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Chapter 6 : Structural and Modal Analysis of Single-Piece

Drive Shaft

6.1 Introduction
The main objective of this chapter is to replace conventional steel material two piece three
universal joints drive shaft with composite material single-piece drive shaft. Higher strength and
low weight are the two technical requirements for composite single-piece drive shaft. Steel
SM45C, stainless steel as conventional material and HS-Carbon Epoxy, E Glass Polyester Resin,
kevlar epoxy were selected as composite material. Higher stiffness and specific strength of
composite material solves the problem of strength requirement for drive shaft and less weight
solves the problem of inertia and torsional vibration. For single-piece drive shaft the natural
bending frequency should be higher. In literature [57, 60-61] various studies have recommended
the replacement of conventional drive shaft using composite material single-piece drive shaft. In
1985 single-piece drive shaft was used for the Ford econoline van models.
The study is concern with the replacement and design of conventional two piece drive shaft with
single piece composite material drive shaft for medium duty vehicle. Composite materials have
advantage of higher specific strength, less weight, high damping capacity, longer life, high
critical speed and greater torque carrying capacity. The main function of drive shaft is to transmit
torque from transmission to the rear wheel differential system. Heavy vehicle medium duty truck
transmission drive shaft has been selected as research object. The conventional material steel
SM45C, stainless steel and composite materials HS carbon epoxy, E-glass polyester, kevlar
epoxy have been used for drive shaft study. The drive shaft design and performance was
enhanced by reducing the weight. For strength and rigidity purpose structural and free vibration
analysis were performed. Pro-E software has good modelling features. Drive shaft was designed
using Pro-E. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based ANSYS 14.5 has been used as an analysis
tool for numerical simulation to find the dynamic vibration response of composite material drive
shaft. The simulation result shows that the natural frequency of free vibration varies from 0 Hz to
919 Hz. The simulation result determines the deflection, strain, principal stress, strain energy,
natural frequencies and mode shapes under actual boundary conditions. The result concluded that
HS carbon epoxy composite material suited more for composite drive shaft application.

A propeller shaft, transmission drive shaft, driving shaft, drive shaft or cardan shaft is an
automobile mechanical component. Conventionally it is manufactured using Steel material in
two-piece and used for transmitting torque and rotation, at the same time it is also used to
connect mechanical components of drive train that are not directly connected from transmission
or engine to rear end of vehicle. This type of transmission drive shaft is known as propeller shaft.
Two-piece drive shaft consists of two or more universal joints with jaw coupling which increases
the total weight of drive shaft and decreases the performance. Truck transmission longitudinal
drive shaft is subjected to shear stress, torsion, lateral vibration and torsional vibration. The
strength and weight are two technical indexes for drive shaft failure. Authors have studied single
piece drive shaft using composite materials. Various previous research work was studied for
reference work.

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Composite materials have higher specific stiffness to provide the required strength against less
weight. Higher stiffness of composite material solves the problem of high strength requirement
for drive shaft and less weight solves the problem of inertia. So composite material can be used
as one-piece drive shaft material without resonance. In this research work HS carbon epoxy and
E-glass polyester has been used as a composite material for single-piece drive shaft analysis. The
one-piece drive shaft of truck was specified for the study and the modelling of the drive shaft
assembly was done using Pro-E. The weight of drive shaft was optimised to reduce the inertia
and torsional vibration problem.

6.2 CAD Model of Single-Piece Drive Shaft

Single-piece drive shaft was designed using the Solid Edge and Pro-E software. FEA based
analysis was done using Ansys 14.5. The result of this study provides the reference work for the
structure optimisation and performance evaluation of single-piece drive shaft aims at reducing
vibration and strength problem. Free vibration study of heavy vehicle, single-piece composite
material drive shaft was performed to evaluate the inherent natural frequency and vibration mode
shape to prevent the resonance. For structure rigidity the natural bending frequency should be
high. The structure analysis has evaluated the strength properties of drive shaft. The design
model of automobile truck drive shaft consists of a single-piece shaft with universal joints at
ends portion. Figure 6.1 shows the single-piece drive shaft with universal joint. ANSYS 14.5
program solver works on meshing concept of nodes and elements (nodes- 87718, elements-
453477).

Figure 6.1 CAD and FEA mesh model of transmission drive shaft.

