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CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING 2 - 1

CRUISE TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT PAGE

CRUISE FLIGHT ..................................................................................................3
Overview .................................................................................................................................3

FUEL PLANNING SCHEMATIC 747-400 ............................................................5
(STANDARD UNITS) ...............................................................................................................5

FUEL PLANNING SCHEMATIC 747-400 ............................................................6
(METRIC UNITS).....................................................................................................................6

FUEL LOAD PLANNING......................................................................................7
(Standard Units).......................................................................................................................7 (Metric Units) ...........................................................................................................................8

FUEL REQUIRED TO REACH PLANNED ALTERNATE DESTINATION ...........9
Landing Weight at Alternate.....................................................................................................9

CONTINGENCY FUEL .........................................................................................9 MAXIMUM & OPTIMUM CRUISE ALTITUDES ...................................................9
Optimum Wt.............................................................................................................................9

FOUR ENGINE MACH .86 CRUISE...................................................................10
(Standard Units).....................................................................................................................10 (Metric) ..................................................................................................................................11

FUEL PLANNING METHODOLOGY .................................................................12
Overview ...............................................................................................................................12 Determine Trip Length ...........................................................................................................12 Estimate Fuel Required..........................................................................................................12 Refining Fuel Calculations .....................................................................................................13 Step 1: Minimum Landing Fuel ...........................................................................................13 Step 2: Alternate Fuel.........................................................................................................13 Step 3: Contingency Fuel ...................................................................................................13 Step 4: Flight Plan Fuel ......................................................................................................14 Step 5: Takeoff Weight .......................................................................................................15 Step 6: Determine Initial Cruise Altitude..............................................................................15 FMC Fuel Management .........................................................................................................16

PMDG 747-400 AOM

DO NOT DUPLICATE

Revision – 26JUL05

2-2 CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK Revision – 26JUL05 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 747-400 AOM .

(BOW + Payload = ZFW) This number yields the weight of the aircraft prior to any useable fuel being loaded. Cruise Altitude and Cruise Speed.000lbs. air conditioning fluids. missed approaches or other inefficiencies. this number represents the weight of usable fuel still remaining on board the aircraft in the worst case scenario. The tremendous range and endurance capabilities of the aircraft allow for transition through many different flight environments during a single operation and it is not uncommon for flight planning to occur fifteen to twenty hours prior to scheduled arrival at a destination airport. the crew is forced to hold enroute. cargo or usable fuel. Proper determination of aircraft load weights combined with well thought out selection of flight level and Mach cruise speeds are integral to accurate performance planning. so to ensure safe and consistent results. off optimum speed flying. it should be considered an emergency condition. hydraulic fluid. Minimum Landing Fuel: This is the absolute minimum amount of fuel that will remain on the aircraft at the time the airplane lands. This weight figure includes items such as the weight of the aircraft structure. This becomes particularly true when operating the 747-400. diverts to the alternate airport and lands.CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING 2 . or changes in the route of flight that might increase the fuel burn enroute. crew. it is important that crews thoroughly understand the inter-relation of the variables involved in cruise flight planning. Contingency Fuel: Fuel boarded to allow for airborne holding. MZFW for this airplane as modeled is: 535. off optimum altitude flying. baggage. If for any reason you expect to land with less than this amount of fuel.) The Minimum Landing Fuel for the 747-400 is normally 24. Flight Plan Fuel: This figure represents the fuel load which is required to fly the aircraft form the airport of origin to the airport of destination. ATC or other factors. residual fuel. Alternate: The airport which has been selected by the crew as an alternate landing airport in case the Destination airport is unusable due to weather conditions. bags or cargo to be carried aboard the aircraft during flight Zero Fuel Weight: The weight of the unfueled aircraft after all passengers.g. more holding. Specifically. Alternate Fuel: The amount of fuel required to the aircraft from the Destination after a missed approach to the alternate airport. This figure should be corrected for winds along the route (see later in this chapter) but does not account for holding. Basic Operating Weight: The weight of the aircraft minus any passengers. Increasing or decreasing any one of these variables may have a significant impact on fuel consumption and range capability of the aircraft. The time involved in long range flying may allow for significant changes in weather or ATC conditions during the course of a flight. Maximum Zero Fuel Weight: This is the heaviest weight allowed for the airplane before adding fuel weight. Definitions: Following are a number of definitions used in flight planning. The three variables most directly affecting the aircraft’s cruise flight performance are: Planned Landing Weight. Payload: Weight of all passengers. crew luggage.000lbs. passenger accommodation fluids. flies an approach to the destination followed by a missed approach. Destination: The airport of intended landing for the flight. (E. and normal passenger service equipment normally carried on board. potable water. PMDG 747-400 AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision – 26JUL05 . bags and cargo have been loaded. residual oil.3 CRUISE FLIGHT Overview: Correct planning for cruise flight is extremely important for the safe and timely operation of any aircraft.

