You are on page 1of 57

Project Gutenberg's A Grammar of the English Tongue, by Samuel Johnson This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: A Grammar of the English Tongue Author: Samuel Johnson Release Date: February 18, 2005 [EBook #15097] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE ***

Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Keith Edkins and the PG Online Distributed Proofreading Team.

A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: IN WHICH THE WORDS ARE DEDUCED FROM THEIR ORIGINALS, EXPLAINED IN THEIR DIFFERENT MEANINGS, AND AUTHORIZED BY THE NAMES OF THE WRITERS IN WHOSE WORKS THEY ARE FOUND. ABSTRACTED FROM THE FOLIO EDITION, BY THE AUTHOR, SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D. TO WHICH IS PREFIXED, DR. JOHNSON'S PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL FOLIO EDITION, AND HIS GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

1812. A GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE. [17] Grammar, which is the art of using words properly, comprises four parts: Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. In this division and order of the parts of grammar I follow the common grammarians, without inquiring whether a fitter distribution might not be found. Experience has long shown this method to be so distinct as to obviate confusion, and so comprehensive as to prevent any inconvenient omissions. I likewise use the terms already received, and already understood, though perhaps others more proper might sometimes be invented. Sylburgius, and other innovators, whose new terms have sunk their learning into neglect, have left sufficient warning against the trifling ambition of teaching arts in a new language. Orthography is the art of combining letters into syllables, and syllables into words. It therefore teaches previously the form and sound of letters. The letters of the English language are, Roman. Italick. Name. Aa Aa a Bb Bb be Cc Cc see Dd Dd

dee Ee Ee e Ff Ff eff Gg Gg jee Hh Hh aitch Ii Ii i (or ja) Jj Jj j conson. Kk Kk

ka Ll Ll el Mm Mm em Nn Nn en Oo Oo o PP Pp pee Qq Qq cue Rr Rr

ar Ss Ss ess Tt Tt tee Uu Uu u (or va) Vv Vv v conson. Ww Ww double u Xx Xx ex Yy Yy

generation. grew. mane. A slender is found in most words. days. as an antiquarian. I shall not. of the primitive and simple letters. An account. that words are unable to describe them. Our letters are commonly reckoned twenty-four. as from die. The French have a similar sound in the word pais. The a slender is the proper English a. ffl. vow. and even in this narrow disquisition I follow the example of former grammarians. but as those letters. eyes. but for i it is the practice to write y in the end of words. A has three sounds. Such is the number generally received. For u we often write w after a vowel. and those who know it not. in his Arabick Grammar. The sounds of all the letters are various. and consequently able to pronounce the letters of which I teach the pronunciation. perhaps with more reverence than judgment. and in words ending in ation. called very justly by Erpenius. a. In treating on the letters. as a mechanick. and in their e masculine. or and per se. or the elegance or harshness of particular combinations. I consider the English alphabet only as it is English. and. and &. o. lowness. raw. our alphabet may be properly said to consist of twenty-six letters Vowels are five. ffi. as face. beautifying. salvation. as a writer of universal and transcendental grammar. as. as. anatomist. and broad. i. view. συμπαθεια. as having a middle sound between the open a and the e. OF VOWELS A. flowing. because by writing in English I suppose my reader already acquainted with the English language. which had always different powers. as sympathy. to make a diphthong. from beautify. . before i. system. and written originally with υ. like some other grammarians. fi. a Anglicum cum e mistum. u. nor into the properties and gradation of sounds. συστημα.wy Zz Zz zed To these may be added certain combinations of letters universally used in printing. dying. have now different forms. as thy. is useless. open. because anciently i and j as well as u and v were expressed by the same character. the slender. or physiologist. holy. and in words derived from the Greek. nor into their formation and prolation by the organs of speech. as creation. fl. in the words says. almost alike to those who know their sound. e. inquire into the original of their form. ff. and because of sounds in general it may be observed. therefore.

as all. pĭn. is always slender. cūre. This faintness of sound is found when e separates a mute from a liquid. Ai or ay. cŭr. E is always mute at the end of a word. . E is the letter which occurs most frequently in the English language. or nearly resembles it. haund for hand. cĕlebrate. as since. Camden in his Remains calls it the silent e. has only the sound of the long and slender a. wall. clea-re. or proper names. but it has been long wholly mute. căn. thistle. as Cesar. E is long. as in rotten. as băn. or follows a mute and liquid. tūne. shotten. fault. dĕbt. tŭb. and scarcely perceptible. fĭr. shapen. as in vĕx. as glŏve. as year. This e was perhaps for a time vocal or silent in poetry as convenience required. pŏp. relĕnt. being used to modify the foregoing consonants. mĕdlar. for it is yet retained in the northern dialects. hedge. It has sometimes in the end of words a sound obscure. and is more properly expressed by single e. glass. The long a. or short. The short a approaches to the a open. Eneas. as sault. lucre. wildness. as father. once. except in monosyllables that have no other vowel. cĕssation. for in old editions words are sometimes divided thus. gĭve. rĕptile. pĕrplexity. oblige. mault. as grass. as in cĕllar. but is no English diphthong. as Penelope. fancy. and we still say. gay. [18] A forms a diphthong only with i or y. or to lengthen the preceding vowel. vault. Derbe. It is always short before a double consonant. thĕn. It does not always lengthen the foregoing vowel. This was probably the Saxon sound. and u or w. which e probably had the force of the French e feminine. as in cattle. Many words pronounced with a broad were anciently written with au. and constituted a syllable with its associate consonant. A broad resembles the a of the German. mĕn. metre. as maun for man. sĕparate. E. wildnesse. blĕssing. naughty. fame. clay. lĭve. Au or aw has the sound of the German a. knowled-ge. cāne. as open. tūbe. Phebe. fel-le. or two consonants. call. rūbe. sĕrpent.A open is the a of the Italian. fĕll. congratulate. as graze. bāne. pōpe. as in plain. participle. rather. tŭn. wain. rŭb. wane. cĕllar. fĕlling. and in the rustick pronunciation. yeare. and differs not in the pronunciation from plane. Ae is sometimes found in Latin words not completely naturalized or assimilated. pīne. as in scēne. as the. Almost all words which now terminate in consonants ended anciently in e. if prolonged by e at the end of the word. fīre. as raw.

The long sound in monosyllables is always marked by the e final. with only e. but a sound wholly different. receive. as new. O coalesces into a diphthong with a. first. I has a sound long. moil. as far as two sounds can be united without being destroyed. Ea sounds like e long. which is sounded as frĕnd. near. ōbedient. soil. noisome.E forms a diphthong with a. which may be likewise remarkable in other letters. as thĭn. a. as field. and short as fĭn. as moan. except friend. shirt. as œconomy. and ew in view. and in people. sleeping. O is long. are combined in beauty and its derivatives. or like ee. corrōding. shield. but as being not an English diphthong. thīne. approach: oa has the sound of o long. It forms a diphthong only with e. Eo is found in yeoman. as a short u. as deign. I is joined with eu in lieu. they are better written as they are sounded. With i. as fīne. which is sounded as the double ee. that the short sound is not the long sound contracted. O is united to e in some words derived from Greek. as agree. or short. and with u or w. E may be said to form a diphthong by reduplication. Ei is sounded like e long. as bōne. ŏblique. I is often sounded before r. as seize. stew. This coalition of letters seems to unite the sounds of the two letters. where it is pronounced like ee. with i. as near. as son. as blŏck. O. groan. That is eminently observable in i. perceiving. lŏll. as oil. but have only the sound of u. where it is sounded as o short. clear. E. as mean. u. which triphthongs are sounded as the open u. as dear. and therefore approaches more nearly than any combination in our tongue to the notion of a diphthong. economy. as flirt. come. Eu sounds as u long and soft. Women is pronounced wimen. The short o has sometimes the sound of close u. . I. knŏck.

A vowel in the beginning or middle syllable. Y. which was commonly used where i is now put. quest. plague. Many is pronounced as if it were written manny. as honour. Y is a vowel. Ou is sometimes pronounced like o soft. pray. quite. favor. sow. as cough. Ou is frequently used in the last syllable of words which in Latin end in or and are made English. It is sometimes mute before a. as dying. but a sound between them. bowl. guise. flower. These different sounds are used to distinguish different significations: as bow an instrument for shooting. without considering that the last syllable gives the sound neither of or nor ur. oo has the sound of the Italian u. in imitation of the French. betray. bowl. synagogue. buy. or short. in the primitive. e. as boot. U is followed by e in virtue. prayer. day. Some late innovators have ejected the u. hoot. U is long in ūse. as prorogue. is commonly short. labour. which. but the e has no sound. It supplies the place of i at the end of words. as our. sow. before an i. sayer. from honor.With o. o. as stag. faveur. sow. but has rather in these combinations the force of the w consonant. quit. y. In monosyllables a single vowel before a single consonant is short. power. cooler. besides that they are probably derived to us from the French nouns in eur. . we might want without inconvenience. confūsion. occurs very frequently in all old books. favour. frog. as could. as. Ue is sometimes mute at the end of a word. It coalesces with a. before two consonants. betrayed. Y being the Saxon vowel y. sometimes in ui the i loses its sound. as thy. as in juice. as Quintilian observes of one of the Roman letters. tough. as quaff. which use only can teach. e. days. as in soul. destroyer. as court. a wooden vessel. labor. sometimes like u close. languish. say. as rough. or u open. the she of a boar. sometimes like o short. but that we have it. to scatter seed. as honeur. destroy. as guard. harangue. [19] U. a depression of the head. bowl. betrayer. vague. concŭssion. i. an orbicular body. and is commonly retained in derivative words where it was part of a diphthong. grow. bow. as ŏppŏrtunity. but in some words has only the sound of o long. i. as ŭs. GENERAL RULES. guest. With u or w. if not compounded of both.

climb. subtle. G. as citta. is numbered by the grammarians among the semivowels. therefore we write stick. one hard. cerro. never ends a word. C might be omitted in the language without loss. Arch is commonly sounded ark before a vowel. It is mute in debt. and u. incorporate. diligent. that it is commodiously sounded before a liquid. it sounds like k. limb. as in gay. as sincerely. frog. crutch. giant. comb. brown. At the end of a word it is always hard. yet has this quality of a mute. . Before e and i the sound is uncertain. fry.OF CONSONANTS. and w as dwell. captive from captivus. as death. as church. as flask. the other soft. o. sticke. dumb. gun. concavity. as black. B. It is used before l and r. sounds like sh. Ch has a sound which is analyzed into tsh. as chymist. It is used before r. C. Ch. siccity: before a. centrick. as archangel. go. s. C has before e and i the sound of s. according to English orthography. as in gem. such as it obtains in other languages. It has an unvariable sound. song. F. block. thumb. dross. C. doubt. as face from facies. as draw. Ch is sounded like k in words derived from the Greek. as ring. concupiscence. debtor. It is the same sound which the Italians give to the c simple before i and e. blocke. D. circular. since one of its sounds might be supplied by. chaise. snug. though having a name beginning with a vowel. F. century. but that it preserves to the eye the etymology of words. which were originally. lamb. chin. in some French words not yet assimilated. as machine. womb. copper. G has two sounds. scheme. and the other by k. curiosity. and with the English sound of ch before a consonant. It is used before l and r. Is uniform in its sound. as calm. choler. except that of is sometimes spoken nearly as ov. cistern. In such words c is now mute. cross. as clock. B has one unvaried sound. city. as archbishop. freckle.

