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Interior Design

Introduction 6

List of Projects 9

Precedent References 10

Theoretical Texts 16

Project Methods 19

Project 1: HDB 83

Project 2: Columbarium 150


The flatness of today’s standard of spaces is strengthened by a weakened

sense of materiality. Spaces of this technological age usually deliberately
aim at ageless perfection, and they do not incorporate the dimension
of time, or the unavoidable and mentally significant processes of
aging. Natural materials such as stone, brick and wood allow our
vision to penetrate their surfaces and enable us to become convinced
of the veracity of matter. Material traces have a narrative character.
They express their age and history, as well as telling stories about the
people that create them and the environments they manifest in. The
majority of our understanding of the world depends on our ability to
tell stories about it. Stories are an important way for us to explain things,
exchange information, show our identity and express ourselves within
different contexts. Therefore, the narrative character of material traces
makes them especially interesting for designers to facilitate meaningful
interactions through designing for traces.

Every material develops a certain look and feel over time, which
contributes to a certain aesthetic of the object it embodies. Also, the
physical nature, structure and endurance of these materials change
over time; for example, concrete breaks, wood wears out, metals
are subject to fatigue. This “aging” stimulates the development of
material traces. Whether deliberate or unintentional, every crack and
scratch that materials manifest as we interact with objects inscribes a
story. Interactions with materials result in alterations, imperfections and
ultimately unique objects, which carry traces of time and life.
Understanding and interpreting material traces will be of growing
importance in design practice as traces make a space unique and
also impact how spaces are perceived and valued over time. Such
spaces have to address all the senses simultaneously and fuse our
image of self with our experience of the world. How often do we, as
practitioners in the industry today, question about the materials used
and the presence of the multi-sensory experience when designing

Living and dying is part of the mundanity, it is constantly happening and
making changes in our life, just like how materials deteriorate over time,
be it man-made or natural materials. Therefore, HDB and Columbarium
are the sites that are being chosen for the following two projects.
Both locations might have a huge contrast, but it represents the most
fundamental aspects of mundanity. This will then incorporate the light
and shadow that come into play at different timings of the day which will
eventually impact how people perceive the spaces within.

Project 1:
The first project will look into residential areas and more specifically into
the HDB estate in Singapore. The target user will be the residents living
in the area and the aim of this project is to allow engagement and
interactions to take place within the mundanity of our life as well as to
bring convenience and to create a multi-sensory experience within the
living spaces. This project will focus on three areas;

∙ How explorations and understandings can be translated onto

the cladding design?

∙ How can the cladding design impact the corridor space and interior

∙ How does the light and shadow impact the detailing of the contact
points and the way of life within the interior?

Project 2:
The second project will look into the existing columbarium in Singapore.
With the previous project focusing on three different areas, this
project will go in depth to study, analyse and to examine on the various
approaches of material traces and multi-sensory experience. The
research done on the previous project will be very useful and applicable
in this part of the project and it will focus on;

∙ What are the similarities and differences that could be found in the
mundanity of a different site when the same explorations and
understandings of the HDB are being applied to the columbarium?

∙ How can the cladding design impact the walkway and every section
of niches?

∙ How does the light and shadow impact the detailing of the contact
points and materials within the spaces?




The personal project will be referring to the several precedent studies.
Notably, the ideas, experiencing and making, and observations from the
works and methods of Juhani Pallasmaa will carry significant weight as JACEK TYLICKI
we progress in this project. Specifically, on Pallasmaa’s expression on the
significance of the tactile sense for our experience and understanding THOMAS HEATHERWICK
of the world.


W A B I - S A B I



By touching material we experience more than by the bare gaze at The following projects will make use of film photography as a method of
it. Structures have a visual effect but by touching them we feel more exploration to understand how traces of life can be captured especially
components of their construct. Hardness, depth, temperature are some the detailings of every material. By varying the length of exposure to
of the components that can vary in materials that give the same visual achieve tonal richness, it will also show results with different levels of
impression. The eye observes and investigates, whereas the touch detailings due to different intensity of light that comes into play.
approaches and feels. So when the light makes space for shadow,
our other senses are sharpened including the sensitivity to touch. In the
following projects, the cladding designs will allow people to engage
and interact, and with different configurations of the claddings, people
are able to achieve different types of sensorial experience.

Jacek Tylicki is specialized in the field of land and nature art. The freely formed buildings utilized massive building materials and
His conceptual projects often raise social and environmental steel, and develop their relationship with the environment and connect
issues. Video and photography plays an important role in his themselves to it. The form is constructed using often unusual materials
work as a record of its elusiveness and transience. Through his art, which are generally left with natural surfaces. For the following projects,
Tylicki lays a stress upon personal experience bearing witness to raw materials will be used to understand how different intensity of light
artistic truth. He searches on his own account for an authenticity and that cast shadows on these surfaces can affect the depth of field and
a fullness of existence in its relation to nature. Material traces show alot also the way people perceive spaces.
about the users and also on how the material has deteriorate over
a period of time. Hence, for the following projects, research will be
done to understand material properties and how it changes over time
like discolorization or oxidation due to various weather conditions or
human activities.