This airplane is modeled with a 630.) This weight figure is a critical limitation that should be carefully examined to ensure that it does not exceed 630. This airplane is modeled with an 875. or less. This figure is a structural limit weight designed to prevent over-stressing of structural members within the aircraft. If a maximum structural weight or maximum operational weight is exceeded. range and fuel load. it is important that the aircraft weight is maintained within the parameters of Maximum Gross Landing Weight. Maximum Gross Taxi Weight: The maximum weight at which the aircraft may be dispatched for taxi.80 is generally used for Long Range Cruise flight. We also know that the maximum weight of the airplane before any fuel is loaded must not exceed 535. for example but most commonly is experienced on short flights when the airplane is carrying a large payload over a shorter range. we know that the MGLW for the airplane can never be more than 630. Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight. Weight Restrictions: During flight planning. or high density altitude at the destination airport. Maximum Planned Takeoff Weight: Unlike Max Gross Takeoff Weight.000lbs of fuel. Mach cruise speed setting can have a significant impact on the fuel flow encountered during flight. this is the weight of the airplane in a perfect scenario. (535. the crew should either consider reducing aircraft weight by removal of passengers or cargo. etc.000lbs) More information on how to determine Maximum Allowable Takeoff Weight is provided later in this chapter. (Theoretically. with plans made for an en-route fuel stop.86 is considered a High Speed Cruise. This is a structural limit weight which is determined by the manufacturer to prevent over-stressing structural members within the aircraft.000lbs = 630.000lb MTOW. This figure is a structural limit weight designed to prevent overstressing of structural members within the aircraft. (See examples later in the chapter!) Cruise Speed: The Mach speed selected for use during cruise. this figure is a variable figure and changes with each flight. Fuel increases dramatically with an increase in mach speed. Mach . + This figure is one of the most important figures in your flight plan. Revision – 26JUL05 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 747-400 AOM . This airplane is modeled with an 877. This weight could be a limit factor caused by insufficient runway length at the destination airport. As the fuel planning schematic is being filled in. Thus it represents the highest potential weight of the aircraft upon landing.000lb MGTW. and Maximum Taxi Weight.000lbs.000lb MGLW. missed approaches.000lbs + 95. a reduced fuel load should be boarded. This weight is determined by adding: Minimum Landing Fuel Alternate Fuel Contingency Fuel Zero Fuel Weight ============= Planned Landing Weight Maximum Gross Landing Weight: This figure denotes the maximum weight at which the aircraft may be allowed to land. where the crew lands at the destination immediately without holding.2-4 CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING Planned Landing Weight: This figure represents the weight of the aircraft upon touchdown at the destination airport.000lbs. If passengers or cargo cannot be removed. we must take care to ensure that we will land with 95.000lbs. Maximum Planned Landing Weight: This figure is a variable figure specific to each flight. This weight limit can be caused by insufficient runway length at the departure airport. while Mach . If we are planning a flight with the MZFW at 535. as it will be used to determine nearly all other aspects of your cruise altitude. crews should verify weight compliance.000lbs. For example. Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight: This figure denotes the maximum weight at which the aircraft may be allowed to commence the takeoff roll.

000) Planned Landing Weight: + Flight Plan Fuel: Planned Gross Takeoff Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________ (Must be less than 875.000) Planned Gross Takeoff Weight: + Taxi Fuel Burn Off: Planned Taxi-Out Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________ (Must be less than 877. PMDG 747-400 AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision – 26JUL05 .000lbs__ Payload: ____________ Zero Fuel Weight: ____________ (Must be less than 535.000) Schematic should be used to ensure compliance with structural weight limits.5 Fuel Planning Schematic 747-400 (STANDARD UNITS) Basic Operating Empty Weight: __394.CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING 2 .000) + + + Zero Fuel Weight: Minimum Landing Fuel: Alternate Fuel: Contingency Fuel: Planned Landing Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ (Must be less than 630. Crews should verify that planned takeoff and planned landing weights are not limited by reduced runway lengths or high density altitudes.

090kgs__ Payload: ____________ Zero Fuel Weight: ____________ (Must be less than 242.763kg) Planned Landing Weight: + Flight Plan Fuel: Planned Gross Takeoff Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________ (Must be less than 397.671kg) + + + Zero Fuel Weight: Minimum Landing Fuel: Alternate Fuel: Contingency Fuel: Planned Landing Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ (Must be less than 285.636kg) Schematic should be used to ensure compliance with structural weight limits.2-6 CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING Fuel Planning Schematic 747-400 (METRIC UNITS) Basic Operating Empty Weight: __179.727kg) Planned Gross Takeoff Weight: + Taxi Fuel Burn Off: Planned Taxi-Out Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________ (Must be less than 398. Crews should verify that planned takeoff and planned landing weights are not limited by reduced runway lengths or high density altitudes. Revision – 26JUL05 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 747-400 AOM .