gibe. not sceptick. H is a note of aspiration. as in scene. except in heir. honest. ginger. full. K is never doubled. Giles. It seldom begins any but the first syllable. geld. and shows that the following vowel must be pronounced [20] with a strong emission of breath. as cockle. jester. or derived from the Latin. but c is used before it to shorten the vowel by a double consonant. and derivatives from words ending in g. L. as kept. and is therefore a letter useless. J. soute. as blockhead. c would be soft. to give force. in which it is always sounded with a full breath. horse. as ejaculation. right. It is used before n. it is quite silent. honour. G before i is hard. It sometimes begins middle or final syllables in words compounded. gewgaw. king. gin. It has often at the end the sound of f. cough. humble. G is used before h. gigantick. as kill. It is not to be doubted. to which may be added Egypt and gypsy. foreign. L has in English the same liquid sound as in other languages.G before e is soft. will. These words were originally written kille. stronger. The custom is to double the l at the end of monosyllables. as knell. as hat. Gh in the beginning of a word has the sound of the hard g. and when the e first grew silent. rite. hostler. and is used before e and i. giblets. tough. which is still continued among the Scotch. as ghostly. except in gear. knot. skeptick. pickle. get. as comprehend. sough. as singing. as laugh. jocund. sought. except in etymology. for so it should be written. generation. J consonant sounds uniformly like the soft g. gill. in the middle. G is mute before n. except in giant. but that in the original pronunciation gh has the force of a consonant deeply guttural. skirt. K has the sound of hard c. according to the analogy of . and was afterward omitted. gibbet. gingle. and r. H. wille. as give. but totally loses its sound in modern pronunciation. enough. slough. because sc is sounded like s. the ll was retained. spoken tho'. trough. where. fulle. herb. as gnash. juice. l. as finger. whence laughter retains the same sound in the middle. as gem. gilliflower. according to English analogy. and generally before er at the ends of words. geese. sign. K. and sometimes at the end. as though. humour and their derivatives.

as myrrh. Re. us. Q. condemn. as trees. his. the pronouns this. as damn. and has a sound which our Saxon ancestors well expressed by cw. halves. like k. as theatre. The Saxons. R has the same rough snarling sound as in the other tongues. hlaford.our language. as loves. falcon. sepulchre. M has always the same sound. at the end of some words derived from the Latin or French. rhyme. salmon. rheum. quotidian. psalm. Ph is used for f in words derived from the Greek. yours. risque. horse. N is sometimes mute after m. grows. in words derived from the French. the close being always either in se. Qu is sometimes sounded. as noble. surplus. sister. as grass. talk. queen. P has always the same sound which the Welsh and Germans confound with b. as conquer. as in other languages. N has always. distresses. R. anciently grasse. as hlaf. who delighted in guttural sounds. as philosopher. A single s seldom ends any word. a loaf. as before l at the beginning of words. less. P. Philip. myrrhine. equestrian. as rebus. the adverb thus. as in psalm. P is sometimes mute. chequer. monumental. is sometimes mute. calves. or in ss. The Saxons used often to put h before it. bliss. and words derived from Latin. ours. hymn. half. S. or bread. as table. to the foregoing vowel. quire. a lord. dresse. is always followed by u. . Qu is never followed by u. as in calf. bushes. M. dress. and between m and t. Q. Rh is used in words derived from the Greek. S has a hissing sound. N. rheumatick. as tempt. would. catarrhous. liquor. as murmur. Le at the end of words is pronounced like a weak el. manners. should. as sibilation. quilt. as house. sometimes aspirated the l at the beginning of words. inquiry. is pronounced like a weak er. but this pronunciation is now disused. philanthropy. L. in which the e is almost mute. shuttle. the same sound. could. except in the third person of verbs. and the plurals of nouns. as quadrant.

space. eyes. as question. V. thence. faith. if it follows a consonant. wisdom. thee. sgombrare. breathe. Wh has a sound accounted peculiar to the English. It is the peculiar quality of s. as thick. thus. as axle. Of w. sventura. swell. as frosty winter. vanity. excepting likewise derivatives from words ending in ty. x being only ks. Th has two sounds. Thus we find in several languages. us. island. and in all words between two vowels. Clarke erroneously supposed to be. and z a hard or gross s. [21] Ti before a vowel has the sound of si as salvation. thunder. cloth. S is mute in isle. but letters of the same sound are always reckoned consonants in other alphabets: and it may be observed. sfavellare. then. the other hard. those. and between r and a vowel. strength. as trees. smell. what. whiting. as. as burthen. σφιγξ.S. X. if a vowel goes before it. in which s is comprised. stramen. as intrusion. as thus. has a grosser sound. prison. like that of z. This s is therefore termed by grammarians suæ potestatis litera. demesne. whether. the reason of which the learned Dr. as mighty. faithful. It sounds like z before e mute. these. and in those words. thy. sgranare. W. temptation. In other words it is hard. surplus. as take. . shake. slumber. as breath. stripe. Σβεννυμι. that w follows a vowel without any hiatus or difficulty of utterance. which the Saxons better expressed by hw. rebus. their. some grammarians have doubted whether it ever be a consonant. shrew. them. step. mightier. and sometimes in wholesome. as thing. and like s. casement. spring. single at the end of words. they. present. present. as refuse. father. bosom. It sounds like z before ion. as water may be resolved into ouater. in whore only. as. or ou. thine. as conversion. scatter. desire. The sound is soft in these words. viscount. that it may be sounded before all consonants. and there. damsel. the one soft. Where it is softened at the end of a word. except this. extraneous. though. thou. which in diphthongs is often an undoubted vowel. and not rather as it is called a double u. T. snipe. think. X begins no English word: it has the sound of ks. and in that. sdegno. thus. squeeze. as vain. this. wh is sounded like a simple h. sdrucciolo. T has its customary sound. splendour. clothe. V has a sound of near affinity to that of f. an e silent must be added. except an s goes before. and before y final. whether. except x and z. as rosy. that in some words it might be doubled at pleasure. From f in the Islandick alphabet. whence. prisoner. v is only distinguished by a diacritical point. with their derivatives and compounds.

They have however generally formed their tables according to the cursory speech of those with whom they happened to converse. froze. Most of the writers of English grammar have given long tables of words pronounced otherwise than they are written. when it follows a consonant. and is yet sufficiently irregular. Z. that of English. indeed. red for read in the preter-tense. unskilfulness. cannot be uttered after a vowel. being made different in different mouths by negligence. Of these reformers some have endeavoured to accommodate orthography better to the pronunciation. like that of other nations. do. like that of all other consonants. the two sounds of w have no resemblance to each other. less absurdly indeed. . which. and every character a single sound. but with equal unlikelihood of success. as of all living tongues. In orthography I have supposed orthoepy. But it may be observed of y as of w. Y. or just utterance of words. is a vowel. dew. as ye. of an s uttered with a closer compression of the palate by the tongue. or affectation. is a consonant. Others. have endeavoured to deserve well of their country. and make all their old books useless? or what advantage would a new orthography procure equivalent to the confusion and perplexity of such an alteration? Some ingenious men.Y. that it follows a vowel without any hiatus. the other regular and solemn. orthography being only the art of expressing certain sounds by proper characters. to take that for a model or standard which is changing while they apply it. I have therefore observed in what words any of the letters are mute. young. it has the sound. but in wed. being formed by chance. have often established the jargon of the lowest of the people as the model of speech. The chief argument by which w and y appear to be always vowels is. that every sound may have its own character. that the sounds which they are supposed to have as consonants. There have been many schemes offered for the emendation and settlement of our orthography. is yet always less remote from the orthography. But who can hope to prevail on nations to change their practice. one cursory and colloquial. without considering that this is to measure by a shadow. when it precedes either a vowel or a diphthong. For pronunciation the best general rule is. Z begins no word originally English. by writing honor and labor for honour and labour. and concluding that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one manner. and seem not sufficiently to have considered. ut. to be included. The solemn pronunciation. as its name izzard or s hard expresses. and less liable to capricious innovation. have endeavoured to proportion the number of letters to that of sounds. or according to the fancy of the earliest writers in rude ages. there is a double pronunciation. to be formed by a synod of grammarians upon principles of science. It is thought by some to be in all cases a vowel. as rosy youth. thus we say tu. though by no means immutable and permanent. Such would be the orthography of a new language. The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain. odd. to consider those as the most elegant speakers who deviate least from the written words. as freeze. was at first very various and uncertain.

as these are good books. This is a better book for a man than a boy. In the senses in which we use a or an in the singular. and the various modifications by which the sense of the same word is diversified. AN. The English language has properly no dialects. The speech in the western provinces seems to differ from the general diction rather by a depraved pronunciation. and because few have followed them. THE. He was killed by a sword. and is uttered with a pronunciation which now seems harsh and rough. but was probably used by our ancestors. that is. I want some pens. [22] ETYMOLOGY. both because they have innovated little.sais for says. as horse. I loved. that as they have done no good they have done little harm. or of their flexions and terminations. but obsolete. because it is only the Saxon an. whose mortal taste . nor differs but by different degrees of skill or care. one. as A horse. with some reference to more. The language of the northern counties retains many words now out of use. A has an indefinite signification. that is. I have made an the original article. an or a. The oral diction is uniform in no spacious country. the style of writers has no professed diversity in the use of words. that is. repete tor repeat. than by any real difference which letters would express. for one of those that are men than one of those that are boys. the n being cut off before a consonant in the speed of utterance. Of the ARTICLE. An is still used before the silent h. I want pens. and the. Of these it may be said. my kingdom for a horse. Etymology teaches the deduction of one word from another. but has less variation in England than in most other nations of equal extent. that an should be used before h. An or a can only be joined with a singular: the correspondent plural is the noun without an article. applied to a new use. Shakespeare. and the French un. as. The English have two articles. horses. but otherwise a. that is. as the German ein. any army. An army might enter without resistance. but which are commonly of the genuine Teutonick race. or æn. one among the books that are good. I want a pen. explane for explain. whence it appears that the English anciently asperated less. we speak in the plural without an article. The has a particular and definite signification. an honest man. or declame for declaim. as an herb. as. and means one. a horse. I love. or with the pronominal adjective some. some sword. The fruit Of that forbidden tree. A. as This is a good book. Grammarians of the last age direct. The northern speech is therefore not barbarous.

Of NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE. So. Rome. Magistrum. but steel. and this world in which we live. of a Master. Words in which nothing but the mere being of any thing is implied: This is not beer. . London. virtue. GOD is used as a proper name. and green herbs for the use of man. Abstract names. Gen. vice. Alexander. Magistri. Milton. or changes of termination. hatred. Proper names. I am as free as Nature first made man. Voc. by prepositions. to the Master. Magister. Singular. unless we may be said to have a genitive case. a Master. but water. the Master. 2. the Master's. witch-craft. The relations of English nouns to words going before or following are not expressed by cases. Athens. but. this is not brass. The is used in both numbers. ugliness. 3. Acc. love. Magister. Dat. for those beings that are cattle. a Master.Brought death into the world. good-nature. the Master. Aristarchus. Ere the base laws of servitude began. Nom. anger. that is. or Master's. kindness. as John. and his use that is man. Dryden. When wild in woods the noble savage ran. that particular fruit. He giveth fodder for the cattle. Many words are used without articles. as 1. Magistro. of the Master. That is. as blackness. as in most of the other European languages. Jerusalem. to a Master. Longinus. beauty.