“The Eyes of the Skin”

“On Weathering”
“Wabi-Sabi – for Artists, Designers,
Poets & Philosophers”
The personal project will be referring to the following theoretical texts
and methodologies from various practitioners and philosophers.
Understanding their theories and intention behind each of their work, JUNICHIRO TANIZAKI
and also to analyse on what are the aspects and processes that are “In Praise of Shadow”
crucial to an outcome and in this case, it will be the aspects of materiality
and sensorial experience of a space or an object.
“To Live is to Leave Traces.”

“Design as Art”


The process of the project will involve casting

of plaster, photography and also mock-ups to
analyse spatial qualities of a space. Casting
of plaster will be part of the experimentation to
analyse and to understand the various types
of traces or surface areas that are temporal or
permanent, be it the traces were done deliberately
or unintentionally. Casting of contact points and
examine on the detailing of each casting allow
myself to identify parts where there is a touch.
Photography will be another method to explore
this project as the main purpose is to capture the
traces of everyday life in terms of materiality and
multi-sensory experience of a space. Manipulation
of the light while capturing each image will allow
myself to achieve different results as different
intensity of light on a similar surface will create
unexpected depth of spaces. Likewise, capturing
the intangible aspects of how people coming to
terms with the reality like the expression of emotions
will be part of the exploration as well. Experimental
models and mock-ups would have to be produced
to translate a flat understanding of the materiality
of the space to a three-dimensional space so as
to allow myself to visualise on the spatial qualities
of the space in terms of materiality and multi-sensory

A pinhole camera was made for the purpose
of capturing traces of life in terms of materiality
and sensorial experience. The shutter was made
to function manually so as to allow myself to
manipulate the amount of exposure to the film.

To craft his exquisite black
and white images, he uses
a 19th-century-style, large
format camera, exploring
his idea of photography as
a method for preserving
and modelling time.

The pinhole camera was made up of a matchbox,

empty and loaded film canister as well as some
cardboard for the shutter. The most important
process in the making of this camera was to
prevent the light from going through any gap
so as to ensure none of the film was being over

The results of the developed film was unexpectedly
interesting as it was blurry and it functions as a visual
memory in our mind, knowing the existence of such
traces but not in a very distinct form.

The main purpose of this colour film is to capture Some of the frames were being overlayed and it was
traces of everyday life. It was taken at home as it is very inconsistent because after each exposure of the
a place where most of the interactions take place. film, rolling of the film will have to be done manually
for the next exposure.

To capture on how material traces and sensorial The black and white film was being developed in a
experiences can come into play and fuse together workshop where it allows myself to learn about the
in a space, black and white film was being used in processing part and the manipulation of different
this part of the exploration. In addition, the light and exposures with the machine can actually achieve
shadow play an important part in this exploration as different tonal richness and contrast.

The individual frames were being enlarged
and the play of light and shadow becomes
evident, making the depth of the spaces and
distance ambiguous, and invite unconscious
peripheral and tactile fantasy, just like how the
sunlight comes into play in the two projects.
At different timings of the day, it changes the
way we perceive the spaces within.

Playing with various
length of exposure
can achieve tonal
richness and it will
function as a kind
of visual memory.

Casting is part of an exploration in this project. In this
experimentation, plaster was being used to cast on
different surface area and different ways of layering
will actually show various results in terms of texture
and consistency. Experimentation includes getting
the plaster out of the cast at different timing so as to
understand the material properties at various stages
of drying.

Food colourings were added to the plaster and
this part of experimentation is to understand
how different methods of mixing of the food
colourings can result in an outcome that shows
a great difference. Colourings were dripped
into these two plasters and one of it was left
untouched, allowing the colour to spread
itself while the other plaster was being stirred
and mixed well. Overall, it shows how different
approaches can result in the contrast of the
consistency of the colours.

The forms and materials will
interpret the place, traditions
and history in a personal and
poetic art.

The sculptures are created
for the exploration of the
layerings in buildings, and the
traces that are left behind by
the change of use of places.

Just like casting of the
plaster, it is not about the
physical qualities or how it
looks, but the beauty of how
it conveys a philosophy not
of replacement, but of awe,
reverence and restoration.

Understanding of the layerings, time play, as

well as colourings, can achieve different set
of results. So this part of the experimentation is
about pouring plaster over spaces or objects
that are part of the traces of everyday life. The
whole purpose is to understand how these traces
can be casted or translated onto the plaster
and each of the detailings like the cracks and
uneven surfaces show alot about the people
who are using these particular spaces or
objects and last but not least, it is to address
the mundane elements of our life.