2 5:00 102.0 2:30 62.000lbs planned landing weight.6 8:21 169.000 feet.6 13:21 275.0 9:12 186.0 680lbs/hr FL310 / 488 8800 8400 8000 7600 7200 6800 6400 6000 5600 5200 4800 4400 4000 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1400 1000 800 400 Adjust: 17:31 380.86 Cruise at Optimum Altitude (or use of Step Climb Procedures) Trip Length NAM Pressure Altitude (Feet) / True Airspeed (Knots) WEIGHT: FL410 / 479 FL390 / 479 FL370 / 479 FL350 / 481 FL330 / 486 Flight Time (Hours:Minutes) and Fuel Burn (Pounds x 1000) 17:31 381.2 9:55 198.4 13:13 274.6 8:08 184.6 5:48 121.0 15:54 338.0 9:42 215.4 1:37 50. 300 KIAS to FL310.0 14:12 298.0 4:13 88.2 9:09 186.2 12:28 258.0 1:41 46.6 860lbs/hr 17:20 386.0 13:03 390.0 15:02 316.4 4:59 103.4 6:35 176.0 6:40 139.6 6:43 136.4 6:38 169.0 4:57 105.4 7:20 167. 300 KIAS between FL340 and 10.6 1:39 48.0 11:43 238.000ft Table is valid only for a planned landing weight of 475.80 above FL310 M.000lbs + 21.0 14:31 331.4 3:19 73.000.8 11:42 237.0 2:28 64.8 2:22 69.8 4:13 87.2 15:51 338.0 16:42 357.6 12:23 257.4 4:08 93.8 12:31 258.4 9:12 185. Table is based on following speed schedule: CLIMB: CRUISE: DESCENT: 250 KIAS to 10.0 9:51 200. 250KIAS below 10.0 10:37 230.0 10:48 222.2 1:06 34.4 4:05 97.8 5:42 128.86 at Optimum Altitude for aircraft weight (or step climb procedure) Mach .8 7:25 155.0 700lbs/hr 16:23 381.9 15:00 317.0 8:57 210.000lbs total fuel required.2 1000lbs/hr 17:22 378.8 16:33 355.6 3:18 77.0 16:30 362.0 15:42 344.4 5:39 134.4 880lbs/hr 17:28 380.0 5:00 103.6 10:48 221.2 9:58 197.6 2:30 62.2 15:46 336.1 16:39 356.6 2:26 66.2 5:46 121.4 14:05 297.6 1:00 36.0 10:32 240.0 10:45 222.000lbs deviation above (below) 475.000lbs = 219. Example: For 4800 NAM @ FL410 and 505.0 10:00 198.2 2:29 63.6 1:41 47.0 3:21 73.0 14:01 303.000 lbs.0 5:44 124.0 15:35 353.3 11:39 237.2 6:42 136.0 13:54 313.2 4:12 88.0 8:21 169. Example: 5400 NAM @ FL410 equals 11:15 and 230.7 3:15 80. For every 10.0 12:19 260. interpolate time and fuel required for trip.0 9:47 206. fuel required would equal 198.0 13:09 280.0 13:22 275.2 7:28 152.5 1:06 34.2 12:13 270.0 9:03 200.000.0 8:13 176.0 1:04 36.0 9:06 188.0 16:43 356.000lbs.2 8:18 169.6 3:21 72. Mach .0 14:12 298.0 1:34 51.0 6:43 136.2 4:53 113.4 7:23 170.CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING 2 .0 15:54 338.2 1:39 48.4 7:30 152.8 1:05 35.0 12:31 258.4 3:18 75.0 5:48 121.0 1:05 35. Table Represents M.7 11:31 244.6 4:10 90. add (subtract) fuel burnout correction shown in “Adjust:” row on bottom of table.4 4:56 108.000lbs + [(700lbs/hr x 3) x 10:00hrs] = 198.9 11:25 254.8 320lbs/hr PMDG 747-400 AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision – 26JUL05 .6 14:09 298.80 to FL340.9 14:42 315.2 13:18 275.7 FUEL LOAD PLANNING (Standard Units) DISTANCE: When Trip Length in Nautical Air Miles falls between levels on mileage scale.0 8:15 171.5 11:35 239.0 7:30 152.2 10:41 224.0 14:38 321.3 14:47 315.

