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Problems & Solutions

• Theoretical Competition
• Experimental Competition
• Best Solutions
The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad



TheoreticalCompetition


TheoreticalProblem1.TeaCeremonyandPhysicsofBubbles

Š‡–‡ƒ…‡”‡‘›‹•–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‹•‹ƒǤ‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ–•–‡’•‹’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–‡ƒ‹•–Š‡
„‘‹Ž‹‰ ‘ˆ ˆ”‡•Š ™ƒ–‡” ™Š‡ „—„„Ž‡• ƒ’’‡ƒ” ‹•‹†‡Ǥ —„„Ž‡• ƒ”‡ ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ” ˆ”‘ †ƒ‹Ž› Ž‹ˆ‡ ƒ†
‘……—’›ƒ‹’‘”–ƒ–”‘Ž‡‹’Š›•‹…•ǡ…Š‡‹•–”›ǡ‡†‹…‹‡ƒ†–‡…Š‘Ž‘‰›Ǥ‡˜‡”–Š‡Ž‡••ǡ–Š‡‹”
„‡Šƒ˜‹‘”‹•‘ˆ–‡•—”’”‹•‹‰ƒ†—‡š’‡…–‡†Ǧƒ†ǡ‹ƒ›…ƒ•‡•ǡ•–‹ŽŽ‘–—†‡”•–‘‘†Ǥ

–”‘‘–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡–Š‡’—”‡™ƒ–‡”‹••ƒ–—”ƒ–‡†™‹–Š‰ƒ•Ǥ‹–Š ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡–Š‡
‡š…‡••’”‡••—”‡‘ˆ†‹••‘Ž˜‡†‰ƒ• Pab ‹…”‡ƒ•‡•ǡ–Š‡†‹••‘Ž˜‡†ƒ‹”‹•Ž‹„‡”ƒ–‡†ƒ†ƒ‹”„—„„Ž‡•
ȋABsȌ ƒ’’‡ƒ” ƒ– –Š‡ „‘––‘ ƒ† ™ƒŽŽ• ‘ˆ –‡ƒ‡––Ž‡ ȋ ‹‰ǤͳȌǤ ‘” ’—”‡ ™ƒ–‡” –Š‡ ™‡––ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‹•
•—ˆˆ‹…‹‡– ƒ† ƒ  ”‡’”‡•‡–• ƒ –”—…ƒ–‡† •’Š‡”‡ ™‹–Š ”ƒ†‹—• Rab ƒ† ™‹–Š —™‡––‡†
ˆ‘—†ƒ–‹‘™‹–Š”ƒ†‹—• rab  Rab Ǥ–‘”‡Š‡ƒ–‹‰•‡š’ƒ†ƒ†„›”‡ƒ…Š‹‰…‡”–ƒ‹•‹œ‡•
…ƒ†‡–ƒ…Šˆ”‘–Š‡„‘––‘ȋ ‹‰ǤʹȌǡˆŽ‘™—’–‘–Š‡™ƒ–‡”•—”ˆƒ…‡ƒ†„—”•––Š‡”‡ǤŠ‡˜ƒ’‘”
„—„„Ž‡• ȋVBsȌ ƒ’’‡ƒ” ™Š‡ –Š‡ ™ƒ–‡”–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ƒ––Š‡ „‘––‘”‡ƒ…Š‡•–Š‡…”‹–‹…ƒŽ ˜ƒŽ—‡
T™‘ x T…”‹–
‘
 ͳͲͲD  ƒ–™Š‹…Š–Š‡’”‡••—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡•ƒ–—”ƒ–‡†˜ƒ’‘”‡š…‡‡†•–Š‡‡š–‡”ƒŽ’”‡••—”‡Ǥ
Š‡˜ƒ’‘”’”‘†—…–‹‘‹…”‡ƒ•‡•–‡•–‹‡•ǡ•‡š’ƒ†ƒ††‡–ƒ…Šˆ”‘–Š‡„‘––‘Ǥƒ›
„‡ …‘•‹†‡”‡† …‘•‹•–‹‰ ‘Ž› ‘ˆ ˜ƒ’‘”Ǥ ˆ –Š‡ ™ƒ–‡” ‹• Š‡ƒ–‡† •—ˆˆ‹…‹‡–Ž›ǡ –Š‡ —’”‹•‹‰ 
…‘–‹—‡–‘•™‡ŽŽǡ”‡ƒ…Š–Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡ƒ†„—”•–ǤŽ•‡ǡ™ƒ–‡”‹•‘–Š‡ƒ–‡†‡‘—‰Š‹–Š‡Š‹‰Š‡”
Žƒ›‡”• ƒ† –Š‡”‡ ‡š‹–• ƒ ˜‡”–‹…ƒŽ •–”‘‰ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ ‰”ƒ†‹‡–Ǥ › ”‡ƒ…Š‹‰ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž› …‘Ž†
Žƒ›‡”•‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”…‘ŽŽƒ’•‡‹–Š‡˜‘Ž—‡‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”ȋ ‹‰Ǥ͵ȌǤŠ‹•…ƒ—•‡•–Š‡‹†—…‡††‡‰ƒ••‹‰Ǧ
•–”‘‰ ‘•…‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘• ƒ† ƒ …‘•‹†‡”ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ‘—– ‘ˆ †‹••‘Ž˜‡† ƒ‹” ‹• ”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡† ‹ –Š‡ ˆ‘” ‘ˆ
‹…”‘•…‘’‹…ƒ‹”„—„„Ž‡•ȋMABȌǤŠ‹•…ƒ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡—Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…˜‹„”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ

Š‡ƒ‹•–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡„—„„Ž‡‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘†—”‹‰–Š‡„‘‹Ž‹‰’”‘…‡••ƒ”‡ǣ
Ǧ –Š‡ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡ƒ†‰”‘™–Š‘ˆƒ––Š‡„‘––‘ƒ†™ƒŽŽ•ǡ–Š‡‹”–”ƒ•—–ƒ–‹‘‹–‘Ǣ
Ǧ –Š‡ †‡–ƒ…Š‡– ƒ† —’”‹•‹‰ ‘ˆ ǡ –Š‡‹” †‹•ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡ ‹ –Š‡ ™ƒ–‡” ˜‘Ž—‡ ‘” ƒ– –Š‡
 •—”ˆƒ…‡Ǣ
Ǧ –Š‡ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ‹–Š‡™ƒ–‡”˜‘Ž—‡ƒ†–Š‡‹”—’”‹•‹‰–‘–Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡Ǥ

Š‹•–Š‡‘”‡–‹…ƒŽ†‡•…”‹’–‹‘‹•‹‰‘‘†ƒ‰”‡‡‡–™‹–Š‘†‡”‡š’‡”‹‡–•Ǥƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ž›ǡƒ
‹–‡”‡•–‹‰ ‘‹•‡ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‡š’‡”‹‡– ȋNAE, ”ƒŽ –ƒ–‡ ‹˜‡”•‹–›ǡ ƒ–‡”‹„—”‰Ȍ ˆ‘” –Š‡

––––––– ii –––––––
Problems & Solutions

„‘‹Ž‹‰™ƒ–‡”™ƒ•’‡”ˆ‘”‡†Ǥ ‹‰ŠŽ›•‡•‹–‹˜‡‹…”‘’Š‘‡•ƒ––ƒ…Š‡†–‘™‹†‡Ǧ„ƒ†ƒ’Ž‹ˆ‹‡”•
ƒ†„”‘—‰Š––‘ƒ‡Ž‡…–”‹…–‡ƒ‡––Ž‡Šƒ˜‡†‡–‡…–‡†–Š”‡‡ƒ‹‘”‹‰‹•‘ˆ‘‹•‡•ǣ

ͳǤ ̵• †‡–ƒ…Š‡–• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ „‘––‘ „‡ˆ‘”‡ „‘‹Ž‹‰ ȋ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡ ‘•…‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘• ™‹–Š
Q1 ̱ͳͲͲ œȌǢ
ʹǤ ̵•…‘ŽŽƒ’•‡•‹–Š‡˜‘Ž—‡‘ˆ™ƒ–‡”ȋ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡‘•…‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘•™‹–ŠQ ʹ ̱ͳ œȌǢ

͵Ǥ ̵•ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡•—†‡”–Š‡™ƒ–‡”•—”ˆƒ…‡ȋ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡‘•…‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘•™‹–ŠQ 3 ̱͵ͷ œ
–‘͸Ͳ œȌǤ

Hints:

ͳȌ – ‹• ™‡ŽŽ ‘™ –Šƒ– ƒ •ƒŽŽ „—„„Ž‡ ”‹•‡•  ƒŽ‘‰ ƒ ”‡…–‹Ž‹‡ƒ” ’ƒ–Š ƒ† ƒ Žƒ‹ƒ” ˆŽ‘™ ‹•
‘„•‡”˜‡† Ǧ ™ƒ–‡” ˆŽ‘™• ‡ƒ•› ƒ† Žƒ›‡”Ǧ™‹•‡Ǥ Š‡ǡ –Š‡ –‘‡• ˆ‘”—Žƒ †‡•…”‹„‡• –Š‡
†‹••‹’ƒ–‹˜‡ˆ‘”…‡ˆ‘”ƒ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡‘˜‹‰™‹–Š•Ž‘™˜‡Ž‘…‹–› VŽƒ ǣ
F  ͸QI™ R„ VŽƒ 
 …‘–”ƒ•– –‘ –Š‹• ’‹…–—”‡ǡ ™Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž› Žƒ”‰‡ „—„„Ž‡• Ž‹ˆ– –‘ –Š‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ǡ ‹– †‹•–—”„• –Š‡
•—””‘—†‹‰™ƒ–‡”ǡ…ƒ˜‹–ƒ–‹‘Š‘ŽŽ‘™•ƒ’’‡ƒ”„‡Š‹†ƒ†–Š‡–—”„—Ž‡–ˆŽ‘™‹•‘„•‡”˜‡†ȋ•‡‡
‹‰ǤͳȌǤ  –Š‹• …ƒ•‡ ƒ ’ƒ”– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹‡–‹… ‡‡”‰› ‘ˆ ƒ —’”‹•‹‰ „—„„Ž‡ –”ƒ•ˆ‡”• ‹–‘ –Š‡
†‹••‹’ƒ–‹˜‡™‘”Ǥ












 
ƒ‹ƒ”ƒ†–—”„—Ž‡––›’‡•‘ˆˆŽ‘™ˆ‘””‹•‹‰ƒ‹”„—„„Ž‡•‹™ƒ–‡”

ʹȌ Š‡ –Š‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‹† Šƒ• ƒ …‘˜‡š ȋ…‘…ƒ˜‡Ȍ ˆ‘” –Š‡”‡ ƒ’’‡ƒ”• ƒ •—”ˆƒ…‡ –‡•‹‘
ˆ‘”…‡†—‡–‘‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‡ƒ”–Š‡‡†‰‡ǤŠ‹•’”‡••—”‡…ƒ„‡‰‹˜‡„›ˆ‘”—Žƒ

ʹV
'P 
R

––––––– iii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

™Š‡””‡ V Ǧ‹•–Š‡•—””ˆƒ…‡–‡•‹‘…‘ ‘”…‡…‘‹‰–‘ —‹–Ž‡‰–Š‘ˆ •—”ˆƒ…‡ǡ RȂ‹•


‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–ǡ–Š‡ˆ‘
–Š‡”ƒƒ†‹—•‘ˆ•—”ˆƒ…‡‡…—”˜‹–›Ǥ

Š‡†‡ƒŽ‹‰™‹–Šƒ•Š‘”–’”‘……‡••™‹–Š…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…†—”ƒ–‹‘–‹‡̶t̶ǡ‹–• ‹˜‡”•‡˜ƒŽ—‡
͵Ȍ
1
ƒ›„
„‡…‘•‹†‡”‡†ƒƒ•ƒ…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹••–‹…ˆ”‡“—‡…› O  Ǥ•‡–Š‹• †‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘ˆ‘”……ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‰–Š‡
t
‘‹•‡‡ˆ”‡“—‡…‹‡•Ǥ


Useffuldata:
PͲ  ͳǤͲͳ͸ ¸ ͳͲͷ ƒ Ǧ ƒ–‘•’Š‡”‹…’””‡••—”‡ǡ
Sw  ͳͲ͵ ‰Ȁ͵ Ǧ™ƒƒ–‡”†‡•‹–›ǡ
S˜  ͲǤͲͳ͹ ‰Ȁ͵ Ǧ ˜ƒ’‘” †‡•‹––› ƒ– T  ʹͻ͵  Ǣ ȋ S˜  ͲǤͷͻ
ͻ͸ ‰Ȁ͵ ƒ–
͵  Ȍ
T  ͵͹͵
P˜ƒ’‘”  ͲǤͲʹ͵ ¸ ͳͲͷ ƒƒ ˜ƒ’‘” ’”‡••— ͸ ¸ ͳͲͷ ƒ ƒ–
—”‡ ƒ– T  ʹͻ͵  Ǣ P˜ƒ’‘”  ͳǤͲͳ͸
͵  Ȍ
T  ͵͹͵
g  ͻǤͺͳ
ͻ Ȁ•ʹ Ǧƒ……‡‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‰”ƒ˜‹–›ǡ
Nƒ‹”  ͲǤͲʹͻ ‰Ȁ‘Ž‡‡ Ǧ‘Ž‡…—Žƒ”™
™‡‹‰Š–‘ˆƒ‹”
R ͺ
ͺǤ͵ͳ Ȁ‘Ž ˜  Ǧ––Š‡‰ƒ•—‹˜‡”•ƒŽ…‘•–ƒ–
V Ͳ
ͲǤͲ͹ʹͷ Ȁ Ǧ•—”ˆƒ…‡–‡•‹‘……‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–‘ˆ™
™ƒ–‡”ǡ
I™  ͲǤ͵ ¸ ͳͲ͵ ƒ ¸ • Ǧ …‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–‘ˆ˜
˜‹•…‘•‹–›‘ˆ™ƒ–‡‡”









 Figure 3.
 Vapor bubble
Figure 1. Bubbles in teakettle collapsing


 
Figure 2. Air bubble detaching from
the bottom

––––––– iv –––––––
Problems & Solutions

Questions(total10points):

Consider water boiling in a flat-bottomed cylinder glass teakettle at normal atmospheric pressure.
The bottom of the kettle heats up uniformly and a vertical temperature gradient exists, bubbles
appear and evolute (Fig. 2).

Q1Ǥ”‹–‡–Š‡’”‡••—”‡…‘†‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‰”‘™–Š‘ˆƒ‹–Š‡™ƒ–‡”˜‘Ž—‡ƒ–Š‡‹‰Š–h<Hǡ
™Š‡”‡ H ‹• –Š‡ ™ƒ–‡” •—”ˆƒ…‡ Ž‡˜‡Ž ‹ –Š‡ –‡ƒ‡––Ž‡Ǥ ƒ‡ ‹–‘ ƒ……‘—– –Š‡ ‹‡“—ƒŽ‹–›
ʹSV rƒ„  P‡š–‡”S rƒ„ʹ Ǥȏ‹–‡”•‘ˆ Pab ǡ P0 ǡ Rab ǡ Sw ǡgǡ T ǡhǡHȐ  (1.0point)

Q2Ǥ”‹–‡ˆ‘”ƒ–Š‡…‘†‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡†‡–ƒ…Š‡–ˆ”‘–Š‡„‘––‘‘ˆ–Š‡–‡ƒ‡––Ž‡ȋ ‹‰ǤʹȌǤ
ƒ‡‹–‘ƒ……‘—––Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘ rƒ„  Rƒ„ Ǥȏ‹–‡”•‘ˆ rƒ„ ǡ Rƒ„ ǡ U ™ ǡ V Ȑ (1.5points)

Q3Ǥ  ‘•‹†‡” ƒ  ™‹–Š ”ƒ†‹—• R„ ƒ– –Š‡ „‘––‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‡ƒ‡––Ž‡Ǥ • ™ƒ–‡” ‹• „‘‹Ž‡†ǡ –Š‡
„—„„Ž‡‹••ƒ–—”ƒ–‡†™‹–Š˜ƒ’‘”ƒ†‡Žƒ”‰‡•‹–•”ƒ†‹—•Ǥ”‹–‡–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘ Y  mƒ‹” Ȁ m˜ƒ’‘” ‘ˆ–Š‡
ƒ••‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹”ƒ†•ƒ–—”ƒ–‡†˜ƒ’‘”‹•‹†‡–Š‡„—„„Ž‡ƒ–‰‹˜‡–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡TǤƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡–Š‡
”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ– ”‘‘ –‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ T  ʹͲD  ȋܴୠ ൌ ͲǤͷȌ ƒ† ƒ– „‘‹Ž‹‰ ’‘‹– ƒ– T  ͳͲͲD  
ȋܴୠ ൌ ͳǤͲȌǤȏ‹–‡”•‘ˆ Nƒ‹” ǡ T ǡ PͲ ǡ P˜ƒ’‘” ǡ R„ ǡ S™ ǡ S˜ ǡ T ǡ H Ȑ  (1.5points)

Q4Ǥ›—•‹‰–Š‡†ƒ–ƒƒ†‡™–‘̵•ƒ™‡•–‹ƒ–‡–Š‡”ƒ†‹—•‘ˆ–Š‡†‡–ƒ…Š‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡
„‘––‘ƒ†—’”‹•‡†‹†‹•–ƒ…‡ Rƒ„ ȋ ‹‰Ǥ͵ȌǤ••—‡ǡ–Šƒ––Š‡ƒ††‡†Ǧƒ••ȋ–ƒ‹‰‹–‘ƒ……‘—–
•—””‘—†‹‰™ƒ–‡”Žƒ›‡”Ȍ‘ˆ‹•ƒŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ–Š‡ƒƒŽ‘‰‘—•™ƒ–‡”„—„„Ž‡Ǥ(1.0points)

Q5Ǥ”‹–‡–Š‡”ƒ†‹—•‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‘—†ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŒ—•–„‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡—’”‹•‹‰ǡ™Š‡–Š‡…‘‡…–‹‰
̶‡…̶ ‹• ˜‡”› ƒ””‘™  ȋ•‡‡ ‹‰Ǥ͵ȌǤ ȏ‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ Rƒ„ ǡ S™ ǡ T Ȑ.ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡ ‹– „› —•‹‰  –Š‡ ”ƒ†‹—•
ˆ‘—†‹ͶǤ       (1.5points)

Q6Ǥ›—•‹‰–Š‡†ƒ–ƒ‡•–‹ƒ–‡–Š‡”ƒ†‹—•‘ˆ…‘ŽŽƒ’•‹‰ȋ ‹‰ǤͶȌ„›ƒ••—‹‰–Šƒ––Š‡
”ƒ†‹ƒŽ’”‡••—”‡‹•ƒ„‘—–͵ƒ†—”‹‰–Š‹•’”‘…‡••Ǥ   (1.2points)

Q7Ǥ›—•‹‰’”‡˜‹‘—•”‡•—Ž–•ˆ‘”…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡–Š‡”ƒ†‹—•‘ˆ–Š‡’”‘†—…‡††—”‹‰‹†—…‡†
†‡‰ƒ••‹‰Ǥ        (0.5points)

Q8Ǥ”‹–‡–Š‡—’”‹•‹‰˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ˆ‘”–›’‹…ƒŽ„›—•‹‰–Š‡–‘‡•Žƒ™‘ˆƒŽƒ‹ƒ”ˆŽ‘™Ǥȏ‹
–‡”•‘ˆ Rƒ„ ǡ S™ ǡ I™ Ȑ.•–‹ƒ–‡–Š‡—’”‹•‹‰–‹‡ˆ‘”HαͳͲ…Ǥ (0.6points)

Q9Ǥ”‹–‡–Š‡ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ™‹–Š–—”„—Ž‡––›’‡‘ˆˆŽ‘™ȏ‹–‡”•‘ˆ
Rƒ„ ǡ S™ ǡ I™ ȐǤ•–‹ƒ–‡–Š‡—’”‹•‹‰–‹‡ˆ‘”HαͳͲ…Ǥ  (1.2points)


–––––––  –––––––
The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Solutions:

S1.Š‡…‘†‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡•—”˜‹˜ƒŽƒ†‰”‘™–Šˆ‘”ƒ’’‡ƒ”‡†‹–Š‡™ƒ–‡”˜‘Ž—‡ƒ–Š‡‹‰Š–
h  H ‹• –Š‡ …‘’‡–‹˜‡‡•• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‡••—”‡• ƒ…–‹‰ ‹•‹†‡ ƒ† ‘—–•‹†‡ ȋƒ–‘•’Š‡”‹…ǡ
Š›†”‘•–ƒ–‹…ƒ†•—”ˆƒ…‡–‡•‹‘Ȍ‘–Š‡„—„„Ž‡•—”ˆƒ…‡ǣ
ʹT
Pƒ„  P‹ p P‘—–  PͲ gS™ ¸ ȋ H  hȌ 
Rƒ„
S2.Š‡”…Š‹‡†‡•Ž‹ˆ–‹‰ˆ‘”…‡‹•
ͶS Rƒ„ ͶS Rƒ„
͵ ͵

F g ˜ ȋ U ™  U ƒ„ Ȍ | g ˜ U™ 
͵ ͵
™Š‡”‡ Sƒ„  S™ Ǧ–Š‡ƒ‹”†‡•‹–›‹„—„„Ž‡Ǥ

‘” rƒ„  Rƒ„ –Š‡ƒ’Žƒ…‡•—”ˆƒ…‡–‡•‹‘ˆ‘”…‡’Žƒ›•ƒ‹”‘Ž‡‹Š‘Ž†‹‰†‘™–Š‡„—„„Ž‡ǣ
F †‘™  T ¸ ʹQrƒ„ 

Š‡•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ––Š‡„‘––‘‡ƒ•ǣ
FA  Fdown 
–‘”‡Š‡ƒ–‹‰–Š‡Ž‹ˆ–‹‰ˆ‘”…‡‘˜‡”„ƒŽƒ…‡•–Š‡Š‘Ž†‹‰ˆ‘”…‡ǣ
͵
ͶQRƒ„
g S™  T ¸ ʹQrƒ„ 
͵
ƒ†‹•†‡–ƒ…Š‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡„‘––‘ƒ†ˆŽ‘ƒ–•ȋ ‹‰ǤʹȌǤ

S3.Š‡ƒ‹”ƒ†˜ƒ’‘”’”‡••—”‡•‹•‹†‡…‘’‡•ƒ–‡–Š‡‘—–‡”’”‡••—”‡ˆ‘”ƒ•–ƒ„Ž‡„—„„Ž‡Ǥ
ʹT
P˜ƒ’‘” Pƒ‹”  PͲ gS™ H 

Š‡ƒ••‘ˆƒ‹”‹•‹†‡ƒ›„‡ˆ‘—†ˆ”‘–Š‡Žƒ›’‡”‘Ǧ‡†‡Ž‡‡˜‡“—ƒ–‹‘
N P V
mƒ‹”  ƒ‹” ƒ‹” 
RT
Š‡˜ƒ’‘”ƒ••‹•
m˜ƒ’‘”  S˜ ¸ V 
Š‡–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘‹•
mƒ‹” Pƒ‹” Pƒ‹” Pƒ‹” § ʹV ·
[ ¨ PͲ  g U ™ H   P˜ƒ’‘” ¸ 
m˜ƒ’‘” RT U ˜ RT U ˜ © R„ ¹

‘” T  ʹͲD   ʹͻ͵  ƒ† R„  ͲǤͷ  ǣ [ | ͸ͻǤʹ 
Š‹•„—„„Ž‡…‘•‹•–•‘•–Ž›‘ˆƒ‹”Ǥ


––––––– vi –––––––
Problems & Solutions

‘” T  ͳͲͲD   ͵͹͵  ƒ† R„ ͳ  ǣ [ | ͲǤͲͳ͹ 


Š‹•„—„„Ž‡…‘•‹•–•‘•–Ž›‘ˆ•ƒ–—”ƒ–‡†˜ƒ’‘”Ǥ

S4. ‘•‹†‡”  †‡–ƒ…Š‡† ˆ”‘ –Š‡ „‘––‘ ƒ† —’”‹•‹‰ ‹ †‹•–ƒ…‡ Rƒ„ ȋ•‡‡ ‹‰ǤʹȌǤ —”‹‰
–Š‡”‹•‡ǡ„—„„Ž‡•‹†—…‡ƒ†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–‘ˆ–Š‡•—””‘—†‹‰ˆŽ—‹†‹–Š‡‹”˜‹…‹‹–›ǡ™Š‹…ŠŽ‡ƒ†•
–‘ƒƒ††‡†Ǧƒ••ˆ‘”…‡ǤŠ‡ƒ††‡†Ǧƒ••‘ˆƒ„—„„Ž‡‹•
Vƒ„ U ™
M ‹˜‘Ž | 
ʹ
Š‡ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒ––Š‡†‡–ƒ…Š‡–‘‡–‹•
F gVƒ„ U ™
a†‡– ʹg 
M‹˜‘Ž Vƒ„ U ™ Ȁ ʹ

Š‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…̶†‡–ƒ…Š‡––‹‡̶

ʹRƒ„
tͳ 
a†‡–
†‡ˆ‹‡•–Š‡†—”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‹’ƒ…––‘–Š‡Ž‹“—‹††—”‹‰–Š‡†‡–ƒ…Š‡–ǤŠ‡Ž‹“—‹†„‡‰‹•–‘
˜‹„”ƒ–‡™‹–Š…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…ˆ”‡“—‡…›

ͳ g
Qͳ 
tͳ Rƒ„
—„•–‹–—–‹‰–Š‡†ƒ–‡ˆ”‘™‡‡•–‹ƒ–‡–Š‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…”ƒ†‹—•‘ˆ†‡–ƒ…Š‹‰
Q ͳ | ͳͲͲ œ

Ÿ Rƒ„ | ͳ ˜ ͳͲ  

S5.Š‡„ƒŽƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‹ˆ–‹‰ƒ†…‘ˆ‹‹‰ˆ‘”…‡•”‡ƒ†•
gVƒ„ S™ x T ¸ ʹQrƒ„ 

