ _ _ 1m

For the powder to flow:


𝜎𝑐
> 𝜎𝑦
𝑓𝑓

Given flow function: 𝜎𝑦 = 𝜎𝑐0.68 (1)

𝜎𝑐
For critical flow function: = 𝜎𝑦 (2) _ _ _ _ _ _ 1m
𝑓𝑓

1
( )
Rearrange from (1) 𝜎𝑐 = 𝜎𝑦0.68 (3) _ _ _ _ _ _ 1m

Substitute (3) into (1):


1
( )
𝜎𝑦0.68
= ff
𝜎𝑦

𝜎𝑦0.471 = 1.4 _ _ _ _ 1m

𝜎𝑦 = 2.043 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 = 𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 _ _ _ _ 1m

35°
𝐻 =1+ = 1.1944 _ _ _ _ _ 1m
180°

𝑁
1.1944 (2.043 𝑥 103 2 )
𝑚
𝑊= _ _ _ _ _ 1m
1800 (9.81)

= 0.2249 m _ _ _ _ 1m

Since L = 3W = 3 (0.2249 m) = 0.6747 m _ _ _ _ _ 1m


Opening area = L x W

= 0.6747 m x 0.2249 m = 0.152 m2 _ _ _ _ _ 1m

For conical hopper:


𝜃
𝐻(𝜃) = 2.0 + = 2.5833 _ _ _ _ _ 1m
60°

H (θ)σcrit
B=
ρB g

2.5833 𝑥 2.043 𝑥 103


= _ _ _ _ _ 1m
1800 𝑥 9.81

= 0.299 𝑚 _ _ _ _ _ 1m

Opening area of conical hopper:

𝑑 2 0.299𝑚 2
=𝜋 ( ) = 𝜋 (
2 2
) _ _ _ _ _ 1m

= 0.07 m2 _ _ _ _ _ 1m

Since the area 0.152 m2 > 0.1 m2, so the wedge hopper is suitable for
this operation. _ _ _ _ _ 1m
Question 2

Using the flow factor chart for δ = 40° with _ _ _ 1 mark

W = 16° and a 3° safety margin _ _ _ 1 mark


hopper flow factor, ff = 1.5 _ _ _ 1 mark
Semi-included angle of hopper, θ = 29.5° - - - 1 mark

𝜎𝑐
The relationship 𝜎𝑦 = 𝑓𝑓
is plotted on the same axes as the powder flow function:
𝜎𝑐
𝜎𝑦 = 1.5
= 0.67 𝜎𝑐 - - - 1 mark

𝜎𝑐
The powder flow function intercept with 𝜎𝑦 = 𝑓𝑓
- - - 1 mark

which will give the critical unconfined yield stress, 𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 = 1.82 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 - - - 1 mark

𝜃
𝐻(𝜃) = 2.0 + 60
= 2.492 - - - 1 mark

Therefore,
H (θ)σcrit
B=
ρB g

2.492 𝑥 1.82 𝑥 103


= - - - 1 mark
900 𝑥 9.81

= 0.514 𝑚 - - - 1 mark

For wedge type hopper, given

𝐻(𝜃)𝜎𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡
𝑊=
𝜌𝐵 𝑔

and

𝜃 29.5
𝐻(𝜃) = 1 + = 1+ = 1.1639 - - - 1 mark
180 180

1.16 𝑥 1.82 𝑥 103


Therefore, 𝑊= - - - 1 mark
900 𝑥 9.81

= 0.2391 - - - 1 mark

Since L > 3W, and assume L > 3.1 W


L = 3.1 X 0.2391 - - - 1 mark
= 0.7412 m - - - 1 mark

Which hopper is efficient?

Check the opening area:

Circular / conical hopper

𝑑 2 0.514 2
=𝜋 ( ) = 𝜋 ( ) - - - 1 mark
2 2

= 0.208 𝑚2 - - - 1 mark

For wedge type: area = W X L = 0.2391 m X 0.7412 m - - - 1 mark


2
= 0.177 m - - - 1 mark

Since opening area of conical hopper > wedge, therefore conical type will give fast
flow. - - - 1 mark

For graph / plot ( 3 marks)


Y axis & x axis - - - 1 mark
𝜎𝑐
𝜎𝑦 = 1.5
= 0.67 𝜎𝑐 plot - - - 1 mark
Powder flow function plot - - - 1 mark