Contact points are evident as these traces

slowly venture out of the house, to the corridor
and slowly towards the public spaces of the
HDB. Such traces of contact points become
obvious in these shared spaces, where objects
and surfaces are exposed to various direct
weather conditions. In this situation, wear
and tear are inevitable due to human
interactions. As such, these contact points
are common in the shared spaces and it
certainly has a meaning behind that shows
who is the user and how people make use
of these spaces. In addition, light plays an
important role in the everyday life. While
light is being casted onto a material surface,
it gives a different kind of texture and depth
of field as people look at the surfaces at
different angles.

Initial observations are conducted in my
own neighbourhood in Yishun estate. It is a
mature estate and traces of contact points
are more likely to be discovered and indeed,
people’s traces are evident in almost every
corner of these spaces. As there are limited
spaces in the HDB flats, residents will usually
make use of the spaces along the corridor
or the walkways, therefore wear and tear will
tend to occur more frequently.

Due to the lower rate of maintenance in the
old HDB estate, be it man-made or natural
materials, the deterioration of the structure
and surface of the facade and objects can
be seen clearly in almost every corner. Peeling
paint layers, faulty letter box etc, shows plenty
of the spaces and the estate.

Dakota Crescent HDB Estate

Comparison with the other estates allow for

more discoveries as well as understanding
materials made in different periods of time
can result in various rate of deterioration.
Therefore, in this case, observations are also
conducted in Dakota Crescent HDB estate.
As the residents had moved away from this
estate, buildings are abandoned and those
materials that could not sustain without
maintenance are cracking or rusting severely
as compared to my neighbourhood.

Observations are also conducted at Old
Airport Road HDB estate to make a compare
and contrast with my HDB estate and to realise
that this estate is of a smaller scale in terms
of living spaces in each household. Hence,
corridor spaces are commonly used in this
estate and there are more contact points
as belongings or items that belong to each
household can be seen hanging or leaning
against the corridors.
Old Airport Road HDB Estate

Jacek Be it man-made or natural material, it
Tylicki will still deteriorate over time without any
The deterioration itself is controlled maintenance and such deteriorations
by nature’s intensity, by time and
space, by substance and causality, certainly have attachments of people
and does not depend on man’s living or people who once lived in that
interference. It also shows that every particular spaces. It is all these traces
material deteriorates in its very
that represent the mundanity in our HDB
own unique way.

In the secondhand furniture and fixture
warehouse, obervations are conducted
and it is clear that items that are discarded
by people are mainly due to scratches,
cracks or discolorations. However, people
are still coming in to purchase such items
at a negotiable price as they find meanings
in these unwanted items and contact
points might be something that are being
valued in this case.


Cladding method was chosen as an application

in this project. Even though it was quite commonly
seen and used in the current world, it has potential
to be further exploited in terms of materiality
and also exploring in the alteration of its overall
structure with the play of flexibility and rigidity.
With different composition and configuration, it
can ultimately bring much more convenience
to the residents and also to create multi-sensory
experience in their daily life.

The collage is to represent the things that are part

of the mundanity, that deteriorates over time. It
is to also show how materials of different aspects
and qualities are being overlayed and react
due to different conditions of the environment.
All these aspects will be applied in the cladding
design and will be further explored subsequently.

In a way to reflect the meaning of these
traces in a more practical approach, the
method of cladding is being explored and
applied. Mock-ups were done to further
explore and understand how cladding of
the facades can play a part in the HDB.

Like what is mentioned earlier, light plays
an important role in the mundanity. While
exploring on how cladding can reflect
traces, shapes and patterns are formed
unknowingly with the play of light.

Shapes and forms are translated from the
material surfaces and reflected onto the
cladding. With different forms and at
different time of the day, the interior can
be perceived in many ways.

The mock-ups previously showed rigidity
in the patterns and therefore, it opens up
more opportunities to explore on how to
soften the structure and also understanding
how other elements can be replaced. In
this case, the mock-up uses fabric and
metal wire so as to give the overall structure
a sense of flexibility.

Weaving cotton thread together with the
metal wire gives the overall structure a
balance between rigidity and flexibility.
Shapes and patterns formed are more
organic and uncontrollable and in a way
reflects on how a material deteriorates
and disintegrates in its very unique way.

A collage on how these forms of cladding
can be applied in the mundanity of the
HDB. It has function of overlaying and sliding
different layers and shapes of cladding to
suit the residents’ needs. For example, the
cladding can function as a shade even for
the potted plants or laundry just along the
corridor. It can also provide privacy for
the residents. At the same time, this movable
cladding allows flexible configurations
according to the needs of the residents.