‹†–Š‡–›’‹…ƒŽˆ‘—†ƒ–‹‘”ƒ†‹—•ǣ
͵
ʹ gS™ Rƒ„
rƒ„ x 
͵T
‘”AB™‹–Š”ƒ†‹—•̱ͳ™‡…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡
rƒ„ x ͻǤͲʹ ¸ ͳͲͷ 
 


S6. ‘•‹†‡” …‘ŽŽƒ’•‹‰  †—”‹‰ –‹‡ ’‹‡…‡ tʹ ȋ ‹‰Ǥ͵ȌǤ ‡–̵• ‡•–‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡ …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…
ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡—Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…•Š‘…™ƒ˜‡•ǤŠ‡•—””‘—†‹‰™ƒ–‡”ˆŽ‘‘†–Š‡…‘ŽŽƒ’•‡†™‹–Š
ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘aƒ†–Š‡‡™–‘‡“—ƒ–‹‘”‡ƒ†•

––––––– vii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

͵
ͶQR…„
Fcollap x a ¸ S™
͵


™Š‡”‡–Š‡ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡™ƒ–‡”ˆ”‘–…‘˜‡”‰‹‰‹–Š‡…‡–‡”‘ˆ‹•
ʹR
a  ʹ…„  ʹR…„Oʹʹ 


Š‡”ƒ†‹ƒŽ’”‡••—”‡‘–Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡‹•‰‹˜‡
F…‘ŽŽƒ’ ʹ
ʹR…„
%P  ʹ
 S™ Oʹʹ
ͶQR…„ ͵


ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ž›ǡˆ‘”–Š‡‘„–ƒ‹‡††ƒ–ƒ‘ˆ–Š‡‡š’‡”‹‡–™‡‘„–ƒ‹

ͳ ͵%P
R…„  
O ʹ ʹS™
ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ž›ǡ
Oʹ x ͳ  œǡ %P  ͵ ƒ º R…„ x ͵  
Š‹• ”‡•—Ž– ‹• ‹ ‰‘‘† ƒ‰”‡‡‡– ™‹–Š ƒ‘–Š‡” ‡š’‡”‹‡– ȋ•‡‡ ‹‰ǤͶȌ ™Š‡”‡ –Š‡ ”ƒ†‹—• ‹•
ˆ‘—†ƒ„‘—–͵Ǥͷƒ†–Š‡…‘ŽŽƒ’•‹‰–‹‡‹•ƒ„‘—–ͳ•ȋ‹Ǥ‡Ǥǡ̱ͳ œ‘‹•‡ȌǤ


 Figure. 4.
 A vapor bubble
 collapsing evolution.
 [M. P. Brenner, S.
 Hilgenfeldt, D. Lohse,
 Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 425
 (2002)]





 

––––––– viii –––––––


Problems & Solutions

S7.„˜‹‘—•Ž›ǡ–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽƒ–—”‡‘ˆ‹•–Š‡•ƒ‡ƒ•ˆ‘”ǤŠ‡ǡ

O͵ R
 …„ º Rƒ„ x ͲǤͲͷ u ͲǤͲͻ  
Oʹ Rƒ„

S8.  „—„„Ž‡ †‡–ƒ…Š‡†ˆ”‘ –Š‡ „‘––‘ ‹• Š‘‹•–‡† —†‡” –Š‡ ‹ˆŽ—‡…‡ ‘ˆ ”…Š‹‡†‡• ˆ‘”…‡Ǥ
Š‡™ƒ–‡””‡•‹•–ƒ–ˆ‘”…‡†‡’‡†•‘–Š‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡•–”‡ƒŽ‹‡ˆŽ‘™ȋ ‹‰Ǥͷǡ ‹‰Ǥ͹ȌǤ


 Figure 5. Figure 6. The rectilinear air bubble trajectory
 Laminar type of (R=0.69mm) rising from the bottom. On the
 flow for rising air left the XZ view and on the right the YZ view.
 bubbles The black areas are part of the reference system
 outside the water tank. [Benjamin(1987), A.de
 Vries (2001)]








–‹•™‡ŽŽ‘™–Šƒ–ƒ•ƒŽŽ„—„„Ž‡”‹•‡•ȋ ‹‰Ǥ͸ȌƒŽ‘‰ƒ”‡…–‹Ž‹‡ƒ”’ƒ–Šƒ†alaminarflow‹•
‘„•‡”˜‡†Ǧ™ƒ–‡”ˆŽ‘™•‡ƒ•›ƒ†Žƒ›‡”Ǧ™‹•‡ǤŠ‡ǡ–Š‡–‘‡•ˆ‘”—Žƒ‘„‡›•

F ʹ gS™ R„ʹ
VŽƒ  
͸QI™ R„ ͻI™


—–ˆ‘”ƒ„—„„Ž‡™‹–Š”ƒ†‹—•ƒ„‘—–ͳ–Š‡‡‡”•‹‘Žƒ‹ƒ”˜‡Ž‘…‹–›„‡…‘‡•–‘‘ˆƒ•–

VŽƒ x ʹǤʹ Ȁ• 

ƒ†–Š‡„—„„Ž‡’ƒ••‡•–Š‡ͳͲ…†‹•–ƒ…‡–‘–Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡ˆ‘”ͲǤͲͶͷ•‡…‘†ǨǨǨǤ –‹•‘„˜‹‘—•Ž›
™”‘‰ǤŠ‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ–Š‡–‘‡•ˆ‘”—Žƒ‹•‘–ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ„Ž‡ˆ‘”ƒ†”‹•‹‰ˆ”‘–Š‡„‘––‘Ǥ







––––––– ix –––––––

The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

S9. Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž› Žƒ”‰‡ „—„„Ž‡• Ž‹ˆ– –‘ –Š‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ǡ ‹– †‹•–—”„• –Š‡ •—””‘—†‹‰ ™ƒ–‡”ǡ
…ƒ˜‹–ƒ–‹‘ Š‘ŽŽ‘™• ƒ’’‡ƒ” „‡Š‹† ƒ† theturbulentflow ‹• ‘„•‡”˜‡† ȋ•‡‡ ‹‰Ǥ͹ȌǤ • ƒ ’ƒ–Š
‹•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›•‡–•‹ǡƒ„—„„Ž‡…ƒ—’”‹•‡„›‡‹–Š‡”œ‹‰œƒ‰‘”•’‹”ƒŽȋ ‹‰ǤͺȌǤ

 Figure 7. Turbulent Figure 8. The trajectory of a spiralling bubble in
 type of flow for two perpendicular views, XZ and YZ (R=1.1mm)
 rising air [Benjamin(1987), Antoine de Vries (2001)].
 bubbles in water.











„˜‹‘—•Ž›ǡ–Š‡Ž‹ˆ–‹‰ˆ‘”…‡‹•
ͶS R˜„
͵

F gU ™ 
͵
—”‹‰‹–•—’”‹•‹‰‹†‹•–ƒ…‡̵Š̵–Š‡„—„„Ž‡”‡‘˜‡•ƒ™ƒ–‡”’‘”–‹‘™‹–Šƒ••ǣ
U ™ h ˜ S R˜„ 
ʹ
M –—”„
ƒ†’‡”ˆ‘”•ƒ™‘”ȋ–”ƒ•ˆ‡”•‹‡–‹…‡‡”‰›Ȍ
M –—”„X –—”„
ʹ

W†‹••‹’ 
ʹ
Š‡ǡ™‡‡•–‹ƒ–‡–Š‡†‹••‹’ƒ–‹˜‡ˆ‘”…‡
W†‹••‹’ M –—”„X –—”„
ʹ

F†‹••‹’ 
h ʹh
‹…‡ˆŽ‘™••–‡ƒ†›™‹–Š‘—–ƒ›ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘ǡ–Š‡†‹••‹’ƒ–‹˜‡ȋ„”ƒ‹‰Ȍˆ‘”…‡„ƒŽƒ…‡•–Š‡
”…Š‹‡†‡•ˆ‘”…‡ǣ
F†‹••‹’ F 
Š‡ǡ–Š‡ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ȋˆ‘”•’‹”ƒŽ‘–‹‘Ȍ–—”„—Ž‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‹•

ͺ gR˜„
X –—”„ | 
͵

–––––––  –––––––
Problems & Solutions

‘” ƒ –›’‹…ƒŽ ”ƒ†‹—• ‘ˆ —’”‹•‹‰  ȋ̱ͳ Ȍ ‘” …‘ŽŽƒ’•‹‰  ȋ̱͵ Ȍ ™‡ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡ –Š‡
˜‡Ž‘…‹–›
X –—”„ | ȋͲǤͳ͸ y ͲǤʹͺȌ Ȁ• 

Š‡–‹‡”‡“—‹”‡†–‘’ƒ••ƒ†‹•–ƒ…‡ H x ͳͲ … 

H
t –—”„ ! | ȋͲǤ͵ͷ y ͲǤ͸ʹȌ • 
X –—”„
Š‹• ‹• ƒ “—‹–‡ ”‡ƒ•‘ƒ„Ž‡ ”‡•—Ž– ƒ† –Š‡ „—„„Ž‡• ‘•–Ž› ‡Ž‡˜ƒ–‡ —†‡” –Š‡ –—”„—Ž‡…‡ ˆŽ‘™
Žƒ™Ǥ

[MarkingScheme]‡ƒ‡”‡‘›ƒ†Š›•‹…•‘ˆ—„„Ž‡•

Q Item Answer Points
1 …‘†‹–‹‘‘ˆ‰”‘™–Š ʹT 1.0
Pƒ„  P‹ p P‘—–  PͲ gS™ ¸ ȋ H  hȌ 
Rƒ„
2 …‘†‹–‹‘‘ˆ ͵
ͶQRƒ„ 1.5
g ȋS™  Sƒ„ Ȍ  T ¸ ʹQrƒ„ ȋ PͲ gS™ H Ȍ¸ Qrƒ„ʹ 
†‡–ƒ…Š‡– ͵
3 ‹•‹†‡ƒ†‡š–‡”ƒŽ ʹT 0.2
P˜ƒ’‘” Pƒ‹”  PͲ gS™ H 
’”‡••—”‡• R„
ƒ••‘ˆƒ‹” Nƒ‹” Pƒ‹”V 0.2
mƒ‹”  
RT
˜ƒ’‘”ƒ•• m˜ƒ’‘”  S˜ ¸ V  0.1
–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘ mƒ‹” Pƒ‹” Pƒ‹” Pƒ‹” § ʹV · 0.6
[ ¨ PͲ  gU ™ H   P˜ƒ’‘” ¸ 
m˜ƒ’‘” RT U ˜ RT U ˜ © R„ ¹
D
–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒ– T  ʹͲ   [ | ͸ͻǤʹ 0.2

–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒ– T  ͳͲͲD   [ | ͲǤͲͳ͹  0.2


4 ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‡†ƒ•• Vƒ„ S™ 0.2
M‹˜‘Ž x 
ʹ
ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒ––Š‡ F gVƒ„ S™ 0.4
a†‡–    ʹg 
†‡–ƒ…Š‡– M‹˜‘Ž Vƒ„ S™ Ȁ ʹ
…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹… ͳ g 0.3
ˆ”‡“—‡…› Oͳ   
tͳ Rƒ„
”ƒ†‹—•‘ˆ†‡–ƒ…Š‹‰ Rƒ„ x ͳ ¸ ͳͲ͵   0.1

––––––– xi –––––––
The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

5 ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ͵
Ͷ gS™ Rƒ„ 0.5
ʹT ¸ rƒ„  
͵
ˆ‘—†ƒ–‹‘”ƒ†‹—•ǣ ͵
ʹ gS™ Rƒ„ 0.7
 rƒ„ x 
͵T
‘””ƒ†‹—•ͳ rƒ„ x ͻǤͲʹ ¸ ͳͲͷ   0.3
6 ‡™–‘‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ͵
ͶQR…„ 0.3
F…‘ŽŽƒ’ x a ¸ S™ 
ˆ‘”…‘ŽŽƒ’•‡ ͵
ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ ʹR…„ 0.2
a  ʹR…„Oʹʹ 
™ƒ–‡”ˆ”‘– t ʹʹ
”ƒ†‹ƒŽ’”‡••—”‡ F…‘ŽŽƒ’ ʹ
ʹR…„ 0.3
%P  ʹ
 S™ Oʹʹ 
ͶQR …„ ͵
ƒ†‹—•‘ˆ…‘ŽŽƒ’•‹‰ ͳ ͵%P 0.3
„—„„Ž‡ R…„  
O ʹ ʹS™
—‡”‹…ƒŽ˜ƒŽ—‡ Oʹ x ͳ  œǡ %P  ͵ ƒ º R…„ x ͵   0.1
7 ”ƒ–‹‘ O͵ R 0.3
 …„ 
Oʹ Rƒ„
”ƒ†‹—• Rƒ„ x ͲǤͲͷ u ͲǤͲͻ   0.2
8 –‘‡•ˆ‘”—Žƒ F ʹ gS™ R„ʹ 0.4
VŽƒ   
͸QI™ R„ ͻI™
Žƒ‹ƒ”˜‡Ž‘…‹–› VŽƒ x ʹǤʹ Ȁ•  0.2
9 ™ƒ–‡”’‘”–‹‘ƒ•• M –—”„ U ™ h ˜ S R˜„ 
ʹ 0.3

‡”ˆ‘”‡†™‘” ʹ
M–—”„ V–—”„ 0.3
W†‹••‹’  
ʹ
†‹••‹’ƒ–‹˜‡ˆ‘”…‡ W†‹••‹’ ʹ
M–—”„ V–—”„ 0.2
F†‹••‹’   
h ʹh
–—”„—Ž‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ͺ gR˜„ 0.2
V–—”„ x 
͵
—‡”‹…ƒŽ•’‡‡† V–—”„ x ȋͲǤͳ͸ u ͲǤʹͺȌ Ȁ•  0.1
•…‡†‹‰–‹‡ H 0.1
t –—”„  x ȋͲǤ͵ͷ u ͲǤ͸ʹȌ • 
Vturb
 TOTAL  10.0
 

––––––– xii –––––––


Problems & Solutions



Theoreticalproblem2.IonicCrystal,YukawaǦtypePotential
andPauliPrinciple

–‘• ‘ˆ ƒ› …Š‡‹…ƒŽ ‡Ž‡‡–• ’‘••‡•• ˜‡”› Ž‘™ ‹‘‹œƒ–‹‘ ‡‡”‰› ƒ† ‡ƒ•‹Ž› Ž‘‘•‡ –Š‡
‘—–‡” ‡Ž‡…–”‘•Ǥ ‹…‡ ˜‡”•ƒǡ ƒ–‘• ‘ˆ ‘–Š‡” ‡Ž‡‡–• ƒ……‡’– ‡ƒ•‹Ž› –Š‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‘•Ǥ ƒ‡ ‹–‘
‘‡˜‘Ž—‡ǡ–Š‡•‡’‘•‹–‹˜‡ƒ†‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡‹‘•…ƒ…‘„‹‡‹–‘•–ƒ„Ž‡‹‘‹…•–”—…–—”‡•Ǥƒ›
•‘Ž‹†• ‡šŠ‹„‹– ƒ …”›•–ƒŽ •–”—…–—”‡ǡ ‹ ™Š‹…Š –Š‡ ƒ–‘• ƒ”‡ ƒ””ƒ‰‡† ‹ ‡š–”‡‡Ž› ”‡‰—Žƒ”ǡ
’‡”‹‘†‹… ’ƒ––‡”•Ǥ  ƒ ‹†‡ƒŽ …”›•–ƒŽ –Š‡ •ƒ‡ „ƒ•‹… •–”—…–—”ƒŽ —‹– ‹• ”‡’‡ƒ–‡† –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡
•’ƒ…‡Ǥ


 Figure 1.
 The face-centered cubic lattice of the sodium
 chloride (NaCl). The lattice spacing between
 the atomar centres is constant and is given by
 parameter r0



Š‡ƒ‹…‘–”‹„—–‹‘–‘–Š‡„‹†‹‰‡‡”‰›‘ˆƒ‹‘‹……”›•–ƒŽ‹•‰‹˜‡„›–Š‡‡Ž‡…–”‘•–ƒ–‹…
’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‡‡”‰›‘ˆ‹‘•Ǥ

Š‡‡Ž‡…–”‹…‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘ƒ…–‹‰„‡–™‡‡–™‘’‘‹–…Šƒ”‰‡•“ͳƒ†“ʹ•–ƒ†‹‰‹†‹•–ƒ…‡”‹•
™‡ŽŽ†‡ˆ‹‡†„›‘—Ž‘„̵•’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǣ
qͳqʹ
V ȋr Ȍ k 
r
ͳ Ȁ ͶSH Ͳ | ͻ ˜ ͳͲ  ˜  Ȁ ‹•–Š‡‘—Ž‘„…‘•–ƒ–Ǥ
ͻ ʹ ʹ
™Š‡”‡ k

 ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ˆ‘”…‡ ‹’Ž‹‡• ƒ ƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡ ˆ‘”…‡Ǥ Š‡ ˆ‘”…‡ ‹• †‹”‡…–‡† ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ Ž‹‡ Œ‘‹‹‰ –Š‡
–™‘…Šƒ”‰‡•Ǥ ‘”–Š‡…ƒ•‡‘ˆƒŽ…”›•–ƒŽ•„‘–Š–›’‡•‘ˆ‹‘•Šƒ•–Š‡—‹–…Šƒ”‰‡ ±eƒ†‘‡
•Š‘—Ž† ƒŽ•‘ –ƒ‡ ‹–‘ ƒ……‘—– ƒ› ‘–Š‡” ‡‹‰Š„‘”• ƒ…–‹‰ ‘ –Š‡ …Š‘•‡ ‹‘Ǥ ƒ‹‰ ‹–‘
ƒ……‘—–ƒŽŽ’‘•‹–‹˜‡ƒ†‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡‹‘•‹ƒ…”›•–ƒŽ‘ˆ–Š‡‹ˆ‹‹–‡•‹œ‡•”‡•—Ž–•‹–Š‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ
Vƒ–– ȋr Ȍ D ˜ V‘—Ž‘„ ȋr Ȍ ǡ ™Š‡”‡ ȽαͳǤ͹Ͷ͹ͷ͸ ‹• –Š‡ ƒ†‡Ž—‰ …‘•–ƒ– ȏE.Madelung, Phys. Zs, 19
(1918)p542Ȑ—•‡†‹†‡–‡”‹‹‰–Š‡‡‡”‰›‘ˆƒ•‹‰Ž‡‹‘‹ƒ…”›•–ƒŽǤ


––––––– xiii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Ž‘‰ –Š‡ ƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ –Š‡”‡ •Š‘—Ž† –‘ „‡ ƒ ”‡’—Ž•‹˜‡ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ †—‡ –‘ –Š‡ ƒ—Ž‹
š…Ž—•‹‘ ”‹…‹’Ž‡ ƒ† –Š‡ ‘˜‡”Žƒ’ ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘ •Š‡ŽŽ• ‹ ƒ …”›•–ƒŽ Žƒ––‹…‡Ǥ  …‘–”ƒ•– –‘ –Š‡
‘—Ž‘„Ǧ–›’‡ƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡’ƒ”–ǡ–Š‡”‡’—Ž•‹˜‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹•˜‡”›•Š‘”–”ƒ‰‡Ǥ

ͳȌ”‡ƒ•‘ƒ„Ž‡ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡ƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹•ƒ‡š’‘‡–‹ƒŽˆ—…–‹‘ǣ
V”‡’ͳ ȋr Ȍ O ˜ e
r ȀU

™Š‡”‡ɉ‹•…‘—’Ž‹‰•–”‡‰–Šƒ†U•–ƒ†•ˆ‘”–Š‡”ƒ‰‡’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”Ǥ

ʹȌ‘–Š‡”‰‘‘†ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡ƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹•ƒ‹˜‡”•‡’‘™‡”
n
V”‡’ʹ ȋr Ȍ b Ȁ r Ǥ
™Š‡”‡b‹•…‘—’Ž‹‰•–”‡‰–Šƒ†n‹•–Š‡‘”‡š’‘‡–ǤŠ‡•‡’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”•–ƒ‡‹–‘ƒ……‘—–
–Š‡”‡’—Ž•‹‘™–Š‡–‹”‡…”›•–ƒŽ•Ǥ

„˜‹‘—•Ž›ǡ–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”•ƒ†‘†‡Ž’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ•†‡’‡†‘–Š‡–›’‡‘ˆ…”›•–ƒŽŽƒ––‹…‡Ǥ

š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ†ƒ–ƒˆ‘”–Š‡‹–‡”—…Ž‡ƒ”†‹•–ƒ…‡”ƒ†–Š‡†‹••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰› E†‹• ȋ‡‡†‡†–‘
„”‡ƒ–Š‡Žƒ––‹…‡‹–‘•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡ƒ–‘•Ȍƒ”‡‰‹˜‡‹ƒ„Ž‡ͳˆ‘”•‘‡‹‘‹……”›•–ƒŽ•ƒ–‘”ƒŽ
–‡’‡”ƒ–—”‡ƒ†’”‡••—”‡Ǥ

Table1.PropertiesofSaltCrystalswiththeNaClStructure
”›•–ƒŽ rȋȌ E †‹• ȋ Ȁ‘ŽȌ 
ƒŽ ͲǤʹͺʹ Ǧ͹͸ͶǤͶ
‹ ͲǤʹͳͶ ǦͳͲͳͶǤͲ
„” ͲǤ͵Ͷͷ Ǧ͸͵ͺǤͺ
ȏǤ‹––‡Žǡ̶ –”‘†—…–‹‘–‘‘Ž‹†–ƒ–‡Š›•‹…•̶ǡǤǤǡ‹Ž‡›ȋͳͻ͹͸Ȍ’ǤͻʹȐ


Questions(total10points):

Q1.”‹–‡†‘™–Š‡attractive‘—Ž‘„’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ VC0 (r ) ˆ‘”ƒ‹‘†‹•’Žƒ…‡†‹–Š‡…‡–”‡‘ˆ
…—„‹… Žƒ––‹…‡ ‹ ‹‰ ͳǤ ‡– ‹– ‹–‡”ƒ…– ‘Ž› ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‡ƒ”‡•– ‡‹‰Š„‘”• ȋ‹ †‹•–ƒ…‡ —’ –‘
r ͵rͲ Ȍ ‘ˆ ƒ …”›•–ƒŽ Žƒ––‹…‡Ǥ ‹† –Š‡ ƒ†‡Ž—‰ …‘•–ƒ– D 0 …‘””‡•’‘†‹‰ –‘ –Š‹•
ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥȏ‹–‡”•‘ˆ r Ȑ      (1.5points)

Q2. ‡ˆ‹‡ –Š‡ ‡– ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ V1 ( r ) ǡ ‹–• ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹— ’‘•‹–‹‘ r r0 ƒ† V1 (r0 ) ˆ‘” –Š‡
‡š’‘‡–‹ƒŽ”‡’—Ž•‹˜‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ.•‡‡šƒ…–ƒ†‡Ž—‰…‘•–ƒ–ȽǤ
ȏ‹–‡”•‘ˆ D , r , r0 , O , U Ȑ      (1.5points)


––––––– xiv –––––––


Problems & Solutions

Q3. › —•‹‰ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †ƒ–ƒ ‡•–‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”ƒ‰‡ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡” UǤ ȏ‹ —‹–• ‘ˆ ‡–‡”ȐǤ •‡
NA 22
6.022 ˜ 10 [1/mol] Ǥ      (2.0points)

Q4.‡ˆ‹‡–Š‡‡–’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ V2 (r ) ǡ‹–•‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—’‘•‹–‹‘ r rͲ ƒ† Vʹ ȋrͲ Ȍ ˆ‘”–Š‡
‹˜‡”•‡Ǧ’‘™‡””‡’—Ž•‹˜‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ.•‡‡šƒ…–ƒ†‡Ž—‰…‘•–ƒ–ȽǤ
ȏ‹–‡”•‘ˆ D ǡ r ǡ rͲ ǡ bǡ n Ȑ       (2.0points)

Q5. › —•‹‰ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ †ƒ–ƒ ‡•–‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ‘” ‡š’‘‡– Ǥ •–‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ’”‘’‘”–‹‘• ‘ˆ
–Š‡‘—Ž‘„‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘ƒ†–Š‡ƒ—Ž‹‡š…Ž—•‹‘‹–Š‡‡–‹”‡‡–’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹–Š‡‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—
•–ƒ–‡ǫ         (1.5points)

Q6.Š‡‹‘‹œƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰›‘ˆ–Š‡ƒƒ–‘‹•ΪͷǤͳͶ‡ǡ–Š‡‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒˆˆ‹‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡Žƒ–‘‹•Ǧ
͵Ǥ͸ͳ ‡Ǥ •–‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡ –‘–ƒŽ „‹†‹‰ ‡‡”‰› ’‡” ƒ–‘ ‹ –Š‡ ƒŽ …”›•–ƒŽǤ Š‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ
”‡•—Ž–‹• E ‡š’ | ͵Ǥʹͺ ‡ Ǥȏ‹–‡”•‘ˆ‡Ȑ

•‡–Š‡…‘˜‡”•‹‘‘ˆ—‹–•ǣ ͳ ‡ ͳǤ͸Ͳʹ ˜ ͳͲͳͻ     (1.5points)



Solutions:

S1. ‘•‹†‡” ƒ ’‘•‹–‹˜‡ ‹‘ ‹ –Š‡ ƒŽ ‹• •—””‘—†‡† „› ʹ͸ ‡‹‰Š„‘”• ȋ•‡‡ ‹‰ǤͳȌǤ Š‡ ˆ‹”•–
‰”‘—’‘ˆ͸‡ƒ”‡•–̶…‡–”ƒŽ̶‡‹‰Š„‘”•Šƒ˜‡‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡…Šƒ”‰‡•ǤŠ‡›ƒ”‡Ž‘…ƒ–‡†‹†‹•–ƒ…‡r
ˆ”‘–Š‡…‘•‹†‡”‡†‹‘ƒ†–Š‡‹”…‘–”‹„—–‹‘‹•ƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡ǣ
ʹ
e
VͲ̵ ȋ r Ȍ ͸ ˜ k 
r