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6.3 Assumptions and Advantage of Composite Material Drive Shaft

This research work highlights design and vibration study of composite material single-piece
drive shaft for heavy vehicle truck application. Numerical simulation method is used for
structural and free vibration analysis. In study of drive shaft it was assumed that the shaft is
balanced, has circular cross section and rotates at constant speed. The nonlinear and damping
effects were neglected. The advantage of composite materials has attracted the scientist
worldwide. It has many applications in automobile fields. It has advantage of high specific
strength and less weight, high torque carrying capacity, corrosion resistance, high damping. The
advantage of composite material leads less fuel consumption and less noise, vibration. The
fatigue life of composite material is high. Composite materials HS-Carbon Epoxy, E Glass
Polyester Resin and Kevlar Epoxy were used for single-piece drive shaft study.

6.4 Material Properties and Boundary Conditions

One of the main features of composite material is damping property, which reduces the noise and
vibration. Two conventional and three composite material were studied for selection of best
suited material . Nonlinear effect of material properties were considered for structural and free
vibration analysis. The geometric properties of the drive shaft are length of shaft 1250 mm, outer
diameter-90 mm, inner diameter-83.36mm. Table 6.1 shows the material mechanical properties
of steel and composite material. HS carbon epoxy composite material best suited for single-piece
drive shaft having high specific stiffness, less weight and torsional stiffness. The natural
frequencies for HS carbon epoxy composite are (0-919.64) Hz. Table 6.2 shows the boundary
condition parameters. Four boundary conditions frictionless support, fixed support, rotational
velocity and moments were applied.

Table 6.1 Material properties of steel and composite material.

Density
Young's
Properties Nonlinear Effects (kg m^-3) Poisson's Ratio Shear Modulus (Pa)
Modulus (Pa)

Steel SM45C
Considered 7600 2.07e+011 0.3 7.9615e+010
HS-Carbon Epoxy
Composite Considered 1600 2.1e+011 0.3 8.0769e+010

E Glass Polyester
Considered 2100 3.4e+010 0.366 2.433e+009
Resin Composite

Stainless Steel Considered 7750 1.93e+011 0.31 7.366e+010


Kevlar Epoxy
Composite Considered 1402 9.571e+010 0.34 2.508e+010
Material

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Table 6.2 Boundary condition applied for FEA simulation.

Object Name Fixed Support Frictionless Support Rotational Velocity Moment


Geometry 2 Faces 8 Faces 43 Faces
Coordinate System Global Coordinate System
X Component 157.08 rad/s (ramped) -245. N·m (ramped)
Y Component 0. rad/s (ramped) 0. N·m (ramped)
Z Component 0. rad/s (ramped) 0. N·m (ramped)
Behavior Deformable

(a) Fixed constraint boundary condition applied. (b) Frictionless support applied.

(c) Rotational velocity applied (157.08 rad/sec). (d) Moment components applied (-245, 0, 0 Nm)

Figure 6.2 Different boundary conditions applied.

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Fixed support boundary condition is applied on 2 faces at inner part of universal joint portion
(Figure 6.2 (a)). Universal joints fixed the drive shaft at two ends. One end is connected to
transmission parts and another is connected to differential parts. To simulate the same
environment the one end of single piece drive shaft is fixed and another end is supported by
frictionless support on 8 faces (Figure 6.2(b)). Rotational velocity of 1500rpm (157.08 rad/sec,
Figure 6.2 (c)) was applied for dynamic vibration analysis. The rotational motion of shaft
generates a moment, which was applied on whole body of drive shaft. This moment is applied on
all 43 faces (Figure 6.2 (d)) in opposite direction of rotational velocity. The moment effects
observe the specific stiffness and torsional strength of single piece drive shaft. The boundary
condition is applied for structural analysis and the result of structural analysis is imported for
modal analysis to incorporate the deformation effect for natural frequency and mode shapes.
Mainly drive shafts are used in automobiles, aerospace, cooling towers etc.

6.5 Structural Analysis Using Various Material

FEA based numerical simulations evaluate the results of structural and free vibration analysis for
steel and composite materials. Structural analysis was performed for stresses, strains and
deformation performance evaluation of drive shaft. Inertia and damping effects was not
considered for analysis. Rotational and moments values are applied in form of loading. The
automobile drive shaft is subjected to torque transmission, no direct load value act on it.
Rotational and moment effects caused failure of drive shaft. So only these two parameters were
considered for structural and modal analysis. The result of this analysis evaluates the static
failure condition of drive shaft.