Exploring into different materials is crucial as
balancing rigidity and flexibility requires trial
and error with various material components.
Therefore, thin plastic film was used as part of
the exploration as the thin plastic film is able
to soften the overall rigidity of the structure.
In addition, the weaving of the metal wire will
counterbalance the flexibility of the plastic

Engagement is the whole idea of this exploration,
to allow people to understand, function and to
engage with these material surfaces, whereby
they are able to make use of the rigidity and
flexibility of this modules or structures to bring
much more convenience to their daily life.

Fabric was being used in the process of
exploration as it offers more variations
on how the overall structure, when used
in cladding, is able to affect the spaces
within the compound and also affecting
the level of engagement with the residents
of the HDB.

A space usually involves several
realms of sensory experience
which interact and fuse into each
other. So when the light makes
space for shadow, our other
senses are sharpened including
the sensitivity to touch.

With the use of fabric in cladding, natural

wind plays an important role as it blows
through the fabric, opening some random
areas time to time that allows sunlight to
go through, affecting the spaces within. It
allows the residents to engage with different
sensorial experiences of the spaces as they
are walking through the corridor.

Thin aluminium sheets were used in the
exploration to understand how different
materials can achieve various possibilities.
As it was used in cladding and exposed to
different weather conditions, it will definitely
oxidize and deteriorate over time. It is important
to understand that the engagement of this
cladding comes from both the residents
and nature itself. Therefore, the overall
structure and appearance will alter from
time to time, providing the residents with
different experiences of the structure and
the spaces.

The main purpose of exploring different materials
is to breakthrough from what is commonly seen
and used in cladding by our current world. It is to
make use of the rigidity to explore and to soften
the overall structure and appearance of cladding
that affects the spaces and the given sensorial
experiences, and also to replace the common
elements with new aspects that allow people to
engage and to interact.

Like what was mentioned earlier, the
claddings allow the residents to slide
or overlap to the desired areas to
fulfil their needs. As the residents
have nothing much that they can do
to the corridors, these flexibilities have
in a way allow them to engage with
the configuration of the claddings. At
the same time, while configuring the
claddings, the residents have also in a
way, altered and created a whole new
sensorial experience in the spaces like
the corridors. Each configuration gives
a new experience as the presence of
light and shadow plays an important
role too.

The explorations have enlightened
myself in the way that materials have
different properties and qualities, and
when put together, it achieves a certain
balance in terms of rigidity and flexibility
that affects the spaces eventually with
the play of light and shadow and also
affecting on how people perceive the
space that changes from time to time.
This is evident especially when the
materials deteriorate concurrently and
the sunlight coming in at different timing.
Touching is a key factor that can give
the users an immediate sensorial
experience and every contact point
can be unique in its very own way.


Corridor space was chosen as part of the

spaces to design together with the interior as
the project is about engagement, interaction,
materiality and multi-sensory experience. To
start, corridor space is a shared space where
traces tend to be much more evident. After
conducting some observations around the
HDB estate, it is clear that even though the
corridor is a shared space, some objects or
items like the laundry stand and the potted
plants can be seen arranged outside of their
home compound and it sort of demarcated
a territory and a new pathway is being
created unknowingly. This makes each corridor
unique in its very own way. This also shows
that the residents are out to create their own
living spaces even at the corridor. Therefore,
the cladding design as mentioned previously
should come into play, allowing the residents
to engage, interact and to create their very
own sensorial experience with different variations
and configurations that suit their needs.

As the corridor space will be facing
all kind of weather conditions, the
claddings will have to offer a balance
between flexibility and rigidity. In this
case, cotton gauze fabric was used in
making test pieces as it offers strength
through its weaving and small tiny
holes allow ventilation to take place
during humid day.

The weaving concept will be used in
the initial design of the cladding in this
project as it offers not just ventilation,
but also shading and at the same time,
it also provides certain level of privacy
for each household.

HDB Block Floor Plan
SCALE 1:150


The site of this project will be located

at Yishun HDB Block 302, the Northern
part of Singapore with all kinds of very
well developed infrastructures that
offer different types of facilities to the
people living in this region. The reason
for choosing this site is because the HDB
block has a certain age to it and it is
constantly having maintenance and
upgrading such as new paintwork and
new lift programme. It shows that it is
constantly changing as time goes by,
just like how a material will discolourize
and deteriorate gradually. Therefore,
it is very relatable to my design for
the claddings in the HDB block that
offers different variations which is also
constantly changing.

Cladding Variations

Unit Floor Plan

Site: Yishun HDB Block 302

Built: 1988
Unit Variations: 4-Rooms/ 5-Rooms

Details of initial cladding design

Sectional Perspective 01

Sectional Perspective 02

First Layout Plan of a Household

Sectional Perspective 03

The sectional perspective is to provide

a clearer picture of how the claddings
can impact the way we perceive the
corridor spaces as well as the typical
interior spaces.