Š‡ ‡š– ‰”‘—’ ‘ˆ ̶…‡–”ƒŽ̶ ‡‹‰Š„‘”• ƒ”‡ ͳʹ ‹‘• •–ƒ†‹‰ ‹ †‹•–ƒ…‡ r  r
ʹ ʹ
ʹr Ǥ ŽŽ
–Š‡›Šƒ˜‡’‘•‹–‹˜‡…Šƒ”‰‡ƒ†ƒ…–”‡’—Ž•‹˜‡Ž›
ʹ
ͳʹ e
VͲ̶ ȋr Ȍ  ˜k 
ʹ r
ʹ ʹ ʹ
ƒ•‹Ž› –‘ ‰—‡•• –Šƒ– –Š‡ ̶˜‡”–‡š̶ ͺ ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ‹‘• •–ƒ†‹‰ ‹ †‹•–ƒ…‡ r  r  r ͵r 
’”‘†—…‡ƒƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǣ
ʹ
ͺ e
VͲ̵̵̵ ȋ r Ȍ  ˜k 
͵ r
ƒ˜‹‰†‘‡•—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡•‡…‘–”‹„—–‹‘•ǡ™‡‘„–ƒ‹–Š‡œ‡”‘Ǧ‘”†‡”‘—Ž‘„’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ
ʹ
e
VͲ ȋ r Ȍ VͲ̵ ȋr Ȍ  VͲ̶ ȋ r Ȍ  VͲ̵̵̵ ȋ r Ȍ D Ͳ ˜ k 
r
™Š‡”‡–Š‡ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡ƒ†‡Ž—‰…‘•–ƒ–”‡ƒ†•

––––––– xv –––––––
The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

ͳʹ ͺ
DͲ ͸  | ʹǤͳ͵Ͷ
 ʹ ͵
S2.Š‡‡–’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹•–Š‡•—‘ˆƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡ƒ†”‡’—Ž•‹˜‡‡š’‘‡–‹ƒŽ’ƒ”–•ƒ†”‡ƒ†•
ʹ
e
D ˜ k  O ˜e
r ȀU
Vͳ ȋr Ȍ Vƒ––  V”‡’ͳ 
r
Š‡…‘†‹–‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—’‘•‹–‹‘”= r0 ‹•

O
ʹ
dVͳ e  rͲ Ȁ U
F ȋrͲ Ȍ ȋrͲ Ȍ D ˜ k  e Ͳ
U
ʹ
dr rͲ

Š‡ǡ r0 ƒ›„‡†‡ˆ‹‡†ˆ”‘

D ˜k ˜e
ʹ
 rͲ Ȁ U
e U˜ 
O ˜ rͲ
ʹ

Š‡‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹•ǣ
e § U·
ʹ

Vͳ ȋ rͲ Ȍ D ˜ k ¨ ͳ ¸
rͲ © rͲ ¹
S3.Š‡†‹••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰›…‘””‡•’‘†‹‰–‘ƒ‹‘ȋ’ƒ‹”‘ˆƒ–‘•Ȍ‹•

E †‹• Ǧ͹͸Ͷ  Ȁ‘Ž ͳͺ
E ’ƒ‹” α α ʹʹ
| ͳǤʹ͸ͻ ˜ ͳͲ
N ͸ǤͲʹʹ ˜ ͳͲ ͳȀ‘Ž


Š‹•‡‡”‰›™‹ŽŽ„‡•’‡––‘‘˜‡”…‘‡–Š‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ
e § U·
ʹ

E ’ƒ‹” Vͳ ȋ rͲ Ȍ k ˜ D ¨ ͳ ¸
rͲ © rͲ ¹

Š‡ǡ
U rͲ E pair ͲǤʹͺʹ ˜ ͳͲ ˜ ͳǤʹ͸ͻ ˜ ͳͲ
ͻ ͳͺ

ͳ |ͳ | ͲǤͳͳʹǤǤǤ 
kD e
ʹ ʹ
rͲ ͻ
ͻ ˜ ͳͲ ˜ ͳǤ͹Ͷ͹͸ ˜ ͳǤ͸ ˜ ͳͲ
ͳͻ

—„•‡“—‡–Ž›ǡ
U ͲǤͳͳʹ ˜ rͲ | ͲǤͲ͵ͳ͸ ˜ ͳͲ  









––––––– xvi –––––––


Problems & Solutions

Š‹•”‡•—Ž–‹•‹‰‘‘†ƒ‰”‡‡‡–™‹–Š‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ†ƒ–ƒȋ•‡‡ƒ„Ž‡ʹȌǤ

Table2.PropertiesofSaltCrystalswiththeNaCl
”›•–ƒŽ UȋȌ ”ȋȌ E †‹• ȋ Ȁ‘ŽȌ 
ƒŽ ͲǤͲ͵ʹ ͲǤʹͺʹ Ǧ͹͸ͶǤͶ
‹  ͲǤͲʹͻ ͲǤʹͳͶ ǦͳͲͳͶǤͲ
„” ͲǤͲ͵Ͷ ͲǤ͵Ͷͷ Ǧ͸͵ͺǤͺ

–”—…–—”‡ȏǤ‹––‡Žǡ̶ –”‘†—…–‹‘–‘‘Ž‹†–ƒ–‡Š›•‹…•̶ǡǤǤǡ‹Ž‡›ȋͳͻ͹͸Ȍ’ǤͻʹȐ

S4.Š‡”‡’—Ž•‹˜‡‹˜‡”•‡Ǧ’‘™‡”’ƒ”–Ž‡ƒ†•–‘–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰‡–’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ
ʹ
e b
Vʹ ȋr Ȍ Vatt  Vrep ʹ D ˜ k  n

r r
Š‡‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—’‘•‹–‹‘”= r0 ‹•†‡ˆ‹‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡œ‡”‘Ǧˆ‘”…‡…‘†‹–‹‘
ʹ
dVʹ ȋrͲ Ȍ e nb
F ȋ rͲ Ȍ D ˜ k ʹ
 n ͳ
Ͳ
dr rͲ rͲ

Š‡‡“—ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘” r0 ”‡ƒ†•

n ͳ b˜n
rͲ 
D ˜k ˜e
ʹ

Š‡ǡ
§ͳ  ͳ · 
ʹ
e
Vʹ ȋrͲ Ȍ D ˜ k ¨ ¸
rͲ © n¹

S5.‘’ƒ”‹‰™‹–Š’”‡˜‹‘—•”‡•—Ž–ȋ•‡‡S3ƒ†S4Ȍ™‡‡š’”‡••–Š‡‘”‡š’‘‡–
rͲ ͳ
n | | ͻ
U ͲǤͳͳʹ
Š‡ ‘—Ž‘„ ƒ† –Š‡ ƒ—Ž‹ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ• …‘–”‹„—–‡ …‘–”‹„—–‡• –‘ –Š‡ ‡– ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ ™‹–Š ƒ
’”‘’‘”–‹‘ͳǣͳȀͻǤŠ‹•”‡•—Ž–ƒ‰”‡‡•™‡ŽŽ™‹–Š‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ†ƒ–ƒȋ•‡‡ǡƒ„Ž‡͵ȌǤ


Table3.TheexperimentalfitfortheBornexponent.
‘–›’‡ 

Na ǡ F 
 ͹


K ǡ Cu ǡ Cl 
  ͻ


Au ǡ I 
 ͳʹ

ȏ ƒ†„‘‘‘ˆŠ›•‹…•ǡʹͲͲͶȐ

––––––– xvii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad


S6.Š‡‹‘‹œƒ–‹‘‡‡”‰›‘ˆ–Š‡ƒƒ–‘‹•ΪͷǤͳͶ‡™Š‹Ž‡–Š‡‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒˆˆ‹‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡Žƒ–‘
‹•Ǧ͵Ǥ͸ͳ‡Ǥ—„•‡“—‡–Ž›ǡ–Š‡‡Ž‡…–”‘–”ƒ•ˆ‡”‡‡”‰›’‡”ƒ–‘‹•–Š‡ŠƒŽˆ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡
ͷǤͳͶ  ͵Ǥ͸ͳ
E –”ƒ• |
‡ | ͲǤ͹͹ ‡ 
ʹ
Š‡–‘–ƒŽ„‹†‹‰‡‡”‰›’‡”ƒ–‘‹–Š‡ƒŽ…”›•–ƒŽ‹•ǣ

E pair ǦͳǤʹ͸ͻ ˜ ͳͲ
ͳͺ
ͳͻ ͲǤͷͳͳ ˜ ͳͲ
ͳͺ

E bind  E –”ƒ•  ͳǤʹ͵ʹ ˜ ͳͲ  ͳͻ
| ͵Ǥͳͻ ‡ 
ʹ ʹ ͳǤ͸Ͳʹ ˜ ͳͲ Ȁ‡

Š‹•‡•–‹ƒ–‡‹•‹•ƒ–‹•ˆƒ…–‘”›ƒ‰”‡‡‡–™‹–Š–Š‡‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ”‡•—Ž–
E ‡š’ | ͵Ǥʹͺ ‡ 
[MarkingScheme] ‘‹…”›•–ƒŽǡ—ƒ™ƒǦ–›’‡‘–‡–‹ƒŽƒ†ƒ—Ž‹”‹…‹’Ž‡

Q Item Answer Points
1. ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡ e
ʹ 0.5
‘—Ž‘„ VͲ ȋ r Ȍ VͲ̵ ȋ r Ȍ  VͲ̶ ȋ r Ȍ  VͲ̵̵̵ ȋ r Ȍ D Ͳ ˜ k 
r
’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ
ƒ†‡Ž—‰ ͳʹ ͺ 1.0
…‘•–ƒ– DͲ ͸  | ʹǤͳ͵Ͷ 
ʹ ͵
2. “—‹Ž‹„”‹— dVͳ ȋrͲ Ȍ e
ʹ
O 0.5
 rͲ Ȁ U
’‘•‹–‹‘ F ȋrͲ Ȍ D ˜ k  e Ͳ
U
ʹ
dr rͲ
‡–’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ e ª
ʹ
Uº 1.0
Vͳ ȋ rͲ Ȍ D ˜ k « ͳ »
rͲ ¬ rͲ ¼
3. ƒ‹”‡‡”‰› E †‹• Ǧ͹͸Ͷ  Ȁ‘Ž 0.2
ͳͺ
E ’ƒ‹” α α ʹʹ
| ͳǤʹ͸ͻ ˜ ͳͲ 
N ͸ǤͲʹʹ ˜ ͳͲ ͳȀ‘Ž
“—ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘” e ª
ʹ
Uº 0.9
’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ E ’ƒ‹” Vͳ ȋ rͲ Ȍ  kD « ͳ »
rͲ ¬ rͲ ¼
“—ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘” U rͲ E ’ƒ‹” ͻ
ͲǤʹͺʹ ˜ ͳͲ ˜ ͳǤʹ͸ͻ ˜ ͳͲ
ͳͺ 0.8
”ƒ‰‡ ͳ |ͳ | ͲǤͳͳʹǤǤǤ 
kD e
ʹ ʹ
rͲ ͻ
ͻ ˜ ͳͲ ˜ ͳǤ͹Ͷ͹͸ ˜ ͳǤ͸ ˜ ͳͲ
ͳͻ

’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”
ƒ‰‡ U ͲǤͳͳʹ ˜ rͲ | ͲǤͲ͵ͳ͸ ˜ ͳͲ

 0.1
’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”
4. “—‹Ž‹„”‹— dVʹ ȋrͲ Ȍ e
ʹ
nb 0.5
’‘•‹–‹‘ F ȋ rͲ Ȍ D ˜ k ʹ
 n ͳ
Ͳ
dr rͲ rͲ

––––––– xviii –––––––


Problems & Solutions

 “—ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘” n ͳ b˜n 0.5


rͲ 
r0  D ˜k ˜e
ʹ

‡–’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ 1.0
ªͳ  ͳ º 
ʹ
e
Vʹ ȋrͲ Ȍ D ˜ k
rͲ «¬ n »¼
5. ‘” rͲ ͳ 1.5
‡š’‘‡– n | | ͻ
U ͲǤͳͳʹ
6. Ž‡…–”‘ ͷǤͳͶ  ͵Ǥ͸ͳ 0.5
–”ƒ•ˆ‡” E –”ƒ• | ‡ | ͲǤ͹͹ ‡ 
ʹ
‡‡”‰›
Š‡–‘–ƒŽ E ’ƒ‹” ǦͳǤʹ͸ͻ ˜ ͳͲ
ͳͺ
1.0
„‹†‹‰ E „‹†  E –”ƒ• ͳͻ
 ͲǤ͹͹ ‡  ͵Ǥͳͻ ‡
ʹ ʹ ˜ ͳǤ͸Ͳʹ ˜ ͳͲ Ȁ‡
‡‡”‰›

total 10.0


 

––––––– xix –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad



Theoreticalproblem3.Howdoesasuperluminalobjectlook
like?

ƒƒ„‘†›‘˜‡ˆƒ•–‡”–Šƒ–Š‡•’‡‡†‘ˆŽ‹‰Š–ǫŠ‡ƒ•™‡”‹•Dz‘dz‹ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–‹•‘˜‹‰‹
–Š‡ ˜ƒ…——Ǥ —– –Š‡ ƒ•™‡” …ƒ „‡ Dz‡•dzǡ ‹ˆ ™‡ †‡ƒŽ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ’Šƒ•‡ •’‡‡† ‘ˆ Ž‹‰Š– ‹ ƒ
‘’–‹…ƒŽŽ› †‡•‡ ‡†‹— ™‹–Š ”‡ˆ”ƒ…–‹˜‡ ‹†‡š ‘ˆ݊ȋ݊ ൌ ܿȀ‫ݑ‬ǡ ™Š‡”‡‫‹ –Š‰‹Ž ˆ‘ †‡‡’• ‡Š– •‹ݑ‬
–Š‡‡†‹—ǡƒ†ܿ ‹•–Š‡•’‡‡†‘ˆŽ‹‰Š–‹–Š‡˜ƒ…——ȌǤ
‡ •ƒ› ƒ „‘†› ‹• •—’‡”Ž—‹ƒŽǡ ‹ˆ‫ ݑ‬൏ ‫ ݒ‬൏ ܿ ǡ ™Š‡”‡‫›†‘„ ‡Š– ˆ‘ ›–‹…‘Ž‡˜ ‡Š– •‹ ݒ‬Ǥ ‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡
™‡ŽŽ ‘™ ‡šƒ’Ž‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ •—’‡”Ž—‹ƒŽ „‘†› ‹• ƒ …Šƒ”‰‡† ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‰ Š‡”‡‘˜
”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

Š”‘—‰Š‘—––Š‡ ’”‘„Ž‡ ™‡ ™‹ŽŽ †‡ƒŽ ™‹–Šƒ •—’‡”Ž—‹ƒŽ „‘†›‘ˆ…‘•–ƒ– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‫ƒ ‹ ݒ‬
‘’–‹…ƒŽ‡†‹—™‹–Š‘—–†‹•’‡”•‹‘Ǥu‹•–Š‡˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‘ˆŽ‹‰Š–‹–Š‡‡†‹—Ǥ
ͳ
‘” –Š‡ •‹’Ž‹…‹–›ǡ ™‡ ‹–”‘†—…‡ ƒ ‘–ƒ–‹‘ H   ƒ† ƒ ƒ‰Ž‡ߠ ‰‹˜‡ „›
ͳ  ȋV Ȁ c Ȍʹ


…‘• ߠ ൌ ‫ݑ‬Ȁ‫ ƒ– †ƒݒ‬R   ͳ Ǥ


1.Radiatingsuperluminalparticle
• •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰Ǥͳǡ ƒ ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‰ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‹• ‘˜‹‰ ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ ‫ ݔ‬Ǧ ƒš‹• ™‹–Š ƒ …‘•–ƒ– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›
‫ݒ‬ȋ‫ ݒ‬൐ ‫ݑ‬ȌǤ
‘„•‡”˜‡”M‹•Ž‘…ƒ–‡†ƒ––Š‡†‹•–ƒ…‡݀ ˆ”‘‫ ݔ‬Ǧƒš‹•Ǥ
‡…Š‘‘•‡–Š‡’‘‹–‡ƒ”‡•––‘–Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡”ƒ•–Š‡’‘‹–O,–Š‡‘”‹‰‹‘–Š‡xǦƒš‹•ǤŠ‡–‹‡
™Š‡–Š‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ƒ…–—ƒŽŽ›’ƒ••‡•‘˜‡”–Š‡’‘‹–xαͲ‹•–ƒ‡–‘„‡tαͲǤ








Figure 1.


1) —’’‘•‡ –Š‡ Ž‹‰Š– ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‡† ƒ– –Š‡ ‰‹˜‡ –‹‡‫ݐ‡‹– –ƒ †‡˜”‡•„‘ •‹‘ݐ‬Ǥ š’”‡••‫‹ݐ‬
–‡”•‘ˆ݀ǡ ‫ ݐ‬ᇱ ǡ‫ݒ†ƒݑ‬Ǥ      (1.0point)


––––––– xx –––––––
Problems & Solutions

2) – –‹‡‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫ݐ‬଴ ǡ –Š‡ ‘„•‡”˜‡” ˆ‹”•– •‡‡• –Š‡ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ƒ– ’‘•‹–‹‘ ‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ Ǥ ‹† –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡–
’‘•‹–‹‘‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ ƒ†–Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡†–‹‡‫ݐ‬଴ ˆ‘”–Š‹•ˆ‹”•–ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‹–‡”•‘ˆ݀ǡ ‫ߠ†ƒݒ‬Ǥ
        (2.0points)

3) ‹† –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ’‘•‹–‹‘ȋ•Ȍ‫ ‡‹– ‡˜‹‰ ›ƒ ”‘ˆ ‡Ž…‹–”ƒ’ ‡Š– ˆ‘’ݔ‬t. ”‹–‡ ›‘—”
ƒ•™‡”‹–‡”•‘ˆ‫ݒ‬ǡ ߠǡ ‫ݐ†ƒݐ‬଴ Ǥ     (2.0points)

4) ‹† –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȋ•Ȍ‫’ݒ‬ȋ–Ȍ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ˆ‘” ƒ› ‰‹˜‡ –‹‡ t.”‹–‡ ›‘—”
ƒ•™‡”‹–‡”•‘ˆ‫ݒ‬ǡ ߠǡ ‫ݐ‬ǡƒ†‫ݐ‬଴ .     (1.0point)

5) ‹†–Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȋ•Ȍ‫‡Ž…‹–”ƒ’‡Š–ˆ‘‡…ƒ”ƒ‡’’ƒ–•”‹ˆ‡Š–ˆ‘’ݒ‬Ǥ
        (0.2points)

6) ‹†–Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȋ•Ȍ‫‹‰‹”‘‡Š–‘”ˆ•‡…ƒ–•‹†‡–‹‹ˆ‹–ƒ‡Ž…‹–”ƒ’‡Š–ˆ‘’ݒ‬ǡOǤ
”‹–‡›‘—”ƒ•™‡”‹–‡”•‘ˆ‫ݑ†ƒ ݒ‬Ǥ    (0.2points)

7) ‡–…Š –Š‡ ‰”ƒ’Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‫ ݒ‬ᇱ ˜‡”•—• –‹‡ tǡ ‹†‹…ƒ–‹‰ …Ž‡ƒ”Ž› –Š‡
ƒ•›’–‘–‹…˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›Ǥ   (1.0point)

8) ƒƒƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‡š…‡‡†–Š‡Ž‹‰Š–•’‡‡†‹–Š‡˜ƒ…——ǡ‹Ǥ‡Ǥ‫ݒ‬Ԣ ൐ ܿ ǫ
        (0.2points)

2.Radiatinglinearobject
‘•‹†‡”ƒŽ‹‡ƒ”‘„Œ‡…–ǡ”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‰Ž‹‰Š–ƒ†‘˜‹‰ƒŽ‘‰–Š‡ xǦƒš‹•ǤŠ‡Ž‡‰–Š‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‹‡ƒ”
‘„Œ‡…–‹•‫–…‡Œ„‘‡Š–ˆ‘‡ƒ”ˆ–•‡”‡Š–‹ܮ‬Ǥ

A.Parallelmovement
–Š‹••‡…–‹‘ǡ™‡ƒ••—‡–Šƒ––Š‡”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‰Ž‹‡ƒ”‘„Œ‡…–‘˜‡•Ž‘‰‹–—†‹ƒŽŽ›ƒŽ‘‰xǦƒš‹•ƒ•
•Š‘™‹ ‹‰ǤʹǤ









Figure 2.

9) ‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡–‹‡‹–‡”˜ƒŽ‘ˆ…‘’Ž‡–‡ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡™Š‘Ž‡Ž‹‡ƒ”‘„Œ‡…–ˆ”‘
–Š‡ˆ‹”•–ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ‹–•ˆ”‘–’‘‹–Ǥ”‹–‡›‘—”ƒ•™‡”‹–‡”•‘ˆ‫ܮ‬ǡ ߛƒ†‫ ݒ‬.
         (0.3points)

––––––– xxi –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

10) ‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– Ž‡‰–Šȋ•Ȍ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘„Œ‡…– ƒ– –Š‡ ‘‡– ‘ˆ ‹–• …‘’Ž‡–‡
ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡Ǥ”‹–‡›‘—”ƒ•™‡”‹–‡”•‘ˆ݀ǡ ‫ܮ‬ǡ ߠƒ†ߛǤ  (0.4points)

Perpendicularmovement
–Š‹••‡…–‹‘ǡ™‡ƒ••—‡–Šƒ––Š‡”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‰Ž‹‡ƒ”‘„Œ‡…–‘˜‡•’‡”’‡†‹…—Žƒ”Ž›ƒŽ‘‰xǦƒš‹•
ƒ• •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰Ǥ͵Ǥ ‡– –Š‡ ‘„•‡”˜‡” „‡ Ž‘…ƒ–‡† ƒ– –Š‡ ‘”‹‰‹ ‘ˆ‫ ݔ‬Ǧƒš‹•ሺ݀ ൌ ͲሻǤ Š‡ ‘„Œ‡…– ‹•
•›‡–”‹…ƒŽ™‹–Š”‡•’‡…––‘xǦƒš‹•Ǥ









 Figure 3.
11) Š‘™–Šƒ–ˆ‘”ƒ‰‹˜‡–‹‡‫ݐ‬ǡ–Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–ˆ‘”‘ˆ–Š‹•‘„Œ‡…–‹•ƒ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡‘”’ƒ”–ȋ•Ȍ‘ˆ
ƒ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡Ǥ       (0.7points)

12) ‹† –Š‡ ’‘•‹–‹‘‫ݔ‬௖ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‡–”‡ ‘ˆ •›‡–”› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡ ˆ‘” ƒ ‰‹˜‡ –‹‡ ‫‹ݐ‬
–‡”•‘ˆ‫ݒ‬ǡ ߠƒ†‫ݐ‬Ǥ      (0.5points)

13) ‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ Ž‡‰–Š• ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‡‹ǦƒŒ‘” ƒ† •‡‹Ǧ‹‘” ƒš‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡ ˆ‘” ƒ
‰‹˜‡–‹‡‫ݒˆ‘•”‡–‹ݐ‬ǡ ߠ ƒ†‫ݐ‬Ǥ    (0.5points)
 

––––––– xxii –––––––


Problems & Solutions

Answer

1.Radiatingsuperluminaldot

(1)š’”‡••‹‘‘ˆ‫݀ˆ‘•”‡–‹ݐ‬ǡ ‫ ݐ‬ᇱ ǡ‫ݒ†ƒݑ‬ǤƲ
‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫ݐ‬Ԣ ൅ ඥ݀ ଶ ൅ ሺ‫ݐݒ‬Ԣሻଶ Ȁ‫ݑ‬ ͳǤͲ

ˆ–Š‡ƒ•™‡”‹•‘–…‘””‡…–™‡ƒ”ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
x ͲǤ͵’‘‹–•ˆ‘”–Š‡‹†‡ƒ‘ˆ–‹‡†‡Žƒ›ο‫ݐ‬
x ΪͲǤʹ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”…‘””‡…–ˆ‘”…‘””‡…–˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆο‫ݐ‬
x ͲǤ͵’‘‹–•ˆ‘”–Š‡ˆ‘”—Žƒ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ᇱ ൅ ο‫ݐ‬Ǥ

(2)Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–’‘•‹–‹‘‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ ‹–‡”•‘ˆ݀ ƒ†ߠǤ
‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ ൌ െ݀…‘–ߠ ͳǤͲ

Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡†–‹‡‫ݐ‬଴ ‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‹”•–ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‹–‡”•‘ˆ݀ǡ ‫ߴ†ƒݒ‬Ǥ
݀ ͳǤͲ
‫ݐ‬଴ ൌ –ƒɅ
‫ݒ‬

ˆ–Š‡ƒ•™‡”‹•‘–…‘””‡…–™‡ƒ”ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
x ͲǤͷ ’‘‹–• ˆ‘” –Š‡ …‘””‡…– —†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ ‘ˆ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ƒ† ”‡ƒŽ ’‘•‹–‹‘•
ȋ‹Ǥ‡ǡˆ‘”‫ ’ݔ‬ൌ ‫’ݐݒ‬ǡ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݐݒ‬ሻ
x ͲǤͷˆ‘”ƒ›…‘””‡…–‹†‡ƒƒ†ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…•‘ˆ–”›‹‰–‘ˆ‹†–Š‡‹‹—‘ˆt.
x ͲǤͷ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”–Š‡…‘””‡…–˜ƒŽ—‡‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ 
x ͲǤͷ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”…‘””‡…–˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ‫ݐ‬଴ 

(3)Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–’‘•‹–‹‘ȋ•Ȍ‫’ݔ‬ȋ–Ȍ‹–‡”•‘ˆ‫ݒ‬ǡ ߠǡ ‫ݐ†ƒݐ‬଴ Ǥ

