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Alphonse de Lamartine was born at Màeon in France on the 21st of His family name was De Prat, but be subsequently assumed that of Lamartine, after a maternal uncle, from whom he inherited a considerable fortune. His father] was major of a regiment of cavalry under Louis X VI., and his mother was grand-daughter of Madame Des Roys, under-governess to the Princess d'Orléans. Thus attached to
October, 1792.
the ancien régime, the Lamartine family were necessarily deeply involved by the French Revolution, and the poet's earliest recollections are of a gloomy prison-house, in which he visited his father. His mother (who died the victim to a terrible accident,) and his father, escaping the dangers of the period, retired to an obscure retreat near Milly, where the earliest The recollection of the years of the subject of our sketch were passed. domestic serenity of his youth lias never been effaced from his mind ; and many times in after life, as poet and traveller, he has evoked the well remembered images of this humble roof at Willy, with its "seven
linden trees," his aged father, his mother and sisters, and all the grand and quiet scenery, so well calculated to excite and feed the imagination of a young, highly gifted, and reflective mind. In his first chapter of " Travels in the East," in 1832-33, he says " My mother had received from her mother, when on her death-bed, a handsome Bible of Royaumont*, from which she taught me to read when I was very young. This Bible had engravings of sacred subjects at nearly every page. "When I had read about half a page with tolerable correctness, my mother allowed me to see a picture and, placing the book open on her knees, she explained the subject to me as a recompencc for my progress. She was most tender and affectionate by nature, and the impressive and solemn tone of her clear and silvery voice added to all she said an accent of strength, impressiveness, and love, which still resounds in my ears after six years that that voice has, alas been mute." It was under such influences that young Lamartine was educated until he left his native roof for the College of the Pères du Foi, at Belley, where the religious germs implanted by his mother were luxuriantly developed in the melancholy retirement of the cloister and his beautiful episode of Jocelyn is full of reminiscences borrowed from his calm and austere life in the house of the Holy Fathers. On leaving college, M. de Lamartine passed some time at Lyons, whence he made his first brief visit to Italy, returning to Paris in the







The assumed name under which M. d


Saci published his ".History of the

Old and



Brought up in detestation of Napoleon, he days of the empire. entered the world without very well knowing the course he was destined to take; at a distance from his mother and the watchful eyes of his fatherly preceptors, he passed some time, if not in actual dissipation, yet in that idleness which frequently characterises the earlier days of men who are subsequently destined for a conspicuous and influential career. He did not neglect his severer studies, but he partook of the amusements which his age creates and enjoys ; wandering with his friends in the wood of Vincennes, full of visionary dreams of literary fame, and especially of dramatic glory, enjoying the occasional society of Talma, who took pleasure in hearing Lamartin recite, in his melancholy and sonorous tones, unpublished fragments of a tragedy entitled Saul. In 1813 the poet re-visited Italy, where many of his Méditations were inspired by the " land of song and sunny skies ;" and one of the deepest inspirations of his Harmonies, called First Love, would make us believe in some soft and early mystery of the heart buried beneath the tomb. On the fall of the emperor, Lamartine oH'ered his services and his sword to the restored family, whose race had had the allegiance and blood of his ancestors, and lie joined the body guard of the royal family in 1815. Jules Janin, the celebrated critic and reviewer, asserts that it was whilst on duty one night beneath the king's windows at the palace of St. Cloud, that Lamartine first yielded to the inspirations of poetry, composing verses which he next day committed to paper. After the hundred days, Lamartine retired from military service and completed his first Méditations Poétiques, whose inspirations are mainly drawn from some lady-love, adored with all the ardour of a first passion, but of whom he was bereft by the hand of death, and bewails under the name of Elrire. In 1820, when poetry was but little appreciated in France, which had been crammed to satiety with the mythologie platitudes of the Voljust recovering from a violent tairean school of versification, Lamartine attack of illness, resulting mainly from mental excitement, which so often, whilst it impairs the frame, purifies and exalts the imagination, went

from bookseller to bookseller in Paris, offering a small volume in verse, and every where meeting with refusal, until at length one of the trade, named Nicolo, resolved on printing these Méditations. The volume was published at half a crown, without name, preface, or introduction, and would unquestionably have fallen still-born from the press, but .that Jules then (1820) young, though known to fame, Janin, seeing the unpretending brochureon a book-stall, bought it, and carried it home. " Never,"

says this celebrated writer, " shall I forget my delight as I perused this volume of a nameless poet For what was my surprise and admiration when suddenly my dazzled eyes and heart devoured this new world of poesy when at length they found combined in one book all the sentiments of the soul and all the passions of the heart all the jovs of earth, and all the ecstasies of heaven ; all the hopes of the present and all the doubts which shadow the future. Behold, at length, I said to myself, a poet uniting in his verses all the most opposite conditions of poetry, enthusiasm and calmness, devotion and love." Again J. Janin says " There is high matter for a poet's powers in the