Elevation of the HDB Block’s facade

The rendering approach of this project
is to render in different timings of the
day. As the claddings are movable
and are able to be reconfigured and
with the play of light at different time
of the day, it will certainly cast a variety
of shadow patterns that will ultimately
impact the way we perceive the
corridor spaces as well as the interior
spaces. Therefore, the whole idea of
the design is so that it changes after
use, and it changes constantly even
when it is not in use.

Views of the Claddings at different timings Doorstep




Light plays an important role in the

mundanity and it is almost similar to
the material traces that we encounter
in our life, constantly changing and
unpredictable patterns are formed
throughout each day. With different
intensity of light, detailings and clarity
of the shadows will vary throughout the
day, making the corridor spaces and
interior spaces become ambiguous,
inviting unconscious tactile fantasy and
different kinds of sensorial experiences
to the individuals.

Corridor spaces in the afternoon Interior spaces in the afternoon

Corridor spaces in the evening Interior spaces in the evening

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The sunlight went through two layers
of patterns from the claddings to the
window grill before casting shadow
in the interior, therefore the shadow
patterns are not exactly the patterns
that we see on the window grill. Aside
from that, the light that comes into
the interior will also alter the overall
ambience of the interior as well as the
colours and the material surfaces that
we see on the fixture and furniture, and
at the same time, constantly changing
the depth of field of the interior spaces.
However, the cladding design can be
quite alienated from the spaces and it
also shows that the existing structural
language can be strengthened further
with new explorations and with the use
of specific materials in the claddings.

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Ecopolis by Kiyonori Kikutake, 1990


The current approaches on cladding

method seem to be quite alienated as
Nakagin Capsule Tower by Kisho Kurokawa, 1972 shown previously. Therefore, it is important
to consider how this additional element
could be embedded within the existing
structural language and not to leave it as
alienated messy or decorative one, just
like how metabolist designers and architects
believed that cities and buildings are not
static entities, but are ever-changing organic
with a “metabolism”. It is about the process
of maintaining living cells. This idealogy is very
applicable to the next part of the project
and it provides a certain direction in the
subsequent development of the claddings
as well as the detailing of contact points in
City in the air by Arata Isozaki, 1961 the interior.

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The new test pieces will explore on the

new cladding design and how materials
can come into play, making the
overall structure of the claddings more
sustainable due to its long exposure to
different weather conditions. It will also
need to take into consideration of how
it will impact the corridor and interior
spaces concurrently when the residents
interact with the claddings, and also
on how different configurations of the
claddings can impact the intensity of
light coming into the spaces.

PAGE 107
Primary Aluminium Frame

Aluminium Rod as core structure

∙ Bigger opening at the upper

Adjustable Fiber and Resin Flaps half for ventilation purpose.

∙ Smaller opening at the lower

half provides a certain level
of privacy.

∙ Flaps face down ∙ Flaps slightly facing down ∙ Flaps fully opened ∙ Flaps slightly facing up ∙ Flaps face up
∙ Receive minimal sunlight ∙ Receive decent amount ∙ Receive great amount ∙ Receive great amount ∙ Receive great amount
∙ Cover from heavy rain of sunlight of sunlight of sunlight only in the of sunlight only in the
∙ Decent ventilation ∙ Decent ventilation ∙ Good ventilation afternoon afternoon for a short
∙ High level of privacy ∙ Decent ventilation period of time
∙ Decent ventilation
∙ High level of privacy

PAGE 108 PAGE 109


PAGE 110 PAGE 111

Aluminium rod with
2mm radius

Nuts are being fastened

into the flaps and act as
a pivoting point

Flaps in fiber and

resin finishing

Lever to adjust the flaps

This is the detailed drawing of the claddings

and the material compositions of the Main structure will control the
individual parts. Thin aluminium rods are movements of every flap
used as the core structure of the design and Sliding frame in aluminium
bigger openings can be found at the upper finishing
half for ventilation purpose while smaller
openings can be found at the lower half
as it serves as a cover for privacy purpose.
Parapet in concrete
Flaps are made of composite materials
like fiber and resin and they are very
versatile and are utilized in many areas in
our current world. It is lightweight, corrosion
resistant, economical, easily processed Sunscreen frame in
and good mechanical properties. In this aluminium finishing
case where it will be exposed to different
weather conditions, it will sustain over a
longer period of time as compared to
other materials like metals or plastics.

Residents are able to rotate the flaps Sunscreen support

at various degrees according to their in steel finishing
needs with the use of the lever and at
the same time, they are also able to slide
the claddings or overlay one another
to achieve different kind of sensorial
experience within the spaces.