Table Represents M.3 1:39 22.7 7:30 69. Table is based on following speed schedule: CLIMB: CRUISE: DESCENT: 250 KIAS to 10.3 13:18 124.6 9:51 90.1 16:30 164.6 400kg/hr 17:28 172.1 1:37 22.0 14:38 145.0 11:43 108.3 9:58 89. Example: For 4800 NAM @ FL410 and 230.9 2:30 28.0 5:48 55.8 9:55 89.9 15:54 153.000 feet.86 Cruise at Optimum Altitude (or use of Step Climb Procedures) Trip Length NAM Pressure Altitude (Feet) / True Airspeed (Knots) WEIGHT: FL410 / 479 FL390 / 479 FL370 / 479 FL350 / 481 FL330 / 486 Flight Time (Hours:Minutes) and Fuel Burn (Kgs x 1000) 17:31 172.3 8:15 99.3 1:34 23.1 12:31 117.6 14:01 137.1 10:00 89.7 2:22 31.2 13:22 124.8 12:28 117.8 7:28 69.4 317kg/hr 16:23 172.1 14:31 150.0 3:18 34.8 14:12 135.8 1:05 16.0 12:19 118.2 11:39 107.3 308kg/hr FL310 / 488 8800 8400 8000 7600 7200 6800 6400 6000 5600 5200 4800 4400 4000 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1400 1000 800 400 Adjust: 17:31 172.2 4:08 42.000ft Table is valid only for a planned landing weight of 216. fuel required would equal 89.0 5:39 60.1 14:05 134.2 8:21 76.7 8:13 80.4 1:41 21.3 4:57 47.5 8:18 76.3 9:47 93.8 7:30 69.2 2:29 28.7 3:21 32.0 6:42 61. Example: 5400 NAM @ FL410 equals 11:15 and 104.1 13:54 142. For every 4. interpolate time and fuel required for trip.5 8:57 95.8 16:42 161.4 9:03 90.100kgs fuel.0 7:23 77.80 above FL310 M.7 4:13 39.7 5:48 54.000Kgs.0 2:28 29.000 Kgs.7 12:31 117.80 to FL340.4 7:25 70.3 14:12 135.4 14:47 143.4 16:39 161.6 7:20 75.310kgs total fuel required.8 16:33 161.4 11:42 107.8 10:48 100.2-8 CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING FUEL LOAD PLANNING (Metric Units) DISTANCE: When Trip Length in Nautical Air Miles falls between levels on mileage scale.400kgs planned landing weight.0 5:00 46.1 4:59 46.3 6:38 77.1 1:06 15.7 145kg/hr Revision – 26JUL05 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 747-400 AOM .4 1:00 16.7 1:04 16.9 6:35 80.8 14:42 143.4 8:21 76.1 3:19 33.800kgs + [(317Kg/hr x 3) x 10:00hrs] = 89.3 3:15 36. add (subtract) fuel burnout correction shown in “Adjust:” row on bottom of table.5 15:54 153.0 454kg/hr 17:22 171.8 5:46 55.9 11:25 115.7 15:00 143.3 6:40 63.000.4 4:05 44.510kgs = 99.2 4:56 49.8 9:12 84.9 9:42 97.5 10:41 101.6 4:13 39.2 10:32 108. 300 KIAS to FL310.0 5:42 58.8 11:35 108.8 4:12 40.7 1:39 21.5 8:08 83.6 12:23 116.2 1:05 16.5 10:45 100.2 390kg/hr 17:20 175.2 6:43 62.9 4:10 41.1 2:30 28.9 3:21 33.2 14:09 135.0 13:03 177.6 15:51 153.4 1:06 15. 250KIAS below 10.3 11:31 110.5 3:18 35.4 13:21 125.86 at Optimum Altitude for aircraft weight (or step climb procedure) Mach .5 9:12 84.0 6:43 61.0 12:13 122.2 2:26 30.0 10:48 100.9 4:53 51.9 5:00 46.500Kgs deviation above (below) 216.9 9:09 84.1 1:41 21. Mach .7 10:37 104.7 9:06 85.800kgs + 9. 300 KIAS between FL340 and 10.1 15:46 152.9 13:13 124.3 15:02 143.2 15:42 156.8 15:35 160.1 5:44 56.4 13:09 127.4 16:43 161.

000lbs 630.000kg] [395. [Example: Takeoff at 770.000lbs 740.] PMDG 747-400 AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision – 26JUL05 .000kg] [305.000kg] [367.000lbs 570. The amount of fuel boarded should reflect expectations in terms of total time to be spent in airborne holding both while en-route and during the approach phase of flight.000lbs 700.300kg] 8000lb [3600kg] 200 0:41 11000lb [5000kg] 11600lb [5250kg] 13200lb [6000kg] 300 0:57 14000lb [6400kg] 15700lb [7100kg] 17200lb [7800kg] 400 1:10 17700lb [8000kg] 19800lb [9000kg] 21400lb [9700kg] 500 1:20 21000lb [9500kg] 22500lb [10200kg] 25400lb [11500kg] Based on Optimum Cruise Altitude Selection Table assumes an assured landing at planned alternate with only one approach flown.000kg] [315.000lbs 670.000kg] [350.000lbs 500.500kg] [272. and the amount of excess fuel burn that may be required by ATC forcing the aircraft off optimum altitudes and speeds. crews should plan to follow ICAO step climb procedures in order to most closely mimic a constant optimum altitude climb profile.86 Cruise table. or may be required to fly at other than optimal speeds or altitudes.000kg] [247.000lbs 870. the optimum cruise altitude would be FL360.9 Fuel Required to Reach Planned Alternate Destination Landing Weight at Alternate x 1000lbs NAM to Time to 430 lb to 475 lb 476 lb to 540 lb 541 lb to 630 lb Alternate Alternate [195kg to 215kg] [216kg to 245kg] [246kg to 285 kg] 100 0:30 6600lb [3000kg] 7200lb [3.500kg] [272. This will provide for the most efficient fuel burn possible while working within the constraints of the ATC system.000lbs 550.000kg] Time to Burn Fuel Wt.000kg] [247.000kg] [367. After six hours of cruise flight.000kg] [227. but can also be used to help estimate the highest altitude that can be reached during cruise flight of a known time duration.000lbs 810.000lbs 670.000lbs [238. it may be beneficial to add contingency fuel to the desired fuel load.500kg] [385.500kg] [285.000kg] [305.500kg] [285.000lbs 600.000lbs 770.000kg] [250.000lbs 600. 520..000lbs 840.000lbs 630.CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING 2 .000lbs 550. Maximum & Optimum Cruise Altitudes Altitude FL420 FL410 FL400 FL390 FL380 FL370 FL360 FL350 FL340 FL330 FL320 FL310 FL300 Optimum Wt 470.000lbs 700.000kg] [250.000kg] [335.000kg] [335.000kg] Maximum Wt.000lbs 840. Time to Burn Fuel Wt Explained: The Time to Burn Fuel Weight column provides an estimate of how long it will take to burn into the next highest optimum flight level. 1:42 1:07 1:35 1:02 1:22 1:24 1:36 1:14 1:27 1:05 1:26 1:00 For purposes of flight planning.000lbs [213.000lbs 740.000lbs 810. This information will allow crews to plan the time to be spent at each altitude.000kg] [350.000lbs for a six hour flight will yield an initial cruise altitude of FL320.000lbs 520. • • Contingency Fuel Contingency Fuel: In cases where the flight crew or dispatcher feels that they may encounter airborne holding while en-route.500kg] [238.000lbs 570.000kg] [315.500kg] [385. given performance according to the Four Engine Mach .000lbs 770.