crumbling of thrones, and the




of men like ears in harvest but it is a far loftier task to float in imagination over all those battle-fields, and question the emancipated spirits wandering above their unburied forms." So charmed, indeed, was .Tanin with his Premieres Meditations, that he wrote a long and careful review of them, in a publication of wide circulation with which he was then connected. Thus the notice of literary cotemporaries was called to the volume. A large demand was at once created for the poems, and Lamartine, like Byron, whom he in many respects resembles, "awoke one morning and found himself famous." Charles Nodier, one of the celebrated modern critics of France, attributes Lamar tine's literary popularity to the analogy between the poetry which the author writes and the feelings of the age in which he lives; but we venture to think that it was the novelty of the style and subjects, the entire contrast to all that had preceded him (except Byron), the melancholy which does not degenerate into affectation, the vagueness of idea which is yet not obscure, the terseness of the rhyme and the melody of the rhythm, which gave Lamartine his well-earned and well-sustained reputation ; and thus in four years forty-five thousand copies of the Méditation» were spread over the literary world, and Lamartine was ranked with Byron, Goethe, and Chateaubriand. Janin then made his friendship and as he was the cause of his fame,. so has he always been his warm champion and most equitable critic. Lamartine was always an avowed admirer of Byron ; and when that great hard died, leaving his u Childe Harold" incomplete, Lamartine resolved to add a canto, and I.e Dernier Chant du Pèlerinage de Harold was favourably received by all lovers of the two poets, the great majority of readers in Europe. This poem is, notwithstanding its name and avowed purpose, an original composition. "In fact," says Janin, " Lamartine's own fancy carries him away so decidedly, that it would be in vain for him to attempt to try to imitate any poet or poem he is too powerfully governed by his own nature, and his inspiration comes upon

— —




witli resistless force."

literary success, the most brilliant of the age after Chateaubriand's Génie du Chrisli.ini.ime, opened a diplomatic career to Lamartine and, appointed attache to the legation of Florence, he went to Tuscany, where, in 1821, it is said he heard a strange, but tender and melodious voice, murmuring in his ear this quotation from his own Méditations
; :


" Peut-être l'avenir mf gardaitil encore, Ull retour de bonheur dont l'espoir est perdu ; Peut-être dans la foule une âme que j'Ignore Aurait compris mon âme et m'aurait répondu."*

The poet was understood.
a young,

A second Elvire appeared in the form of and well-connected English lady, whom he married in 1821, at Naples, where he was appointed secretary to the French embassy. He afterwards visited London in the same capacity, returning to Tuscany,
* " Perchance the future may reserve for me A happiness, whose hope I now resign ; 1'erchance amid the busy world may be Some soul uuk.iown responsive still to mine


We must enter again into the ranks of citizens to think. It is always allowable . the Neapolitan general.. DE LAMARTINF. — : always honourable to sympathise in the misfortune of another but we need not gratuitously take any share of a fault which we have not committed. whom he met at a party and the poet was dangerously wounded. as charge d'affaires. but with Lamartine it was the utmost sincerity." he said " we may regret it. . highest admiration in all the circles of Florence. M. In the meanwhile his fortune was increased by an inheritance derived from his opulent uncle . in April.VI MEMOIIÎ OF ST. Sappho. " By the family and services of my father. requesting that Pepé might not be punished. struggle with the family of families our country His first essay to be returned as Depute was marked by a check. and was about to set forth as Minister Plenipotentiary to Africa. he refused the offer. ombre Romaine Des hommes. act." . and is life hung long on a thread. and says. but we must not lose the day in weeping fruitlessly over it. Préludes. he called out Lamartine. and. I belong to the House of Orleans. and then (in order of publication) the Last Canto of Childe Harold. — — — — ! ' I seek elsewhere (forgive. et non pas de la poussière humaine "* ! !) This apostrophe appearing to Colonel Guillaume Pepé (brother of Joseph Pepé. Charles X. Having in 1824 published Le Chant du Sacre. especially to his Ode to Bonaparte. 1. a work of high imaginings. O Roman of For men. The Secondes Meditations appeared in 1823." he wrote to a friend. 1830.) offensive to his nation. Lamartine paid his final and honest adieus to the ex-king. The . This tribute paid to the great unfortunate. and not the dust shade !) which thty 're made. " speak. and hade adieu to diplomacy. could distract Lamartine from his love and cultivation of poetry. for ever. " I belong to Charles X. a request which that ami this chivalrous conduct acquired for Lamartine the prince accorded . then followed his sketch Socrates. and to these were accorded higher praise than even to the first . in conclusion : — " Je vais chercher ailleurs (pardonne. — . he returned to France in 1829 and in the month of May in the same year his Harmonies Poétiques Religieuses appeared. and the Dying Poet. The bolt fell that shattered the insecure and unpopular throne of the House of Bourbon. he wrote to the Grand Duke." In another man this might have been deemed affectation . but neither diplomacy. in which the poet laments in lofty language the degradation of this land of heroes. In this poem there is a splendid address to Italy. Notwithstanding. although Louis Philippe offered to confirm him in his Greek embassy. nor the splendours of an aristocratic life. and combining all the superior qualities of highly intellectual poesy. as he believed. by the family and services of my mother. de Lamartine was received as member of the Académie Française. when the Revolution of July broke out. " The past is but a dream. Lamartine threw himself into the new path opened to ardent and active minds by the Revolution of July. to which we have already alluded. with whom he was on close terms of intimacy.