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Scenario 1

∙ Residents make use of the claddings to

provide shade for the interor spaces while
opening some of the flaps to allow sunlight
to reach the potted plants and laundry. 5PM

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Scenario 2

∙ Residents open the flaps fully to allow

ventilation to take place especially during
humid day. This also allow majority of the
sunlight to enter the compound, casting
shadows along the corridor as well as the
interior. 5PM

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Scenario 3

∙ Residents make use of the claddings for

privacy purpose and rotated the flaps
upward for the sunlight to reach in only
for a certain duration for the potted plants
and laundry. 5PM

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Scenario 4

∙ Residents slide open all of the claddings

as well as the flaps for maximum ventilation
and direct sunlight and at the same time,
they get a clear view of the scenery
outside. 5PM

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Scenario 5

∙ Residents cover up the whole level with

claddings and downward facing flaps for
maximum privacy and minimal sunlight
so as to create a more cosy and dim
environment within the spaces. 5PM

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The design of the cladding is not just
for the five scenarios as mentioned
previously, it certainly has different
kinds of impacts on the spaces with
the play of light and shadow as well
as the material surfaces when the
claddings are configured differently
by the residents. In addition, various
activities and weather conditions
can also affect the way we perceive

Reconfiguring of the claddings to allow sunlight to reach in Claddings used as cover during heavy rain

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In the day, it is about the light that
comes in through the claddings that
cast shadow patterns that impact the
corridor and interior spaces. Therefore,
the ceiling of the corridor was designed
in such a way whereby it make use of
dim ambient light during the night to light
up the whole stretch of the corridor as
the most important thing during the night
is about the lights from the interior that
cast interesting shadow patterns onto
the corridor. This makes each household
looks just like a jewel box and every level
is unique in its very own way.
Sectional Perspective 01

Sectional Perspective 02

Second Layout Plan of a Household

The previous layout plan seem to be
quite alienated and the cladding design
does not really impact the play of light
and shadow as well as materiality within
the interior spaces. Therefore, a second
layout plan was produced so that the
materials and layout of the furniture
and fixture are able to incorporate the
light that reaches in through a couple
of layers, casting shadow on material
surfaces that will eventually bring out the
detailings of each contact point.

PAGE 128 PAGE 129


As light reaches the interior and onto the

material surfaces at different intensity,
it will constantly change the way we
perceive the spaces and also the
things that we are handling. The colour
changes from time to time, the texture
and properties of the material changes
or deteriorates due to the exposure
of different weather conditions and
usage. Hence, the interior was designed
in a way whereby some of the walls are
being removed or being replaced with
partitioned walls so as to allow sunlight
to come in directly and reaches the
whole stretch of living spaces. This will
then impact the ways we behave within
the living spaces as we touch or interact
with the contact points.
Light coming in at different intensity will reveal detailings of different clarity

PAGE 130 PAGE 131

Entrance and Dining Area

The finishing of the door handle is

specifically in copper and as time goes In the dining area, some of the dining chairs
by, area where there is a constant touch are being replaced with aluminium chairs.
will become glossy and areas where As the sunlight comes in and reaches the
there are minimal touch will eventually surface of the aluminium chairs, it will get
become darker russet-brown in colour. heated up and temperature will start to
When sunlight reaches in, it changes rise. It will force the occupant to either
the colour of the door handle and it change to another chair or to make use
became dual tones in terms of its colour. of the cushion as an insulation.

PAGE 132 PAGE 133


Sunlight comes in from both the kitchen

window as well as the corridor at
different timing of the day. This allows
the user to curate their own living
spaces that incorporate multi-sensory
experience with the use of movable

PAGE 134 PAGE 135

Living Area

The reading corner was designed in

such a way whereby the sunlight can
only reach a certain area and it also
means that in order to avoid direct
sunlight, the occupant will have to sit
in a designated place whenever there
is sunlight coming into those areas.

PAGE 136 PAGE 137

Master Bedroom

The door of the master bedroom is

permanently removed so as to allow the
sunlight to come in from both areas. The
lounge chair will then become the focal
point of the bedroom as the other area
such as the bed frame area will receive
minimal sunlight. This will also allow the
user to be less distracted from the other
elements within the bedroom.

PAGE 138 PAGE 139

Bedroom 1 & 2

The remaining bedrooms are painted

in monotonous colours due to the fact
that it will allow the material surfaces
to become more vibrant and evident
as the sunlight reaches in and onto the
contact points such as the sliding door
of the wardrobe as well as the lounge

PAGE 140 PAGE 141

Dim lighting was used during the night
time and only certain areas are brightly
lit with the use of floor lamps and
pendant lamps. The purpose of this
approach is so that the users are able
to focus in the activities that they are
engaged in. Unknowingly during these
engagements, they are also interacting
with the material surfaces as well.