‫ݔ‬ାᇱ ൌ ‫ –‘…ݒ‬ଶ ߠ ቆെ‫ ݐ‬൅ …‘• ିଵ ߠ ට‫ ݐ‬ଶ െ ‫ݐ‬଴ ଶ ቇ


ʹǤͲ
ȋͳǤͲˆ‘”‡ƒ…ŠȌ
‫ିݔ‬ᇱ ൌ ‫ –‘…ݒ‬ଶ ߠ ቆെ‫ ݐ‬െ …‘• ିଵ ߠ ට‫ ݐ‬ଶ െ ‫ݐ‬଴ ଶ ቇ


ˆ–Š‡ƒ•™‡”‹•‘–…‘””‡…–™‡ƒ”ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ

x ͲǤʹ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”‫ ’ݔ‬ൌ ‫’ݐݒ‬


x ͲǤ͵’‘‹–•ˆ‘”–Š‡…‘””‡…–ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…•‘ˆ•‘Ž˜‹‰“—ƒ†”ƒ–‹…‡“—ƒ–‹‘
x ˆ‘”–Š‡‹†‡ƒ‘ˆƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ–™‘’‘‹–••‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‰ƒ™ƒ›



 ––––––– xxiii –––––––
The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

(4)Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȋ•Ȍ‫’ݒ‬ȋ–Ȍ‹–‡”•‘ˆ‫ݒ‬ǡ ߠǡ ‫ݐ†ƒݐ‬଴ Ǥ
‫ݒ‬ାᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ –‘… ݒ‬ଶ ߠ൛െͳ ൅ ͳȀൣ…‘•ߠඥͳ െ ሺ‫ݐ‬଴ Ȁ‫ݐ‬ሻଶ ൧ൟ ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ ൅ ‫•‹šƒ ݔ‬ ͳǤͲ
‫ିݒ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ଶ
ൌ ‫ߠ –‘… ݒ‬൛െͳ െ ͳȀൣ…‘•ߠඥͳ െ ሺ‫ݐ‬଴ Ȁ‫ݐ‬ሻଶ ൧ൟ ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ െ ‫•‹šƒ ݔ‬ ȋ‡ƒ…ŠͲǤͷȌ
ˆ–Š‡ƒ•™‡”‹•‘–…‘””‡…–™‡ƒ”ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
x ͲǤʹ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”…‘””‡…–†‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘‘ˆ‫ ’ݒ‬ൌ ݀‫’ݔ‬Ȁ݀‫ݐ‬

(5)Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȋ•Ȍ‫‡Ž…‹–”ƒ’‡Š–ˆ‘‡…ƒ”ƒ‡’’ƒ–•”‹ˆ‡Š–ˆ‘’ݒ‬
‫ݒ‬ାᇱ ൌ െοƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ ൅ ‫•‹šƒ ݔ‬ ͲǤʹ
‫ିݒ‬ᇱ ൌ ο ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ െ ‫•‹šƒݔ‬ ȋ‡ƒ…ŠͲǤͳȌ
‡ƒ”‘Ž›ˆ‘”…‘””‡…–˜ƒŽ—‡ȋ•ȌǤ

(6)Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȋ•Ȍ‫ݑ†ƒ ݒ ˆ‘•”‡–‹•‡…ƒ–•‹†‡–‹‹ˆ‹–ƒ‡Ž…‹–”ƒ’‡Š–ˆ‘’ݒ‬
‫ݒ‬ାᇱ ൌ ‫ݑݒ‬Ȁሺ‫ ݒ‬൅ ‫ݑ‬ሻ = u/(ͳ+…‘•Ʌ)ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ ൅ ‫•‹šƒ ݔ‬ ͲǤʹ

‫  ିݒ‬ൌ െ‫ݑݒ‬Ȁሺ‫ ݒ‬െ ‫ݑ‬ሻ=Ǧu/(ͳǦ…‘•Ʌ)ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ െ ‫•‹šƒ ݔ‬ ȋ‡ƒ…ŠͲǤͳȌ
‡ƒ”‘Ž›ˆ‘”…‘””‡…–˜ƒŽ—‡ȋ•ȌǤ

(7) Š‡ ‰”ƒ’Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‫ ݒ‬ᇱ ˜‡”•—• –‹‡ tǤ ȋ‡‡„‡” –‘ ™”‹–‡ †‘™ –Š‡
ƒ•›’–‘–‹…˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȌǤ









ͳǤͲ









ˆ‰”ƒ’Š‹•†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆ”‘–Š‡…‘””‡…–‘‡ǡ™‡ƒ”–Š‡•‡–…Š‘ˆ‰”ƒ’Šƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
x ͲǤʹ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”‡ƒ…Š…‘””‡…–ƒ•›’–‘–‡•
x ǦͲǤͳ’‘‹–•ȋˆ‹‡Ȍˆ‘”ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ™”‘‰ƒ•›’–‘–‡•



––––––– xxiv –––––––


Problems & Solutions

(8)  ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›  Ȁ  ‡š…‡‡† –Š‡ Ž‹‰Š– •’‡‡† ‹ –Š‡ ˜ƒ…——Ǥ ‹”…Ž‡ –Š‡
…‘””‡…–ƒ•™‡”Ǥ
ƒ ͲǤʹ
ƒ‘–

2.Radiatinglinearobject

A.Parallelmovement

(9) Š‡ –‹‡ ‹–‡”˜ƒŽ ‘ˆ …‘’Ž‡–‡ ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ™Š‘Ž‡ Ž‹‡ƒ” ‘„Œ‡…– ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ˆ‹”•–
ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ‹–•ˆ”‘–’‘‹–Ǥȋ‹–‡”•‘ˆǡ ɀƒ†˜Ȍ
ο‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫ܮ‬Ȁሺߛ‫ݒ‬ሻ ͲǤ͵
ˆ–Š‡ƒ•™‡”‹•‘–…‘””‡…–™‡ƒ”ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
x ͲǤͳ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”ȋŽ‡‰–ŠȀ‫ ݒ‬Ȍ
x ͲǤʹ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”‘”‡–œƒ––”ƒ…–‹‘

(10)Š‡ƒ’’ƒ”‡–Ž‡‰–Šȋ•Ȍ‘ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–ƒ––Š‡‘‡–‘ˆ‹–•…‘’Ž‡–‡ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡Ǥ
ȋ‹–‡”•‘ˆ݀ǡ ‫ܮ‬ǡ ߠ ƒ†ߛȌ

‫ –‘…ܮ‬ଶ ߠ ʹ݀ߛ –ƒ ߠ


‫ܮ‬ା ൌ ቌ…‘• ିଵ ߠ ඨͳ ൅ ൅ ͳቍ
ߛ ‫ܮ‬ 
ͲǤͶ
‫ –‘…ܮ‬ଶ ߠ ʹ݀ߛ –ƒ ߠ ȋ‡ƒ…ŠͲǤʹȌ
‫ ିܮ‬ൌ ቌ…‘• ିଵ ߠ ඨͳ ൅ െ ͳቍ
ߛ ‫ܮ‬

ˆ–Š‡ƒ•™‡”‹•‘–…‘””‡…–™‡ƒ”ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
x ͲǤʹ’‘‹–•ˆ‘”–Š‡‹†‡ƒȁ‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬଴ ൅ ο‫ݐ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬଴ ሻȁ

B.Perpendicularmovement

(11) Š‘™ –Šƒ– –Š‡ š ƒ† › …‘‘”†‹ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ ƒ› ‰‹˜‡ ’‘‹– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘„Œ‡…– •ƒ–‹•ˆ› ƒ ‡ŽŽ‹’–‹…
‡“—ƒ–‹‘
ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ‫ݔ‬௖ ሻଶ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ
൅ ଶ ൌ ͳ
ܽଶ ܾ
ͲǤͷ
’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–‹•ƒ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡™Š‡ȁ‫ݕ‬ȁ ൑ ‫ܮ‬Ȁʹ
’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–‹•ƒ”…•‘ˆ–Š‡‡ŽŽ‹’•‡™Š‡ȁ‫ݕ‬ȁ ൐ ‫ܮ‬Ȁʹ
‡‰‹˜‡ˆ—ŽŽƒ”–‘–Š‡•–—†‡–™Š‘”‡…‘‰‹œ‡†ƒ†•–ƒ–‡†–Šƒ––Š‡ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–
‹•ƒ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡™Š‡‫ ݕ‬൑ ‫ܮ‬Ȁʹƒ†–™‘•‡‰‡–•‘ˆ–Š‡‡ŽŽ‹’•‡™Š‡‫ ݕ‬൐ ‫ܮ‬ȀʹǤ
x ͲǤ͵’‘‹–•ˆ‘”…‘””‡…–ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…•‘ˆ‰‡––‹‰–Š‡‡ŽŽ‹’•‡‡“—ƒ–‹‘




––––––– xxv –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

(12)Š‡’‘•‹–‹‘‫ݔ‬௖ ‘ˆ–Š‡…‡–”‡‘ˆ•›‡–”›‘ˆ–Š‡‡ŽŽ‹’•‡‹–‡”•‘ˆ‫ݒ‬ǡ ‫ߠ†ƒݐ‬Ǥ


‫ݔ‬௖ ൌ െ‫ –‘…ݐݒ‬ଶ ߠ ͲǤͷ
x ͲǤͶ ’‘‹–• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ƒ•™‡” ™‹–Š ƒ……‹†‡– ‡””‘” ‘ˆ ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…• ‘–Š‡”™‹•‡ …‘””‡…–Ǥ

Š‡Ž‡‰–Š•‘ˆ–Š‡•‡‹ǦƒŒ‘”ƒ†•‡‹Ǧ‹‘”ƒš‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡ŽŽ‹’•‡‹–‡”•‘ˆ‫ݒ‬ǡ ‫ߠ†ƒݐ‬Ǥ
…‘•ߠ
ܽ ൌ ‫ ݐݒ‬ଶ 
•‹ ߠ ͲǤͷ
ܾ ൌ ‫ߠ–‘… ݐݒ‬
ͲǤͳ ’‘‹–• ˆ‘” –Š‡ ƒ•™‡” ™‹–Š ƒ……‹†‡– ‡””‘” ‘ˆ ƒ–Š‡ƒ–‹…• ‘–Š‡”™‹•‡ …‘””‡…– ˆ‘” ‡ƒ…Š ‘ˆ
•‡‹Ǧ‹‘”ƒ†•‡‹Ǧ‹‘”ƒš‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‡ŽŽ‹’•‡Ǥ


 

––––––– xxvi –––––––


Problems & Solutions

Solution3.Howdoesasuperluminalobjectlooklike?

‡–ƒŽ‹‰Š–‡‹––‡†ƒ––‹‡‫ ݐ‬ᇱ ƒ†’‘•‹–‹‘‫ݔ‬Ԣ„‡‘„•‡”˜‡†ƒ––‹‡‫ݐ‬ǡ’ƒ••‹‰ξ݀ ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬Ԣଶ †‹•–ƒ…‡
ƒ–•’‡‡†‘ˆ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ܿȀ݊ƒ••‡‡‹ ‹‰ǤͳǤ









Figure 1.

ˆ ™‡ …Š‘‘•‡ –Š‡ ‘”‹‰‹ ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘‘”†‹ƒ–‡ –‘ „‡ xȋt=ͲȌαͲǡ –Š‡ –Š‡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡
‹ŽŽ—‹ƒ–‹‰†‘–‹•‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݐݒ‬Ԣǡ™Š‹Ž‡–Š‡ƒ…–—ƒŽ’‘•‹–‹‘‹•‫ݔ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݐݒ‬ǤŠ‡”‡ˆ‘”‡

ଵ ଵ
‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ᇱ ൅ ξ݀ ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬Ԣଶ ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ᇱ ൅ ඥ݀ ଶ ൅ ሺ‫ݐݒ‬Ԣሻଶ ǤȋͳȌȏƒ•ͳȐ
௨ ௨

‰”ƒ’Š‘ˆ–Š‡“ǤȋͳȌ‹•’Ž‘––‡†‹ ‹‰ǤʹǤ‡‘–‡–Šƒ– ‫ݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ǯሻisƒ‘‘–‘‹…ˆ—…–‹‘™Š‡
‫ ݒ‬൑ ‫ݑ‬,™Š‹Ž‡‫ݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ǯሻ‹•ƒ…‘…ƒ˜‡ˆ—…–‹‘ˆ‘”•—’‡”Ž—‹ƒŽ‘–‹‘ȋ‫ ݒ‬൐ ‫ݑ‬ȌǤ

















Figure 2.


 ––––––– xxvii –––––––
The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

…ƒ•‡‘ˆ•—’‡”Ž—‹ƒŽ‘–‹‘–Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡”•‡‡•‘–Š‹‰™Š‹Ž‡ ‫ ݐ‬൏ ‫ݐ‬଴ ǡƒ†ƒ†‘–ˆ‹”•–ƒ’’‡ƒ”•


ƒ– –‹‡‫ݐ‬଴ ȋƒ• ͳȌǡ ™Š‡”‡‫ݐ‬଴ •ƒ–‹•ˆ‹‡• –Š‡ ‹‹— ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘‫ݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ǯሻ‘ˆ “ǤȋͳȌǤ Š‡ ˆ‹”•–
ƒ•…ƒƒŽ•‘„‡†‘‡ƒƒŽ‘‰‘—•Ž›–‘–Š‡’”‘„Ž‡•–ƒ–‡†ƒ•Dz™Š‡›‘—ˆ‹”•–Š‡ƒ”ƒ•—’‡”•‘‹…
Œ‡–ǫdzǤŠ—•ǡˆ‹”•–ƒ’’ƒ”‡–’‘•‹–‹‘ƒ†–‹‡ƒ”‡ˆ‘—†ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ
…ƒ•‡‘ˆ•—’‡”Ž—‹ƒŽ‘–‹‘–Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡”•‡‡•‘–Š‹‰™Š‹Ž‡ ‫ ݐ‬൏ ‫ݐ‬଴ ǡƒ†ƒ†‘–ˆ‹”•–ƒ’’‡ƒ”•
 ‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ ൌ െ݀…‘–Ʌǡ ȋ‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ δͲȌǡ     ȋʹȌ ȏƒ•ʹȐ
ƒ– –‹‡‫ݐ‬ௗ଴ ȋƒ• ͳȌǡ ™Š‡”‡‫ݐ‬଴ •ƒ–‹•ˆ‹‡• –Š‡ ‹‹— ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘‫ݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ǯሻ‘ˆ “ǤȋͳȌǤ Š‡ ˆ‹”•–
 ‫ݐ‬଴ ൌ –ƒɅǤ       ȋ͵Ȍ ȏƒ•ʹȐ
ƒ•…ƒƒŽ•‘„‡†‘‡ƒƒŽ‘‰‘—•Ž›–‘–Š‡’”‘„Ž‡•–ƒ–‡†ƒ•Dz™Š‡›‘—ˆ‹”•–Š‡ƒ”ƒ•—’‡”•‘‹…

Š‡‫ ݐ‬൐ ‫ݐ‬଴ ǡ–Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡”ƒŽ™ƒ›••‡‡• twoƒ’’ƒ”‡–‹ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡†‘–•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‰ƒ™ƒ›ˆ”‘
Œ‡–ǫdzǤŠ—•ǡˆ‹”•–ƒ’’ƒ”‡–’‘•‹–‹‘ƒ†–‹‡ƒ”‡ˆ‘—†ƒ•ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•ǣ

‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ ൌ െ݀…‘–Ʌǡ ȋ‫ݔ‬଴ᇱ δͲȌǡ     ȋʹȌ ȏƒ•ʹȐ‫ݔ‬േ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻƒ†
‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ȋ•‡‡ ‹‰ǤʹȌǤ•‹‰“ǤȋͳȌƒ†“Ǥȋ͵Ȍǡ™‡ˆ‹†–Š‡–™‘†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–’‘•‹–‹‘•
‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ‘ˆƒ’’ƒ”‡–‹ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡†‘–ˆ‘”–Š‡‰‹˜‡–‹‡
ௗ ‫ݐ‬ȋ‫ ݐ‬൐ ‫ݐ‬଴ ሻ‘ˆ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ƒ•
 ି ‫ݐ‬଴ ൌ –ƒɅǤ       ȋ͵Ȍ ȏƒ•ʹȐ


Š‡‫ ݐ‬൐ ‫ݐ‬଴ ǡ–Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡”ƒŽ™ƒ›••‡‡• twoƒ’’ƒ”‡–‹ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡†‘–•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‰ƒ™ƒ›ˆ”‘
‫ ݔ‬ᇱ േ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ –‘…ݒ‬ଶ ߠ ቀെ‫ ݐ‬േ …‘• ିଵ ߠ ඥ‫ ݐ‬ଶ െ ‫ݐ‬଴ ଶ ቁǤ   ȋͶȌ ȏƒ•͵Ȑ ᇱ
‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ȋ•‡‡ ‹‰ǤʹȌǤ•‹‰“ǤȋͳȌƒ†“Ǥȋ͵Ȍǡ™‡ˆ‹†–Š‡–™‘†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–’‘•‹–‹‘• ‫ݔ‬േ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻƒ†
‫ିݔ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ‘ˆƒ’’ƒ”‡–‹ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡†‘–ˆ‘”–Š‡‰‹˜‡–‹‡ ‫ݐ‬ȋ‫ ݐ‬൐ ‫ݐ‬଴ ሻ‘ˆ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ƒ•
Š‡ƒ…–—ƒŽ’‘•‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡†‘–‹•‫ݔ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݐݒ‬ǡƒ†ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–‹‡•ƒ”‡
ିଵ
‫ݒ‬േᇱᇱേሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
‫ݔ‬

‫ –‘…ݒ‬ଶߠߠቄെͳ
ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻൌൌ‫–‘…ݒ‬ ቀെ‫ݐ‬േേൣ…‘•ߠඥͳ െ ଶሺ‫ݐ‬െ
…‘• ିଵ ߠ ඥ‫ݐ‬ ‫ݐ‬଴ ଶଶቁǤ
଴ Ȁ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൧  ቅ   ȋ͹Ȍ
ȋͶȌ ȏƒ•ͶȐ
ȏƒ•͵Ȑ

Š—•ǡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȋ•Ȍ‫ݒ‬ǯ‘ˆ‫ݔ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
Š‡ƒ…–—ƒŽ’‘•‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡†‘–‹• –Š‡ൌˆ‹”•– ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡ ƒ”‡‫ݒ‬ାᇱ  ൌ െλƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡൅‫•‹šƒݔ‬ǡ ƒ†
‫ݐݒ‬ǡƒ†ƒ’’ƒ”‡–˜‡Ž‘…‹–‹‡•ƒ”‡

‫ିݒ‬ᇱ  ൌ λƒŽ‘‰–Š‡ െ‫•‹šƒݔ‬  
ିଵ    ȏƒ•ͷȐ
‫ݒ‬േ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ –‘…ݒ‬ଶ ߠ ቄെͳ േ ൣ…‘•ߠඥͳ െ ሺ‫ݐ‬଴ Ȁ‫ݐ‬ሻଶ ൧ ቅ   ȋ͹Ȍ ȏƒ•ͶȐ
u Vu
– ‹ˆ‹‹–‡ †‹•–ƒ…‡•ǡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–‹‡• ƒ”‡ V  a  ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ ൅‫•‹šƒݔ‬ǡ ƒ†
ͳ …‘• R ᇱ V u
Š—•ǡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ȋ•Ȍ ‫ݒ‬ǯ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ‹”•– ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡ ƒ”‡ ‫ݒ‬ା  ൌ െλ ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡൅‫•‹šƒݔ‬ǡ ƒ†
‫ିݒ‬ᇱᇱ  ൌ െ‫ݑ‬Ȁሺͳ െ …‘•ߠሻ ൌ െ‫ݑݒ‬Ȁሺ‫ ݒ‬െ ‫ݑ‬ሻƒŽ‘‰–Š‡ െ ‫ •‹šƒݔ‬  ȏƒ•͸Ȑ
‫  ିݒ‬ൌ λƒŽ‘‰–Š‡െ‫•‹šƒݔ‬      ȏƒ•ͷȐ

u Vu
– ‹ˆ‹‹–‡ †‹•–ƒ…‡•ǡ ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˜‡Ž‘…‹–‹‡• ƒ”‡ V a   ƒŽ‘‰ –Š‡ ൅‫•‹šƒݔ‬ǡ ƒ†
ͳ …‘• R V u

‫ ݒ‬ᇱ  ൌ െ‫ݑ‬Ȁሺͳ െ …‘•ߠሻ ൌ െ‫ݑݒ‬Ȁሺ‫ ݒ‬െ ‫ݑ‬ሻƒŽ‘‰–Š‡ െ ‫ •‹šƒݔ‬  ȏƒ•͸Ȑ
ି
























”ƒ’Š‫ݒ‬Ԣ‘ˆ“Ǥȋ͹Ȍ˜•Ǥt‹••Š‘™‹ ‹‰—”‡͵ȏƒ•͹Ȑƒ†–Š‡ƒ•™‡”–‘ƒ•Ǥͺ‹•Ǥ


 Figure 3.
 


”ƒ’Š‫ݒ‬Ԣ‘ˆ“Ǥȋ͹Ȍ˜•Ǥt‹••Š‘™‹ ‹‰—”‡͵ȏƒ•͹Ȑƒ†–Š‡ƒ•™‡”–‘ƒ•Ǥͺ‹•Ǥ

 
––––––– xxviii –––––––
Problems & Solutions

Parallelmovementoflinearobject

Š‡˜‹•—ƒŽŽ‡‰–Š‘ˆ–Š‡‘˜‹‰Ž‹‡ƒ”‘„Œ‡…–‹• ‫ܮ‬Ȁߛ†—‡–‘‘”‡–œ…‘–”ƒ…–‹‘ƒ†
„ƒ…’‘‹–‘ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–™‹ŽŽˆ‹”•–ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ––‹‡‫ݐ‬௙ ൌ ‫ݐ‬଴ ൅ ‫ܮ‬Ȁሺߛ‫ݒ‬ሻǤŠ‡”‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡–‹‡‹–‡”˜ƒŽ
‘ˆ…‘’Ž‡–‡ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–‹•

 ο‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫ݐ‬௙ െ ‫ݐ‬଴ ൌ ‫ܮ‬Ȁሺߛ‫ݒ‬ሻǤ    ȋͻȌ ȏƒ•ͻȐ

ˆƒ…–ǡ‘„•‡”˜‡”™‹ŽŽ•‡‡–™‘Ž‹‡ƒ”‘„Œ‡…–•”‹•‹‰ˆ”‘ƒ’‘‹–‹–™‘‘’’‘•‹–‡†‹”‡…–‹‘•Ǥ
















 Figure 4.

Ž–Š‘—‰Š –Š‡‹” …‘’Ž‡–‡ ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡ –‹‡• ƒ”‡ –Š‡ •ƒ‡ǡ „—– –Š‡ Ž‡‰–Š• ‘ˆ …‘’Ž‡–‡
ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡ƒ”‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ȋ‡‡ ‹‰ǤͶȌƒ†ˆ‘—†–‘„‡

L …‘– ʹ R ž ͳ ʹdH –ƒ R ¬­
Lo  x oa ȋt f  xͲ Ȍ  žž…‘• R ͳ B ͳ­­ ʹͲD   ǤȋͳͲȌ ȏƒ•ͳͲȐ
H Ÿž L ®­

Perpendicularmovementoflinearobject

‘”ƒ‹ˆ‹‹–‡•‹ƒŽŽ›•ƒŽŽ‹ŽŽ—‹ƒ–‹‰’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–ƒ––Š‡›…‘‘”†‹ƒ–‡™‡…ƒ—–‹Ž‹œ‡
“ǤȋͳȌƒ†‘–Š‡”†‡”‹˜ƒ–‡ˆ‘”—Žƒ•„›•‡––‹‰݀ ൌ ‫ݕ‬Ǥ›–ƒ‹‰ƒ“—ƒ†”ƒ–‡‘ˆ“ǤȋͳȌ‘”“ǤȋͶȌ
ƒ†ƒ‹‰ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‡”‡ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡–‹–‡”•ǡ™‡…ƒ‰‡–‡“—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡‹–Š‡ˆ‘”

ȋ x  x c Ȍʹ y ʹ
ʹ  ͳ ȋȁ‫ݕ‬ȁ ൑ ‫ܮ‬ȀʹȌǡ    ȋͳʹȌ ȏƒ•ͳͳȐ
aʹ b

––––––– xxix –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

™Š‡”‡ 
 ‫ݔ‬௖ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ െ‫ –‘…ݐݒ‬ଶ ߠ      ȋͳ͵Ȍ ȏƒ•ͳʹȐ
‹•–Š‡…‡–”‡‘ˆ•›‡–”›ǡ
…‘• R
aȋt Ȍ  Vt       ȋͳͶȌ ȏƒ•ͳ͵Ȑ
•‹ʹ R
‹•–Š‡•‡‹ǦƒŒ‘”ƒš‹•ǡƒ†
 ܾሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ  ൌ ‫ߠ–‘…ݐݒ‬      ȋͳͷȌ ȏƒ•ͳ͵Ȑ
‹•–Š‡•‡‹Ǧ‹‘”ƒš‹•‘ˆ–Š‡‡ŽŽ‹’•‡‡˜‘Ž˜‹‰‹–‹‡‫ݐ‬Ǥ
















Figure 5.

Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ‘„•‡”˜‡”Ž‘…ƒ–‡†ƒ––Š‡‘”‹‰‹‘ˆxǦƒš‹•™‹ŽŽ•‡‡–Š‡Ž‹‡ƒ”‘„Œ‡…–ƒ•ƒ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡™Š‡
L L
Ͳt b ǡ ƒ† ƒ• –™‘ •›‡–”‹… ƒ”…• ‘ˆ ‡ŽŽ‹’•‡ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‰ ƒ™ƒ› ™Š‡ t  
ʹV …‘– R ʹV …‘– R
ȋ‡‡ ‹‰ǤͷȌǤ –‹•ƒŽ•‘‹–‡”‡•–‹‰–‘‘–‡–Šƒ––Šƒ–‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬௖ ሻȀ‫ݔ‬௖ ൌ –ƒTǤ
 

––––––– xxx –––––––


Problems & Solutions



ExperimentalCompetition



ExperimentalCompetition
ThePhysicsofSoundWave(20points)


—”‡˜‹”‘‡–‹•ˆ‹ŽŽ‡†™‹–Š•‘—†ƒ†•‘—†‡ˆˆ‡…–•ǤŠ‹•‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ’”‘„Ž‡”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘

–Š‡—Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…ƒ†•‘‹…‡ˆˆ‡…–•ƒ†…‘•‹•–•‘ˆˆ‘—”’ƒ”–•Ǥ ’ƒ”–ͳ–Š‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ–Š‡
ThePhysicsofSoundWave(20points)
—Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… ‹…”‘’Š‘‡ •›•–‡ •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ…“—‹”‡†Ǥ ˆ–‡”™ƒ”†• ™‡ ™‹ŽŽ ‘„•‡”˜‡ ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹
‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡ ’Š‡‘‡ƒǡ –Š‡ ™‹ŽŽ •–—†› –Š‡ ‘’’Ž‡” ˆˆ‡…–ǡ ƒ† ˆ‹ƒŽŽ› ™‹ŽŽ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡
—”‡˜‹”‘‡–‹•ˆ‹ŽŽ‡†™‹–Š•‘—†ƒ†•‘—†‡ˆˆ‡…–•ǤŠ‹•‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ’”‘„Ž‡”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘
–Š”‡•Š‘Ž†‘ˆŠ—ƒŠ‡ƒ”‹‰ƒ†”‡•‘Ž˜‹‰’‘™‡”Ǥ
–Š‡—Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…ƒ†•‘‹…‡ˆˆ‡…–•ƒ†…‘•‹•–•‘ˆˆ‘—”’ƒ”–•Ǥ ’ƒ”–ͳ–Š‡…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ–Š‡

—Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… ‹…”‘’Š‘‡ •›•–‡ •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ƒ…“—‹”‡†Ǥ ˆ–‡”™ƒ”†• ™‡ ™‹ŽŽ ‘„•‡”˜‡ ƒ† ‡š’Žƒ‹
ListofApparatusandmaterials
‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡ ’Š‡‘‡ƒǡ –Š‡ ™‹ŽŽ •–—†› –Š‡ ‘’’Ž‡” ˆˆ‡…–ǡ ƒ† ˆ‹ƒŽŽ› ™‹ŽŽ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡

–Š”‡•Š‘Ž†‘ˆŠ—ƒŠ‡ƒ”‹‰ƒ†”‡•‘Ž˜‹‰’‘™‡”Ǥ
Žƒ„‡Ž ‘’‘‡– ǯ–›  Žƒ„‡Ž ‘’‘‡– ǯ–›

A —…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘” ͳ  K ‹””‘”ƒ‰‡–‹…Š‘Ž†‡”™‹–Š”—Ž‡” ͳ
ListofApparatusandmaterials
B Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…’Ž‹ˆ‹‡” ͳ L ‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•… 

C ‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡” ͳ M  ‘–‘” ƒ––ƒ…Š‡† –‘ –Š‡ ‘’–‹…ƒŽ ͳ
Žƒ„‡Ž ‘’‘‡– ǯ–›  Žƒ„‡Ž ‘’‘‡– ǯ–›
„‡…Š
A —…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘” ͳ  K ‹””‘”ƒ‰‡–‹…Š‘Ž†‡”™‹–Š”—Ž‡” ͳ
D ”‡“—‡…›…‘—–‡” ͳ N ‘‡…–‹‘…‘ƒš‹ƒŽ…ƒ„Ž‡• Ͷ
B Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…’Ž‹ˆ‹‡” ͳ L ‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•… 
E ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡‘™‡”—’’Ž› ͳ O ‘–ƒ–‹‰ Š‘Ž†‡”™‹–Šƒ‰Ž‡‡–‡” ͳ
C ‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡” ͳ M  ‘–‘” ƒ––ƒ…Š‡† –‘ –Š‡ ‘’–‹…ƒŽ ͳ
F Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… –”ƒ•†—…‡” ˆ‘” ͳ P –‡”‡‘ ‡ƒ†’Š‘‡• ͳ
„‡…Š
‘—”…‡ȋ‡†Žƒ„‡Ž‡†Ȍ
D ”‡“—‡…›…‘—–‡” ͳ N ‘‡…–‹‘…‘ƒš‹ƒŽ…ƒ„Ž‡• Ͷ
G Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… ‹…”‘’Š‘‡ ˆ‘” ͳ R ’–‹…ƒŽ„‡…Š ͳ
E ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡‘™‡”—’’Ž› ͳ O ‘–ƒ–‹‰ Š‘Ž†‡”™‹–Šƒ‰Ž‡‡–‡” ͳ
‡–‡…–‘”ȋŽ—‡Žƒ„‡Ž‡†Ȍ
F Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… –”ƒ•†—…‡” ˆ‘” ͳ P –‡”‡‘ ‡ƒ†’Š‘‡• ͳ
H ‘—”…‡Š‘Ž†‡” ͳ T ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡”‡•‹•–‘”ȋ”Š‡‘•–ƒ–Ȍ ͳ
‘—”…‡ȋ‡†Žƒ„‡Ž‡†Ȍ
I ‡–‡…–‘”Š‘Ž†‡”• ͳ  —Ž‡” 
G Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… ‹…”‘’Š‘‡ ˆ‘” ͳ R ’–‹…ƒŽ„‡…Š ͳ
J ʛˈ–ƒŽ‹””‘”Ȁ‡ˆŽ‡…–‘” ͳ  
‡–‡…–‘”ȋŽ—‡Žƒ„‡Ž‡†Ȍ

H ‘—”…‡Š‘Ž†‡” ͳ T ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡”‡•‹•–‘”ȋ”Š‡‘•–ƒ–Ȍ ͳ

I ‡–‡…–‘”Š‘Ž†‡”• ͳ  —Ž‡” 

 J ʛˈ–ƒŽ‹””‘”Ȁ‡ˆŽ‡…–‘”  ͳ  



 

––––––– xxxi –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Figure1.Apparatusandmaterials
 Figure1.Apparatusandmaterials












Figure 1. Apparatus and materials

1.InstructionsforSynthesizedFunctionGenerator(ItemA)


1.InstructionsforSynthesizedFunctionGenerator(ItemA)

















 x Š‡’‘™‡”„—––‘ƒ›„‡’”‡••‡†ˆ‘”Dzdzƒ†’”‡••‡†ƒ‰ƒ‹ˆ‘”Dz dzǤ
xx ‡Ž‡…– –Š‡ ˆ”‡“—‡…› ”ƒ‰‡ ƒ† —•‡ ’”‘’‡” „—––‘ǣ –‘ ‘˜‡ –Š‡ …—”•‘” ‹ –Š‡ ƒ‹
Š‡’‘™‡”„—––‘ƒ›„‡’”‡••‡†ˆ‘”Dzdzƒ†’”‡••‡†ƒ‰ƒ‹ˆ‘”Dz dzǤ
x †‹•’Žƒ› ȋˆ”‡“—‡…›
‡Ž‡…– –Š‡ ˆ”‡“—‡…›‡†‹–‹‰
”ƒ‰‡ ’‘‹–Ȍ —•‡
ƒ† —•‡ ‡› DzͶdz
’”‘’‡” ‘” Dzͷdz
„—––‘ǣ –‘ ƒˆ–‡”
‘˜‡’”‡••‹‰  
–Š‡ …—”•‘” ‡›Ǣ
‹ –Š‡ –‘
ƒ‹
•’‡…‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›—‹–—•‡‡›Dzͻdzˆ‘” œ™‹–Š ‡›Ǥ
†‹•’Žƒ› ȋˆ”‡“—‡…› ‡†‹–‹‰ ’‘‹–Ȍ —•‡ ‡› DzͶdz ‘” Dzͷdz ƒˆ–‡” ’”‡••‹‰   ‡›Ǣ –‘
x Š‡ ˆ”‡“—‡…› ™‹ŽŽ „‡ †‹•’Žƒ›‡† ‹ –Š‡ ƒ‹ †‹•’Žƒ›Ǥ ‘ •‡‡ ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‹‰ƒŽ
•’‡…‹ˆ›–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›—‹–—•‡‡›Dzͻdzˆ‘” œ™‹–Š ‡›Ǥ
x ’”‘†—…‡†„›–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‘”ǡ—•‡
Š‡ V/F
ˆ”‡“—‡…› ™‹ŽŽ „‡ †‹•’Žƒ›‡† „—––‘™‹–Š ‡›Ǥ
‹ –Š‡ ƒ‹ †‹•’Žƒ›Ǥ ‘ •‡‡ ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‹‰ƒŽ
 ’”‘†—…‡†„›–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‘”ǡ—•‡V/F„—––‘™‹–Š ‡›Ǥ


––––––– xxxii –––––––
Problems & Solutions





















x •‡–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›ƒ†Œ—•–‡–‘„–‘–—‡’”‘’‡”ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ǥ
x ‘…Šƒ‰‡–Š‡ƒ’Ž‹–—†‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‹‰ƒŽǡ›‘—…ƒ—•‡ƒ’Ž‹–—†‡…‘–”‘Ž‘„Ǥ
x ‘—•Š‘—Ž†•™‹–…Š‘Dz—–’—–…‘–”‘ŽȀ ‡›dzǡ‘–Š‡”™‹•‡–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‘”™‹ŽŽ‘–
•‡†–Š‡•‹‰ƒŽ–‘–Š‡‹…”‘’Š‘‡Ǥ
x ‘‘–—•‡–Š‡Dz—–›…‘–”‘Ždz‹•‹‡™ƒ˜‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘Ǥ


2.AmplifierAdaptor(itemB)
Š‡ƒ’Ž‹ˆ‹‡”‹–•‡Žˆ†‘‡•‘–†‘ƒ›–Š‹‰ǡ‹–•‡”˜‡•‡”‡Ž›ƒ•ƒƒ†ƒ’–‘”ˆ‘”…‘‡…–‹‰’Ž—‰•
™Š‹…Š‘–Š‡”™‹•‡™‘—Ž†‘–ƒ–…ŠǤ



 

––––––– xxxiii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

3.ACMillivoltmeter(ItemC)


























x ‘‡…––›’‡…ƒ„Ž‡ˆ”‘’Ž‹ˆ‹‡”†ƒ’–‘”–‘ –‡”‹ƒŽǤ
x ‡––Š‡
–‘ͳͲͲƒ†•™‹–…Š‘–Š‡’‘™‡”Ǥ
x Ž–‡” –Š‡ 
 •‡Ž‡…–‘” •™‹–…Š —–‹Ž –Š‡ ’‘‹–‡” ‹• ƒ– ƒ ’‘•‹–‹‘ ™Š‹…Š Ž‘…ƒ–‡† ƒ–
ηͳȀ͵ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ—ŽŽ •…ƒŽ‡ǡ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ†‹‰ …ƒ „‡ –ƒ‡ ‡ƒ•‹Ž›Ǥ Š‡ —„‡” ™”‹––‡ ‹ –Š‡
•‡Ž‡…–‘”•™‹–…Š‹†‹…ƒ–‡•–Š‡ƒš‹—‡ƒ•—”ƒ„Ž‡˜ƒŽ—‡‹–Šƒ–”ƒ‰‡Ǥ

 

––––––– xxxiv –––––––


Problems & Solutions

4.Frequencycounter(ItemD)

4.Frequencycounter(ItemD)






























‘‡…––Š‡‹‰ƒŽ…ƒ„Ž‡–‘–Š‡Dz‹‰ƒŽ‹’—–dz…‘‡…–‘”

—”–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›…‘—–‡”
‘‡…––Š‡‹‰ƒŽ…ƒ„Ž‡–‘–Š‡Dz‹‰ƒŽ‹’—–dz…‘‡…–‘”
”‡••Dz ”‡“Ǥ„—––‘dzƒ†Dz‹‡„—––‘dz
—”–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›…‘—–‡”
”‡“—‡…›…‘—–‡”™‹ŽŽ„‡”‡ƒ†›ˆ‘”‡ƒ•—”‡‡–Ǥ
”‡••Dz ”‡“Ǥ„—––‘dzƒ†Dz‹‡„—––‘dz

”‡“—‡…›…‘—–‡”™‹ŽŽ„‡”‡ƒ†›ˆ‘”‡ƒ•—”‡‡–Ǥ
Caution:Besureswitchoffthepowerofequipmentsbeforeplugin/outallconnections,

otherwisedamageofequipmentsorsensorswillbeoccurred.
Caution:Besureswitchoffthepowerofequipmentsbeforeplugin/outallconnections,
Ifmorethantwosignalscometothefrequencycounter,ittendstomeasurethesignal
otherwisedamageofequipmentsorsensorswillbeoccurred.
withhigheramplitude.
Ifmorethantwosignalscometothefrequencycounter,ittendstomeasurethesignal
withhigheramplitude.

––––––– xxxv –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Part1.Characteristicsofthemicrophonesystem(3points)

Introduction
Š‡ ’”‘’‡”–›ǡ …ƒŽŽ‡† ’‹‡œ‘‡Ž‡…–”‹…‹–›ǡ ’”‘˜‹†‡• ƒ …‘˜‡‹‡– …‘—’Ž‹‰ „‡–™‡‡ ‡…Šƒ‹…ƒŽ
‘•…‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ …”›•–ƒŽǡ ™Š‹…Š ‘……—” ƒ– ƒ ˜‡”› •Šƒ”’Ž› †‡ˆ‹‡† ˆ”‡“—‡…›ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ ‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ
’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ ƒ …‹”…—‹– ‘ˆ ™Š‹…Š –Š‡ …”›•–ƒŽ ‹• ƒ ’ƒ”–Ǥ ‹‡œ‘‡Ž‡…–”‹… ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ• ƒ”‡ —•‡† –‘
…‘˜‡”–‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒ†•‘—†•‹‰ƒŽ•‹–‘‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”Ǥ—––Š‡›ƒ”‡†‹•–‹‰—‹•Š‡†„›Šƒ˜‹‰ƒ™‡ŽŽ
•’‡…‹ˆ‹‡† ™‘”‹‰ ˆ”‡“—‡…› ”ƒ‰‡Ǥ Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ ‹ –Š‹• ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ ’ƒ”–ǡ ™‡ Šƒ˜‡ –‘
†‡–‡”‹‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹…”‘’Š‘‡ ™Š‹…Š ‹• ƒ†‡ ‘ˆ ’‹‡œ‘‡Ž‡…–”‹… ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽǡ
„‡ˆ‘”‡—•‹‰‹–Ǥ

Listofcomponents
ͳǤ —…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘”ȋ
Ȍ ͷǤ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…–”ƒ•†—…‡”ˆ‘”‘—”…‡ȋȌ™‹–Š
Š‘Ž†‡”
ʹǤ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…’Ž‹ˆ‹‡” ͸Ǥ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… ‹…”‘’Š‘‡ ˆ‘” ‡–‡…–‘” ȋȌ
™‹–ŠŠ‘Ž†‡”
͵Ǥ ‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡”ȋȌ ͹Ǥ ™‘…‘‡…–‹‘…‘ƒš‹ƒŽ…ƒ„Ž‡•
ͶǤ ‘–ƒ–‹‰Š‘Ž†‡”™‹–Šƒ‰Ž‡‡–‡” ͺǤ ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‘”

Experimentsandprocedures
‡ ™‹ŽŽ —•‡ –™‘ —Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… ‹…”‘’Š‘‡•ǡ ‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ —•‡† ƒ• •‹‰ƒŽ •‘—”…‡ ȋ”‡†
Žƒ„‡Ž‡†Ȍƒ†–Š‡‘–Š‡”™‹ŽŽ„‡—•‡†ƒ•ƒ•‹‰ƒŽ”‡…‡‹˜‡”ȋ„Ž—‡Žƒ„‡Ž‡†ȌǤŠ‡•‘—”…‡”‡…‡‹˜‡•–Š‡
•‹‰ƒŽˆ”‘–Š‡ˆ—…–‹‘‰‡‡”ƒ–‘”ȋ
Ȍ–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡ƒ’Ž‹ˆ‹‡”ƒ†…‘˜‡”–•–Š‡•‹‰ƒŽ‹–‘ƒ
•‘—† ™ƒ˜‡Ǥ Š‡ •‹‰ƒŽ ”‡…‡‹˜‡” ȋ‹– …ƒ „‡ …ƒŽŽ‡† ƒ• †‡–‡…–‘”Ȍ –Šƒ– …‘‡…–‡† –‘ ƒ
’”‡ƒ’Ž‹ˆ‹‡”ǡ”‡…‡‹˜‡•–Š‡•‘—†™ƒ˜‡‡‹––‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡•‘—”…‡ǡ ƒ†…‘˜‡”–•‹––‘‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ
•‹‰ƒŽǤŠ‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘—–’—–•‹‰ƒŽ™‹ŽŽ„‡‡ƒ•—”‡†„›‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡”Ǥ

Hints:Thevoltageofthesignalgiventothesource(S)shouldbeadjustedaround1V.Ifit
ismorethanthistheultrasonicwavewillbesaturatedanditwillaffectyourresult.
The microphones are placed in the rotating holder and connected to an electrical cycle
with ultrasonic amplifier scheme. The distance between the source and the detector
should not be changed during the experiment. And please, make sure that the
microphonesareplacedparalleltoholderbaseandtheaxesofthemicrophonesarelaid
onthesameline.

1a.(1.5points)
›…Šƒ‰‹‰–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡•‹‰ƒŽˆ”‘–Š‡
ǡ‡ƒ•—”‡–Š‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘—–’—–•‹‰ƒŽ
–Šƒ–…‘˜‡”–‡† „›–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”Ǥ ‡ƒ•—”‡ ‹ –Š‡ ”ƒ‰‡‘ˆ ‹’—– ˆ”‡“—‡…› ˆ”‘ ͵Ͳ  œ–‘ ͷͲ
 œǡ ƒ† ƒ‡ •—”‡ –Š‡ ˆ”‡“—‡…› ”ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‹‰ƒŽ •‡– –‘ –Š‡ •‘—”…‡ ‹ ƒ ‰‹˜‡ ”ƒ‰‡Ǥ
Otherwise,themicrophonewillbedamagedoroutoforder.‡––Š‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‹‰ƒŽ
ˆ”‘ –Š‡
 ƒ”‘—† ͳǤ ‡ƒ•—”‡† †ƒ–ƒ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ˆ‹ŽŽ‡† ‹–‘ –ƒ„Ž‡ ͳǤ Ž‘– –Š‡ ‰”ƒ’Š —•‹‰

––––––– xxxvi –––––––


Problems & Solutions

‡ƒ•—”‡† †ƒ–ƒǤ Ž‘– ƒ ‡ƒ•—”‡† rms •‹‰ƒŽ ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ ˜•Ǥ ˆ”‡“—‡…›ǡ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ …—–Ǧ‘ˆˆ
ˆ”‡“—‡…‹‡• fͳǡ fʹ ™Š‡”‡ –Š‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡† rms •‹‰ƒŽ ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ †”‘’• 1 / 2 ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒš‹—
‡ƒ•—”‡† ˜ƒŽ—‡Ǥ ‡…‡ǡ †‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ „ƒ†™‹†–Š %f  fʹ  fͳ Ǥ ‡–‡”‹‡ –Š‡ ™‘”‹‰
ˆ”‡“—‡…›f™ȋƒ–™Š‹…Š–Š‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‹‰ƒŽˆ”‘–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”™‹ŽŽ„‡ƒ–ƒš‹—Ȍˆ”‘
–Š‡‘„–ƒ‹‡†”‡•—Ž–•Ǥ

1b.(1.5points)
‡––Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›ˆ”‘–Š‡
–‘–Š‡™‘”‹‰ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ǥ‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡ƒ‰—Žƒ”†‡’‡†‡…‡
‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹–‡•‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘—–’—– •‹‰ƒŽ ‘ –Š‡ ’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡–‡…–‘” ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ –‘ –Š‡ •‘—”…‡Ǥ
”‹–‡ –Š‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡††ƒ–ƒ ‹ ƒ ƒ„Ž‡ ͳǤ Ž‘–ƒ‰”ƒ’Š‘ˆ–Š‡ †‡’‡†‡…‡ ‘ˆ–Š‡ ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ ”ƒ–‹‘
AȋɔȌȀAȋͲȌ‘ƒƒ‰Ž‡ ɔǡ™Š‡”‡AȋɔȌƒ†AȋͲȌƒ”‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‘—–’—–•‹‰ƒŽƒ–ƒƒ‰Ž‡
ɔƒ†Ͳιǡ”‡•’‡…–‹˜‡Ž›ǤŠ‡†‹”‡…–‹‘ɔαͲιŠƒ•ƒš‹ƒŽ†‡–‡…–‹‘ǡƒ†‹•…ƒŽŽ‡†–Š‡ƒš‹•‘ˆ–Š‡
•‘—”…‡Ǥ ‹† ƒ‰—Žƒ” ˜ƒŽ—‡• ƒ– ™Š‹…Š –Š‡ ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡–‡…–‡† •‹‰ƒŽ †‡…”‡ƒ•‡• ʹ ƒ† ͵
–‹‡•Ǥ

Part2.InterferenceofWaves(6points)

Introduction
•–ƒ†‹‰™ƒ˜‡’ƒ––‡”‹•ƒ˜‹„”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ’ƒ––‡”…”‡ƒ–‡†™‹–Š‹ƒ‡†‹—™Š‡–Š‡”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†
™ƒ˜‡• ˆ”‘ ‹””‘” –‘ ‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡ ™‹–Š ‹…‹†‡– ™ƒ˜‡• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ •‘—”…‡Ǥ Š‡ ™ƒ˜‡• ƒ”‡
‹–‡”ˆ‡”‹‰‹•—…Šƒƒ‡”–Šƒ––Š‡”‡ƒ”‡’‘‹–•‘ˆ‘†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–’”‘†—…‡†ƒ––Š‡•ƒ‡
’‘•‹–‹‘•ƒŽ‘‰–Š‡‡†‹—ǤŠ‡•‡’‘‹–•ƒŽ‘‰–Š‡‡†‹—ƒ”‡‘™ƒ• nodesǤŠ‡”‡ƒ”‡
‘–Š‡”’‘‹–•ƒŽ‘‰–Š‡‡†‹—™Š‹…Š—†‡”‰‘˜‹„”ƒ–‹‘•„‡–™‡‡ƒŽƒ”‰‡’‘•‹–‹˜‡ƒ†Žƒ”‰‡
‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–ǤŠ‡•‡’‘‹–•ƒ”‡‘™ƒ• antinodesǤ

Listofcomponents
ͳǤ —…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘”ȋȌ ͸Ǥ ‡–ƒŽ ‹””‘”ȋ Ȍ ƒ† ƒ‰‡–‹… Š‘Ž†‡” ™‹–Š
”—Ž‡”ȋȌ
ʹǤ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…’Ž‹ˆ‹‡”ȋȌ ͹Ǥ ’–‹…ƒŽ„‡…ŠȋȌ
͵Ǥ ‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡”ȋȌ ͺǤ ™‘…‘‡…–‹‘…‘ƒš‹ƒŽ…ƒ„Ž‡•ȋȌ
ͶǤ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…–”ƒ•†—…‡”ˆ‘”‘—”…‡ȋ Ȍ ͻǤ ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‘”ȋȌ
™‹–ŠŠ‘Ž†‡”ȋ Ȍ
ͷǤ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… ‹…”‘’Š‘‡ ˆ‘” ‡–‡…–‘” 
ȋ
Ȍ™‹–ŠŠ‘Ž†‡”ȋ Ȍ

DescriptionoftheExperiments

2a.StudyoftheWaveInterference     (1.6points)
•‹‰–Š‡‹•–”—‡–•ͳǦͺ•Š‘™‹–Š‡ƒ„‘˜‡Ž‹•–ǡƒ••‡„Ž‡–Š‡‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ•‡–—’•Š‘™‹
‹‰ǤʹǤͳƒ†•–—†›–Š‡‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡™ƒ˜‡Ǥ‘”‡†—…‡’‘••‹„Ž‡—†‡•‹”ƒ„Ž‡‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡

––––––– xxxvii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

„‡ …ƒ—–‹‘—• ƒ† ’Žƒ…‡ ‘–Š‡” ‹•–”—‡–• ƒ™ƒ› ˆ”‘ †‡–‡…–‘”Ǥ ‘‡…– –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ
‰‡‡”ƒ–‘”–‘–Š‡‘—”…‡ƒ†•‡––Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›ƒ–ͶͲ œǤ
















Figure2.1Studyofthewaveinterference.
‘•‹–‹‘ǣŠ‡†‡–‡…–‘”‹•’Žƒ…‡†„‡–™‡‡‘—”…‡ƒ†‹””‘”Ǥ
‘•‹–‹‘ǣŠ‡†‡–‡…–‘”‹•’Žƒ…‡†„‡Š‹†–Š‡‘—”…‡Ǥ
Ǧ‘—”…‡ǡǦ‹””‘”ǡǦ‡–‡…–‘”

2a.1. Žƒ…‡ –Š‡ †‡–‡…–‘” ‹ ‘•‹–‹‘ A ™Š‹…Š ‹• •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰—”‡ ʹǤͳ ƒ† ‘„•‡”˜‡ –Š‡
†‡’‡†‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡†‡–‡…–‡†•‹‰ƒŽŽ‡˜‡Ž‘–Š‡’‘•‹–‹‘•‘ˆ SǡMƒ†DǤŠ‡–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”‹•
–‘‘ …Ž‘•‡ –‘ –Š‡ •‘—”…‡ –Š‡”‡ ™‹ŽŽ ‘……—” —…Ž‡ƒ” ‡ˆˆ‡…–•ǡ –Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ †‘ ‘– ‡ƒ•—”‡ ‹ …Ž‘•‡
†‹•–ƒ…‡–‘–Š‡•‘—”…‡Ǥ‡‡„‡”–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”Šƒ•ƒ‰—Žƒ”•‡•‹–‹˜‹–›ǤŠ‡†‡–‡…–‘”•Š‘—Ž†„‡
’Žƒ…‡†ˆ‘”‘’–‹—‡ƒ•—”‡‡–Ǥ