Dat. Scholar. O Master. of Masters. Masters. the Masters. Master's. Magistri. O Masters. Magistri. from the Master. Masters. from a Master. the Masters. Masters. from the Masters. Acc. Plural. Magistris. . Our nouns are therefore only declined thus: Master. Masters. Gen.Master. Magistro. to Masters. Abl. Magistros. Scholar's. of the Masters. Gen. Plur. Gen. from Masters. Voc. Magistrorum. to the Masters. Nom. Magistris. Abl.

actor. princess. I think with no more propriety than he might have applied the same to the genitive in equitum decus. We say likewise the foundation's strength. and Weigh the mens wits against the ladies hairs. x. woods. Some English substantives. that the 's is a contraction of his. as the soldier's valour. the mute e is vocal before s. pence from penny. wood. lances. on the other part. brethren from brother. outrages. after c sounded like s. Plurals ending in s have no genitives. [23] When a word ends in s. as Venus temple. These genitives are always written with a mark of elision. proof. he and his having formerly been applied to neuters in the place now supplied by it and its. scholar's. fly. loaves. for in the Lords' house nothing is cut off. roof. and g like j. calves. grief. master's. The formation of the plural and genitive singular is the same. and so in two other of their seven declensions. Irregular plurals are teeth from tooth. relief. or the house of a Lord. geese from goose. Besides that the mark of elision is improper. Dr. for the soldier his valour: but this cannot be the true original. A few words still make the plural in n. the genitive may be the same with the nominative. They would commonly produce a troublesome ambiguity. shoon. or any other Latin genitive. Trojæ oris. handkerchief. Woman's beauty. in Spenser. tables. according to an opinion long received. of a smith. flies. Words that end in f commonly form their plural by ves. as loaf. swine. lioness. This termination of the noun seems to constitute a real genitive indicating possession. supposes the possessive pronouns mine and thine to be genitive cases. muffs. Except a few. actress. It is derived to us from the Saxon's who declined smith. chief. because 's is put to female nouns. feet from foot. as Women's passions. dice from die. to whom every English grammarian owes a tribute of reverence. the Virgin's delicacy. the winter's severity: but in these cases his may be understood. This formation is that which generally prevails in the Teutonick dialects. calf. lion. s. change their termination as they express different sexes. The learned and sagacious Wallis. as the Lord's house may be the house of Lords. and collective nouns. or es where s could not otherwise be sounded. hero. muff. but we say. as men. Scholars. the multitude's folly: in all these cases it is apparent that his cannot be understood. mice from mouse. smither or smithar. Willis thinks the Lords' house may he said for the house of Lords. smiths. as table. smither. Plur. sh. To . and more anciently eyen. calls this modification of the noun an adjective possessive. as after ch. sister. in Chaucer. like those of many other languages. The plural is formed by adding s. So hoof. Haughty Juno's unrelenting hate. but such phrases are not now in use. that in the old poets both the genitive and plural were longer by a syllable than the original word: knitis for knight's. sisters. Womens excellencies. the rabble's insolence. and surely an English ear rebels against them. children from child. oxen.Plur. a smith. Lowth. the diamond's lustre. lice from louse. leavis for leaves. heroine. outrage. puff. chiefs. Dr. Gen. as lance. mischief. cuff. dwarf. women. z. It is a further confirmation of this opinion. as prince.

as mortal. as porous. except lucky. spleenful. careful. in ny. fairest. and sometimes by pronouns prefixed. fervent. as woody. lowest. fairer. nethermost. benevolent. lovelier. most. we perceive an impropriety in the termination which we cannot avoid. except happy. a cock. as recent. dreadful. a good woman. gender. as a he-goat. topmost. tutress. worst. a student. governess. and being much regulated by commodiousness of utterance. in ent. Most is sometimes added to a substantive. sweetest. in fy. the comparative more is oftener used than the superlative most. best. as nether. in ed. in al. foremost. as candid. The comparative degree of adjectives is formed by adding er. Dissyllables are seldom compared if they terminate in some. Of ADJECTIVES. All adjectives may be compared by more and most. fair. or agreeableness of sound. such anomalies . and being added to substantives in all relations without any change. outermost. upper. because these terminations have not annexed to them the notion of sex. nearer. Some comparatives form a superlative by adding. fore. as roomy. a builder. a good man. lovely. as. Monosyllables are commonly compared. as. for when we say of a woman that she is a philosopher. a botanist. higher. and are only compared by more and most. outer. sweet. good. Some words are irregularly compared. deplorable. in id. in dy. having neither case. the sex is distinguished not by different terminations but by different names. she-goat. the superlative by adding est. late. Lowth may be added arbitress. to the positive. fairer. in ful. little. most deplorable. equus. are seldom compared otherwise than by more and most. duchess. traytress. a hen. The comparison of adjectives is very uncertain. less. highest. near. latest or last. Of these variable terminations we have only a sufficient number to make us feel our want. as missive. In adjectives that admit a regular comparison. nor number. a dancer. of a good woman. as. and perhaps othets. as. sweeter. more benevolent. a weaver. as more fair is oftener written for fairer. many (for moe). in my. as. harmless. a. good women. in ry. but we can say that she is an architect. but in a language subjected so little and so lately to grammar. later. as. more deplorable. as fulsome. lower. Polysyllables. as skinny. fairest. chauntress.these mentioned by Dr. next. former. under. authoress. as a bull. of good men. most benevolent. as hoary. in less. than most fair for fairest. tigress. as. or more fair. in ain. an astronomer. in py. more (for moer) most (for moest). least. a cow. even when they have comparatives and superlatives regularly formed. worse. up. Adjectives in the English language are wholly indeclinable. most. high. equa. a horse. good men. uppermost. a mare. as wretched. as. much. bad. southmost. Many adjectives do not admit of comparison by terminations. loveliest. in ive. is not easily reduced to rules. undermost. careless. In words which the necessities of life are often requiring. better. more. as ropy. as certain. in ing. toilsome. or most fair. as. in ous. fair. charming. low. or words of more than two syllables. The Comparison of Adjectives. peeress. as trifling. Some comparatives and superlatives are yet found in good writers formed without regard to the foregoing rules. poetess. in ky. as puffy. as rocky.

by Ascham. I will now deliver a few of the properest and naturalest considerations that belong to this piece. virtuousest. What she wills to say or do. [24] It is not so decorous. by Jonson. such as presuming on their own naturals. Famous. Lost. Natural. Ben Jonson. discreetest. The mortalest poisons practised by the West Indians. by Bacon. by Milton. or flesh of man. The wretcheder are the contemners of all helps. I shall be nam'd among the famousest Of women. Bacon. without making use of any inferior or subordinate minister. who is indeed of no great authority. Wretched.must frequently occur. sung at solemn festivals. . Milton's Agonistes. and roundest tongues in all matters. She in shadiest covert hid. And virtuous. Par. Powerful. have some mixture of the blood. We have sustain'd one day in doubtful fight. Those have the inventivest heads for all purposes. best. by Wotton. Ascham's Schoolmaster. deride diligence. in respect of God. Mortal. Par. Par. Seems wisest. Lost. Ray on the Creation. What heav'n's great king hath pow'rfullest to send Against us from about his throne. fat. Lost. So shady is compared by Milton. Wotton's Architecture. and mock at terms when they understand not things. by Milton. Tun'd her nocturnal note. Inventive. So trifling by Ray. that he should immediately do all the meanest and triflingest things himself.

where the second person plural is used for the second person singular. they. mine. saltish. Nom. I. blackish. Oblique. . theirs. I. The pronouns personal are irregularly inflected. or tending to blackness. Of PRONOUNS. as black. Thou. my. which. they therefore admit no comparison. thou. Pronouns. You is commonly used in modern writers for ye. Ye. with their plurals. ye. it. Plural. hers. her. particularly in the language of ceremony. your. our. and is scarcely used in the solemn or sublime style. Singular. Us. yours. Me. who. salt. some. we. We. whatsoever. another. his. what. are. he. in the English language. ours. Accus. You. This termination is seldom added but to words expressing sensible qualities. whosoever. whether. Thee. the same. You are my friend. this. Nom. nor often to words of above one syllable. thy. or having a little taste of salt. by which the signification is diminished below the positive.The termination in ish may be accounted in some sort a degree of comparison. thine. and other oblique cases. other. that.

Nom. Applied to neuters or things. Her. They. Oblique. Nom. Applied to masculines. Nom.Singular. Applied to feminines. . Oblique. They. Plural. He. She. Them. It. Them. Him. They.

yours. might be still properly continued in poetry: they are used as ours and yours. and for its. The possessive pronouns. his. are applied equally to singular and plural substantives. and in the plural. Its. but ours surpass yours in learning. hers. and are therefore applied to things. hers. Who. ours. Whom. from she. Your children excel ours in stature. These books are ours. Them. of the third. thy. are used when the substantive preceding is separated by a verb. Ours. yours. your. as These are our books. thine. This book is ours. as. Gen. as thy house is larger than mine. Of which. like other adjectives. as mine amiable lady: which though now disused in prose. Gen. Other oblique cases. of the second. mine. whatsoever. theirs. Which. whosoever. from he. theirs. which. are without cases or change of termination. Pronouns relative are. theirs. his. Whose. Ours. whether. when they are referred to a substantive preceding. For it the practice of ancient writers was to use he. what.Oblique. yours. who. . or whose. The possessive of the first person is my. her. Nom. and hers. Nom. their. our. Mine and thine were formerly used before a vowel. when they is the plural of it. but my garden is more spacious than thine. These books are ours. notwithstanding their seeming plural termination. for both sexes. Their and theirs are the possessives likewise of they.

but they were anciently confounded. This These In all cases. being applied only to one of a number. the man which. Whose is rather the poetical than regular genitive of which. Who is now used in relation to persons. is without variation. Which. Whosoever. At least it was common to say.Other oblique cases. What. Milton. The fruit Of that forbidden tree. and has no plural. . Plural. whatsoever. Singular. whether relative or interrogative. commonly to one of two. and soever. Whether shall I choose? It is now almost obsolete. whose mortal taste Brought death into the world. and which in relation to things. follow the rule of their primitives. Whether is only used in the nominative and accusative cases. That Those. Other. Others. as Whether of these is left I know not. Whether. being compounded of who or what. though I remember no example of the thing who.

and where. . This I did with my own hand. thereof. let. The passive voice is formed by joining the participle preterit to the substantive verb. This seems justly observed. for his self. as himself. but now more frequently used both in verse and prose. and implies a silent contrariety. the other tenses are compounded of the auxiliary verbs. for which. &c. may. and simple preterit. herein. thereupon. It is emphatical. Own is added to possessives. as I did this myself. themselves. I live in my own house. own and self. it self. English verbs are active. Has is a termination connoted from hath. herewith. The rest seem to be passing by degrees into neglect. The neuters are formed like the actives. itself. Hereof. Verbs have only two tenses inflected in their terminations. their selves. as I am loved. useful.The plural others is not used but when it is referred to a substantive preceding. can. as I love. our own house. in which. To have. has no plural. so that self is always a substantive. Indicative Mood. as I love. whereby. of that. wherein. thereby. as. not another. as my own hand. therein. in that. though proper. and become neuters. yourselves. hereby. themselves. have. but others. Self is added to possessives. and continued in use. He came himself. which signify. I strike. It then. like own. therewith. whereof. without help or not by proxy. Therefore and wherefore. where himself cannot be an accusative. and analogous. for that. ye have. Here. joined with certain particles. in this. &c. or it forms a reciprocal pronoun. that is. We have. or neuter. Of the VERB. thou hast. that is. I am in love. &c. [25] Another. wherewith. Most verbs signifying action may likewise signify condition or habit. hereafter. will. as I languish. that is. itself. Sing. are supposed by Wallis to be put by corruption. or opposition. are now reckoned conjunctions. the present. shall. being only an other. both singular and plural. expresses emphasis and opposition. of this. I have not sent the same horses. have a relative and pronominal use. They are referred both to singular and plural antecedents. he hath or has. There are two more words used only in conjunction with pronouns. of which. I am now striking. which are properly there for and where for. Himself shall do this. whereupon. as myself. Plur. as We hurt ourselves by vain rage. and sometimes to personal pronouns. not in a hired house. Himself. I have. there. for we say. and the infinitive of the active or neuter verb. Present Tense. as I have sent other horses. they have.