PAGE 142 PAGE 143

Living Area Dining Area

PAGE 144 PAGE 145

Bedroom 1 & 2 Master Bedroom

PAGE 146 PAGE 147

It all started with the cladding design
along the corridor. When it is closed,
it forms a solid whole and provide an
ever-changing pattern when partially
or fully opened. With the incorporation
of light and shadow together with all
kinds of material surfaces, the flexibility
of the claddings constantly shapes the
sculptural appearance of the corridor
and interior spaces like a living organism,
just like what was mentioned in the
idealogy of metabolism.

PAGE 148 PAGE 149


There might be a huge contrast in terms of

the site context as compared to the previous
project. However the design language stays
as mundanity remains as the most important
aspects between the dwellings of the living and
the dead. Activities are constantly happening
in these spaces and it means that the material
surfaces are facing deterioration from time to
time. Explorations and understandings from
the previous project will be applied and in
this case, the cladding design will come into
play along the whole stretch of walkway as
well as the individual section of niches. Light
and shadow are also the key factors that
will impact how visitors perceive the interior
spaces while a variation of the claddings are
being configured according to their needs.
Common walkway A section of niches

PAGE 150 PAGE 151


The site of this project is at Mandai

Columbarium Block Kalsia that is situated
at a plot of land with forested surroundings.
This complex is one of the final resting
places for many Singaporeans because of
the new technologies and limited spaces
to host cemeteries for the dead. It was
completed in 1982 to meet the growing
demand of the island’s population. Since
then, the government have expanded
the columbarium and crematorium further
in different point in time. The reason for
choosing this site is because it is also part
of mundanity, where many are coming in
almost everyday to take up the niches.
The activities are ongoing just like how
the materials are constantly changing
and deteriorating over time. Be it HDB or
Columbarium, it reflects the ways of life
and a never ending process. Especially
when the light and shadow come into
play at different timings of the day, it will
alter the way we perceive the spaces
and also creating a whole new sensorial
experience at different point in time.
Mandai Columbarium Block Kalsia

PAGE 152 PAGE 153



SCALE 1:250 SCALE 1:150


The overall space is very symmetrical

and it features a very long walkway
that stretches from one end to the other
end. The whole building is mainly in
white paint finishing. Therefore, it seems
a little too cold and unwelcoming as
it does not bring about the aspects of
mundanity or the engagement and
interactions between the materials and
the visitors.


PAGE 155

Sectional Perspective 01



SCALE 1:150 The cladding design for this project
is different from the one in HDB as this
current design will take up the full length
from the ceiling to the flooring. Therefore,
the railing will employ aluminium and
glass materials so as to allow maximum
amount of sunlight to get through which
will subsequently impact the overall
ambience of the interior spaces at
different time of the day.

PAGE 156 PAGE 157

With earthy materials of concrete,
stone and wood being employed,
the cemetery adheres to a more
professional effect that focus less
on the burial plots, but rather the
overall sensorial experience of the

Different types of raw concrete finishings are

being employed on the walls as well as the
floorings so as to create an appearance that
the columbarium has long been part of the
site, bringing out the sense of organic space
that integrates into the natural landscape
while developing a relationship with the
environment and connect themselves to it.

PAGE 158 PAGE 159

Wall material

Flooring material of the walkway

Flooring material of each section

The walkway employs the tiled concrete

finishing so as to draw the visitor’s attention
onto the stretch of walkway that will
eventually guide them into the individual
section. Unfinished concrete flooring material
is being employed in each section as this is
a space where people congregate. As time
goes by, the flooring will become much
more reflective due to a huge amount of
human activities and it shows the amount
of interactions that took place between the
visitors and the material surfaces. In addition,
when the light goes through the claddings
and cast shadows onto the material surfaces,
it makes the whole environment much more
warmer and with different intensity of light
coming in, it alters the depth of field and the
detailings of every material surface.
PAGE 160 PAGE 161
Current facade with no cladding Latest facade with claddings

PAGE 162 PAGE 163

Sliding frame
in aluminium

Maintaining the lever

at the center position
will open the flaps fully
Nuts are being fastened
into the flaps and act as
a pivoting point
Aluminium rod with
2mm radius

Lever to adjust the flaps

Flaps in fiber and
resin finishing

Flaps will rotate upward

when the lever is being
pushed above

Main structure will control the

movements of every flap Railing in glass and
aluminium finishing

Flooring in concrete
Sunscreen frame in
aluminium finishing
Flaps will rotate downward
when the lever is being
pushed below