8 91.4 22.0 90.5 26.4 86.0 22.0 94.0 91.7 19.6 88.2 28.6 23.0 85.5 18.3 19.6 99.2 20.4 99.8 20.3 19.2 89.5 16.0 32.7 24.7 25.1 18.8 95.1 19.4 520.6 20.0 89.3 26.4 89.0 N1% Fuel/Hr x 1000lbs 93.8 87.0 640.4 85.9* 32.86 CRUISE (Standard Units) FL TAT 420 -26 410 -26 400 -26 390 -26 380 -26 370 -26 360 -26 350 -23 340 -21 330 -19 320 -17 310 -14 300 -12 IAS TAS 230 475 235 475 240 475 246 475 252 475 258 475 264 475 276 476 289 480 296 482 302 484 309 486 316 489 Gross Weight (x1000lbs) 720.8 440.8 88.0 880.3 25.3 18.0 800.0 22.3 18.8 86.6 18.0 86.1 20.8 92.0 92.2 87.3 19.7 25.8 88.8 30.2 91.2 89.3 22.0 94.8 90.6 87.0 90.4 29.6 92.0 89.10 CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING FOUR ENGINE MACH .4 21.4 95.8 87.6 90.0 24.8 93.6 27.1 21.4 28.0 14.2 18.6 18.6 98.4 91.0 19.6 24.3 18.0 91.4 98.9 17.9 17.0 20.6 21.3 22.9 27.0 88.4 89.4 16. Adjustments: TAS in knots is for standard TAT: Add (subtract) 1 knot/degree C above (below)standard.0 86.0 98.8 15.7 17.2 14.3 16.8 94.0 90.6 20.7 17.4 99.5 15.0 85.4 86.2 90.4 90.4 27.0 20.8 27.6 97.2 91.5 22.0 86.5* 33.0 840.4 18.0 86.2 87.3 21.0 89.8 87.9 19.3 20.2 90.2 85.3 16.0 93.4 22.0 17.2 97.6 26.4 37.4 21.4 85.2 90.0 93.0 20.6 86.8 25.0 90.0 560.8 87.0 760.2 89.6 23.8 87.8 88.5 18.5 29.2 88.8 86.7 16.7 18.0 87.2 86.2 93.6 480.8 88.9 20.6 86.6 87.6 89.0 91.0 600.0 18.9 22.7* 31.0 18.0 20.6 19.2 .7 16.6 86.2 88.2 96.2 26.4 89.0 91.2 20.6 95.6 97.8 Shaded Area represents approximate Optimum Altitude Profile.6 93.7 28.4 22.2 86.7 22.6 22.0 91.8 95.0 680.5 22.8 87.0 93. Revision – 26JUL05 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 747-400 AOM .0 85.7 16.7 20.9 20.0 91.2 87.

6 8.5 86.2 9.0 560.0 600.86 CRUISE (Metric) FL TAT 420 -26 410 -26 400 -26 390 -26 380 -26 370 -26 360 -26 350 -23 340 -21 330 -19 320 -17 310 -14 300 -12 IAS TAS 230 475 235 475 240 475 246 475 252 475 258 475 264 475 276 476 289 480 296 482 302 484 309 486 316 489 Gross Weight (x1000lbs) 720.9 10.4 13.6 97.3 11.7 11.3 94.8 89.6 87.2 91.1 86.6 10.3 93.7 99.7 10.0 14.5 11.4 85.0 98.4 8.8 87.2 89.1 9.6 9.1 85.7 8.2 90.6 12.2 88.7 87.4 9.5 87.5 7.5 13.6 10.5 8.0 8.3 89.0 8.0 760.0 95.6 12.0 9.4 85.3 7.CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING 2 .0 86.7 7.4 13.9 87.4 9.1 93.6 90.9 9.8 480.2 11.0 93.3 10.9 8.6 91.7 87.2 95.2 85.4 6.3 11.8 6.0 9.9 7.8 11.9 95.9 7.2 86.7 90.2 93.0 9.5 94.1 98.5* 15.7 88.7* 14.4 91.7 89.0 94.5 10.0 880.0 680.11 FOUR ENGINE MACH .3 9.3 86.3 86.2 99.4 89.7 87.0 89.3 91.5 87.2 6.8 91.8 87.0 91.8 91.5 10.8 88.0 90.4 Shaded Area represents approximate Optimum Altitude Profile.0 9.7 7.3 8.4 87.0 840.1 8.7 93. PMDG 747-400 AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision – 26JUL05 .8 12.5 88.5 92.7 85.4 10.0 800.7 11.0 91.3 8.4 91.4 10.4 99.0 N1% Fuel/Hr x 1000Kgs 93.2 8.3 97.0 6.5 88.9 9.7 8.7 86.3 8.4 12.0 8.3 9.3 7.3 8.7 8. Adjustments: TAS in knots is for standard TAT: Add (subtract) 1 knot/degree C above (below)standard.2 92.0 10.1 87.6 8.6 9.7 86.4 88.5 97.8 86.0 86.4 440.0 93.4 90.9* 14.7 12.7 10.6 98.4 86.6 89.9 12.3 95.5 6.7 7.2 89.0 89.7 86.6 9.0 640.0 92.1 85.9 89.9 90.0 11.1 9.0 90.0 7.5 8.6 10.2 9.4 16.7 90.4 10.3 10.6 8.8 9.0 10.7 8.4 87.1 8.3 8.9 86.9 96.3 8.7 11.6 10.7 90.2 12.4 88.8 91.8 14.6 88.2 520.1 90.