2a.2. Žƒ…‡ –Š‡ †‡–‡…–‘” ‹ ‘•‹–‹‘ B ™Š‹…Š ‹• •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰—”‡ ʹǤͳ ƒ† ‘„•‡”˜‡ –Š‡
†‡’‡†‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡†‡–‡…–‡†•‹‰ƒŽŽ‡˜‡Ž‘–Š‡’‘•‹–‹‘•‘ˆMƒ†DǤŠ‡’‘•‹–‹‘‘ˆS•Š‘—Ž†
„‡ˆ‹š‡†Ǥ

2a.3.MeasurementofWavelength.
• ›‘— †‹† ‹ –Š‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡– ʹƒǤͳ ˆ‹š‹‰ –Š‡ ’‘•‹–‹‘• ‘ˆ S ƒ† D ƒ† „› ‘˜‹‰ Mǡ
‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŽ›†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡™ƒ˜‡Ž‡‰–Šɉ‘ˆ–Š‡—Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…™ƒ˜‡Ǥ

2b.Findexperimentallythecorrectanswerstothefollowingstatements.(2.8points)
”‹–‡†‘™Dz—dzˆ‘”…‘””‡…–ƒ•™‡”•‘”DzXdzˆ‘”‹…‘””‡…–ƒ•™‡”•„‡Ž‘™–Š‡Žƒ„‡Ž‘ˆ–Š‡…Š‘•‡
•–ƒ–‡‡–•‹›‘—”•™‡”•Š‡‡–Ǥ


––––––– xxxviii –––––––


Problems & Solutions

ƒǤ Š‡ •–ƒ†‹‰ ™ƒ˜‡ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ‘„•‡”˜‡† „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ S ƒ† M ȋ ‹‰Ǥ ʹǤͳȌǤ Š‹• •–ƒ†‹‰
™ƒ˜‡™‹ŽŽ‘……—”ˆ‘”ƒ›˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ–Š‡†‹•–ƒ…‡„‡–™‡‡ƒ†Ǥ
„Ǥ Š‡ •–ƒ†‹‰ ™ƒ˜‡ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ‘„•‡”˜‡† „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ S ƒ† MǤ Š‹• •–ƒ†‹‰ ™ƒ˜‡ ™‹ŽŽ
‘……—”‘Ž›™Š‡–Š‡†‹•–ƒ…‡„‡–™‡‡Sƒ†M‡“—ƒŽ–‘nɉȀʹǤŠ‡”‡n‹•‹–‡‰‡”Ǥ
…Ǥ  –Š‡ „‘–Š ’‘•‹–‹‘• A ƒ† B –Š‡ †‡–‡…–‘” ™‹ŽŽ †‡–‡…– ‘†‡• ƒ† ƒ–‹‘†‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡
•–ƒ†‹‰™ƒ˜‡•Ǥ –…ƒ„‡’”‘˜‡†„›‘˜‹‰–Š‡’‘•‹–‹‘•‘ˆSƒ†MǤ
†Ǥ Š‡•–ƒ†‹‰™ƒ˜‡™‹ŽŽ‘……—”ˆ‘”ƒ›˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ–Š‡†‹•–ƒ…‡„‡–™‡‡Sƒ†MǤ –…ƒ
„‡‘„•‡”˜‡†‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽŽ›„›‘˜‹‰–Š‡’‘•‹–‹‘‘ˆ DǤ ’‘•‹–‹‘B†‡–‡…–‘”™‹ŽŽ
†‡–‡…––Š‡Š‹‰ŠŽ‡˜‡Ž‘ˆ•‹‰ƒŽ™Š‡–Š‡†‹•–ƒ…‡„‡–™‡‡Sƒ†M‹•SM=nɉȀͶǤŠ‡”‡
n‹•‘††‹–‡‰‡”Ǥ
‡Ǥ Š‡ ’‘•‹–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘†‡• ƒ† ƒ–‹‘†‡• ƒ”‡ ‹‘˜ƒ„Ž‡ ™‹–Š ”‡•’‡…– –‘ –Š‡ Žƒ„
ˆ”ƒ‡ȋ„‡…ŠȌ™Š‡–Š‡Sƒ†Mƒ”‡‘˜‡†Ǥ
ˆǤ Š‡ –Š‡ †‹•–ƒ…‡ „‡–™‡‡ S ƒ† M ‹…”‡ƒ•‡† –Š‡ Ž‡˜‡Ž ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡† ™ƒ˜‡ ‹
’‘•‹–‹‘™‹ŽŽ„‡’‡”‹‘†‹…™‹–Š†‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰ƒ’Ž‹–—†‡Ǥ
‰Ǥ Š‡ •–ƒ†‹‰ ™ƒ˜‡ ™‹ŽŽ ‘……—” ‘Ž› „‡–™‡‡ S ƒ† Mǡ „—– „‡Š‹† –Š‡ ‘—”…‡ –Š‡
”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡•™‹ŽŽ„‡‘„•‡”˜‡†Ǥ

2c.StudyoftheStandingWave     (1.6points)
’‘•‹–‹‘B‹ˆ–Š‡M‹•‘˜‡††‡–‡…–‘”™‹ŽŽ†‡–‡…––Š‡ƒš‹—‹‹—˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ•‹‰ƒŽ
Ž‡˜‡ŽǤ  –Š‡•‡ …ƒ•‡• ‹†‡–‹ˆ› ‡‹–Š‡” ‘†‡ ‘” ƒ–‹‘†‡ ‘……—””‡† ‘ –Š‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹””‘”
ƒ†‘—”…‡Ǥ ˆ›‘—‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡‘†‡™”‹–‡†‘™Dzdzƒ†‹ˆ›‘—‹†‡–‹ˆ›ƒ–‹‘†‡™”‹–‡†‘™
Dzdz‹–Š‡–ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ

Condition OnthesurfaceofMirror OnthesurfaceofSource
Š‡D†‡–‡…–•ƒš‹—
Š‡D†‡–‡…–•‹‹—


Part3.TheDopplereffect(8points)

Š‡ ‘„•‡”˜‡† ƒ† ‡ƒ•—”‡† ˆ”‡“—‡…› ‘ˆ ƒ •‹‰ƒŽ …Šƒ‰‡• „› ˜‹”–—‡ ‘ˆ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ ‘–‹‘
„‡–™‡‡–Š‡•‘—”…‡ƒ†–Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡”ǤŠ‹•‹•‘™ƒ•–Š‡‘’’Ž‡”‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ
Š‡‘„•‡”˜‡†ˆ”‡“—‡…›‹•‰‹˜‡„›–Š‡ˆ‘”—Žƒ•

c  V†
 f  fͲ    ȋ‘—”…‡ƒ†‡–‡…–‘””‡…‡†‹‰Ȍ  ȋͳȌ
c V•
c V†
 f  fͲ    ȋ‘—”…‡ƒ†‡–‡…–‘”ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‹‰Ȍ ȋʹȌ
c  V•
™Š‡”‡
݂௢ ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡™ƒ˜‡‡‹––‡†„›–Š‡‘—”…‡  ܿ•’‡‡†‘ˆ•‘—†‹ƒ‹”
‫ݒ‬ௗ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡‡–‡…–‘”    ‫ݒ‬௦ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡‘—”…‡

––––––– xxxix –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Listofcomponents
ͳǤ —…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘”ȋ
Ȍ ͹Ǥ ˑ–‘”
ʹǤ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…’Ž‹ˆ‹‡” ͺǤ ‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•…
͵Ǥ ‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡”ȋȌ ͻǤ ‘™‡”—’’Ž›
ͶǤ ”‡“—‡…›…‘—–‡” ȋ Ȍ ͳͲǤ ’–‹…ƒŽ„‡…Š
ͷǤ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…–”ƒ•†—…‡”ˆ‘”‘—”…‡ȋȌ ͳͳǤ ‘‡…–‹‘…‘ƒš‹ƒŽ…ƒ„Ž‡•
™‹–ŠŠ‘Ž†‡”
͸Ǥ Ž–”ƒ•‘‹… ‹…”‘’Š‘‡ ˆ‘” ‡–‡…–‘”  
ȋȌ™‹–ŠŠ‘Ž†‡”

DescriptionoftheExperiment
Š‡•‘—”…‡ȋSȌ‹•’Žƒ…‡†•‘–Šƒ––Š‡—Ž–”ƒ•‘—†•–”‹‡•–Š‡–‹Ž–•‘ˆ–Š‡”‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•…ˆ”‘–Š‡
•‹†‡ǡƒ†–Š‡‡–‡…–‘”‹•’Žƒ…‡†•‘–Šƒ–”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†—Ž–”ƒ•‘—†‹•†‡–‡…–‡†‘”‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›ǤŠ‡
•‘—”…‡ ‹• …‘‡…–‡† –‘ –Š‡ ‘—–’—– ‘ˆ –Š‡ —…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘”ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ ‡–‡…–‘” ‹• –‘ –Š‡
‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡”–‘‡ƒ•—”‡™Š‹…Š™‹ŽŽ†‡–‡…––Š‡•‘—†‹–‡•‹–›Ž‡˜‡Žǡƒ•‡š’Žƒ‹‡†‹ƒ”–ͳǤ
‡ˆ‘”‡ „‡‰‹‹‰ –Š‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ǡ ›‘— •Š‘—Ž† …Š‡… …Šƒ‰‡• ‹ –Š‡ •‘—† ‹–‡•‹–› Ž‡˜‡Ž „›
‘˜‹‰–Š‡†‹•ˆ‘”™ƒ”†ƒ†„ƒ…ƒ—ƒŽŽ›Ǥ ˆ…Šƒ‰‡•‹–Š‡•‘—†‹–‡•‹–›Ž‡˜‡Žƒ”‡•ƒŽŽ
–Š‡ ›‘— •Š‘—Ž† ƒ†Œ—•– –Š‡ ’‘•‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‘—† •‘—”…‡ ƒ† –Š‡ ”‡…‡‹˜‡” ’”‘’‡”Ž›Ǥ If the
apparatusisnotadjustedproperlytheremayoccuranerrorinthemeasurementsof
thesoundintensitylevelandfrequencyǤ
x ™‹–…Š‘–Š‡‘–‘”‘ˆ–Š‡”‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•
x „•‡”˜‡–Š‡…Šƒ‰‡•‹–Š‡•‘—†ˆ”‡“—‡…›„›‰‡–Ž›‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰–Š‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡‘–Š‡
‘–‘”‘ˆ–Š‡”‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•
x –‹•‡…‡••ƒ”›–‘’”‡’ƒ”‡–Š‡‹•–”—‡–•–‘–Š‡‡ƒ•—”‡‡–ˆ‘”ƒ”–͵ǡ‹–‹•ƒ†˜‹•‡†
–‘—•‡”‡•—Ž–•ˆ”‘ƒ”–ͳƒ†ƒ”–ʹǤ ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ–‘•‡––Š‡™‘”‹‰ˆ”‡“—‡…›‡–…Ǥ
ˆ›‘—…‘—Ž†‘–†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡™‘”‹‰ˆ”‡“—‡…›—•‡ͶͲ œƒ•ƒ™‘”‹‰ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ǥ
ƒ‡•—”‡ǡ–Š‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‹‰ƒŽˆ”‘
‹•‘–•ƒ–—”ƒ–‡†Ǥ

3a.FormulasfortheDopplershiftofsoundfromtherotatingdisk. (1.5points)
x  •‘—† ™ƒ˜‡ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‘—”…‡ ”‡ˆŽ‡…–• –‘ •ƒ™ –‘‘–Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‘–ƒ–‹‰ †‹• ȋ ‹‰—”‡ ͳȌ
ƒ†–Š‡‘’’Ž‡”‡ˆˆ‡…–™‹ŽŽ‘……—”Ǥ ˆ™‡†‡‘–‡ƒ•‫™ƒ•‡Š–ˆ‘‘‹–‘ˆ‘›–‹…‘Ž‡˜‡Š–ݒ‬
–‘‘–Š‹†‹”‡…–‹‘ǡ‘„–ƒ‹ƒˆ‘”—Žƒˆ‘”݂‹–‡”•‘ˆ݂௢ ǡܿ ƒ†‫ ݒ‬ǡˆ‘”–Š‹•…ƒ•‡Ǥƒ‡
‹– •—”‡ ‹ –Š‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ •‡–—’ǡ ƒ ƒ‰Ž‡ †‡’‡†‡…‡ ‹• ‡‰Ž‹‰‹„Ž‡ǡ ‘” ƒ ‹…‹†‡–
ƒ†ƒ”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†ƒ‰Ž‡••Š‘—Ž†„‡Ž‡••–Šƒ ͷD Ǥ
x ”‘ ‘„–ƒ‹‡† ‡š’”‡••‹‘ǡ ™”‹–‡ ƒ •‹’Ž‹ˆ‹‡† ˆ‘”—Žƒ‡ ˆ‘” %f Ȁ fͲ ‹ ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ
V Ȁ c —•‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ„„”‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ %f  f  fͲ ǡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ …ƒ•‡ V  c ǡ ™Š‡”‡ fͲ ‹• –Š‡
™‘”‹‰ ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ǥ Š‘Ž‡ †‡”‹˜ƒ–‹‘ ’”‘…‡†—”‡ •Š‘—Ž† „‡ ™”‹––‡ ‘ –Š‡ •™‡”
•Š‡‡–Ǥ

 

––––––– xl –––––––
Problems & Solutions

Figure1.Thesawtoothoftherotatingdisk













3b.CalculationsfortheDopplereffectfromtherotatingdisk  (1.4points)
‡”‹˜‡ –Š‡ ‡š’”‡••‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡ ”ƒ†‹ƒŽ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› V ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹††Ž‡ ’‘‹– ‘ˆ•ƒ™ –‘‘–Š ‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ
ƒ‰—Žƒ”˜‡Ž‘…‹–› :‘ˆ”‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•ƒ†ȟlǤȋŠ‡•ƒ™–‘‘–Šǯ•Š‡‹‰Š–‹•ȟlαͶǤ͵͹άͲǤͲͷ,ˆ‘”
ˆ—”–Š‡”…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ȌǤ

3c.TheDopplereffectindependenceonthemotorvoltage  (2.8points)
‡ƒ•—”‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡—Ž–”ƒ•‘‹…•‹‰ƒŽ†‡–‡…–‡†„›–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”ƒ•ƒˆ—…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‘–‘”
˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡—’–‘ͳ͸ǤŽ‘–ƒ‰”ƒ’Š %f Ȁ fͲ ˜• UǤ ”‘–Š‡‰”ƒ’Šƒ–Žƒ”‰‡ǡ†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡˜ƒŽ—‡
‘ˆ–Š”‡•Š‘Ž†˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ U–ˆ”‘™Š‹…Š–Š‡‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ 'f‰‘‡•–‘œ‡”‘ǡƒ†–Š‡•Ž‘’‡‘ˆ–Š‡
‰”ƒ’Š™‹–Šƒ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–‡””‘”Ǥ

Hints: Make the rotating disk to rotate in Clockwise (CW) direction and don’t change it
further. Choose the detector position that it measures more stable and more effective.
TosaveyourtimeyoucanmeasureelectriccurrentforTask3d,simultaneouslywiththe
measurementofmotorvoltage.

MakesureequipmentsthatyouuseinExperimentalpart,arecalibratedandmeasured
verywellbeforeusingthem.Eachsystemhasownspecificationwhichisgivenonspecial
sheet.Forexample,at10Vvoltage,thefrequencyshiftoftheDopplereffectisgiveninthe
specification sheet. Using these experimental results, you should calibrate your system.
Otherwise,themeasurementwillbeincorrect.

3d.Lineardependence:ofU      (0.8points)
”‘–Š‡•’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘•Š‡‡–ǡˆ‹†ƒ‰—Žƒ”˜‡Ž‘…‹–› :ǡ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ Uƒ†‡Ž‡…–”‹……—””‡– I™‹–Š‹–•
‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ‡””‘”• ȋˆ‘”  †‹”‡…–‹‘Ȍ ƒ† …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡ —‡”‹…ƒŽ …‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–• ƒ† ‡””‘”• ˆ‘”
–Š‡Ž‹‡ƒ”†‡’‡†‡…‡ :‘ˆ UǤ••—‡–Šƒ–ƒ–Š‹‰Š˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡•ǡ :‹•ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡Ž›’”‘’‘”–‹‘ƒŽ
–‘–Š‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡Ǥ‘—•Š‘—Ž†™”‹–‡–Š‡‘„–ƒ‹‡†˜ƒŽ—‡•ˆ”‘–Š‡•’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘•™‡”Š‡‡–Ǥ


––––––– xli –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

3e.SpeedofsoundinairfromtheDopplereffect   (1.5points)
—– –‘‰‡–Š‡” –Š‡ ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ †‡’‡†‡…‡• %f Ȁ fͲ ‫ݏݒ‬Ǥ ‫ †ƒݒ‬%f Ȁ fͲ ‫ݏݒ‬Ǥ ܷƒ† ˆ‹† ˆ”‘ Š‡”‡
–Š‡ •’‡‡† ‘ˆ •‘—† ‹ ƒ‹” ™‹–Š ƒ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ‡””‘”Ǥ •‹‰ ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ ƒ† –Š‡‘”‡–‹…ƒŽ
˜ƒŽ—‡•‘ˆ–Š‡•’‡‡†‘ˆ•‘—†‹ƒ‹”ˆ‹†–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡‡””‘”‘ˆ›‘—”‡š’‡”‹‡–ǣ
c‡š’  c –Š‡‘”
¸ ͳͲͲΨ ȗͳͲͲΨ
c –Š‡‘”
™Š‡”‡ c–Š‡‘”α͵Ͷ͵Ȁ••’‡‡†‘ˆ•‘—†‹ƒ‹”‹ƒ—†‹„Ž‡”ƒ‰‡ƒ– ʹͲD Ǥ‘—…ƒ—•‡–Š‹•˜ƒŽ—‡
‘Ž›‹–Š‹•’ƒ”–Ǥ


Part4:ThresholdandResolvingPowerofHearing(3points)

Š‡–Š”‡•Š‘Ž†‘ˆŠ‡ƒ”‹‰‹•–Š‡•‘—†‹–‡•‹–›‹Ȁ ʹƒ–™Š‹…Š‘—”‡ƒ”…ƒ„ƒ”‡Ž›Š‡ƒ”‹–Ǥ
Š‹• –Š”‡•Š‘Ž† †‡’‡†• ‘ •‘—† ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ǥ Š‡ –Š”‡•Š‘Ž† ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ”‹‰ ƒ– ƒ„‘—– ʹͲͲͲ œ ‹•
‡“—ƒŽ–‘ͳͲǦͳʹȀʹǤŠ‡”ƒ–‹‘ Ž‘‰ ͳͲ ȋ I Ȁ IͲ Ȍ ‹•…ƒŽŽ‡†ƒ••‘—†‹–‡•‹–›Ž‡˜‡Žƒ†‹•‡ƒ•—”‡†
‹—‹–•‘ˆ‡ŽŽǡƒ„„”‡˜‹ƒ–‡†ƒ•Ǥ –Š‡’”ƒ…–‹…‡‹–‹•‘”‡ …‘˜‡‹‡––‘—•‡–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘ Eȋ‹
†Ȍ  ͳͲ ¸ Ž‘‰ ͳͲ ȋ I Ȁ IͲ Ȍ ǤŠ‡Š—ƒ‡ƒ”…ƒŠ‡ƒ”•‘—†•ˆ”‘ƒ„‘—–ʹͲ œ–‘ƒ„‘—–ʹͲǤͲͲͲ œǤ
–…ƒŽŽ‡†–Šƒ––Š‡ƒ—†‹„Ž‡”ƒ‰‡Ǥ

ListofApparatusesandAccessories
Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰‹–‡•ƒ”‡”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘”–Š‹•‡š’‡”‹‡–ȋ ‹‰—”‡ǤͶǤͳȌ
x —…–‹‘‰‡‡”ƒ–‘”ȋAȌ
x ‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡”ȋCȌ
x ƒ„Ž‡…‘‡…–‘”•ȋNȌ
x ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡”‡•‹•–‘”ȋ”Š‡‘•–ƒ–ȌȋTȌ
x ‡ƒ†’Š‘‡ȋPȌ


Preparation
x ‘‡…––Š‡‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽƒ’’ƒ”ƒ–—•ƒ••Š‘™‡†‹ ‹‰—”‡ͶǤʹǤ
x ™‹–…Š‘–Š‡’‘™‡”‘ˆ–Š‡‹ŽŽ‹˜‘Ž–‡–‡”ƒ† —…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘”Ǥ
x ‘–ƒ–‡–Š‡ „—––‘ƒ†•‡–‹––‘–Š‡‹††Ž‡’‘•‹–‹‘Ǥ

 

––––––– xlii –––––––


Problems & Solutions

Figure4.1(A).Connectionsoftheapparatuses.(B)Connectionsoftheleadstotherheostat:
plugintheredleadfromthefunctiongeneratortotheredsocketandblackleadtotheblack
socket;connecttheredleadofACmillivoltmetertoyellowsocketandtheblackleadtotheblack
socket;andpluginheadphoneleadtotheheadphonesocket.














Figure4.2.Theconnectionscheme.
 

––––––– xliii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Measurements

4a.Thefrequencyregionofone’sownhearing   (0.5points)
A.‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‘™‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†ǡfŽ‘™Ǣƒ†
B.‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡Š‹‰Š‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†ǡfŠ‹‰Š
ͳǤ ‡– –Š‡ ˜‘Ž—‡ Ž‡˜‡Ž ‘ˆ –Š‡ Š‡ƒ†’Š‘‡ –‘ –Š‡ ƒš‹— —•‹‰ ˜‘Ž—‡ …‘–”‘ŽŽ‡” ‘ˆ
”Š‡‘•–ƒ–Ǥ
ʹǤ ‹†–Š‡Ž‘™‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›ǡ fŽ‘™ǡ–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†Ǥ ‘”†‡”–‘†‘‹–›‘—•Š‘—Ž†…Šƒ‰‡„‘–Š
‘ˆ•‘—†Ž‡˜‡Žƒ†ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ǥ‘…Šƒ‰‡–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›—•‡–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›„—––‘‘ˆ
—…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘”Ǥ ‘ …Šƒ‰‡ –Š‡ •‘—† Ž‡˜‡Ž ›‘— …ƒ —•‡ –Š‡ ”Š‡‘•–ƒ– ƒ† –Š‡
 „—––‘‘ˆ–Š‡ —…–‹‘
‡‡”ƒ–‘”Ǥ
͵Ǥ •‡•‹‹Žƒ”’”‘…‡†—”‡•ƒ†ˆ‹†–Š‡fŠ‹‰Š

4b.Thefrequencyregiontobeheardthebest(1point)
ͳǤ‘™‡”–Š‡•‘—†‹–‡•‹–›•–‡’„›•–‡’Ǥ ‘”‡ƒ…Š•–‡’ˆ‹†–Š‡fŽ‘™ƒ†fŠ‹‰ŠǤ ‹†‘—–ƒ”‡‰‹‘
™Š‡”‡›‘—…ƒŠ‡ƒ”Ž‘™‡•–Ž‡˜‡Ž‘ˆ•‘—†‹–‡•‹–›ǡƒ•’‘••‹„Ž‡ƒ•…ƒǤŠ‡Ž‘™‡”Ž‹‹–‘ˆ–Š‹•
”‡‰‹‘‹•Ž‘™‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›”‡‰‹‘–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†–Š‡„‡•–ǡf–ŠͳǢƒ†—’’‡”Ž‹‹–‘ˆ
–Š‹•”‡‰‹‘‹•–Š‡Š‹‰Š‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›”‡‰‹‘–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†–Š‡„‡•–ǡf–ŠʹǤ
˜‡”ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‹•–™‘Ž‹‹–•‘”–Š‡‘•–•‡•‹–‹˜‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†‹•
f f –Šʹ
f –Š  –Šͳ 
ʹ
4c.Resolvingpower(R)ofearfordifferentfrequenciesofsound. (1.0point)
‡•‘Ž˜‹‰’‘™‡”‘ˆ‡ƒ”‹•ƒƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘†‹•–‹‰—‹•Š–™‘…Ž‘•‡ˆ”‡“—‡…‹‡•Ǥ
ͳǤ ‡––Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‘”–‘f–ŠǤ
ʹǤ Š‹Ž‡Š‡ƒ”‹‰™‹–Š–Š‡Š‡ƒ†’Š‘‡ǡ…Šƒ‰‡–Š‡‹–‡•‹–›–‘–Š‡Ž‡˜‡Ž–Šƒ–›‘—…ƒŠ‡ƒ”
™‡ŽŽǤ
͵Ǥ Šƒ‰‡ –Š‡ ˆ”‡“—‡…› ƒ Ž‹––Ž‡Ǥ ˆ ›‘— …ƒ ‘– Š‡ƒ” ƒ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡ „‡–™‡‡ fth ƒ† –Š‡
…Šƒ‰‡†ˆ”‡“—‡…›ǡƒ‡–Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡ƒŽ‹––Ž‡‘”‡Ǥ ‹†ƒˆ”‡“—‡…›–Šƒ–›‘—…ƒ
Š‡ƒ”ƒ•ƒ†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–ˆ”‘–Š‡ fthǤ‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡„‡–™‡‡–Š‡ fthƒ†–Š‡…Šƒ‰‡†ˆ”‡“—‡…›
‹•”‡•‘Ž˜‡ƒ„Ž‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ›‘—”‡ƒ”ƒ–fthǤ
ͶǤ ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡”‡•‘Ž˜‡ƒ„Ž‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›ȋ'fȌƒ†”‡•‘Ž˜‹‰’‘™‡” R f / 'f ˆ‘”–Š‡f–ŠǤ

4d.FindtheminimumspeedofthemirrorwhichgivesDopplereffectdetectedbyone’s
ownearsintheabovefrequencyregion.    (0.5points)

˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‡–Š‡•’‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡‹””‘”ƒ†‡””‘”‘ˆ‹–—•‹‰–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ˆ‘”—Žƒǣ
'f 2v

f c
™Š‡”‡cα͵Ͷ͵Ȁ••’‡‡†‘ˆ•‘—†‹ƒ‹”‹ƒ—†‹„Ž‡”ƒ‰‡ƒ– ʹͲD  Ǥ‘—…ƒ—•‡–Š‹•˜ƒŽ—‡‘Ž›
‹–Š‹•’ƒ”–Ǥ
 