Plur. have or have ye. they shall have. Let us have. I have. they had. Future. thou have had. I had had. Future. Sing. Preterpluperfect. . I have had. he has or hath had. Preterit simple as in the Indicative. thou wilt have. ye have had. ye shall have. he have. Plur. thou hadst had. they have had. Sing. We have had. thou hast had. I had. Sing. they have had. By reading these future tenses may be observed the variations of shall and will. Conjunctive Mood. Preterit compound. Sing. he will have. thou shalt have. Imperative Mood. Have. Plur. ye had had. let them have. We have. let him have. thou have. I will have. Plur. Second Future. ye wilt have. We had had. Present. Sing. ye have had. thou hadst. We will have. Compound Preterit. they have. Plur. he had had. they will have. or have thou. We have had. ye have. Plur. he had Plur. ye had. I have had. Plur. Sing. We had. We shall have. Sing.Simple Preterit. I shall have. he shall have. he have had. they had had. Sing.

. Preterit. thou couldst have. Sing. I might have had. Sing. We may have.Sing. I may have. I shall have. they may have. he may have. Plur. I can have. they could have. Present. To have had. We should have had. To have. &c. Infinitive Mood. thou shalt have had. they might have. I shall have had. We could have. as in the Indicative. in the preterit. In like manner we use. I might have. Sing. they shall have had. Sing. Plur. he could have. We shall have had. joined with the infinitive mood of the verb. Preterit. could. thou mightst have. Present. or should. ye might have. thou mayst have. thou canst have. Plur. ye could have. Second Future. I could have. he might have. The potential form of speaking is expressed by may. I could have had. and might. We can have. Participle present. There is likewise a double Preterit. they can have. Potential. [26] Preterit. We might have. Present. he shall have had. I should have had. he should have had. he can have. Plur. can. ye should have had. Plur. ye can have. they should have had. in the present. Sing. ye shall have had. In like manner should is united to the verb. Sing. Plur. Having. thou shouldst have had. ye may have.

I will love. Potential. could. &c. Indicative. Infinitive. &c. let them love. &c. ye love. thou lovest. &c. Plur. Double Preterit. I had loved. Conjunctive. thou lovedst. I might. I shall have loved. Present. I have loved. as in the indicative. or should have loved. Sing. Let us love. Present. Future. We love. &c. let him love. I love. I shall love. Sing. &c. he loveth or loves. Plur. they loved. Preterit simple. or should love. &c. Preterit compound. Preterperfect compound. Present. I have loved. Sing. Preterit. thou love. We love. To love. Preterpluperfect. Plur. &c. they love. . Present. I shall love. ye love. could. &c. I might. Imperative. To love. Plur. Sing. Verb Active. I may or can love. he love. Future. &c. We loved. I loved. Second Future. ye loved. Love or love thou.Participle preterit. they love. Had. Preterit simple. love or love ye. he loved. I love.

be ye. he were. I had been. they were. We are or be. Future. which must therefore be here exhibited. Conjunctive. I were. they are or be. &c. To have loved. Sing. Plur. let them be. I shall have been. &c. Be thou. Plur. The plural be is now little in use. ye be. Participle past. ye were. thou beest. ye are or be. Future. he is. Preterit compound.Preterit. &c. Sing. The passive is formed by the addition of the participle preterit to the different tenses of the verb to be. I was. Sing. ye were. Present. Loved. Loving. Plur. . Present. Plur. Preterit. I have been. he be. Preterpluperfect. &c. We be. Indicative. thou art. thou wert. they were. I be. Participle present. I am. I shall or will be. thou wast or wert. We were. Wert is properly of the conjunctive mood. Sing. Potential. Imperative. Sing. let him be. Plur. I have been. they be. Let us be. and ought not to be used in the indicative. Preterit compound. he was. &c. Preterit. We were.

he doth. Plur. they do. or should have been. If I were loved. Potential Mood. &c. ye do. Preterit. If I be loved. in which the infinitive mood is joined to the verb do in its various inflections. I am loved. Infinitive. or should be loved. thou didst. Having been. he did. &c. To be loved. would. Loved. To have been loved. Indicative. Participle. Present. thou dost. To do. Preterit. I might. To be. We do. Conjunctive Mood. &c. I do. Participle present. or should be. I did. Preterit. &c. Present. Present. . Sing. Indicative Mood. Passive Voice. To have been.I may or can. could. &c. If I shall have been loved. There is another form of English verbs. could. &c. Sing. Being. &c. I may or can be loved. &c. Participle preterit. which are therefore to be learned in this place. I was loved. could. or should have been loved. I might. could. &c. would. I have been loved. &c. Infinitive.

Done. I had done. I do. let him do. Let us do. I do love thee. . It is sometimes used emphatically. without the word do. &c. I am risen. as they are inflected according to the passive form by the help of the verb substantive to be. they did. They answer nearly to the reciprocal verbs in French. Latin. in which it is used through all the persons. I like her. Participle preterit. I was walked out. Praise beauty. Shakespeare. Plur. I shall or will do. Stop him. I wished him success. but this is considered as a vitious mode of speech. let them do.Plur. appears more easy than the other form of expressing the same sense by a negative adverb after the verb. Chaos is come again. exieram: Je m'étois promené. surrexi. they do. do ye. but love her not. French. as. Participle present. but I do not love her. &c. Do I not yet grieve? Did she not die? Do and did are thus used only for the present and simple preterit. Do I live? Dost thou strike me? Do they rebel? Did I complain? Didst thou love her? Did she die? So likewise in negative interrogations. as. simply for I love. but did not help him. but do not hurt him. ye do. Sing. I have done. may not improperly denominate them neuter passives. as. &c. Do thou. Sing. which. This. The imperative prohibitory is seldom applied in the second person. Preterit. Imperative. Je me suis levé. at least in prose. and when I love thee not. he do. thou do. Plur. I like her. as. [27] Do is sometimes used superfluously. Its chief use is in interrogative forms of speech. as. or I loved. ye did. We do. To do. There is another manner of conjugating neuter verbs. Present. Infinite.. Doing. Conjunctive. by custom at least. but do not dote on it. We did. It is frequently joined with a negative. I did love. Future. when it is used. The rest are as in the Indicative. to have done. &c. as I do love.

r. which gives it a passive signification: as. fished. or placed. We were walking. such as has been exemplified: from which all deviations are to be considered as anomalies. doleo. So the other tenses. whatsoever. shred. There is another manner of using the active participle. ere. and Israel acknowledge us not. strid. sit. snatch'd. I shall or will be walking. as plac't. . as read. in our monosyllable Saxon verbs. to creep. to breed. and sometimes after m. fish't. to lead. bit. snatched. in the scantiness of our conjugations. very frequent. though. dwelt. as. when more strongly pronounced. And thus cast. k. to ride. smel'd. The English verbs were divided by Ben Jonson into four conjugations. to shed. before. dwelled. to sleep. bid. make their preterit in t. Wallis to be irregular only in the formation of the preterit. I have been walking. or p. a being properly at. or rather the conjunctive is wholly neglected. as vext: this is not constant. in my opinion. unless. though Abraham be ignorant of us. f. to chide. to stride. dwel'd. smelled. fish'd. illa moritur. Our verbs are observed by Dr. crept. eo. The first irregularity is a slight deviation from the regular form. ετυγχανομεν περιπατουντες. hostem insequor. as. cost. quit. Sometimes after x. whomsoever. wak't. shot. except. sweat. to spread. follow the regular form. ed is changed into t. This is. The brass is a forging. in this contracted form. sped. but if d were the radical. then into d or t. I am grieving. rid. Of IRREGULAR VERBS. bred. smit. to slide. snatch't.In like manner we commonly express the present tense. I am going. burst. which are indeed. whether. if preceded by a short vowel. to weep. I had been walking. to hide. dwel't. led. grammatica jam nunc chartis imprimitur. and after the consonants s. bled. thus kept. but very seldom in writing rather than d. hit. slid. hurt. Those words which terminate in l or ll. to shread. The tempest is raging. Indeed. felt. and words of wishing. by rapid utterance or poetical contraction: the last syllable ed is often joined with the former by suppression of e. n. t is used in pronunciation. coalesce into one letter with the radical d or t: if t were the radical. they coalesce into t. and printing and forging verbal nouns signifying action. wak'd. th. chid. probably corrupted from a phrase more pure. shed. even in solemn language. Where d or t go before. slept. from the verbs to keep. as crept. hid. The brass is forging. She is dying. after c. from the verbs to read. and its participle. x. a vitious expression. ara excuduntur. met. wept. smel't for plac'd. eat. writ. to speed. ch. but almost all the verbs which have been adopted from other languages. there is scarcely any other place for irregularity. swept. as lov'd for loved. without any reason arising from the nature of the language. to bleed. The grammar is now printing. as the one or the other letter may be more easily pronounced. when some convenience of versification docs not invite its revival. to bid. A long vowel is often changed into a short one. sh. till or until. furit procella. which has properly but one conjugation. and the verbs derived from them. but now somewhat obsolete: The book is a printing. Doubtless thou art our father. spread. fed. The indicative and conjunctive moods are by modern writers frequently confounded. beat. to feed. as. I am pursuing an enemy. to sweep. the additional letter d or t. It is used among the purer writers of former times after if. according to the analogy of this language. waked.

wake. wove. sworn. speak. to gird. given. to hide. abid. thought. both in the preterit imperfect and participle passive. as. shear. found. loaded. think themselves perhaps entitled to trample on grammarians. to slay. The participle preterit or passive is often formed in en instead of ed. to hit. shewn. written. In the participle passive many of them are formed by en. drove. begat. spring. seek. find. besought. but likewise writ. ran. as waked. And in like manner. begin. stand. bode. sing. bitten. shone. tear. spin. Many words have two or more participles. ridden. catch. gat. seethe. forsaken. throve. bound. to know. seethed. to mow. abided. forsook. caught. strove. to bite. stick. bear. stuck. shot. as write. broken. thriven. to meet. worn. woke. [28] as not only written. to hurt. forget. hew'd. In the preterit some are likewise formed by a. swung. swore. swim. give won. arose. spake. from the verbs to be. broke. as brake. eat. hid. spun. sheared. to give. 3. beaten. shorn. as began. wear. bit. strucken. run. sung. awaked. write. chose. to send. Fight. show'd.from the verbs to cast. begun. trode. cloven. strive. as well as sow'd. sought. rise. awake. writ. chuse. to show. mow'd. smitten. eaten. to beat. to shoot. share. reached. chosen. who. and some others. hidden. and perhaps some others. But a great many of these retain likewise the regular form. shaken. to eat. forgotten. get. if we allow any authority to poets. ride. wrung. And most of them are also formed in the preterit by a. tare. flung. . cleaved. to cost. Wrote however may be used in poetry. come. from the verbs to lend. wound. tore. brought. bring. chid. chosen. make in both preterit and participle took. begotten. shrunk. that when a verb has a participle distinct from its preterit. to burst. abode. chidden. to hew. worked. begot. rent. weave. tread. to rend. to take. sent. gotten. to sit. Win. There are other anomalies in the preterit. in the exultation of genius. In the same manner. taken. ring. to write. rode. rung. torn. spoken. rose. come. But we say likewise. is better than The book is wrote. wrought. at least. shrink. as teached. drink. shook. ware. to break. Concerning these double participles it is difficult to give any rule. raught. sown. thrive. abide. slain. lent. but most of these are now obsolete. wind. forgot. swum. beseeched. Take. trodden. loaden. arise. bare. hewn. to lade. that distinct participle is more proper and elegant. laded. shake. Some in the participle passive likewise take en. catched. but more rarely. got. to load. to choose. forsake. born. sware. stink. clove. girt. sprang. sang. and many such like. driven. bought. sunk. forgat. strike. fling. taught. from the verbs to write. shore. but he shall seldom err who remembers. rise. reach. as The book is written. struck. known. sting. make fought. as taken. to smite. drunken. been. break. buy. shine. to sweat. sod. smote. beat. sodden. think. are promiscuously used in the participle. risen. stung. wrote. 1. wring. bounden. drunk. to bite. broke. rid. cleave. stunk. to shoot. drank. sprung. run. from the verbs to sow. mown. awoke. swing. ground. bide. smite. 2. wore. as stricken. to chide. bore. spoke. woven. And many do likewise retain the analogy in both. beget. to quit. stood. to beat. laden. sink. grind. clave. choose. to eat. broken. beseech. shotten. smit. drive. chose. rang. weaved. work. wrote. came. teach. thrive. swear. bind.