A. Steel SM45 C Drive Shaft

Steel Sm45 C is used as conventional two-piece drive shaft material. The structural analysis
simulation results are shown in Figure 6.3. Table 6.3 shows the structural analysis results
comparison for steel and composite materials.

(a) Shear stress distrubutation (XY plane). (b) Maximum principal stress variation.

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(c) Total deformation. (d) Strain energy distribution.

Figure 6.3 Structural analysis result of Steel SM45 C Drive Shaft

Shear stress distribution on XY plane is shown in Figure 6.3 (a). Analysis result shows that the
shear stress variation is in permissible design limit (5.5325e6 Pa). The green color variation
shows that the steel SM45 C has high strength and rigidity to bear the torsional vibration and
shear stresses. Figure 6.3 (b) shows the maximum principal stress distribution in drive shaft.
Principal stress variation (2.1989e7 Pa) is in safe limit. Figure 6.3 (c) shows the total
deformation in single piece drive shaft under loading conditions. The deformation is high (0.05
mm) at the differential end of drive shaft. The yellow and red colour variation in shaft shows the
high deformation zone. On design criteria base the deformation result is in safe zone. Figure 6.3
(d) shows the strain energy distribution in drive shaft. The transmission end of drive shaft shows
small variation of strain energy near constraining point of universal joint. Strain energy value is
0.000031 J for steel drive shaft.

B. HS Carbon Epoxy Drive Shaft

(a) Shear stress distrubutation (XY plane) (b) Maximum principal stress variation.

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(c) Total deformation. (d) Strain energy distribution.

Figure 6.4 Structural analysis result of HS Carbon Epoxy Drive Shaft

Shear stress distribution on XY plane is explained in Figure 6.4 (a). The simulation result shows
the shear stress distribution in single-piece HS carbon epoxy composite drive shaft. The
maximum available shear stress for HS carbon epoxy composite material is 1.2545e6 Pa which is
very less in comparison to max. shear stress (5.5325e6 Pa) for steel material. The quantitative
result shows that composite material have less shear stress generation due to loading and design
is safe. Figure 6.4 (b) shows the maximum principal stress distribution in single-piece drive
shaft. The max. value of maximum principal stress is 0.52064e7 Pa. Principal stress variation is
within safe limit. Figure 6.4 (c) shows the total deformation under loading conditions. The
deformation is high at the transmission end of drive shaft. The maximum deformation value is
0.01mm for HS carbon epoxy composite drive shaft. For the same loading conditions the
deformation of steel shaft is 0.05 mm. The deformation result shows the suitability of HS carbon
epoxy material for single piece drive shaft. Figure 6.4 (d)shows the strain energy variation in
drive shaft. The strain energy distribution is found at the constraining point of universal joint.
Strain energy value is 0.000029 J.

C. E-Glass Polyester Drive Shaft

(a) Shear stress distrubutation (XY plane). (b) Maximum principal stress variation.

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(c) Total deformation. (d) Strain energy distribution.

Figure 6.5 Structural analysis result of E-Glass Polyester Drive Shaft

E glass polyester resin composite material shows (-1.3252e6 to 1.6539 e6) Pa maximum shear
stress distribution (Figure 6.5 (a)) on XY plane. The E glass polyester resin composite material
shear stress value is less in comparison to steel SM45C (5.532e6) and more than HS carbon
epoxy material (1.2545e6 Pa) (Table 6.3). Figure 6.5 (b) shows the maximum principal stress
variation in drive shaft. It varies from (-0.59956e6 to 1.2485e7) Pa. Figure 6.5 (c) shows the total
deformation in single piece drive shaft under loading conditions. The deformation is high at the
transmission end of drive shaft. The deformation is 0.19 mm, which is maximum in all materials.
Figure 6.5 (d) shows the strain energy distribution in drive shaft. The maximum strain energy
value is 0.000063 J for E glass polyester resin composite material.

D. Stainless Steel Drive Shaft

In conventional drive shaft stainless steel is used. The structural analysis simulation results are
shown in figure (5.19, 5.20, 5.21 and 5.22). Table 5.3 shows the comparison of results for
conventional and composite materials.

(a) Shear stress distrubutation (XY plane). (b) Total deformation.

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(c) Equivalent elastic strain. (d) Strain energy distribution.