––––––– xliv –––––––


Problems & Solutions

Samplesolutions

Part1.(3points)

1a.Characteristicofthesupersonicmicrophones   (1.5point)
ȋ’Ž‹–—†‡‘ˆ‹’—–•‹‰ƒŽ‹•ͳǡ…‘•–ƒ–ȌǤ

fȋ œȌ UȋȌ U/Uƒš 
͵ͺ͸ͲͲ ͳͷͷ ͲǤͳ͸ͺ
͵ͻͲͲͲ ʹͶͷ ͲǤʹ͸͸
͵ͻͶͲͲ Ͷ͹Ͳ ͲǤͷͳͳ
͵ͻͺͲͲ ͺ͵Ͳ ͲǤͻͲʹ
͵ͻͺͷͲ ͺ͸ͷ ͲǤͻͶͲ
͵ͻͻͲͲ ͺͻͷ ͲǤͻ͹͵
ͶͲͲͲͲ ͻͳͷ ͲǤͻͻͷ
ͶͲͲʹͲ ͻͳͲ ͲǤͻͺͻ
ͶͲͳͲͲ ͺͺͷ ͲǤͻ͸ʹ
ͶͲʹͲͲ ͺʹͲ ͲǤͺͻͳ
ͶͲͶͲͲ ͸͸Ͳ ͲǤ͹ͳ͹
ͶͲ͸ͲͲ Ͷ͹Ͳ ͲǤͷͳͳ
ͶͲͺͲͲ ͵ͲͲ ͲǤ͵ʹ͸
ͶͳͲͲͲ ʹͲͷ ͲǤʹʹ͵
ͶͳʹͲͲ ͳͶͶ ͲǤͳͷ͹
Ͷͳ͵ͲͲ ͳʹͷ ͲǤͳ͵͸
ͶͳͶͲͲ ͳͳͲ ͲǤͳʹͲ

‹‰ʹǤŠƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…‘ˆ•—’‡”•‘‹…‹…”‘’Š‘‡Ǥ’Ž‹–—†‡‘ˆ‹’—–•‹‰ƒŽͳǤ












––––––– xlv –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

”‘ –Š‡ ‰”ƒ’Šǡ ‹– …ƒ „‡ …ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡† …—– ‘ˆˆ ˆ”‡“—‡…‹‡• ‘ˆ ”ƒ‰‡ ™Š‹…Š –Š‡ ‹…”‘’Š‘‡
•›•–‡™‘”•™‹–Š–Š‡Š‹‰Š‡•–•‡•‹–‹˜‹–›Ǥ
ܷ୫ୟ୶
݂୪୭୵ ൬ ൰ ൌ ͵ͻ͸ͷͲ œ
ξʹ

ܷ୫ୟ୶
݂୦୧୥୦ ൬ ൰ ൌ ͶͲͶͲͲ œ
ξʹ

”‘Š‡”‡ǡ–Š‡™‘”‹‰ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡•›•–‡‹•
ͳ
݂଴ ൌ ൫݂୪୭୵ ൅ ݂୦୧୥୦ ൯ ൎ ͶͲͲͲͲ œ
ʹ

1b.Dependenceamplitudeemittedsignalofangle   (1.5points)
‘ƒ‡…‘””‡…–‡ƒ•—”‡‡–ǡ–”›–‘•‡––Š‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡•‘—”…‡‹…”‘’Š‘‡ Sƒ––Š‡…‡–‡”‘ˆ
–Š‡…‹”…Ž‡ƒ†–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘” D—•–„‡’Žƒ…‡†‹–Š‡†‹”‡…–‹‘‘ˆ…‹”…Ž‡”ƒ†‹—•ǤŽ•‘ǡƒ‡•—”‡
–Šƒ––Š‡”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†•‹‰ƒŽ•ˆ”‘ƒ‘–Š‡”‘„Œ‡…–••Š‘—Ž†‘–„‡†‡–‡…–‡†„›–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”DǤ

‰Ž‡ǡ ‰Ž‡ǡ
†‡‰”‡‡ UȋȌ U/Uƒš †‡‰”‡‡ UȋȌ U/Uƒš
Ͳ ͲǤ͸ͺ ͳ ͳͺͲ ͲǤͲ͸ͺ ͲǤͳͲͲ
ͳͲ ͲǤ͸͸ ͲǤͻ͹ͳ ʹͳͲ ͲǤͲ͵ͺ ͲǤͲͷ͸
ʹͲ ͲǤ͸ʹ ͲǤͻͳʹ ʹͶͲ ͲǤͲ͵Ͷ ͲǤͲͷͲ
͵Ͳ ͲǤͷͷ ͲǤͺͲͻ ʹͷͲ ͲǤͲͶ͸ ͲǤͲ͸ͺ
ͶͲ ͲǤͶͷ ͲǤ͸͸ʹ ʹ͹Ͳ ͲǤͲͺʹ ͲǤͳʹͳ
ͷͲ ͲǤ͵͸ͷ ͲǤͷ͵͹ ͵ͲͲ ͲǤʹͶͷ ͲǤ͵͸Ͳ
͸Ͳ ͲǤʹ͸ ͲǤ͵ͺʹ ͵͵Ͳ ͲǤͷ͵ ͲǤ͹͹ͻ
͹Ͳ ͲǤͳͺ ͲǤʹ͸ͷ ͵͵ͷ ͲǤͷ͹ ͲǤͺ͵ͺ
ͺͲ ͲǤͳͲͷ ͲǤͳͷͶ ͵ͶͲ ͲǤ͸ ͲǤͺͺʹ
ͻͲ ͲǤͲ͹ʹ ͲǤͳͲ͸ ͵Ͷͷ ͲǤ͸Ͷ ͲǤͻͶͳ
ͳͲͲ ͲǤͲͺ ͲǤͳͳͺ ͵ͷͲ ͲǤ͸͸ ͲǤͻ͹ͳ
ͳʹͲ ͲǤͲͻͷ ͲǤͳͶͲ ͵ͷͷ ͲǤ͸ͺ ͳǤͲͲͲ
ͳͷͲ ͲǤͲͳͶ ͲǤͲʹͳ ͵͸Ͳ ͲǤ͸ͺ ͳǤͲͲͲ



‘”–Š‡‰”ƒ’Šǡƒ‰Ž‡•™Š‡”‡–Š‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡™‹ŽŽ„‡ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆƒšƒ’Ž‹–—†‡ƒ”‡
ܷ୫ୟ୶
߮ ൬ܷ ൌ ൰ ൌ ȁͷͲ଴ ȁ േ ͷ଴ 
ʹ
ƒ†ƒ‰Ž‡•™Š‡”‡–Š‡˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡™‹ŽŽ„‡ͳȀ͵‘ˆƒšƒ’Ž‹–—†‡ƒ”‡
ܷ୫ୟ୶
߮ ൬ܷ ൌ ൰ ൌ ȁ͸ͷ଴ ȁ േ ͷ଴ Ǥ
͵

––––––– xlvi –––––––


Problems & Solutions

Part2.InterferenceofWave.(6points)

2a.DeterminationtheWavelength.     (1.6points)

Š‡”‡•—Ž–ƒ–•–ƒ†‹‰™ƒ˜‡y‡“—ƒ–‹‘™‹ŽŽ„‡–Š‡•—‘ˆy1ƒ†y2ǣ
‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬௢ •‹ሺ߱‫ ݐ‬െ ݇‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬௢ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ሺ߱‫ ݐ‬൅ ݇‫ݔ‬ሻ

•‹‰ƒ–”‹‰‘‘‡–”‹…‹†‡–‹–›–‘•‹’Ž‹ˆ›ǡ–Š‡•–ƒ†‹‰™ƒ˜‡‹•†‡•…”‹„‡†„›ǣ
࢟ ൌ ૛࢟࢕ ࢉ࢕࢙࢑࢞ ‫࢚࣓ ࢔࢏࢙ כ‬

”‘ Š‡”‡ –Š‡ „ƒ†™‹†–Š ‘ˆ ‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡ ™Š‹…Š ‹• †‹•–ƒ…‡ „‡–™‡‡ ‡‹‰Š„‘”‹‰
‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡–‹ƒŽƒš‹—ȋ‘”‹‹—Ȍ‹•
ȟ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬௠ାଵ െ ‫ݔ‬௠ ൌ ߣȀʹ

‘ ˆ‹† –Š‡ ™ƒ˜‡Ž‡‰–Š ™‡ ‡‡† –‘ ‡ƒ•—”‡ –‘–ƒŽ ™‹†–Š ‘ˆ •‡˜‡”ƒŽ „ƒ†• ƒ† ‹– —•– „‡
†‹˜‹†‡†„›—„‡”‘ˆ„ƒ†•
ߣ ൌ ʹሺ‫ݔ‬௠ െ ‫ݔ‬଴ ሻȀ݉

‘ ‘„•‡”˜‡ ƒ ‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡ǡ –Š‡ †‡–‡…–‡† ‹–‡•‹–‹‡• ƒ› „‡ ‡“—ƒŽ‹œ‡† ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡Ž› „›
ƒ†Œ—•–‹‰–Š‡†‹”‡…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”–‘†‡–‡…–Ž‡••–Š‡†‹”‡…–™ƒ˜‡™‹–ŠŠ‹‰Š‡”‹–‡•‹–›ƒ†
‘”‡–Š‡”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡‹””‘”™‹–Š–Š‡Ž‘™‡”‹–‡•‹–›Ǥ –Š‹•…ƒ•‡™‡…ƒƒ••—‡
–Šƒ––Š‡•–ƒ†‹‰™ƒ˜‡‹•†‡–‡…–‡†‹–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”Ǥ

–‹‘†‡• ܵ‫ ܯ‬ሺሻ –‹‘†‡• ܵ‫ܯ‬ሺሻ
Ͳ ʹͻǤͷ ͳͲ ͹͵
ͳ ͵ͶǤͷ ͳͳ ͹͹Ǥ͸
ʹ ͵ͺǤͷ ͳʹ ͺͳǤͷ
͵ ͶʹǤͷ ͳ͵ ͺ͸
Ͷ Ͷ͹Ǥͷ ͳͶ ͻͲ
ͷ ͷͳǤͷ ͳͷ ͻͶǤͷ
͸ ͷ͸ ͳ͸ ͻͻǤʹ
͹ ͸ͲǤͷ ͳ͹ ͳͲ͵
ͺ ͸ͶǤͷ ͳͺ ͳͲͺ
ͻ ͸ͻ  

 

––––––– xlvii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

”‘‰”ƒ’Šǡ™ƒ˜‡Ž‡‰–Š‹•

൏ ߣ௘௫௣ ൐ൌ ʹ ȉ ͶǤ͵ͳͺ݉݉ ൌͺǤ͸͵
߂ߣ ൌ ʹ ȉ ͲǤͲͳ݉݉ ൌ ͲǤͲʹ݉݉
Š‡‘”‡–‹…ƒŽŽ›‹–‹•
ߣ௧௛௘௢௥ ൌ ͺǤ͸݉݉

ߣ୲୦ୣ୭୰ െ ߣୣ୶୮
ߝൌ ൌ ͲǤ͵Ψ
ߣୣ୶୮

2b.StudyofthewaveInterference.Observeanddescribethephenomenaofintensity
fluctuationofthedetectedsignal.     (2.8points)

–Š‹••‡…–‹‘›‘—•Š‘—Ž†ƒ•™‡”–Š‡“—‡•–‹‘•ƒ„‘—––Š‡’”‘…‡••‹–Š‡•›•–‡„›”‡ˆ‡””‹‰
‘›‘—”‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•™Š‹…Š™‡”‡†‘‡‹•‡…–‹‘2a1ƒ†2a2Ǥ

Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰™ƒ˜‡•…ƒ„‡†‡–‡…–‡†‹–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”ǣ
x ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡•‘—”…‡Ǥ’Ž‹–—†‡‘ˆ–Š‡†‡–‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡‹••—††‡Ž›†‡…”‡ƒ•‡•™Š‡
‹…”‡ƒ•‡•–Š‡ƒ‰Ž‡„‡–™‡‡–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”ƒ†–Š‡•‘—”…‡Ǥ
x ‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡‹””‘”Ǥ‘—…ƒƒ••—‡–Šƒ––Š‡™ƒ˜‡™‹ŽŽ„‡”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†ˆ”‘
–Š‡ˆ”‘–•—”ˆƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹””‘”Ǥ
x ‡ˆŽ‡…–‡† ™ƒ˜‡• ˆ”‘ ‘–Š‡” ‘„Œ‡…–•Ǥ ƒ˜‡• ™Š‹…Š ƒ”‡ ”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡† ˆ”‘ ƒ ™ƒŽŽ ‹
†‹•–ƒ…‡ƒ†‘–Š‡”‡“—‹’‡–•Ǥ

‹”•–Ž›ǡ™Š‡”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡ƒˆˆ‡…–•–Š‡•‘—”…‡–Š‡”‡…ƒ„‡…”‡ƒ–‡†™ƒ˜‡•›•–‡Dz‘—”…‡Ǧ‹”Ǧ
‹””‘”dz„›”‡•‘ƒ–‹‰–Š‡•‘—”…‡ǡ–Š‡‹””‘”ƒ†–Š‡ƒ‹”„‡–™‡‡–Š‡Ǥ

‡…‘†Ž›ǡ‹–‹•’‘••‹„Ž‡–Šƒ––Š‡‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡…ƒ‘……—”„‡–™‡‡–Š‡™ƒ˜‡’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‰–Š”‘—‰Š
–Š‡ „ƒ•‡ ƒ† –Š‡ ™ƒ˜‡ ’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‰ –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ƒ‹”Ǥ ’‡‡† ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‘—† –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ‡–ƒŽ
—…ŠŠ‹‰Š‡”–Šƒ•’‡‡†–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡ƒ‹”ǤŠ‡”‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡•‘—†–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡‡–ƒŽ„ƒ•‡™‹ŽŽ„‡
†‡–‡…–‡† ‹‡†‹ƒ–‡Ž›Ǥ ‡ …ƒ ƒ••—‡–Šƒ––Š‡”‡ ‹• ‘ ‘–‹…‡ƒ„Ž‡ ’Šƒ•‡ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡ „‡–™‡‡
–Š‡•‘—”…‡ƒ††‡–‡…–‡†•‹‰ƒŽ–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡„ƒ•‡„‡…ƒ—•‡™ƒ˜‡Ž‡‰–Š‹–Š‡‡–ƒŽͳͷ–‹‡•
‰”‡ƒ–‡” –Šƒ ™ƒ˜‡ ‹ –Š‡ ƒ‹”Ǥ ˆ ™‡ ’Žƒ…‡ –Š‡ †‡–‡…–‘” ‹ †‹•–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ŠƒŽˆ ™ƒ˜‡ Ž‡‰–Š ‹ –Š‡
ƒŽ—‹—„ƒ•‡™ƒ˜‡–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡„ƒ•‡™‹ŽŽ‰‹˜‡‘–‹…‡ƒ„Ž‡’Šƒ•‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡Ǥ—–„‡…ƒ—•‡‘ˆƒ
„‹‰†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡‘ˆ™ƒ˜‡‹’‡†ƒ…‡‘ˆƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ••—…Šƒ•ƒ‹”ǡ’Žƒ•–‹…ƒ†‡–ƒŽǡ˜‡”›™‡ƒ™ƒ˜‡
–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡„ƒ•‡™‹ŽŽ„‡†‡–‡…–‡†Ǥ

’‘•‹–‹‘ A–Š‡™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡•‘—”…‡ƒ†”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡‹””‘”…ƒ’Žƒ›‹ƒ‹
”‘Ž‡ǤŠ‡”‡‹•ƒŽ™ƒ›•ƒ•–ƒ†‹‰™ƒ˜‡„‡–™‡‡–Š‡•‘—”…‡ƒ†–Š‡‹””‘”Ǥ

Š‡”‡™‹ŽŽ„‡ƒŽ™ƒ›•‘†‡‘ˆ–Š‡•–ƒ†‹‰™ƒ˜‡‘–Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹””‘”Ǥ‡’‡†‹‰‘
†‹•–ƒ…‡ SM ‘ –Š‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‘—”…‡ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ‘†‡ ‘” ƒ–‹‘†‡ǡ •‘‡–‹‡• …ƒ ‘……—”

––––––– xlviii –––––––


Problems & Solutions

‡†‹— …‘†‹–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡Ǥ Š‡ –Š‡”‡ ‹• ƒ ƒ–‹‘†‡ ‘ –Š‡ •—”ˆƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‘—”…‡ǡ –Š‡
”‡•‘ƒ…‡ ™‹ŽŽ ‘……—” ƒ† –Š‡ ƒ’Ž‹–—†‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡–‡…–‡† ™ƒ˜‡ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ –Š‡ ƒš‹—Ǥ Š‡
–Š‡”‡‹•ƒ‘†‡–Š‡ƒ’Ž‹–—†‡™‹ŽŽ„‡–Š‡‹‹—Ǥ

Š‡‘˜‹‰‘Ž›–Š‡‹””‘”™Š‹Ž‡†‡–‡…–‘”‹•ˆ‹š‡†‹’‘•‹–‹‘ Bƒ†™‹–Š–Š‡ˆ‹š‡†•‘—”…‡ǡ
•‹‰ƒŽ ’‡ƒ ȋƒš‹—Ȍ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ‘„•‡”˜‡† ƒ– –Š‡ ‡˜‡”› ɉȀʹ •Š‹ˆ– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹””‘” ƒ• •ƒ‡ ƒ• ‹
’‘•‹–‹‘AǤŠ‡ƒš‹ƒŽ•‹‰ƒŽ‹•‡ƒ•—”‡†ƒ–’‘•‹–‹‘ Bǡ–Š‡”‡ƒŽ™ƒ›•‘……—”•–Š‡ƒ–‹‘†‡
ƒ––Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‘—”…‡Ǥ

ˆ–Š‡ƒš‹—ƒ†‹‹—ƒ”‡‘„•‡”˜‡†™Š‹Ž‡‘˜‹‰–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”‹’‘•‹–‹‘ B‹–…ƒ„‡
ƒ••—‡†–Šƒ––Š‡”‡•—Ž–‘ˆ‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡‘ˆ”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡‹””‘”ƒ†”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡•
ˆ”‘‘–Š‡”‘„Œ‡…–•‘”™ƒ˜‡–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡„ƒ•‡Ǥ ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡–Š‡†‹•–ƒ…‡„‡–™‡‡‡‹‰Š„‘”‹‰
ƒš‹—•‘ˆ–Š‡‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡‘ˆ”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘…‡‹Ž‹‰ƒ††‹”‡…–™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡•‘—”…‡
™‹ŽŽ„‡‡“—ƒŽ–‘ɉǤ

š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ ƒ† ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ”‡•—Ž– …ƒ „‡ …‘…Ž—†‡† ƒ† ˆ‹ŽŽ‡† ‹ –Š‡ –ƒ„Ž‡ ‹ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰
™ƒ›ǣ
     

—   —  — —

–Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹””‘”
‡–‡…–‹‘•‹‰ƒŽŽ‡˜‡Ž –Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹””‘” š’”‡••‹‘
ƒš‹ƒŽ ‘†‡ ‹””‘”‹•…Ž‘•‡†‡†
‹‹ƒŽ ‘†‡ ‹””‘”‹•…Ž‘•‡†‡†

–Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‘—”…‡
‡–‡…–‹‘•‹‰ƒŽŽ‡˜‡Ž –Š‡•—”ˆƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‘—”…‡ š’”‡••‹‘
ƒš‹ƒŽ –‹‘†‡ ‡‡ ‹‰—”‡ͳ
‹‹ƒŽ ‘†‡ ‡‡ ‹‰—”‡ʹ

 

––––––– xlix –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Part3.TheDopplereffect(8points)

ƒ‡ƒƒ†Œ—•–‡–‘ˆ‹•–”—‡–ˆ‘”–Š‡‡ƒ•—”‡‡––Š‡‘’’Ž‡”ˆˆ‡…–ˆ”‘–Š‡•‹†‡‘ˆ
†‹•ǡ‘„•‡”˜‡‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ

3a.FormulasfortheDopplershiftofsoundfromtherotatingdisk (1.5points)
Š‡‹””‘””‡…‡†‹‰ǣ
ܿെ‫ݒ‬
݂ ൌ ݂௢ 
ܿ൅‫ݒ‬

Š‡‹””‘”ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‹‰ǣ
ܿ൅‫ݒ‬
݂ ൌ ݂௢ 
ܿെ‫ݒ‬

Solution:  –Š‹• •‹–—ƒ–‹‘ –Š‡”‡ –™‘ ‘’’Ž‡” •Š‹ˆ–•Ǥ  –Š‡ ˆ‹”•– •Š‹ˆ–ǡ –Š‡ ‹””‘” ‹• –Š‡
”‡…‡†‹‰Dz‡…‡‹˜‡”dzǤ

Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ•‘—†”‡ƒ…Š‹‰–Š‡‹””‘”
ܿെ‫ݒ‬
‫ݒ‬௦ ൌ ͲǢ‫ݒ‬ௗ ൌ ‫ݒ‬Ǣ ݂ƍ ൌ ݂௢ 
ܿ
 –Š‡ •‡…‘† •Š‹ˆ–ǡ –Š‡ ‹””‘” ƒ…–• ƒ• ƒ •‘—”…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ •‘—† ™‹–Š –Š‡ ˆ”‡“—‡…›݂ƍǡ ƒ† –Š‡
”‡…‡‹˜‡”‹•–Š‡‡–‡…–‘”Ǥ

Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ•‘—†”‡ƒ…Š‹‰–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”
ܿ
‫ݒ‬௦ ൌ ‫ݒ‬Ǣ‫ݒ‬ௗ ൌ ͲǢ ݂ ൌ ݂ƍ 
ܿ൅‫ݒ‬
…ƒ•‡‘ˆ”‡…‡†‹‰‹””‘”–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‡ƒ•—”‡†„›–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”‹•
ܿ ܿെ‫ݒ‬
݂ ൌ ݂ƍ ൌ ݂௢ 
ܿ൅‫ݒ‬ ܿ൅‫ݒ‬
ˆ™‡—•‡‫•‹–ˆ‹Š•”‡Ž’’‘†‡–…‡–‡†‡Š–ܿ ا ݒ‬
ܿെ‫ݒ‬ ʹ‫ݒ‬
ο݂ ൌ ݂௢ െ ݂ ൌ ݂௢ ቀͳ െ ቁൎ ݂
ܿ൅‫ݒ‬ ܿ ௢
Š‡–Š‡”‡ˆŽ‡…–‹‰‹””‘”‹•‘˜‹‰–‘™ƒ”†•ƒ†„ƒ…™ƒ”†•–Š‡ •‘—”…‡‘’’Ž‡”ǯ•”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡
•Š‹ˆ–‹•

ȁ݂௢ െ ݂ȁ ʹ‫ݒ‬
ൌ 
݂௢ ܿ


–––––––  –––––––
Problems & Solutions


3b.ToconnecttheequationofDopplereffectwiththeparameter
ofarotatingdisk.       (1.4points)

 –Š‹• ‡š’‡”‹‡– –Š‡ –”‹ƒ‰Ž‡ –‘‘–Š ‘ˆ –Š‡ •ƒ™ –‘‘–Š •Šƒ’‡† †‹• ™‹ŽŽ ’Žƒ› ‹ ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡
‘˜‹‰‹””‘”–‘”‡ˆŽ‡…–•‘—†ˆ”‘–Š‡•‘—”…‡ǤŠ‡†‹•Šƒ•͵͸–‘‘–Šƒ†‡ƒ…Š–‘‘–ŠŠƒ•ͳͲ‘
‘ˆ…‡–”ƒŽƒ‰Ž‡Ǥ‘‘–Šǯ•‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡Š‡‹‰Š–‹•ȟ Ž ൌ ͶǤ͵͹݉݉Ǥ
ˆ™‡ƒ”–Š‡ƒ‰Ž‡•’‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡”‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•ƒ•ȳ–Š‡”ƒ†‹ƒŽ•’‡‡†‘ˆ–Š‡‹””‘”•Š‹ˆ–‹•

߂݈ ߂݈
߭ൌ ൌ ൌ ͵͸ ȉ ߂݈ ȉ π
߂‫ܶ ݐ‬Ȁ͵͸

›—•‹‰‡“—ƒ–‹‘•–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘„‡–™‡‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡”‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•ƒ†‘’’Ž‡”•Š‹ˆ–™‹ŽŽ
„‡ˆ‘—†
ȁ݂௢ െ ݂ȁ ʹ ȉ ͵͸ȳ߂݈
ൌ 
݂௢ ܿ
        
3c.ExperimentalstudyofTheDopplereffect.    (2.8points)

Š‹Ž‡ ƒ‹‰ –Š‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡– ˆ‘” ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘’’Ž‡” ˆˆ‡…– –‘ ‡‡’ –Š‡ ƒ„‘˜‡
‡“—ƒ–‹‘˜ƒŽ‹†•‘—”…‡ƒ††‡–‡…–‘”•—•–„‡†‹”‡…–‡†–‘–Š‡…‡–‡”‘ˆ–Š‡†‹•ƒŽ‘‰‹–•”ƒ†‹‹Ǥ
† ›‘— Šƒ˜‡ –‘ —•‡ –Š‡ ”‡•—Ž–• ˆ”‘ ›‘—” ‡š’‡”‹‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡Ǥ ƒ‡Ž›ǡ –Š‡
†‡–‡…–‘” —•– „‡ ’Žƒ…‡† –‘ †‡–‡…– ƒš‹ƒŽ ˜ƒŽ—‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡† ™ƒ˜‡ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ –‘‘–Š ‘ˆ
”‘–ƒ–‹‰†‹•ǤŠƒ–‡ƒ•›‘—Šƒ˜‡–‘ˆ‹†–Š‡†‡–‡…–‘”ǯ•’‘•‹–‹‘™Š‹…Š†‘‡•‘–†‡–‡…––Š‡
†‹”‡…–™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡•‘—”…‡ƒ†”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†™ƒ˜‡•‡š…‡’–™ƒ˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡‹””‘”ǤŠ‡†‹•–ƒ…‡
™‹–ŠŽ‘™ƒˆˆ‡…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‹ˆˆ”ƒ…–‹‘ƒ† –‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡™‹ŽŽ„‡ ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡Ž›ͳǦʹ…ˆ”‘–Š‡
•ƒ™–‘‘–ŠǤ