gamesome. saw. hard. wealth. is commonly either the present of the verb. helpful. black. love. and sometimes other parts of speech. see. Sometimes the termination en is added. but in both bid. toil. blew. further. to fasten. drawn. sit. makes adjectives signifying want. flew. The agent. worth. as lover. to prize. white. I strick or strook. the termination less added to substantives. Nouns are derived from verbs. a stroke. wealthy. In this inquiry I shall sometimes copy Dr. worthless. by adding the termination y: as a louse. sate. thrown. length. throw. to harden. light. frighting. Give. or the preterit of the verb. and how the primitives are borrowed from other languages. Thus comfort. sap. to strengthen. a house. fly. From substantives are formed adjectives of plenty. crew. Substantives. bid. denoting abundance. price. lousy. Draw. forward. strength. toilsome. fruit. to glaze. from go. help. slain. use. seen. 5. The action is the same with the participle present. to house. From substantives are formed adjectives [29] of plenty. handy. delightful. known. Of DERIVATION. lightsome. might. handsome. to further. irksome. to oil. by adding the termination ful. to hinder. watery. alone. a heart. plentiful. earthy. glass. healthy. to fish. lain. breath. as to strike. game. to soften. and sometimes endeavour to supply his detects. lien. as loving. . plenty. as. joyful. in the participle passive given. flown. oil. earth. fast. as to love. as done or produced. it is necessary to inquire how its derivative words are deduced from their primitives. to lengthen. to fright. wit. grow. air. comfortless. as. denoting something. hand. youth. water. trouble. crow like a cock. ly. (from the old wend) the participle is gone. witless. fruitful. a fright. health. to fight.4. and rectify his errours. hinder. delightsome. know. witty. (a wood) woody. make their preterit drew. the termination some is added. blown. bidden. heartless. make in the preterit gave. frighter. striker. striking. or person acting. haste. short. blow. to braze. brass. irk. joy. are changed into verbs: in which case the vowel is often lengthened. as. careless. especially to adjectives. careful. their participles passive by n. to shorten. knew. grew. delight. burdensome. adjectives. went. threw. or in some degree. is denoted by the syllable er added to the verb. wood. bade. joyless. Sometimes in almost the same sense. sapless. to blacken. to whiten. mighty. helpless. soft. to hasten. a fish. burden. lust. a hand. slay. Yet from flee is made fled. to graze. The thing implied in the verb. lay. to forward. as delight. That the English language may be more easily understood. but with some kind of diminution thereof. sitten. youthful. lusty. hearty. troublesome. grass. a fight. On the contrary. grown. airy. lonesome. as. useful. worthy. slew. Wallis. or the consonant softened. fighting. to breathe. care.

to take. earth. undelighted. as. whitish. but as we often borrow trom the Latin. wolfish. forms adjectives that import some kind of similitude or agreement. giantly. profitable. but if we borrow the adjective. mischance. to deign. Un is prefixed to all participles made privative adjectives. improper. a gosling. inactivity. honour. unwise. to misemploy. to misuse. heaven. to use. hap. added to adjectives. chance. but a privation of habit. The same termination ly. as untrue. beautifully. with some degree of sweetness. this is a French termination: a goose. a . earthly. unperfectness. to mistake. Words derived from Latin written with de or dis retain the same signification. ungallant. giantlike. which. thievish. and for the most part may be rendered by the Latin words male or perperam. and added to substantives. as unpitying. as indecent. words already signifying privation. as a hill. sweet. distinguo. Thus unworthy. softish. if they have borrowed terminations. in a beautiful manner. good. defame. greenish. to disgrace. as green. take in or im. unendeared. beautiful. unactive. a hillock. worldly. and add the privative particle. a lambkin. to dislike. deed. godly. if we receive them already compounded. Un ought never to be prefixed to a participle present to mark a forbearance of action. a wolf. from which it is not easy to disentangle them.Privation or contrariety is very often denoted by the participle un prefixed to many adjectives. Un is prefixed to most substantives which have an English termination. detain. as unfeeling. wise. and sometimes to adjectives. dishonour. a chicken. being formed by contraction of lick or like. to grace. it is usual to retain the particle prefixed. misdeed. unpleasant. untaught. unprofitable. The prepositive particles dis and mis. detineo. a cock. uncivil. a chick. a cockrel. as pleasant. white. defamo. a pike. and many more. to misapply. To like. detract. a thief. world. we commonly prefix un. imports similitude or tendency to a character. forms adverbs of like signification. unhealthy. that is. signify almost the same as un. patient. impious. sweetly. as unpolite. In borrowing adjectives. God. a man. unassisting. a child. inelegant. heavenly. impatient. indiscreet. to employ. to dishonour. to apply. derived from the des and mes of the French. a pickrel. this is a German termination: a lamb. goodly. mishap. yet dis rather imports contrariety than privation. imperfection. childish. incivility. untruth. unhandsome. as infertility. soft. or in before words derived from the Latin. The original English privative is un. as unfertileness. Mis insinuates some errour. A giant. to disdeign. though not frequent. unaided. The termination ish added to adjectives. detraho. since it answers to the Latin preposition de. to honour. as distinguish. The termination ly added to substantives. or its descendants. as inefficacious. as unsighing. unfruitful. We have forms of diminutives in substantives. Un is prefixed to all words originally English. unuseful. the inseparable particles un and in have fallen into confusion. imports diminution.

. The same form retain faith. usage. whiteness. There are in English often long trains of words allied by their meaning and derivation. Thomkin. noting character or qualities: as white. fry. imports a succession of smaller and then greater sounds. sip. which are formed by the addition of the termination th. later mowth. steal. mow. lordship. skilfulness. likelihood. whose primitives are either entirely obsolete. rick. wick. and partly from [30] verbs. dukedom. work. wreak. dear. spit. kingship. weight. Some few ending in dom. drought. freedom. merry. as commandment. month. frighth. bailiwick. and so in jingle. do especially denote dominion. scarcely ever occurring. slowth. tang. till. wreathe. health. death. say. and many other made words. baby. earldom. mirth. broad. There are other abstracts. Ment and age are plainly French terminations and are of the same import with us as among them. wide. bear. popedom. booby. spout. maidenhead. only that custom will not suffer h to be twice repeated. commonly spoken and written later math. whence worshipful. weal. or condition. sippet. to beat. breath. die. tong. great pronounced long. young. jangle. wisdom. from to ear or plow. especially if with a stronger sound. tilth. and so moon. Christendom. pronounced long lee-tle. and therefore scarcely worthy the notice of Wallis. width. little. strong. where. stewardship. as there is a form of augmenting them by enlarging or even lengthening it. tingle. draw. and thus Halkin. wry. widowhood. true. babe. besides the extenuation of the vowel. hardness. wardship. fray. depending wholly on oral utterance. top. a beetle. dry. falsehood. fright. youth. bray. ruth. brew. light. strength. wight.manikin. as. spight. manhood. Hawkins. and that sometimes not so much by change of the letters. bishoprick. great. length. fly. and to worship. soop. truth. heal. Βουπαις. flight. froth. a pipkin. as. a battle. warm. rue. slow. sop. grow. after math. warmth. broth. Yet still there is another form of diminution among the English. mow. a small change being sometimes made. spry. that is. draught. batoon. growth. sooth. partly derived from adjectives. well. especially of vowels. priesthood. headship. Like these are some words derived from verbs. Perhaps they are derived from fey or foy. Thus worship. Some ending in ship. ting. deep. a bat. Much however of this is arbitrary and fanciful. sup. tangle. princedom. after mowth. wrath. and the like. there is added the French termination et. stealth. a pipe. godhead. breadth. at least state or condition. knighthood. a battledore. dearth. kingdom. and others. partnership. whoredom. These should rather be written flighth. worth. wealth. as long. employment. Wilkin. Of concrete adjectives are made abstract substantives. imply an office. unskilfulness. as. guardianship. except in words derived from the French. worthship. depth. greatness. birth. tip. as of their pronunciation. by adding the termination ness. or seldom occur. to batter. weigh. as. by lessening the sound itself. hard. skilful. whence the patronymick. and probably earth. and a few in hood or head. grea-t.

sneeze. snivel. stallion. throng. to look bleak. streamer. stall. as throw. . blab. bleak. snore. stretch. as strong. St in like manner imply strength. blister. adverb: stale. to stop. between. a stall. stress. From the Latin nasus are derived the French nez and the English nose. a stay. stifle. as blow. stow. snub. are ingenious but of more subtlety than solidity. twist. black. stand. strange. as snake. and perhaps blood and blush. betwixt. stripe. step. and perhaps some others. Thus words that begin with str intimate the force and effect of the thing signified. snuffle. stutter. through. blubber-cheek't. to stow. There is another sn which may perhaps be derived from the Latin sinuo. distress. stead. narrow. and more stridulous. stub. to stall. to stalk. and nesse. stay. stall. and therefore the sounds of the letters smaller. Thus take. and what relates to it. to blast one's reputation. bloom. bluster. and perhaps derived from the Latin batuo. and still. strew. In the native words of our tongue is to be found a great agreement between the letters and the thing signified. stallage. stalk. tactum. strive. stock. stoat. stick. to make an impression and a stamp. blast. stiff. strict. thrall. throws.snear. stay. sharper. pale. stud. to remain. stem. as wry. snort. blossom. or weather-beaten. stage. strip. strut. do very often intimate the like effects in the things signified. steel. that is. snaffle. and. Thr imply a more violent degree of motion. still. stronger. a stated measure. tetigi. streight. to oppose. to stamp with the feet. tickle. stroke. but in a less degree. blabber lip't. clearer. struggle. standard. a stable. snuff. touch. stray. closer. metaphorically. a sharp. snib. to stub up. stead. In all these. that is. steep. strait. steeple. streak. that is. a kind of glutinous composition for food. staff. But as if from the consonants ns taken from nasus. bleach. all imply a local conjunction from the Latin tango. and transposed that they may the better correspond. twitch. that is. blote-herrings. whence to stamp. steady. twibil. that is. sting. bleat. to starve with hunger or cold. wrestle. to stuff. twirl. strap.batter. or to prop. blay. tackle. as if it were derived from the Latin sto. that is. to stay. stanch. sn denote nasus. throb. twig. to sting. to wreathe. to blast. twine. blast. for example. Sn usually imply the nose. Bl imply a blast. bloted. that is. twilight. stream. and such as perhaps might in every language be enlarged without end. stuncheon. as snout. stink. stable. twenty. stop. stool. strife. struggle. an obstacle. strength. bladder. a promontory. stickle. as if probably derived from στρωννυμι. stick. blew. distrain. or strenuous. threat. stradale. strand. to blight. stedfast. From two are formed twain. twelve. a bleak place. snail. as projecting like a nose. st denote something firm and fixed. stately. louder. stump. Wr imply some sort of obliquity or distortion. twice. or stoward. adjective. wrest. stark-dead. made by beating different bodies into one mass. strike. stride. stout. so much only as is sufficient to preserve what has been already communicated. stut. twinge. snudge. twins. to bestow. snare. strout. stone. snite. string. to stanch blood. more obscure. All these are of similar signification. stake. and any thing deposited at play. stammer. snot. so likewise snap and snatch. sneak. steward. threaten. stubble. tack. blaze. stair. The following remarks. blurt. to blow. snicker. whence stumble. stitch. rather than acquire any new degree. and thence are derived many words that relate to the nose. stagger. still. sturdy. to stare. thrust. extracted from Wallis. snarl. softer. stern.