Figure 6.6 Structural analysis result of Stainless Steel Drive Shaft

Shear stress distribution is shown in Figure 6.6 (a). Structural analysis comparison results
conclude that maximum value of shear stress is higher in comparison to other materials.
Maximum shear stress variation is 5.6524e6 Pa. Green hues variation shows high structural
rigidity and strength to bear the torsional vibration and shear stresses. Figure 6.6 (b) shows
deformation in single piece drive shaft under dynamic loading conditions. At some points
deformation is high (0.05 mm) at the differential side of drive shaft. The red hues variation in
shaft shows the high deformation zone. Figure 6.6 (c) shows permissible elastic strain variation
in drive shaft. Figure 6.6 (d)shows the strain energy distribution in drive shaft. The transmission
end of drive shaft shows small variation of strain energy near constraining point of universal
joint. Strain energy value is 0.0000345 J for steel drive shaft.

E. Kevlar Epoxy Drive Shaft

(a) Shear stress variation. (b) Total deformation

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(c) Equivalent elastic Strain (d) Strain energy distribution.

Figure 6.7 Structural analysis result of Kevlar Epoxy Drive Shaft

Shear stress distribution in drive shaft for kevlar epoxy composite material is shown in Figure
6.7 (a). Shear stress value for composite material is 1.4484e6 Pa, which is less in comparison to
max. shear stress (5.624e6 Pa) for stainless steel material. The result shows that kevlar material
has good dynamic loading sustainability. Figure 6.7 (b) show the deformation is high at the
transmission end side of drive shaft. The maximum deformation value is 0.03mm for kevlar
epoxy drive shaft. For the same loading conditions, the deformation of steel shaft is 0.05 mm.
The less deformation against dynamic loading signifies the suitability of kevlar epoxy material
for single piece drive shaft.

Table 6.3 Structural Analysis results comparison.

Total Equivalent Maximum


Shear Stress Max. principal Strain Energy
Material Type Deformation Elastic Strain Principal Elastic
(Pa) Stress(Pa) (J)
(m) (m/m) Strain(m/m)

Min. -5.145e6 -3.3989e6 0 0 0 -5.5131e-7


Steel SM45 C
Max. 5.532e6 2.1989e7 5.0321e-5 3.106e-5 9.5587e-5 9.8226e-5
HS Carbon Min. -1.065e6 - 0.9313e6 0 0 0 0
Epoxy
Composite Max. 1.2545e6 0.52064e7 1.0458e-5 2.983e-5 2.2346e-5 2.2973e-5

E Glass Polyester Min. -1.325e6 -0.59956e6 0 0 0 0


Resin Composite Max. 1.653 e6 1.2485e7 1.9792e-4 6.369e-5 6.983e-4 5.6935e-4
Min. -5.2485e6 -3.5368e6 0 0. 0 -3.9815e-7
Stainless Steel
Max. 5.6524e6 2.2446e7 5.5335 e-5 3.4586e-5 10.434e-5 10.703e-5
Min. -1.1419e6 -1.0312e6 0 0 0 -1.4613e-6
Kevlar Epoxy
Composite Max. 1.4484e6 0.87053e7 3.0365e-5 8.9916e-6 7.9354e-5 7.6985e-5

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Strain energy distribution at the constraining point of universal joint is shown in Figure 6.7 (d).
Strain energy value is 0.0000089 J. Table 6.3 shows comparison of structural results. It is
concluded that all three composite materials can be used for single piece drive shaft. The best
suited material is HS carbon epoxy and Kevlar Epoxy composite material suites drive shaft
application.

6.6 Modal Analysis Using Various Material

When an elastic system vibrates due to inherent forces, this state of system is known as free
vibration. In state of free vibration, system vibrates at its natural frequency. The natural
frequency and mode shapes are two important modal parameters in free vibration for dynamic
loading. The natural frequency is governed by geometric and material properties. FEA analysis
was used for free vibration analysis. The single piece drive shaft rotates at speed of 1500 rpm
and maximum torque value 245 Nm was applied in opposite direction of rotation for evaluation
of first 10 natural frequencies and mode shapes. If drive shaft rotates at critical frequency the
resonance may occurs. The natural frequency and mode shapes for steel and all three composite
materials were obtained.