400nm + -375) = 2. Tailwinds make the number smaller. Estimate Fuel Required: Once again using the Trip Length in NAM column. In this case. This yields a time/fuel estimate of 4:13 minutes in flight and 87. We have already assumed that the wind along this route is 75knots from behind the airplane.12 CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING FUEL PLANNING METHODOLOGY Overview: Accurate fuel planning is not a difficult process. and refer to the definitions at the beginning of this chapter if you need a refresher! For the purpose of this exercise. or by averaging all the time figures in your row. Follow each of the steps below in order.2 . which results in a nearly continual tailwind along the route.) Step Two: Multiply the wind component by the estimated time-in-flight. we must make steps beyond simply measuring the distance over the ground. This geographic distance must then be adjusted in order to account for the effects of wind along the route of flight. 500. Determine Trip Length: To determine the length of our flight. By adding this result to the total flight distance. determine the approximate time it will take to fly the route. we will select FL390 with a NAM trip distance of 2. or headed into the wind. In this example. For the purpose of this exercise. a flight is being planned using the following conditions and parameters: Origin: Destination: Alternate: KSFO KIAD KJFK Determining the effect of these winds is a two step process: Step One: Use the Fuel Planning table (page 2-7) and find 2. The approximate distance between San Francisco and Washington DC is 2.000lbs Revision – 26JUL05 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 747-400 AOM .600lbs of fuel on board to complete BOW: 394.400nm. Thus.000lbs Payload: 106. The air through which we will fly is moving.400nm on the Trip Length column. (2.025 NAM. Nautical Air Miles are miles flown the air mass. so we must adjust our planning to account for the effects of this wind on our flight. Since the air itself is moving in the same direction as our flight. enter the Fuel Planning table being careful to select the correct flight length in NAM. (You can approximate the time by looking at your desired altitude. and what factors should be considered. a 2.000 NAM.) Thus: (5:00 hours x -75kts) = -375. This section of the chapter will walk you through a typical fuel planning exercise to help you understand how the process works. after all. tailwinds are negative numbers. we multiply: Time Enroute x Wind Component 5:00hrs -75knots (Note: Headwinds are positive numbers. we will fly fewer miles through this air mass than if we were in still air. The prevailing winds along this route tend to be from the west. Moving horizontally to the right. The effect of wind on Nautical Air Miles to be flow is simple to remember: Headwinds make the number larger. to determine it’s effect. we will assume that the tail wind component is 75knots along the entire route of flight.000lbs Zero Fuel Wt. we receive the total Nautical Air Miles to be flown. The first step in planning an accurate fuel load is to determine the geographic distance which will be traveled during flight. as well as the planned cruising altitude..400 NM trip will take approximately 5:00 hours. but does require some understanding of the charts and terms described earlier in this chapter.