If there be an l. clammy. as in cleave. a smart blow properly signifies such a kind of stroke as with an originally silent motion. proceeds to a quick violence. clash. lash. cling. clouted cream. ding. whist. gash. and in many more. In sparkle. wamble. And so likewise ash. smack. at length indeed vanishing. wrack. Cl denote a kind of adhesion or tenacity. spindle. hurl. swing. sting. sweep. as in slime. but gradual. brangle. slipper. wrinkle. tingle. wrangle. flush. wink. wring. sprout. smite. squeak. a cluster. wreak. shrivel. brush. swagger. curl. jumble. tinkle. there is implied a frequency. denotes a confused kind of rolling or tumbling. and in like manner in sprinkle. Sw imply a silent agitation. swim. flash. implied in sm. that scarce any language which I . swag. clay. shrill. or iteration of small acts. in crush. wrath. slight. sprinkle. slack. and the sharpness of the vowel i. cling. gnash. in crash. but not suddenly interrupted. trash. slip. by the continued sound. spring. and this so frequently happens. switch. wrinch. sly. twist. as if it were from spargo or separo: for example. to clasp. Nor is there much difference of sm in smooth. indicate something acting more nimbly and sharply. clamber. but less subtile by reason of the clearer vowel a. and the latter with an acute. rash. wrangle. the tingling of the termination ng. sweat. we may observe the agreement of such sort of sounds with the things signified. but is a softer word. screek. unless in may imply the subtilty of the dissipated guttules. particularly if there be an r. dangle. slide. wretch. think. small. wrist. plash. as in ramble. smug. gush. especially a quick one. slow. and a congeries of consonants mbl. to close. to clinch. slash. a clutter. swill. clog. sharp. imply the continuation of a very slender motion or tremor. Thus in fling. bustle. jar. ar an acute crackling. sprinkle. twine. hush. smart. sh.wring. And the same frequency of acts. wrench. spangle. wrong. in squeek. push. sputter. is indicated in jangle. a clot. Thick and thin differ in that the former ends with an obtuse consonant. sling. crush. climb. Sl denote a kind of silent fall. close. sling. scramble. brawl. sweet. that end in a mute consonant. squeal. which signifies the same as to strike. But ush. spread. swerve. tangle. cloak. there is also indicated a sudden ending. scamble. amble. sp denotes dissipation. clash. spill. slap. clink. wrap. blush. spatter. In like manner. the acuteness of the vowel denotes celerity. wrinkle. whirl. sing. to clip. [31] But in tink. but in these there is something acute. smother. smile. imply something as acting more obtusely and dully. sleight. k a sudden interruption. as sway. In nimble. spaul. buz. squall. sink. twinkle. chink. smirk. rush. l a frequent iteration. Sp imply a kind of dissipation or expansion. grumble. split. wraul. yaul. Yet in both there is indicated a swift and sudden motion not instantaneous. as in jingle. smell. mingle. clasp. soft. shriek. swinge. mangle. crash. as a clot of blood. hush. sprig. crack. hisse. fisse. a clod. as is shown by t. to sway. But at the same time the close u implies something obscure or obtunded. dwindle. or a less observable motion. swift. swing. plash. spit. slit. denoted by ar suddenly ended. or a softer kind of lateral motion. splinter. as also in mumble.

frango. approve. into monosyllables. spend. or decompounds. which have long become obsolete. though. conduco. from the French jardin. vinum. in order that the sound might become the softer. ford. vespa. emendo. exemplum. to scratch. conduce. indeed. δαμαω. extractum. sum. mingle. are formed from the present tense. expendo. went. to cry. μηνη. exempt. though they be likewise found among the Latins? Our ancestors were studious to form borrowed words. despise. which the Latin has not. Some verbs which seem borrowed from the Latin. stretch'd. as the Oscan and others. German. From the supines. volo. excrucio. emphatically expresses what in other languages can scarce be explained but by compounds. jugum. ventus. as. garden. flo. Nothing is more apparent than that Wallis goes too far in quest of originals. as. excorio. elegant. pfurd. will. to scourge. excortico. approve. From the present are formed spend. grave. Some words purely French. elegance. or the Latins from the Teutons. via. to scour. and some from the supines. ax. day. are apparently French. ειμι. approbo. volo. fly. to grave. which borrowed a great number of words not only from the Greek. which seem the bones of words. wool. super. bouclier. worm. grace. moon. expose. oar. concipio. dispose. but the greatest part of them were communicated by the intervention of the French. and others beginning with ex: as also. supprimo. from αξινη. or changing them for others of the same organ. vallum. vellus. dies. to plead. Many of these which seem selected as immediate descendants from the Latin. we have transferred into our language. So that one monosyllable word. virtus. garter. worth. am. exempt. wall. μεγαλος. break. or sometimes a tedious circumlocution. resemble. but from other neighbouring languages. and not only cut off the formative terminations. to mend. upper. veni. to advance. or both had them from some common original. avancer. not derived from the Latin. . that they might the more readily be pronounced without the intermediate vowels. extraneus. and rejected not only vowels in the middle. draw. ‛ολος. crier. volvo. sample. achs. graff. ζευγος. wasp. blow. tochter. daughter. ξηρος. Since they received these immediately from the Greeks. demonstrate. μιγνυω. eximo.know can be compared with ours. For example in expendo. face. conceive. exscorio. of which kind are almost all ours. θυγατηρ. without the intervention of the Latin language. conceive. ‛υπερ. expend. πορθμος. wallow. but especially transposing their order. sear. I make no doubt but the Teutonick is more ancient than the Latin: and it is no less certain. as wine. that the Latin. as. whole. suppress. γραφω. especially the Æolick. but likewise consonants of a weaker sound. wind. why may not other words be derived immediately from the same fountain. even of these part is of Latin original. We have many words borrowed from the Latin. retained some derived from the Greek. that the English. received not a few from the Teutonick. supplicate. over. domo. mickle. way. yoke. buckler. excipio. to scrape. despicio. strange. demonstro. scape. μετα. expatiate. and other Teutonick languages. especially in words beginning with a vowel. tame. It is certain. dispono. as. jartier. however long. but cropped the first syllable. retaining the stronger. vermis. supplico. mit. to screw. traho. plaider. it is doubtful whether the old Teutons borrowed them from the Latins. expatior. As to many words which we have in common with the Germans.

Elisabetha. bee. chase. stable.episcopus. separo. which had the sound of φ. debitum. exterritus. from tempore. Alexander. name. peril. they turned into sciame. Sander. quæsito. the remainder xamin. A vowel is also cut off in the middle. brawn. a fell. thesaurus. nomine. or scamen. fish. ban. insula. spy. The following are somewhat harder. veal. escouter. scrape. quite. preda. fregi. rule. sudden. clerk. stonn'd. and transposing o into the middle. impleo. sacristanus. by rejecting from the beginning and end e and o. Fr. tent. stool. to acquit. dignor. Betty. by inserting r to denote the murmuring. as magnus. debt. audere. reply. examinare. but viresco. . scout. regula. piscis. historia. file. frigesco. restoring l instead of r. ulcus. sedile. which are letters near akin. obstipo. rail. rawl. There are syncopes somewhat harder. rable. in Danish bisp. noun. beech. exculpo. a cowl. stone. church. so in scapha. cantharus. dean. scrawl. stabilis. sore. law. scalenus. sanctuarium. sure. gin. prey. to soar. a jetty. pullus. long. as amita. squire. to spare. Thus pagína. fox. a-ware. κυπελλα. and more contractedly ey. and hence scrap. aprugna. for which we say swarme. for the Latin v consonant formerly sounded like our w. ποτηριον. that the number of the syllables may be lessened. being changed into b and a transposed. abomino. funnel. time. fresh. freese. nomen. from nomine. to scan. islet. wrawl. where many of them meet. a piece. rotundus. story. ile. nom. insuletta. father. superare. peak. cavere. polio. [32] as the French homme. priest. breach. offendo. fish. epistola. for bain. pœnitentia. exscalpo. spittle. whence. and changing p into f. Spain. sentry. count. to jett forth. φηγα. attonitus. quietus. vitulina. prædari. the Æolick digamma. tinctum. defensio. infundibulum. p passing into b. bishop. pingo. Ruley. and hence sorry. unless you would rather derive it from κλινω. according to the usual manner. dubito. sorrow. kyrk. as in bishop. freeze. sedes episcopalis. don. scrabble. stomachus. and g changed into w. projectum. ware. page. break. and refrigesco. mustum. whence Owsney. sanctuary. dame. plico. stable. see. place. pallacium. hospitale. replico. tentorium. whence inclino. implico. dispensator. jett. maw. tile. comitis. nomine. clericus. pleo. As also a consonant. deign. tegula. refresh. brawl. eel. cucullus. paint. count. round. perquisitio. bane. iland. as in pellis. taint. cutting off the beginning. acquieto. as κυριακος. fragilis. which was taken from the beginning. fleam. pike. and the modern sound of the letter f was that of the Greek φ or ph. Hispania. stop. from homine. lege. computo. penance. Many of these etymologies are doubtful. full. skiff. bar. specio. rabula. asculto. we now say boar. start. can. scutifer. main. stabulum. namely. fear. precor. ilet. periculum. beef. fill. brable. fresh. spencer. sorrowful. fœmina. tingo. stum. apis. warn. doubt. frail. eyght. wary. beware. as above in bishop. spright. or even a whole syllable. scoop. anguilla. femme. The contractions may seem harder. subtle. frango. who did not use x. and by cutting off a from the beginning. quit. pot. marvel. that is. as for lang. ‛υετος. presbyter. is contracted into scan: as from dominus. soon. spiritus. phlebotamus. dare. pawn. pavor. store. zophorus. domina. ulcer. ulcere. warning. fined. isle. for stane. apex. quæsitio. which is restored in the middle. but for the old bar or bare. and indeed apum examen. complico. quest. leaning. and g into ch. aunt. and some evidently mistaken. comply. speculor. sexton. comes. ingenium. as in aper. subtilis. securus. fence. a foal. aper. purchase. extonitus. subitaneus. ply. writ csamen. frigesco. as in pignus. and the modern sound of the v consonant was formerly that of the letter f. imply. f changed into b. pater. or at least one of a softer sound. gagates. palace. reach. mirabile. decanus. sc into sh. skip. cup. fagus. island. bovina. pray. Ely. p. engine. epistle. which the Saxons. stain. noun. αλωπηξ.