‡ƒ•—”‡‡–ǣ –Š‡–ƒ„Ž‡•Š‘™–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘„‡–™‡‡‘’’Ž‡”•Š‹ˆ–ƒ†˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ƒ†…—””‡–
ȋ’‘™‡”Ȍ™Š‹Ž‡–Š‡†‹•‹•”‘–ƒ–‹‰‹†‹”‡…–‹‘‘ˆ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ǥ


 

––––––– li –––––––
The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Table1.Dopplershiftdependenceonvoltagedropsonmotor.
(Indirectionofincreasingfrequency)

‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ —””‡– —–’—– ’—– ο݂ ൌ ο݂ ሺ݂௢ െ ݂ሻ ‘™‡” ’‡†ƒ…‡
͒ UȋȌ IȋȌ ˆ”‡“—‡…›f ˆ”‡“—‡…›݂௢  ݂௢ െ ݂ ݂௢ ݂௢ ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ P=IȉUȋȌ Z=U/IȋŠȌ
ȋ œȌ ȋ œȌ ȋ œȌ
ͳ ͳ͸ ͳǤʹ͵ ͵ͺ͹Ͳͷ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳʹͻͷ ͵ǤʹͶǦͲʹ ʹǤͲ͸ǦͲ͵ ͳͻǤ͸ͺ ͳ͵ǤͲͳ
ʹ ͳͷ ͳǤͳͷ ͵ͺ͹͹ʹ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳʹʹͺ ͵ǤͲ͹ǦͲʹ ʹǤͲͺǦͲ͵ ͳ͹Ǥʹͷ ͳ͵ǤͲͶ
͵ ͳͶ ͳǤͲͺ ͵ͺͺͷ͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͳͶ͹ ʹǤͺ͹ǦͲʹ ʹǤͲͻǦͲ͵ ͳͷǤͳʹ ͳʹǤͻ͸
Ͷ ͳ͵ ͳ ͵ͺͻͳͷ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͲͺͷ ʹǤ͹ͳǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͳ͵ ͳ͵ǤͲͲ
ͷ ͳʹ ͲǤͻ ͵ͺͻͻ͹ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͲͲ͵ ʹǤͷͳǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͳͲǤͺ ͳ͵Ǥ͵͵
͸ ͳͳ ͲǤͺͳ ͵ͻͲͺͳ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͻͳͻ ʹǤ͵ͲǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͶǦͲ͵ ͺǤͻͳ ͳ͵Ǥͷͺ
͹ ͳͲ ͲǤ͹͵ ͵ͻͳͷͶ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͺͶ͸ ʹǤͳʹǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͹ǦͲ͵ ͹Ǥ͵ ͳ͵Ǥ͹Ͳ
ͺ ͻ ͲǤ͸ͳ ͵ͻʹͶͻ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͹ͷͳ ͳǤͺͺǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͷǦͲ͵ ͷǤͶͻ ͳͶǤ͹ͷ
ͻ ͺ ͲǤͷͶ ͵ͻ͵͵ͻ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͸͸ͳ ͳǤ͸ͷǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͶǤ͵ʹ ͳͶǤͺͳ
ͳͲ ͹ ͲǤͶͺ ͵ͻͶͳͺ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͷͺʹ ͳǤͶ͸ǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͸ǦͲ͵ ͵Ǥ͵͸ ͳͶǤͷͺ
ͳͳ ͸Ǥͷ ͲǤͶͶ ͵ͻͶ͹͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͷʹ͹ ͳǤ͵ʹǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͳǦͲ͵ ʹǤͺ͸ ͳͶǤ͹͹
ͳʹ ͸ ͲǤͶ͵ ͵ͻͷͲͲ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͷͲͲ ͳǤʹͷǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͹ǦͲ͵ ʹǤͷͺ ͳ͵Ǥͻͷ
ͳ͵ ͷǤͷ ͲǤ͵ͻ ͵ͻͷͶͻ ͶͲͲͲͲ Ͷͷͳ ͳǤͳ͵ǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͷǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳͶͷ ͳͶǤͳͲ
ͳͶ ͷ ͲǤ͵ͺ ͵ͻͷͺ͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ Ͷͳ͹ ͳǤͲͶǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͻǦͲ͵ ͳǤͻ ͳ͵Ǥͳ͸
ͳͷ ͶǤͷ ͲǤ͵͸ ͵ͻ͸͵Ͳ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͵͹Ͳ ͻǤʹͷǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳͺǦͲ͵ ͳǤ͸ʹ ͳʹǤͷͲ
ͳ͸ Ͷ ͲǤ͵͵ ͵ͻ͸͹Ͷ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͵ʹ͸ ͺǤͳͷǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳ͹ǦͲ͵ ͳǤ͵ʹ ͳʹǤͳʹ
ͳ͹ ͵Ǥͷ ͲǤ͵ͳ ͵ͻ͹ʹ͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ ʹ͹͹ ͸Ǥͻ͵ǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͳǤͲͺͷ ͳͳǤʹͻ
ͳͺ ͵ ͲǤ͵ ͵ͻ͹ͷͺ ͶͲͲͲͲ ʹͶʹ ͸ǤͲͷǦͲ͵ ʹǤʹͲǦͲ͵ ͲǤͻ ͳͲǤͲͲ
ͳͻ ʹǤͷ ͲǤʹͺ ͵ͻͺͲͲ ͶͲͲͲͲ ʹͲͲ ͷǤͲͲǦͲ͵ ʹǤʹʹǦͲ͵ ͲǤ͹ ͺǤͻ͵
ʹͲ ʹ ͲǤʹ͸ ͵ͻͺͶ͹ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͷ͵ ͵Ǥͺ͵ǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳͻǦͲ͵ ͲǤͷʹ ͹Ǥ͸ͻ
ʹͳ ͳǤͷ ͲǤʹͷ ͵ͻͺͺ͹ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͳ͵ ʹǤͺ͵ǦͲ͵ ʹǤʹ͸ǦͲ͵ ͲǤ͵͹ͷ ͸ǤͲͲ
ȋǦȌ ͳ ͲǤʹͶ ͵ͻͻ͵͸ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͸Ͷ ͳǤ͸ͲǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͲǤʹͶ ͶǤͳ͹
ȋǦȌ ͲǤͷ ͲǤʹͶ ͵ͻͻ͹͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ ʹ͹ ͸Ǥ͹ͷǦͲͶ ʹǤ͹ͲǦͲ͵ ͲǤͳʹ ʹǤͲͺ
ܷ௧ ൌ ሺͲǤʹͷ േ ͲǤͲͷሻ Š”‡•Š‘Ž†‘ˆ‘–‹‘ ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ȋͳǣʹͳȌ ʹǤͳͷǦͲ͵  
   „•‡””‘” ͵Ǥ͹ͲǦͲͷ  

 

––––––– lii –––––––


Problems & Solutions

”‘‰”ƒ’Šǡ
݂௢ െ ݂
̱ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ
݂௢
௙೚ ି௙
ൌ ‫ ͳ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ȉ ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻȋʹȌ
௙೚
‫ ͳ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ൌ ሺʹǤͳͷ േ ͲǤͲ͵͹ሻ ȉ ͳͲିଷ  ିଵ
ܷ௧ ൌ ሺͲǤʹͷ േ ͲǤͲͷሻȋ‹”‡…–‹‘‘ˆ”‘–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡†‹•ǣ†‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ȍ

Table2.Dopplershiftdependenceonvoltagedropsonmotor.
(Indirectionofdecreasingfrequency)

‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ —””‡– —–’—– ’—– ο݂ ൌ ݂௢ െ ο݂ ሺ݂௢ െ ݂ሻ ‘™‡” ’‡†ƒ…‡
 
͒ UȋȌ IȋȌ ˆ”‡“—‡…› ˆ”‡“—‡…› ݂ȋ œȌ ݂௢ ݂௢ ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ P=IȉUȋȌ Z=U/IȋŠȌ
fȋ œȌ ݂௢ ȋ œȌ
ͳ ͳ͸ ͳǤʹ͵ ͵ͺ͹Ͳͷ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳʹͻͷ ͵ǤʹͶǦͲʹ ʹǤͲ͸ǦͲ͵ ͳͻǤ͸ͺ ͳ͵ǤͲͳ
ʹ ͳͷ ͳǤͳͷ ͵ͺ͹͹ʹ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳʹʹͺ ͵ǤͲ͹ǦͲʹ ʹǤͲͺǦͲ͵ ͳ͹Ǥʹͷ ͳ͵ǤͲͶ
͵ ͳͶ ͳǤͲͺ ͵ͺͺͷ͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͳͶ͹ ʹǤͺ͹ǦͲʹ ʹǤͲͻǦͲ͵ ͳͷǤͳʹ ͳʹǤͻ͸
Ͷ ͳ͵ ͳ ͵ͺͻͳͷ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͲͺͷ ʹǤ͹ͳǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͳ͵ ͳ͵ǤͲͲ
ͷ ͳʹ ͲǤͻ ͵ͺͻͻ͹ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͲͲ͵ ʹǤͷͳǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͳͲǤͺ ͳ͵Ǥ͵͵
͸ ͳͳ ͲǤͺͳ ͵ͻͲͺͳ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͻͳͻ ʹǤ͵ͲǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͶǦͲ͵ ͺǤͻͳ ͳ͵Ǥͷͺ
͹ ͳͲ ͲǤ͹͵ ͵ͻͳͷͶ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͺͶ͸ ʹǤͳʹǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͹ǦͲ͵ ͹Ǥ͵ ͳ͵Ǥ͹Ͳ
ͺ ͻ ͲǤ͸ͳ ͵ͻʹͶͻ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͹ͷͳ ͳǤͺͺǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͷǦͲ͵ ͷǤͶͻ ͳͶǤ͹ͷ
ͻ ͺ ͲǤͷͶ ͵ͻ͵͵ͻ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͸͸ͳ ͳǤ͸ͷǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͶǤ͵ʹ ͳͶǤͺͳ
ͳͲ ͹ ͲǤͶͺ ͵ͻͶͳͺ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͷͺʹ ͳǤͶ͸ǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͸ǦͲ͵ ͵Ǥ͵͸ ͳͶǤͷͺ
ͳͳ ͸Ǥͷ ͲǤͶͶ ͵ͻͶ͹͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͷʹ͹ ͳǤ͵ʹǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͳǦͲ͵ ʹǤͺ͸ ͳͶǤ͹͹
ͳʹ ͸ ͲǤͶ͵ ͵ͻͷͲͲ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͷͲͲ ͳǤʹͷǦͲʹ ʹǤͳ͹ǦͲ͵ ʹǤͷͺ ͳ͵Ǥͻͷ
ͳ͵ ͷǤͷ ͲǤ͵ͻ ͵ͻͷͶͻ ͶͲͲͲͲ Ͷͷͳ ͳǤͳ͵ǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͷǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳͶͷ ͳͶǤͳͲ
ͳͶ ͷ ͲǤ͵ͺ ͵ͻͷͺ͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ Ͷͳ͹ ͳǤͲͶǦͲʹ ʹǤͳͻǦͲ͵ ͳǤͻ ͳ͵Ǥͳ͸
ͳͷ ͶǤͷ ͲǤ͵͸ ͵ͻ͸͵Ͳ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͵͹Ͳ ͻǤʹͷǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳͺǦͲ͵ ͳǤ͸ʹ ͳʹǤͷͲ
ͳ͸ Ͷ ͲǤ͵͵ ͵ͻ͸͹Ͷ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͵ʹ͸ ͺǤͳͷǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳ͹ǦͲ͵ ͳǤ͵ʹ ͳʹǤͳʹ
ͳ͹ ͵Ǥͷ ͲǤ͵ͳ ͵ͻ͹ʹ͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ ʹ͹͹ ͸Ǥͻ͵ǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͳǤͲͺͷ ͳͳǤʹͻ
ͳͺ ͵ ͲǤ͵ ͵ͻ͹ͷͺ ͶͲͲͲͲ ʹͶʹ ͸ǤͲͷǦͲ͵ ʹǤʹͲǦͲ͵ ͲǤͻ ͳͲǤͲͲ
ͳͻ ʹǤͷ ͲǤʹͺ ͵ͻͺͲͲ ͶͲͲͲͲ ʹͲͲ ͷǤͲͲǦͲ͵ ʹǤʹʹǦͲ͵ ͲǤ͹ ͺǤͻ͵
ʹͲ ʹ ͲǤʹ͸ ͵ͻͺͶ͹ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͷ͵ ͵Ǥͺ͵ǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳͻǦͲ͵ ͲǤͷʹ ͹Ǥ͸ͻ
ʹͳ ͳǤͷ ͲǤʹͷ ͵ͻͺͺ͹ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͳͳ͵ ʹǤͺ͵ǦͲ͵ ʹǤʹ͸ǦͲ͵ ͲǤ͵͹ͷ ͸ǤͲͲ
ȋǦȌ ͳ ͲǤʹͶ ͵ͻͻ͵͸ ͶͲͲͲͲ ͸Ͷ ͳǤ͸ͲǦͲ͵ ʹǤͳ͵ǦͲ͵ ͲǤʹͶ ͶǤͳ͹
ȋǦȌ ͲǤͷ ͲǤʹͶ ͵ͻͻ͹͵ ͶͲͲͲͲ ʹ͹ ͸Ǥ͹ͷǦͲͶ ʹǤ͹ͲǦͲ͵ ͲǤͳʹ ʹǤͲͺ
ܷ௧ ൌ ሺͲǤʹͷ േ ͲǤͲͷሻ Š”‡•Š‘Ž†‘ˆ‘–‹‘ ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ȋͳǣʹͳȌ ʹǤͳͷǦͲ͵  
   „•‡””‘” ͵Ǥ͹ͲǦͲͷ  








––––––– liii –––––––


The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad













”‘‰”ƒ’Šǡ
݂௢ െ ݂
̱ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ
݂௢
௙೚ ି௙
ൌ ‫ ͳ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ȉ ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ ȋʹȌ
௙೚
‫ ͳ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ൌ ሺʹǤͳͷ േ ͲǤͲ͵͹ሻ ȉ ͳͲିଷ  ିଵ 

ܷ௧ ൌ ሺͲǤʹͷ േ ͲǤͲͷሻȋ‹”‡…–‹‘‘ˆ”‘–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡†‹•ǣ†‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰ˆ”‡“—‡…›Ȍ

Dynamicsofmotor

‡–ǯ•ˆ‹†‘—––Š‡”‡ƒ•‘‘ˆ™Š›”‘–ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ•’‡‡†‘ˆ‘–‘”‹•†‡’‡†‹‰‘˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡•—’’Ž‹‡†
–Š‡‘–‘”Ž‹‡ƒ”Ž›Ǥ













•™‡•‡‡ˆ”‘–Š‡‰”ƒ’Š‘ˆ”‡Žƒ–‹‘„‡–™‡‡‹’‡†ƒ…‡ƒ†’‘™‡”‘ˆ‘–‘”ǡ–Š‹•”‡Žƒ–‹‘
…ƒ„‡†‹˜‹†‡†‹–‘–™‘’ƒ”–•ǣ
ܼ̱ܷ ሺܷ ݈‫ݓ݋‬ሻ ܼ ̱ ܷ ሺܷ ݈‫ݓ݋‬ሻ
ܼ ൎ ܿ‫ ݐݏ݊݋‬ሺܷ ݄݄݅݃ሻ ܼ ൎ ܿ‫ ݐݏ݊݋‬ሺܷ ݄݄݅݃ሻ
 

––––––– liv –––––––


Problems & Solutions

•’‡‡† ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ ’‡†ƒ…‡ Š‡‡Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ Š‡‡…Šƒ‹…ƒŽ’‘™‡” Š‡†›ƒ‹…


 ’‘™‡” ‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—

Ž‘™ Ž‘™ ܼ̱ܷ ܷ ܲ௙௥ ൌ ߬௙௥ ȉ π ܲ௘ ൌ ܲ௙௥ 
ܲ௘ ൌ ‫ܷ ן‬
•’‡‡† ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ ܼ πǦ”‘–ƒ–‹‘•’‡‡†‘ˆ‘–‘” π ‫ܷ ן‬ȋŽ‹‡ƒ”Ȍ
߬௙௥ Ǧ–‘”“—‡ ‘ˆ ˆ”‹…–‹‘ ˆ‘”…‡
ȋ…‘•–ƒ–Ȍ
‹‰Š ‹‰Š ܼ ൎ ܿ‫ݐݏ݊݋‬ ܷଶ ܲ௥௘௦ ൌ ߬௥௘௦ ȉ π ̱πଶ  ܲ௘ ൌ ܲ௥௘௦ 
ܲ௘ ൌ ‫ܷ ן‬ଶ
•’‡‡† ˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡ ܼ ߬௥௘௦ ̱π Ǧ–‘”“—‡ ‘ˆ ˆŽ—‹† π ‫ܷ ן‬ȋŽ‹‡ƒ”Ȍ
”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡
‡•—Ž– ܲ௘ ൌ ܲ௧ ൅ ‫ܣ‬ଵ ȉ ܷ ൅ ‫ܣ‬ଶ ȉ ܷ ଶ  ܲ௠௘௖௛ ൌ ܲ௧ ൅ ‫ܤ‬ଵ ȉ π ൅ ‫ܤ‬ଶ ȉ πଶ π̱ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ

”‘Š‡”‡™‡…ƒ•‡‡–Šƒ–™Š‡‘–‘”‹•”‘–ƒ–‹‰‹…‘•–ƒ–•’‡‡†–Š‡’‘™‡”†‹••‹’ƒ–‹‘‘
‹– „‡…‘‡• –‘–ƒŽŽ› ’‘™‡” †‹••‹’ƒ–‹‘ ‘ ‹–• ƒ‹” ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ƒ† ‹– ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ‹ †›ƒ‹…
‡“—‹Ž‹„”‹—Ǥ

3d.Lineardependenceoftheangularvelocityષasfunction
ofthemotorvoltageࢁ      (0.8points)

—…–‹‘ષ ൌ ࣐ሺࢁሻˋ࢜ ൌ ࣒ሺࢁሻǤ

π ൌ ‫ ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ȉ ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ
߭ ൌ ͵͸ ȉ ȟ݈ ȉ π
›—•‹‰ƒ„‘˜‡‡“—ƒ–‹‘–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘„‡–™‡‡•’‡‡†‘ˆ‹””‘”•Š‹ˆ–ƒ†‘–‘”˜‘Ž–ƒ‰‡…ƒ„‡
ˆ‘—†
߭ ൌ ͵͸ ȉ ȟ݈ ȉ ‫ ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ȉ ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻȋͶȌ

3e.SpeedofsoundinthefromtheDopplereffect   (1.5points)
›—•‹‰‡ƒ•—”‡††ƒ–ƒŽ‡–ǯ•ˆ‹†‘—––Š‡•’‡‡†‘ˆ•‘—†‹–Š‡ƒ‹”Ǥ

ȌǤ †‹”‡…–‹‘ˆ”‡“—‡…›†‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰
π ൌ ሺͳͷʹͷ േ ͷሻ”‘–Ȁ‹ˆ‘”ܷ ൌ ሺͳͳǤͲ േ ͲǤͳሻƒ†‫ ܫ‬ൌ ሺͲǤͺͳ േ ͲǤͲʹሻ
ࢁ࢚ ൌ ሺ૙Ǥ ૛૞ േ ૙Ǥ ૙૞ሻ‫܄‬
π
‫ ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ൌ
ܷ െ ܷ௧
ሺͳͷʹͷ േ ͷሻ
‫ ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ൌ
ሺͳͳǤͲ േ ͲǤͳሻ െ ሺͲǤʹͷ േ ͲǤͲͷሻ

ͳͷʹͷ ”‘–
൏ ‫ ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬൐ൌ ൌ ͳͶͳǤͻ 
ͳͲǤ͹ͷ ‹ ȉ 
ሺͳͷʹͷ േ ͷሻ
οሺ‫ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ሻ ൌ
ሺͳͲǤ͹ͷ േ ͲǤͳͳሻ

––––––– lv –––––––
The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

”‘–
οሺ‫ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ͳǤͻ 
‹ ȉ 

”‘–
‫ ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ൌ ሺͳͶʹ േ ʹሻ
‹ ȉ 

ȋ †‹”‡…–‹‘ˆ”‡“—‡…›†‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ȍ
‘—†˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‹ƒ‹”

A.Directionofrotationofthedisk:decreasingfrequency

݂௢ െ ݂ ʹ߭

݂௢ ܿ
݂௢ െ ݂
ൌ ‫ ͳ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ȉ ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ
݂௢
߭ ൌ ͵͸ ȉ ȟ݈ ȉ ‫ ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ȉ ሺܷ െ ܷ௧ ሻ

”‘ƒ„‘˜‡‡“—ƒ–‹‘•ǣ
͹ʹο݈ ȉ ‫ ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬͹ʹ ȉ ሺͶǤʹ േ ͲǤͳሻ ȉ ͳͲିଷ ȉ ሺͳͶʹ േ ʹሻ
ܿൌ ൌ
‫ͳ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬ ሺʹǤͳͷ േ ͲǤͲ͵͹ሻ ‫ିͲͳ כ‬ଷ ȉ ͸Ͳ

͹ʹ ȉ ͶǤ͵ ȉ ͳͶʹ
൏ ܿ ൐ൌ ൌ ͵ͶͲȀ•
ʹǤͳͷ ȉ ͸Ͳ

ͳǤʹ ȉ ሺͷͻ͸ േ ʹ͵ሻ ͳǤʹ ȉ ͷͻ͸ ʹ͵ ͲǤͲ͵͹


οܿ ൌ ൌ ൜ ൅ ൠ ൌ ͳͺǤͷȀ•
ʹǤͳͷ േ ͲǤͲ͵͹ ʹǤͳͷ ͷͻ͸ ʹǤͳͷ

ܿ ൌ ሺ͵ͶͲ േ ͳͺሻȀ•

B).Directionofrotationofthedisk:increasingfrequency

͹ʹο݈ ȉ ‫ʹ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬Ԣ ͳǤʹ ȉ ሺͶǤʹ േ ͲǤͳሻ ȉ ሺͳͷʹ േ ʹሻ
ܿԢ ൌ ൌ
‫ͳ݁݌݋݈ݏ‬Ԣ ሺʹǤʹ͹ േ ͲǤͲͷͷሻ

͹ʹ ȉ ͶǤʹ ȉ ͳͷʹ
൏ ܿԢ ൐ൌ ൌ ͵͵͹Ȁ•
ʹǤʹ͹ ȉ ͸Ͳ

ͳǤʹ ȉ ሺ͸͵ͺ േ ʹͶሻ ͳǤʹ ȉ ͸͵ͺ ʹͶ ͲǤͲͷͷ


οܿԢ ൌ ൌ ൜ ൅ ൠ ൌ ʹͳȀ•
ʹǤʹ͹ േ ͲǤͲͷͷ ʹǤʹ͹ ͸͵ͺ ʹǤʹ͹

ܿ ᇱ ൌ ሺ͵͵͹ േ ʹͳሻȀ•
ܿ ൅ ܿԢ
ܿୣ୶୮ ൌ ൌ ሺ͵͵ͺ േ ͳͻሻȀ•
ʹ

––––––– lvi –––––––


Problems & Solutions

ܿ୲୦ୣ୭୰ ൌ ͵͵ʹ ൅ ͲǤ͸ ȉ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͵ͶͶȀ•



ܿ୲୦ୣ୭୰ െ ܿୣ୶୮ ͵ͶͶ െ ͵͵ͺ
ߝൌ ൌ ൎ ʹǤͲΨ
ܿ୲୦ୣ୭୰ ͵ͶͶ

Part4.ThresholdLevelandResolvingPowerofHumanEar(3points)

4a.         (0.5point)
Š‡Ž‘™‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”† Š‡Š‹‰Š‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†ǡ
fŽ‘™ αͳ͹ǦͷͲ œ fŠ‹‰Š αͳʹ œȂ ʹͲ œ

4b.         (1point)
Š‡Ž‘™‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…› Š‡Š‹‰Š‡•–ˆ”‡“—‡…›‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›
”‡‰‹‘–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†–Š‡„‡•–ǡ f –Šͳ  ”‡‰‹‘–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†–Š‡„‡•–ǡ f –Šʹ 
ʹͲͲǦ ʹͲͲͲ œ ͶͲͲͲȂ ͹ͲͲͲ œ

Š‡‘•–•‡•‹–‹˜‡ˆ”‡“—‡…›–‘„‡Š‡ƒ”†ȋf–ŠȌ, œ
f f –Šʹ
f –Š  –Šͳ  ʹͳͲͲ  ͶͷͲͲ œ 
ʹ

4c.         (1Point)
‡•‘Ž˜‡ƒ„Ž‡ ‡•‘Ž˜‹‰’‘™‡”
ˆ”‡“—‡…›ȋ'fȌȋ œȌ R f / 'f 
ͷȂ ʹͷ ͳͶͲȂ ͵ͲͲ

4d.         (0.5points)
Š‡‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•’‡‡†ƒ†‡””‘”
”‡“—‡…›ȋfȌ ȋ œȌ ’‡‡†‘ˆ‹””‘”ˆ‘”
†‡–‡…–‡†‘–‹‘ǡȋȀ•Ȍ
ˆ–Š v αͲǤ͸Ȃ ͳǤʹ




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Best solutions
Best solution in Theoretical Problem - 1

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

Best solution in Theoretical Problem - 2

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Best solution in Theoretical Problem - 3

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

Best solution in Experimental Problem

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad

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Problems & Solutions

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The 9th Asian Physics Olympiad Questions & Solutions

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