600lbs.000lbs as the Minimum Landing Fuel for our flight. so we will elect to use 19.000lbs 19. For example. Step 1: Minimum Landing Fuel: Working the flight backward. Thus. if we were planning a flight to arrive at KIAD late in the evening. KSFO-KIAD is a short trip for a 747-400. the weather at KIAD is marginal and we have selected KJFK as an alternate airport for the trip.13 the flight. we are not likely to be concerned about holding or lengthy vectors before landing. it is time to refine the fuel load to account for all possible stages of the flight. For example. On the other hand.000lbs Minimum Landing Fuel to the Zero Fuel Weight of the airplane for this trip: In this instance. you should work backward from the second alternate airport! Step 2: Alternate Fuel: Currently we need 19. The weight of the airplane upon landing at JFK can be determined easily by adding our 19.000lbs With this information.CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING 2 . known problems in the Air Traffic Control System. and that the Fuel Planning Schematic Charts provided earlier in this chapter should be used to plan the actual fuel load. Ldg Fuel 500.000lbs fully loaded with passengers. but without fuel on board.000lbs + 11.000lbs = 519. The most effective way to plan any fuel load is to start at the end of any possible fuel scenario. in the case of poor weather. Refer to the Fuel Required to Reach Planned Alternate Destination table (page 2-9). The table indicates that we need 11. or. Refining Fuel Calculations: Now that a good fuel load estimate has been calculated. Note for Advanced Users: If your flight requires a second alternate due to alternate minimums or dispatches under Exemption 3585. As such. bags and cargo. so to this figure we are going to add the amount of fuel it will take us to fly from KIAD – KJFK. This table requires two pieces of information: 1) How far is it from Destination to Alternate? (200nm between KIADKJFK) 2) What will the airplane weigh when it touches down at JFK? The distance between KIAD-KJFK is 200nm. For the 747-400. approximately. so if we were planning to land at 4:15PM. Step 3: Contingency Fuel: To determine if we need contingency fuel depends largely upon weather conditions. It is important for crews to understand that this is an estimate of fuel required. our total required fuel thus far is: 19.000lbs of fuel on the aircraft at the time of landing. our landing weight at KJFK would be: ZFW + Min. PMDG 747-400 AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision – 26JUL05 . and a general “feel” for the operation of the airplane that comes primarily through experience. enter the Fuel Required to Reach Planned Alternate Destination table using the distance to the alternate and the estimated landing weight of the aircraft at the Alternate Destination. and the East Coast of the United States has plenty of suitable airports for a 747. we would carefully consider the fact that we could expect lengthy vectors for landing. holding enroute. we will assume that in this instance. this is commonly accepted to be 24. we know that we want to land with at least Minimum Landing Fuel.600lbs of fuel to reach our alternate on this flight.000lbs on domestic or short haul flights.000lbs on international flights and 19. and work backward to the beginning of the flight. our alternate airport. we assume that the airplane will weigh 500. KIAD tends to be a very busy airport at 4PM local time.600lbs = 30.

600 6.500 ====== Planned Landing Weight 544. but now we need to refine the calculation to accurately reflect the conditions of the flight. we have boarded all of the fuel required for any “unusual events” such as holding. To do this. we determined that 87. Our final fuel adjustment for the cruise portion of flight is now calculated as: 7 x 880lbs = 6.000 Minimum Landing Fuel 19. Incidentally.000 + 11. In order to compute your total required fuel load for the trip.000lbs of fuel still in the tanks upon landing at KIAD. diversion and landing at an alternate airport. In our case: Planned Landing Weight: Table Description Weight Difference from Table: 544. Our fuel required thus far is: 19.600 Contingency Fuel 13.000 Alternate Fuel 11. FL390 is the correct column.2 .14 CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING For the purpose of this planning exercise. This being the case. we will elect to add an extra :45 of fuel to ensure we have enough fuel to account for possible holding. The notation at the top of the fuel planning table indicates that the table is valid for a planned landing weight of 475.100lbs. we should have all 44. you will notice that: Zero Fuel Weight 500.000lbs of landing weight.600lbs was required to complete the flight using FL390 as our final cruising altitude. As such.000lbs above 475. we need to add the amount of fuel required for the flight itself. When we originally estimated the fuel required to fly KSFO – KIAD.000lbs / 10. slow-downs and lengthy vectors to final approach.000lbs.000lbs. Thus. it is safe to round the number UP to 70.000lbs = 7. At this point.800 Revision – 26JUL05 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 747-400 AOM . we are assuming that the weather at KIAD is poor enough to require the use of an alternate airport in our flight planning. if we depart KSFO and are able to land at KIAD without holding or diverting to our alternate. we will elect to add :45 minutes of fuel. you must note the “ADJUST” figure at the bottom of the table based upon your cruising altitude.100 To calculate our fuel adjustment.000 ====== 69. 70.000lbs / hour.500 = 44. but it requires further refinement in order to complete the fuel load calculation.500lbs. and this ADJUST figure is 880lbs of fuel / hour of flight time for each 10. A good rule of thumb for loading contingency fuel is to expect holding fuel burn at a rate of 18.600 + 13. In our case. This estimation was made based on the table on page 2.160lbs (round this to 6200 lbs for simplicity!) Our Flight Plan fuel is now: Original Estimation: Fuel Adjustment: Flight Plan Fuel: 87. so we will also assume that we are planning to land at 4:15PM during the peak of the afternoon arrivals.100 475.7. If you are filling in the Fuel Planning Sheet from page 2-3.100 Step 4: Flight Plan Fuel: Now that we have determined how much fuel we need to handle all possible events at our destination.200 ===== 93. or: 13. we follow the “estimation” process outlined in the beginning of the exercise.