Sunscreen support
in steel finishing

PAGE 166 PAGE 167


PAGE 168 PAGE 169


PAGE 170 PAGE 171




Visitors are able to configure the positions

of the claddings according to their needs.
Therefore, every section on each level seems
to be unique in their very own way. It shows
alot about the visitors in each section, and
also what kind of sensorial experience that
they are trying to achieve when they are in
these spaces. Most importantly, it is also about
the light that gets into the interior spaces,
that cast shadows of the nature at different
point in time, especially the transitional time
from evening to night time. In addition, the
visitors are able to control the flaps at each
cladding which will affect the intensity of light
that goes into the interior spaces. 8PM
PAGE 172 PAGE 173
Every section tells a certain stories as people
visit these spaces with different emotions.
Very similarly to the previous HDB project,
everyone has their needs and they configure
the claddings according to the kind of
sensorial experience that they are trying to
achieve. Engagement and interaction with
the claddings and the material surfaces are
the key factors that will alter their perception
of these interior spaces. In other words, with
different configurations of the claddings,
these spaces will not remain the same as they
are constantly changing from time to time.

PAGE 174 PAGE 175

There are many configurations that are
available to the visitors and these are some
of the scenarios of how each configuration
will affect or impact the interior spaces which
changes the overall ambience from time to
time in different sections. At the same time,
it is not just about the interior space, it also
changes the way we perceive the interior
space from the exterior of the building. With
different intensity of light and shadow, it
changes the way we perceive the material
surfaces and it allow ourselves to experience
the spaces with various senses at different
point in time.
∙ Flaps are facing downward ∙ Flaps are facing slightly ∙ Flaps are fully opened
∙ Receive minimal sunlight downward ∙ Receive great amount of
∙ Provide good shading ∙ Receive decent amount sunlight
∙ Decent ventilation of sunlight ∙ Provide shading only in
∙ High level of privacy ∙ Provide some shading the afternoon
∙ Decent ventilation ∙ Good ventilation

PAGE 178 PAGE 179

∙ Flaps are fully closed ∙ Flaps are facing slightly ∙ Flaps are facing upward ∙ A mixture of opened and
∙ Receive minimal amount upward ∙ Receive great amount closed flaps
of sunlight ∙ Receive great amount of sunlight only in the ∙ Receive great amount
∙ Provide good shading all of sunlight only in the afternoon for a short of sunlight and provide
day long afternoon period of time decent shading at the
∙ High level of privacy ∙ Provide decent shading ∙ Provide good shading in same time
∙ Decent ventilation in the evening the late afternoon ∙ Decent ventilation
∙ Decent ventilation ∙ High level of privacy
∙ Decent ventilation

PAGE 180 PAGE 181

Claddings along the walkway In the day when light reaches the interior at
different intensity, it magnified the detailings
of certain spaces especially the raw concrete
surfaces, and those shaded areas become
much more blurry, making the depth of the
spaces and distance ambiguous. With a
full length cladding, the visitors are able to
manipulate the sensorial experience not just
in each section, but also along the whole
stretch of walkway. With the previous metal
railing replaced with glass railings, it allows
the sunlight to come in more directly and
also to balance out the heavy usage of raw
concrete so that the overall space will be
much more integrated.

PAGE 182 PAGE 183

Shadows that move throughout the day
impart a sense of time. Therefore, It gets a little
more interesting during the evening where
shadows become longer and the overall
ambience become warmer. The changing
light conditions cast the trees’ shadow onto
various surfaces in the spaces. Light reflected
off objects creates shadow images onto
surfaces within the space. If it is the shadow
of the swaying leaves from the trees that is
reflected onto the wall or floor, it remind the
visitors of the presence of nature within the
complex itself. In a way, it also shows that with
all these factors coming together, the interior
space is facing constant changes and it is an
ongoing process.

PAGE 184
Ambient lightings are being used for the night
time so that it gives a soft touch and a warmer
ambience to the interior spaces. An indirect
approach is being applied in these lightings
so that the light reaches a surface before
reflecting and spreading to the other surface
areas. The purpose for this approach is so
that the visitors will be less distracted from the
indirect ambient lightings and their attentions
will be directed to the niches itself. As for
the walkway, it will have a dimmer lighting
as compared to the individual section. With
such approach being applied, the individual
section will become the focal point in each
block of the columbarium.

PAGE 186 PAGE 187

HDB Columbarium

Life and death might be a sensitive topic,

but it is a part of the mundanity. Things are
happening and changing concurrently in our
world, just like the deterioration of materials,
the ever-changing positions of the sunlight and
the ongoing human activities. But every level
and section of the HDB and the columbarium
shares the same appearance, just like living in
its own perfection, simple and monotonous,
which does not bring about the aspects of
mundanity. In this two projects, mundanity is
about the constant change of a interior space
that creates a whole new sensorial experience
with the use of claddings and appropriate
materials that changes in its detailing with
different intensity of light and shadow coming
into play. With all these being integrated, the
interior space will then become an organic
and dynamic one, allowing people to engage
and interact, making changes to their personal
living spaces.

PAGE 188 PAGE 189

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Glasgow School of Art
2017 - 2018