You are on page 1of 8

The Structure and Properties of Matter

The Structure and Properties of Matter - The Uses of Different Materials


According to Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipments

Objective
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to relate the properties and structures of
sports equipment to their function.
In this lesson, you will learn about the different materials used in making sports
equipment. How are the basic structures of sports equipment related to their
properties and uses?

Learn about it!


Sports equipment is any necessary item that is used to play sports, can be a game
equipment (ball, racket, net) or a player's equipment (shoes, pads, clothes).
Materials Used for Sports Equipment
In the field of sports, material selection is very important for the success and
performance of any athlete. The characteristics of the materials should include strength
and durability for each sports equipment to perform its purpose well.
In general, the materials used in making sports equipment are also the same with the
materials in making medical implants. It can also be categorized into three
types: metals, ceramics, and polymers. However, some of the materials also are
made of natural materials like wood.
Metals
Metals are composed of particles held together by strong metallic bonds, making them
strong and durable.

Examples
Alloys are usually used in sports equipment that requires strength or stiffness in weight
performance. They are made of two or more metals and other substances which improve
the strength, hardness, durability, formability, and tensile strength of the metal. For
example, aluminum alloy is one of the most common alloys used in the frameset of a
bicycle. This material does not only support the weight of the person but also provide a
lightweight feel without sacrificing its durability.
Stainless steel is commonly used in making golf clubs. Titanium alloys are used in
making baseball bats over wood because some players tend to break the bats after
hitting the baseball.

Learn about it!


Ceramics
Ceramics are nonmetallic, inorganic solids with ionic or covalent bonds. They are
commonly used in sports equipment parts that receive impact. They are lightweight,
durable, and has wear resistance than many plastic materials.

Example
Ceramic fibers are not traditionally used in sports equipment. However, with the
advancement and innovation of manufacturers, they have developed sports equipment
and parts which contain ceramics. For example, carbon-ceramic rotors are used in race
car brakes. The ceramics used together with carbon makes the car breaks lightweight as
well as durable.
Ceramic fibers are also used in several head tennis racquets which add power whenever
hitting the ball.
Learn about it!
Polymers
Polymers have molecules with a large number of repeating units of covalently bonded
chain of atoms. They are used to make protective sports equipment. They are known for
durability and flexibility.

Example
Polycarbonate is a strong, shatter-free polymer that is usually found in protective
sports equipment such as in biking and equestrian competitions. They can be also seen
in protective visors and sunglasses as well as swimming goggles.
Polyurethane is commonly used in soccer balls. It is a synthetic material that coats the
leather material in the ball and protects it from damages like tears, scuffs, and scratches.
Try it!
Research about other sports equipment. Find out what are the innovations and
advancements made the materials used in making these equipment.

What do you think?


What are the different properties of the materials used in making a baseball bat?

Key Points
 Sports equipment is any necessary item that is used to play sports, can be a
game equipment (ball, racket, net) or a player's equipment (shoes, pads, clothes).

 In general, the materials used in making sports equipment are also the same with
the materials in making medical implants. It can also be categorized into three
types: metals, ceramics, and polymers.

 Metals are composed of particles held together by strong metallic bonds, making
them strong and durable.
 Ceramics are nonmetallic, inorganic solids held together by ionic or covalent
bonds which make them lightweight, durable, and has wear resistance than many
plastic materials.

 Polymers are molecules with a large number of repeating units of covalently


bonded chain of atoms which are usually used in making protective sports
equipment .

Question 1
What are the basic uses of a sports equipment?

Correct!

2used to play sports3as a player's equipment4is a game equipment


Sports equipment is any necessary item that is used to play sports, can be a game equipment (ball,
racket, net) or a player's equipment (shoes, pads, clothes).

Next question

1used to build stadiums


Question 2
Which of the following are the general types of materials used in making sports equipment?

Incorrect!

3wood
The three general types of material used are metals, ceramics, and polymers.

Next question

1metals2polymers4ceramics

Question 3
Which of the following compounds is an example of metals used in making bicycles?

Correct!

3aluminum alloy
Aluminum alloy is one of the most common alloys used in the frameset of a bicycle.

Next question

1polycarbonate2carbon fiber4polyurethane
Question 4
Which of the following are not examples of polymer?

Correct!

2ceramic fiber3titanium
Polyurethane and polycarbonate are examples of a polymer with molecules having a large number of
repeating units of covalently bonded chain of atoms.

Next question

1polyurethane4polycarbonate

Question 5
Which properties of metals make them fit as a material for baseball bats?

Correct!

1durability2hardness3strength
Strong, hard, and durable metals are used for some baseball bats in replacing wooden bats.

Next question

4flexibility

Question 6
Which properties of ceramics make them usable as carbon-ceramic rotors?

Incorrect!

1brittleness2lightweight
Carbon-ceramic rotors are used in race car brakes. The ceramics used together with carbon makes
the car breaks lightweight as well as durable.

Next question

3strength4durability

Question 7
You were asked to design a sports equipment which should be lightweight, durable, and flexible.

Which of the following materials should you use to design the equipment?
Incorrect!

3ceramic
If you were to design a sports equipment, the materials that you should use is made of polymers.
Polymers have molecules with a large number of repeating units of covalently bonded chain of
atoms. They are known for durability and flexibility.

Next question

1polymer2alloy4metal

Question 8
Carbon fiber is a strong, thin filaments of carbon which is used to strengthen a material especially
ceramics. It is 90% from polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Its properties also include lightweight and
flexibility, which makes it good in making a wide range of sports equipment.

Which of the following materials is carbon fiber made of?

Correct!

2polymer
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a synthetic polymer that is a precusor in making carbon fibers. Since one
of the properties of carbon fiber includes flexibility and 90% of the material came from a synthetic
polymer, then it is also considered as a polymer.

Next question

1alloy3ceramic4metal

Question 9
Arya loves to join equestrian competitions. Besides conditioning her horse and continuously
practicing for the competition, she always makes sure that she wears her protective gears such as
vests and helmets.

Which of the pairs correctly describes the materials used and its properties in making helmets?

Correct!

4polymer - shatter-free
The durability and shatter-free properties of polymers specifically polycarbonate is best in making
protective sports equipment such as helmets for equestrian competitions.

Finish quiz

1alloy - strong2metal - durable3ceramic - flexible