It is not difficult to determine the proper initial cruising altitude once the Planned Takeoff Weight is known.900lbs. According to these figures. PMDG 747-400 AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision – 26JUL05 .86 Cruise table.000 11. to climb initially to FL360.100 93. Repeating this exercise a few times.500+ 93. it will take 1:24 to burn enough fuel for us to consider moving to a higher altitude in order to maintain the optimum altitude during flight. given the information we have already determined: Zero Fuel Weight Minimum Landing Fuel Alternate Fuel Contingency Fuel Planned Landing Weight Flight Plan Fuel Planned Takeoff Weight 500. 1:22 later. When heavily loaded. By simply adding the figures in the Optimum Altitude chart. move down the Optimum Altitude column until finding 630. we can see that our initial “Most Optimum” cruise altitude will be 36.800+ ====== 137. Use the Maximum and Optimum Cruise Altitudes table (page 2-9) to determine the initial cruising altitude for the flight. we should climb from FL360 to FL 370. The fuel burned during cruise flight can be calculated by simply subtracting the figures in the Optimum Altitude column.500 ====== 544. When lightly loaded.15 Our total cruise fuel requirement indicates that you must adjust the fuel load by reading the As such. Thus. Using our Planned Takeoff Weight of 637.000feet. and 1:02 later expect a climb to FL390. and these are explained in detail in the chapter detailing use of the FMC. while westbound flights are operated at even altitudes.000 19. To do this.900 Step 6: Determine Initial Cruise Altitude: The 747-400 is a large airplane with a broad range of capabilities. so we can continue moving up this column as follows: 1:24 + 1:22 + 1:02 = 3:48.) From the Altitude column.600+ 13.900 We can now calculate how high we should climb during the course of our flight to KIAD in order to continue flying at the “Most Optimum” altitudes for the airplane’s weight.000lbs. until we have burned enough fuel to reach FL370. it would appear that approximately 80. FL360 is not available to us when headed eastbound.CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING 2 .600 13.000 feet. In other words.800+ ====== 637. (1:24 into our flight!) The process of finding an optimum altitude is made far easier by the Step Climb calculations within the FMC-CDU. For this flight we would expect then.000 feet until some fuel weight is consumed. (Rounding numbers when using this table is satisfactory. the airplane can fly easily at altitudes up to 41. We have one more factor to consider. our total fuel requirement from takeoff in KSFO is:: Minimum Landing Fuel Alternate Fuel Contingency Fuel Flight Plan Fuel 19.000 11. however! Eastbound flights are required to operate at odd altitudes. the airplane will begin the trip by leveling off at 31. so we must limit our climb to FL350 initially. 1:24 into our flight.000lbs of fuel would be Step 5: Takeoff Weight: Calculating the takeoff weight is a simple matter. then climb progressively to FL390 before commencing our descent into KIAD. Then. we should expect to climb to FL 380. observe the times written in the far right column of the table. we know that our flight is supposed to take approximately 4:13. or by manually determining the fuel burn at each altitude through use of the Four Engine Mach .

000lb columns. the onboard fuel system monitoring will immediately alert the crew if it appears that they will land with less than 37. In this circumstance.700lbs / 21. A second. planning the fuel load appropriately will ensure the aircraft arrives with sufficient reserves at the planned and/or alternate destinations. to consider that it is not always possible to simply climb to the next highest cruise altitude while burning fuel. On long-range segments over water.700lbs. If it is expected that the aircraft will be held to a lower altitude.850lbs on board at the destination. the crew should pay close attention to events unfolding on the approach. FMC Fuel Management: Use of the FMC is covered in detail later in this chapter. fuel burn will be higher than predicted on either the Fuel Planning Table or Maximum and Optimum Altitudes table. By entering the table using the initial cruise altitude (FL350) and initial aircraft cruise weight (631. It is important.600 ½ Contingency Fuel: (22mins) 6.700lbs at the initial cruise altitude of FL350 and the 600. many crews may find it beneficial to enter a RESERVES figure into the INIT PERF page of the FMC. we would enter a value of: Minimum Landing Fuel: 19.) This fuel burn figure can then be used to determine how long it will take to burn enough fuel that it will be necessary for the aircraft to climb in order to reach the next highest optimum cruise altitude.700lbs) 31. (This is why we boarded contingency fuel! Use it!) It is important that crews plan their fuel loads based on the most reasonable expectations for the flight. you will have less than half of your Contingency fuel.000lb optimum weight at FL370. early detection of inaccuracy in fuel planning is essential to safety of flight. (31.600lbs / hour.6. this would be the difference between 631. plus whatever fuel is required to reach your alternate. For example. the fuel to be burned prior to climbing to each successive higher altitude can be determined. The alert will come in the form of an INSUFFICIENT FUEL warning in the FMCCDU. or if ATC climb restrictions will hold the flight to a lower altitude than is considered optimal. In all cases. In this example. or unpopulated areas. (This figure is interpolated between the 640.2 .250 ===== FMC RESERVES entry: 37.700lbs in this example) it can be determined that the aircraft will burn fuel at a rate of approximately 21. or 21. as any unplanned delay or missed approach will mean that they could be critically short of fuel upon landing at the alternate airport. In the case of our flight to KIAD.850 Once this number is entered into the RESERVES line of the FMC-CDU.000lb and 600. crews should continually monitor actual fuel burn against planned fuel burn. but while we are considering fuel planning here is a trick you can use to keep you safe while flying: While entering flight data into the FMC. This coincides very closely to the initial estimated figure of 88.86 Cruise table.16 CRUISE and FUEL PLANNING burned for this example. This alert does not indicate that you have insufficient fuel to reach your destination or alternate.600lbs/hr = 1:28 Following the same process. if ATC restrictions will limit initial cruising altitude to FL320. it simply serves to remind you that at the time you land. This figure should generally consist of: Minimum Landing Fuel + Alternate Fuel + between :30 and 1:00 of fuel.000 Alternate Fuel: 11. slightly more complex method to calculate the required fuel is to use the Four Engine Mach . This process can be followed through each planned step climb to ultimately yield the total fuel required for the flight. however. Revision – 26JUL05 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 747-400 AOM .