FEA based simulations evaluate the results of structural and modal analysis for steel and
composite material. In simulation inertia and damping effects was neglected. Rotational and load
(moment) values are applied. Automobile drive shaft is subjected to torque transmission, no
direct load value act on it. In order to avoid the whirling or resonance vibration the bending
frequency should be higher than (2400-4000) rpm for trucks and vans. Modal analysis result
evaluates the excitation failure of drive shaft. Modal analysis has been performed for all steel and
composite material.

A. Steel SM45 C Drive Shaft

Mode 7 f7=79.966 Hz. Mode 8 f8=226.13 Hz.

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Mode 9 f9=418.89 Hz.

Figure 6.8 Modal analysis of Steel SM45C drive shaft

Vibration mode shapes and corresponding natural frequency for steel Sm45C is shown in Figure
6.8. Mode 1 and 2 is rigid mode having frequency 0 Hz. The FEA analysis shows the first valid
frequency is 79.966 Hz (mode 7) and the critical speed is equal to 4797 rpm (Ncr = 60 fnt). which
is nearer to whirling speed. Mode 7 shows the deformation at the transmission end side. Mode 8
shows lateral vibration with bending effect. The bending frequency is 226.13 Hz and critical
speed is 13567 rpm. Table 6.4 shows the valid frequency variation for steel and composite
materials.

B. HS Carbon Epoxy Drive Shaft

Mode 8 f8=498.72 Hz Mode 7 f7=182.17 Hz

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Mode 10 f10= 919.64 Hz

Figure 6.9 Modal analysis of HS Carbon epoxy drive shaft

Vibration mode shapes and natural frequency for HS carbon epoxy composite material is shown
in Figure 6.9. Mode 1, 2 and 3 shows 0 Hz natural frequency. Mode 4, 5 and 6 shows very less
natural frequency in range of e-004 and these frequencies are not valid frequency, so it is not
shown in Table 6.4. The first valid frequency is 182.17 Hz and critical speed 10930 rpm which is
much higher than 2400 rpm resonance critical speed preventing the resonance condition. The
external excitation causes resonance. Mode 8 has deformation at centre portion due to axial
bending vibration. Mode 10 shows torsional vibration at 919.64 Hz. The single-piece drive shaft
deformed at end points.

C. E-Glass Polyester Drive Shaft

Mode 8 f8=146.62 Hz Mode 10 f10=311.72 Hz

Figure 6.10 Modal analysis of E Glass Polyester Resin drive shaft

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Polyester resin composite material shows bending and torsional vibration mode shapes (Figure
6.10). Mode 1 and 2 has 0 Hz natural frequency. Mode 4, 5 and 6 shows very less natural
frequency in range of e-004. The first valid frequency is 48.127 Hz and critical speed is 2887 Hz.
This critical speed is nearer to whirling critical speed of 2400 rpm. So E-glass polyester resin
composite material has resonance problem. Mode 8 has large deformation at centre portion of
drive shaft. Mode 10 shows minimum deformation at 311.72 Hz having 18703 rpm critical speed
much higher than 2400 rpm critical speed. The relation between critical speed and natural
frequency is given as (Ncr = 60 fnt).

D. Stainless Steel Drive Shaft

Mode 8 f8=216.19 Hz Mode 9 f9=400.52 Hz

Mode 10 f10=400.57 Hz

Figure 6.11 Modal analysis of Stainless Steel drive shaft

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Stainless steel drive shaft natural frequency and mode shapes is shown in Figure 6.11. The FEA
simulation shows first valid frequency is 76.163 Hz (mode 7) and the critical speed is equal to
4569 rpm which is nearer to whirling speed or resonance speed. Mode 7 shows the deformation
at the transmission end side. Mode 8 have lateral vibration with bending effect. The bending
frequency is 216.19 Hz and critical speed is 12971 rpm (Ncr = 60 fnt) . Table 5.4 shows the
frequency variation for steel and composite materials.

E. Kevlar Epoxy Drive Shaft

Mode 7 f7=120.75 Hz Mode 8 f8=342.79 Hz

Mode 9 f9=660.6 Hz Mode 10 f10=660.68 Hz

Figure 6.12 Modal analysis of kevlar epoxy drive shaft

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Natural frequency and mode shapes for kevlar epoxy composite material is shown in Figure
6.12. The valid frequency is 120.75 Hz and critical speed is 7245 rpm which is much higher than
2400 rpm resonance critical speed preventing the resonance condition. The external excitation
causes resonance. Mode 8 has deformation due to axial bending vibration at centre portion.
Mode 10 shows torsional vibration at 660.68 Hz. The single-piece drive shaft deformed at end
points.
Table 6.4 Modal frequency variation for steel and composite materials.