but spell. impetere. Wicks. collectum. severo. puteus. Bill. Meg. changing. The same word. The same sp. Mawkes. Thus perch. on account of the sharper and clearer vowel a. Dutch. from stout and hardy. Betty. by which it is believed that the boundaries are so fixed in lands that none can pass them against the master's will. Some may seem harsher. cydoniatum. gilliflower. the emission. species. Thus freese. granum. ævum. from frigesco. that many of them did not immediately come to us from the Saxon. stray. kickshaws. and with less noise and force. and Teutonick languages. pulso. sudo. to make the sound the softer. Elisabeth. pit. that is spr. αιων. chain. and thus the word gimbal or jumbal is transferred to other things thus interwoven. as being more fit than any other for keeping out the cold. but sputter is. but to bear. as. ending in the mute consonant g. and k. spice. something between spit and spout: and by reason of adding r. quelques choses. a messenger. quench. is made the frequentative sparkle. annulus geminus. But while we derive these from the Latin. from st of the verb stay or stand and out. and softening them. ay. at least serving instead of compounds. There are many words among us. Margaret. chausse. an inchantment. Sanny. from the same sp with the termination in. Scander. implies a more lively impetus of diffusing or expanding itself. wane. Mawkin. or perhaps from frigesco. the mute consonant. corn. it intimates a frequent iteration and noise. even monosyllables. an architectonick word. Elick. in which it chiefly differs from sputter. scrabble. Martha. From the same sp and the termination ark. portulaca. born. extinguo. peach. proxy. from scrip and roll comes scroll. is evident. that some of them are derived from proper names. cydonium. To spell is from syllaba. Malkin. comes spout. cramp. and a bear. age. to spell. Thus cariophyllus. gerofilo. auxi. Mathæus. to which adding the termination ing. William. purslain. calga. taking away. to bear a burden. Italian. crump. flos. Girolamo. it becomes spring: its vigour spr imports. crumple. and many others. quince. bairn. clutch. from perca. extravagus. or freeze. is spit. and spell. Marget. which the vulgar call julyflower. good-spell. but freeze. comes from pario. took this liberty of maiming. Wicken. Elizabetha. succus. Mattha. as. comprimo. French. intimates its being suddenly terminated. however forced. transposing. Mat. as if derived from the month July. Since the origin of these. shrill. whence birth. Hence we call spring whatever has an elastick force. persicum. floccus. Gulielmus. for it at least appears. Margareta. not a complicated exilition. jocus. augeo. to push. straggle. Elizabeth. French. Maria. for cloth. spin out: and from the same sp. hose. gaudium. Pat. Weeks. squench. with it. a quill. Will. Bess. a gimmal. sweat. as. and some taken more lately from the French or Italians. Mary. its sharpness the termination ing. quiddeny. Sander. Sandy. from expello. prance. but adding l. it ought to appear no wonder to any one if the ancients have thus disfigured many. to impeach. Guillaume. Peg. whence gospel. from fera. I do not mean to say. scrawl. signifying a single emission of fire with a noise. or gimbal-ring. from sp of spit or spew. and other dialects. parsley. vanui. by adding r. Pal. which only differs from spout in that it is smaller. stint. that it is meant in its primary signification. colligo. from fero. but obscurely confused. or god-spell. read. which they corrupt to earwig. namely sp. Alexander. especially as they so much affected monosyllables. aid. joy. from Frisia. is made stout. juice. recito. and. gay. swear. from proud and dance. eruke. intimates a more distinct poise. calamus. procurator. ever. catena. coil: recolligo. at least if it be of Latin original. or Spaniards. Wilkin. and likewise to perch. syllabare. petroselinum. scrape. stridulus. because of the obscure u. clot. lock. sturdy. of a single. ar. whereas spatter. excerpo. and comprising the signification of more words that one.wet. giriflee. forth. caliga. stand. a fish. gilofer. according to its different significations. often has a different origin. yet may not be rejected. Wilhelmus. compounded of two or more words. a measure. recoil. and vanesco. adjuvo. the more acute noise. from epistola. from pertica. Danish. but freeze. and lastly in acute and tremulous. and there are others whose etymology is acknowledged by every body. comes spark. foras. chause. Mal. wax. Matthew. but perch. as also a . and adding out. and out. denotes the sudden ending of any motion. is spin. eruca. as if it took its name from the ear. crinkle. from zophorus.

imports a fatter or grosser bud. one of the four seasons. though a poet. I have thought proper to insert them. probably older than the tongue to which he refers them. PROSODY comprises orthoepy. and drudge. He took this from me. that its construction neither requires nor admits many rules. that by the same license any language may be deduced from any other.fountain of water. The sun's heat. or the rules of pronunciation. PROSODY. and this gl imports. Wallis. as. by reason of the obscure sound of the vowel u. and wit the termination ig. 3. as. and spring. according to his own declaration. and Jonson. as. It is common for those that deliver the grammar of modern languages. has totally neglected it. That he makes no distinction between words immediately derived by us from the Latin. . So that of the Italians is neglected by Buomattei. often with great harshness and violence. sprig. and thence the origin of any thing: and to spring. is formed sprout. From the same str. and therefore. Cooper. and out. of a slenderer sound. In like manner. or its laws of derivation. and orthometry. and almost in the same sense is trundle. He came with me. That he derives from the Latin. to omit the Prosody. or the laws of versification. The verb. He loves me. He says this of me. is the difference: sprout. from throw or thrust. but our language has so little inflection. But as the laws of metre are included in the idea of grammar. to germinate. 4. from throw and roll is made troll. of a grosser sound. SYNTAX. That Wallis's derivations are often so made. His father's glory. Our adjectives and pronouns are invariable. Verbs transitive require an oblique case. and even by Jonson. It may be remarked. From the same spr and out. is made struggle. and those which being copied from other languages. as in other languages. Thou fliest from good. words apparently Teutonick. agrees with the nominative in number and person. that of the French by Desmarais. In like manner. Of two substantives the noun possessive is in the genitive. The established practice of grammarians requires that I should here treat of the Syntax. an ability to do much defeated by the desire of doing more than enough. and the termination uggle. sprig. aad that of the English by Wallis. In these observations it is easy to discover great sagacity and great extravagance. whose desire of following the writers upon the learned languages made him think a syntax indispensably necessary. He runs to death. has published such petty observations as were better omitted. 2. and rundle. therefore. can therefore afford no example of the genius of [33] the English language. or variety of terminations. and strut. He gave this to me. comes strout. That some of his derivations are apparently erroneous. of which the following. All prepositions require an oblique case: as. 1. denotes a smaller shoot. for the most part. but without any great noise. from str of the verb strive. Thus graff or grough is compounded of grave and rough. You fear him. and trudge from tread or trot.

a cóntract. epístle. as to bátter. acquáintance. Trissyllables formed by adding a termination. tóilsome. All dissyllables ending in y. 14. ent. bespátter. or having a diphthong in the last syllable. and some words which have a position. ténderness. the verb has commonly the accent on the latter. as connívance. gódly. spécify. in age. or the middle syllable hath a vowel before two consonants. Trissyllables ending in ator or atour. to contráct. as cápital. to descánt. fúlness. zéalous. a cément. Dissyllable verbs terminating in a consonant and e final. except they be derived from words having the accent on the last. as compríse. formed by affixing a termination. accent the first syllable. escápe. or having in the middle syllable a diphthong. retain the accent of the radical word. in al. Trissyllables in re or le accent the [34] first syllable. and rules for the accent or quantity are not easily to be given. 8. as chíldish. cássock. 7. as légible. in ter. as doméstick. to cemént. ácted. faírer. as lábour. except discíple. have the accent on the latter syllable. wállow. Of dissyllables. fóremost. árduous. 6. as to begét. 1. as cóuntenance. however. théatre. lóver. as cánker. as báttle. have the accent on the former syllable. in ion. as éntity. 4. as delíght. 12. as wíllow. ártist. as appéase.Pronunciation is just. 13. The sounds of the letters have been already explained. in ow. 11. or. as. when every letter has its proper sound. being subject to innumerable exceptions. in our. a déscant. This rule has many exceptions. Trissyllables ending in y. súbsidy. as coúrage. 10. meékly. víctory. as. cómmenting. contémner. which are at once nouns and verbs. phýsical. cértain. assúrance. or a vowel before two consonants. Trissyllables ending in ous. fávour. Though verbs seldom have their accent on the former. 9. in ck. accent the former syllable. lóveliness. . Trissyllables ending in ce. 3. except words in ain. to bestów. I shall here propose. which in English versification is the same. commonly accent the first syllable. in ish. as grácious. as cránny. ármament. Dissyllables formed by prefixing a syllable to the radical word. élegant. as méntion. as plénitude. as I have read or formed. as endeávour. própagate. accent the first. kíngdom. in le. as appláuse. bíble. as creátour. scóffer. moúntain. Such. the former syllable is commonly accented. perfúme. as promúlgate. its proper quantity. Of dissyllables. as fásten. accent the middle syllable. Dissyllable nouns having a diphthong in the latter syllable. have commonly their accent on the latter syllable. yet nouns often have it on the latter syllable. comménding. bútter. Dissyllable nouns in er. in et. líberty. and every syllable has its proper accent. áctest. wágonner. revéal. as quíet. and the noun on the former syllable. Trissyllables in ude commonly accent the first syllable. cóntinence. except allów. 2. to beseém. as atténd. as exámple. ímminent. 5. as bánish. and ate. or ending in two consonants. in en. as cámbrick. have commonly the accent on the latter. or prefixing a syllable.

follow the accent of the words from which they are derived. and in English. magazíne. or words formed by prefixing one or two syllables to an acute syllable. much must be learned by example and authority. words in atour or ator on the penult. indispútable. commúnicableness. or trochaick. Words ending in ty have their accent on the antepenult. as dedicátor. as salvátion. as árrogating. come short. 19. To call you's lost. concóction. unless the second syllable have a vowel before two consonants. 17. comméndable. With ravish'd ears The monarch hears. as immatúre. Dryden. and advertísement. incóntinently. Most good. We should therefore say dispútable. 18. rather than advértisement. VERSIFICATION is the arrangement of a certain number of syllables according to certain laws. as uxórious. The feet of our verses are either iambick. as combústible. but proposed as useful. most fair. as acquiésce. Words ending in le commonly have the accent on the first syllable. or words of more than three syllables. repartée. 20. Drayton. as in other tongues. lófty. creáte. volúptuous. Trissyllables that have their accent on the last syllable are commonly French. overchárge. Almost every rule of every language has its exceptions. indísputable. Or things as rare. as pusillanímity. So poorly show Upon your praise. Polysyllables. These rules are not advanced as complete or infallible. as ámicable. For all the cost Words can bestow. cóntinency. . Of six. 16. Words in ion have the accent upon the antepenult. Words ending in ous have the accents on the antepenult. Our iambick measure comprises verses Of four syllables. as hóly. rather than dísputable.15. actívity. perturbátion. Perhaps more and better rules may be given that have escaped my observation. That all the ways Sense hath. as alóft.

Where wholsom is the air. A while we do remain. T' asswage breem winters scathes. Or famous. Or where the most impure. Amongst the mountains bleak. Shall we not touch our lyre? Shall we not sing an ode? Or shall that holy fire. In us that strongly glow'd. And though the princely Thames With beauteous nymphs abound. Buxton's delicious baths. or obscure. . Expos'd to sleet and rain. In this cold air expire? Though in the utmost peak. And by old Camber's streams Be many wonders found: Yet many rivers clear Here glide in silver swathes. And what of all most dear. In places far or near. What though bright Phœbus' beams Refresh the southern ground. To exercise our vein. No sport our hours shall break. Strong ale and noble chear.This while we are abroad.