Mode/ Modal Modal Frequency


Modal Frequency HS- Modal Frequency Modal Frequency
Valid Frequency E Glass Polyester
Carbon Epoxy Stainless Steel Kevlar Epoxy
Mode Steel SM45 C Resin

1 79.966 182.17 48.127 76.163 120.75

2 226.13 498.72 146.62 216.19 342.79

3 418.89 919.53 288.09 400.52 660.6

4 498.72 919.64 311.72 400.57 660.68

Figure 6.13 Natural frequency comparison graph for different materials

When conducting modal analysis using FEA first 6 order modes were close to zero. These modes
are known as rigid body mode. The valid modes are mode 7, 8, 9 & 10. Table 6.4 shows valid
modes and frequency variations. Figure 6.13 shows the variation of natural frequencies for steel
and composite materials.

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6.7 FEA Result Validation

Figure 6.14 FEA simulation result validation using experimental results, Trencséni & Palkovics [52].

HS carbon epoxy composite material shows the excellent material properties (higher order
frequency range) for the design of single-piece composite drive shaft to meet the stringent design
requirements for automobiles (Figure 6.13). To prevent resonance the bending frequency should
be higher than (2400-4000) rpm for trucks, vans and the transmission capability should be higher
than 154 Nm. These technical requirements are fulfilled by the HS carbon epoxy composite
material. The bending natural frequency is 10930 rpm much higher than 2400 rpm, so it reduces
the chances of whirling or resonance. The torque transmission capability of single-piece drive
shaft was considered as 245 Nm. Kevlar Epoxy composite material also shows the excellent
material properties for the design of single-piece drive shaft. The bending natural frequency is
7245 rpm much higher than 2400 rpm, and torque transmission capability was considered as 245
Nm. FEA simulation results were validated with experimental results obtained from Trencséni &
Palkovics [52]. Figure 6.14 shows validation graph for steel SM45C single piece drive shaft. 4
valid mode has been shown in graph. For mode 1, 2, 3 and 4 the difference of frequencies is
14.61 Hz, 6.77 Hz, 41.49 Hz and 61.43 Hz. The average difference between four valid mode
frequency between FEA simulated and experimental result is 10.85%. It shows accurate FEA
results.

6.8 Conclusions

The results of this research study have theoretical significance in design stage of single-piece
composite material drive shaft for heavy vehicle medium duty trucks. The two-piece drive shaft
design was replaced by single-piece composite material drive shaft. The dynamic vibration
characteristic analysis was performed for single-piece composite drive shaft. Vibration response
of drive shaft shows that HS carbon epoxy composite is suited for single-piece drive shaft. The
outcome of the study is listed as-

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I. This chapter deals with the two-piece drive shaft replacement into single-piece drive shaft
for medium duty heavy vehicles. The aim has been achieved (Figure 6.13). HS carbon
epoxy composite material suited on design and vibration criteria. The maximum
deflection is 0.1 mm and bending natural frequency is 182.17 Hz and critical speed is
10930 rpm much higher than whirling vibration critical speed (2400-4000) rpm.

II. The structural analysis evaluates the shear stresses, maximum principal stress, total
deformation, strain energy, max. principal elastic strain and equivalent elastic strain for
all materials drive shaft. All the structural analysis values are in permissible limit for HS
carbon composite, which ensures the strength of single-piece drive shaft. Structural
analysis results verify that kevlar epoxy composite material also suited for single piece
drive shaft. It ensures high strength and torsional rigidity.

III. The modal analysis results show the first 10 natural frequency and corresponding mode
shape for steel and composite materials. The critical speed for all materials are- steel
Sm45 C- 4797 rpm (79.96 Hz), HS carbon epoxy composite-10930 rpm (182.17 Hz) and
E-glass polyester resin composite-2887 rpm (48.12 Hz). The whirling critical speed for
heavy vehicles vary (2400-4000) rpm which signifies that HS carbon composite is best
suited for single-piece drive shaft of heavy vehicle. Vibration mode shapes (axial bending
vibration, torsional vibration) were identified for steel and composites material drive
shaft.

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