Where I may sit. there stands a place Confining on all three. though remote. Milton. the better to diffuse The spreading sounds. Drayton. But a deaf noise of sounds that never cease. nor voice express. earth. Tis built of brass. And thither bring their undulating sound. And may at last my weary age Find out the peaceful hermitage. and open night and day. and skies. Confus'd and chiding. And ev'ry herb that sips the dew. The palace of loud Fame. and multiply the news. and nightly spell Of ev'ry star the sky doth shew. Whence all things. Plac'd on the summit of a lofty tow'r. Nor gate nor bars exclude the busy trade. which is the usual measure for short poems. Where echoes in repeated echoes play: A mart for ever full. which is the common measure of heroick and tragick poetry.All times. A thousand winding entries long and wide Receive of fresh reports a flowing tide. Betwixt heav'n. like the hollow roar . Full in the midst of this created space. and mossy cell. A thousand crannies in the walls are made. The hairy gown. are view'd around. with triple bound. and every where. Nor silence is within. Of eight. The muse is still in ure. her seat of pow'r. Of ten.

or ent'ring in: A thorough-fare of news. In all these measures the accents are to be placed on even syllables. as this rule is more strictly observed. Waller. and every line considered by itself is more harmonious. as Drayton's Polyolbion. The courts are fill'd with a tumultuous din. and above the rest those of seven. In the days of old. not the rules of grammar. Dryden.Of tides. . Of crouds. When Jove to distance drives the rolling war. receding from th' insulted shore. These are the measures which are now in use. Stories plainly told. The variations necessary to pleasure belong to the art of poetry. Lovers felt annoy. or issuing forth. Urge not thus your haughty birth. Old Ballad. and ten syllables. [35] Our trochaick measures are Of three syllables. Or like the broken thunder heard from far. Our ancient poets wrote verses sometimes of twelve syllables. Intent to hear. Here we may Think and pray. In these measures the accent is to be placed on the odd syllables. Before death Stops our breath: Other joys Are but toys. some mingle truth with lies: The troubled air with empty sounds they beat. Of five. and eager to repeat. Of seven. eight. Walton's Angler. Fairest piece of well form'd earth. where some devise Things never heard.

Of all the Cambrian shires their heads that bear so high. or else would let alone. is distract. through the Saxons' pride. And farth'st survey their soils with an ambitious eye. when. meres and springs. And holds herself as great in her superfluous waste. offended with the throng. her mountains did relieve Those whom devouring war else every where did grieve. And either knoweth not his way. The nearest that are said to kiss the wand'ring clouds. and fruitful tillage grac'd. Mervinia for her hills. called an Alexandrine. as for their matchless crouds. in mountains. sometimes in alternate lines. A constant maiden still she only did remain. The verse of twelve syllables. is now only used to diversify heroick lines. The long majestick march. Alledging for herself. The measures of twelve and fourteen syllables were often mingled by our old poets. The pause in the Alexandrine must be at the sixth syllable. That she of all the rest neglected was so long. that hath a long way gone. And as each one is prais'd for her peculiar things. And of fourteen. . So only she is rich. His purpos'd journey. And as the mind of such a man. Pope. and energy divine. Waller was smooth. and sometimes in alternate couplets. the full resounding line. The godlike race of Brute to Severn's setting side Were cruelly inforc'd. The last her genuine laws which stoutly did retain. as Chapman's Homer. but Dryden taught to join The varying verse. As others by their towns. And when all Wales beside (by fortune or by might) Unto her ancient foe resign'd her ancient right. Especial audience craves.

in which the accent rests upon every third syllable. which may be called the anapestick. Hereafter shall more glorious rise. 'Tis heaven itself that points out an hereafter. Addison. as in the heroick measure. We have another measure very quick and lively. Dr. and therefore much used in songs. That day. consisting alternately of eight syllables and six. And grow wíser and bétter as lífe wears awáy. And souls to bodies join. Dr. May I góvern my pássions with ábsolute swáy. Dryden. we lóve. These measures are varied by many combinations. Fenton. for come it will. that day Shall I lament to see. But not more innocent. I thínk not of Íris. nor Íris of me. as Diógenes súrly and próud. When all shall praise. Pope. When the Archangel's trump shall blow. 'Tis the divinity that stirs within us. . and sometimes by double endings. She to receive thy radiant name. Selects a whiter space. Beneath this tomb an infant lies To earth whose body lent. And intimates eternity to man. and when ábsent agrée. and ev'ry lay Devote a wreath to thee. In this measure a syllable is often retrenched from the first foot. either with or without rhyme. When présent. Pope. Lewis to Pope. What crowds shall wish their lives below Had been as short as thine! Wesley.The verse of fourteen syllables is now broken into a soft lyrick measure of verses.

and a synaresis. Hast atchiev'd with six alone. as av'rice. But with twenty ships had done. may be reduced every species of English verse. Glover. With hollow blasts of wind. or taught by a master to those that are more ignorant. Gay. by which the English language may be learned. and more rarely of o in to. What thou. as th' eternal. Our versification admits of few licences.So in that of eight syllables. But skilful industry steers right. special. Prior. For resistance I could fear none. or elision of e in the before a vowel. would have been tedious. 'Twas when the seas were roaring. if the reader be already acquainted with grammatical terms. All on a rock reclin'd. When terrible tempests assail us. Thus have I collected rules and examples. In the anapestick. End of Project Gutenberg's A Grammar of the English Tongue. as question. To have written a grammar for such as are not yet initiated in the schools. In that of six. as t' accept. They neither wanted nor abounded. and perhaps at last ineffectual. A damsel lay deploring. Nor power nor wealth can avail us. temp'rance. except a synalœpha. They neither added nor confounded. Ballad. by Samuel Johnson *** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE *** . And mountainous billows affright. To these measures and their laws. by which two short vowels coalesce into one syllable. In that of seven. or a word is contracted by the expulsion of a short vowel before a liquid. brave and happy Vernon.

you may obtain a refund from the person or . Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will be renamed.A. Section 1. set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license. *** START: FULL LICENSE *** THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free distribution of electronic works. performances and research. especially commercial redistribution. you must cease using and return or destroy all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession. If you do not charge anything for copies of this eBook. apply to copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark. If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks. you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at http://gutenberg. If you do not agree to abide by all the terms of this agreement. complying with the rules is very easy. They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks. Special rules. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work.net/1/5/0/9/15097/ Produced by Jonathan Ingram. unless you receive specific permission.htm or 15097-h. Redistribution is subject to the trademark license. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark.gutenberg. you indicate that you have read. Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works. reports. so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without permission and without paying copyright royalties.net/license). You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works. understand. Keith Edkins and the PG Online Distributed Proofreading Team.zip ***** This and all associated files of various formats will be found in: http://www. agree to and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property (trademark/copyright) agreement. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works 1. by using or distributing this work (or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project Gutenberg").***** This file should be named 15097-h.

You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others. distributing or creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project Gutenberg-tm work. Nearly all the individual works in the collection are in the public domain in the United States. displaying or creating derivative works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg are removed. The following sentence.2.E.gutenberg. copied or distributed: This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. Of course. 1. check the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement before downloading. 1. owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. See paragraph 1.1. You may copy it.E. It may only be used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.E. we hope that you will support the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with the work. See paragraph 1.C.net 1. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern what you can do with this work.B. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg: 1. "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark. If an individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are located in the United States. displaying. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is posted with permission of the copyright holder). copying. The Foundation makes no representations concerning the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United States. give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www. the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears. performing. with active links to. viewed.D. If you are outside the United States. the work can be copied and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees .E. There are a few things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. There are a lot of things you can do with Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. 1. or with which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed. displayed. performing.entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1. performed. 1.8. distributing. Copyright laws in most countries are in a constant state of change.C below. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation" or PGLAF).E below. we do not claim a right to prevent you from copying. or other immediate access to.

compressed.3.8 or 1. 1. Royalty payments must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns. fee or expense to the user. displaying. distribute or redistribute this electronic work.You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. 1. However. Additional terms will be linked to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work. or a means of obtaining a copy upon request. or any part of this electronic work.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.E.1 with active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project Gutenberg-tm License.E. viewing. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided that .E. 1. without prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.7 and any additional terms imposed by the copyright holder. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary. 1.E. nonproprietary or proprietary form.E. including any word processing or hypertext form. marked up.E.9.E. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted with the permission of the copyright holder.9. Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm License as specified in paragraph 1. display. your use and distribution must comply with both paragraphs 1. if you provide access to or distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (www. perform.8 or 1.gutenberg.E. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm License terms from this work.1 through 1. If you are redistributing or providing access to a work with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the work. copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works unless you comply with paragraph 1. you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.8.E. of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other form.E.or charges. performing.5.7. but he has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. or any files containing a part of this work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm. "Information about donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. 1.net). Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the address specified in Section 4. you must.6. at no additional cost.E. provide a copy.4." . Do not charge a fee for access to.E. a means of exporting a copy.1 through 1.E.E.1. 1. The fee is owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark. Do not copy.

and any other party distributing a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement. THE TRADEMARK OWNER. INDIRECT. a computer virus.2.1.3.If you discover a defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it. a defective or damaged disk or other medium.F.You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm License.You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works. but not limited to. . STRICT LIABILITY. BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH F3. 1. 1. transcribe and proofread public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm collection. DIRECT. Contact the Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below. 1." such as. PUNITIVE OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. a copyright or other intellectual property infringement.. may contain "Defects. inaccurate or corrupt data.E. .F. 1. transcription errors. You must require such a user to return or destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of Project Gutenberg-tm works. If you received the work on a physical medium. disclaim all liability to you for damages. YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE. you must return the medium with . in accordance with paragraph 1. and the medium on which they may be stored. if a defect in the electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days of receipt of the work. AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL. or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by your equipment.F.F. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set forth in this agreement.You provide. costs and expenses. incomplete. LIMITED WARRANTY. Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. 1.Except for the "Right of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1. LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND . including legal fees.3. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable effort to identify. do copyright research on. Despite these efforts. the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES .9.F. CONSEQUENTIAL.3. YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION. the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark. a full refund of any money paid for a work or a replacement copy. you must obtain permission in writing from both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael Hart.F. the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark. you can receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a written explanation to the person you received the work from.

the agreement shall be interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by the applicable state law.F. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit .org. 1. including legal fees. Section 3. anyone providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance with this agreement. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth in paragraph 1. 1. and (c) any Defect you cause. costs and expenses.F.pglaf. is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will remain freely available for generations to come. old. It exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from people in all walks of life. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions. the trademark owner.5. and any volunteers associated with the production. INDEMNITY . that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm work. EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. The person or entity that provided you with the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a refund. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.4. or additions or deletions to any Project Gutenberg-tm work.3. harmless from all liability. you may demand a refund in writing without further opportunities to fix the problem. INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE. Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the assistance they need.your written explanation. If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the law of the state applicable to this agreement. modification.6. any agent or employee of the Foundation. Section 2. If you received the work electronically. In 2001. promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. the person or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers including obsolete. 1.F. this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND. To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and how your efforts and donations can help.You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation. If the second copy is also defective.F. see Sections 3 and 4 and the Foundation web page at http://www. middle-aged and new computers. the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations. (b) alteration.

UT 84116.org For additional contact information: Dr. AK. Contributions to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent permitted by U. laws alone swamp our small staff.S.000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt status with the IRS. federal laws and your state's laws. We do not solicit donations in locations where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.org/fundraising. email business@pglaf. U. Donations are accepted in a number of other ways including including checks..501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal Revenue Service. but its volunteers and employees are scattered throughout numerous locations. but we cannot make any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from outside the United States. Many small donations ($1 to $5. The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification number is 64-6221541. To SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any particular state visit http://pglaf. The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation methods and addresses. Newby Chief Executive and Director gbnewby@pglaf. S. (801) 596-1887. International donations are gratefully accepted. much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up with these requirements. please visit: http://pglaf. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest array of equipment including outdated equipment. we know of no prohibition against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who approach us with offers to donate. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a considerable effort. Its business office is located at 809 North 1500 West. Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at http://pglaf.org While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we have not met the solicitation requirements. The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United States.org. online payments and credit card donations.org Section 4.org/donate . Fairbanks. Gregory B. 99712. Salt Lake City. Email contact links and up to date contact information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official page at http://pglaf.S. To donate.

we do not necessarily keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition. Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility: http://www. he produced and distributed Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support. and how to subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks. For thirty years.S.gutenberg. all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U. . including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.net This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm. Thus. unless a copyright notice is included. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.Section 5. Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed editions. Professor Michael S. how to help produce our new eBooks. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared with anyone.