powerful. whom he requires as his . Oh. dated July. this very remarkable work . at Marseilles. L'Alceste. at her residence. in one of the mountains of Lebanon. which conduct you to one aim which I could. but if you be decided. and some time afterwards he resolved on putting into execution a project he had all his life contemplated. Lady Esther Stanhope herself believed and many believed with her that she possessed a knowledge of astrology. and her interview with — — Lamartine is certainly extraordinary. Destiny for our politics are a scandal to man. if you were willing. in an almost inaccessible solitude. Her abode was formerly a convent. It is replete with beautiful passages. with a crew of sixteen men. but we must limit ourselves to some quotations from the interview — ! We between Lamartine and Lady Esther Stanhope. in September. all surrounded by one wall. and neither knew his reputation. to enlighten your soul you are one of those men of a good disposition. Vil Toulon and Dunkirk both rejected him. as for this duty this dream of my imaginaI would have relinquished even this journey tion for the last sixteen years. : . The East was ever the land of prophecy. and who has a great part to perform in In a short time you will return to Europe. " The hour is approaching In an early passage. whom Providence has the world that is prepar- sent to me. It is God who has conducted you hither. . I only believe in God and virtue. a vessel of two hundred and fifty tons. nor even his name. "you are expected." I see evidently She replied " No matter believe what you please that you are born under the influence of three fortunate." * * * your religious belief be what less not the ing. to give the proper form to the new social symbol of which the symbol of the world begins to have a foresight and comprehension love and charity amongst all men. ! — a 4 . which may be styled gospel politics. and singular predictions. like the fortifications of the middle ages. he replied: " In regard to the future. — : I do not reproach myself with any egotism in this respect. and — : — . that Heaven may regenerate mankind. he says in which the Pharos of reason and morality will be illumined in our political tempests. and." she continued. DE LAMARTINE. they sacrifice to their spirit of vengeance the hour assigned by God for regeneration and progressive improvement!" should willingly give ample space to the consideration of. the ancient Sidon. and men suffer it to escape them whilst tearing each other to pieces . near the village of Dgioun. 1832. good stars that you are gifted with analogous powers. When she offered to reveal his future destiny to the poet. and extracts from. 1832. that Lamartine kept his Journal. It was during this voyage to the East. instruments * " Let to accomplish the marvellous works which he will soon accomplish * * it amongst mankind. near Saida. and make the angels weep gives one hour in an age for humanity to regenerate itself: that hour is a revolution.MEMOIR OF electors of M. point out to you at once. on the 20th of May. remarkable events. he freighted. one of those men whom I may. whom she saw for the first time. The fate of Europe is You will Prance alone has a great mission to accomplish participate in it I do not yet know in what manner . afterwards reproduced under the title of Le Voyage en Orient. inhabited by the Druses.

" de Lamartine's estimate of Napoleon is worth quoting from this " Bonaparte was no doubt a reconstructor he formed anew the social world. four I do not yet know the name of all . He moulded his statue with clay and personal interests. oppression. to the same light of knowledge." " I belong to the class of men who do not despise those I replied who are below them in society. — a . formed . DE LAMARTINE. rendering up his soul to God. like two perpendicular ramparts. the poet-traveller advanced through one of the remarkable vallies of Lebanon and the following extract is a fair specimen of the descriptive and impressive style which pervades this remarkable production. you see what human glory is. independently of their stations in the arbitrary hierarchies of politics. and breathed virtue. narrower. and reveal it to you. nature. work : — — . my lady. : : which God. loosened from each side of the mountains. anxious to know.— Vlll MEMOIR OF M. elevation of idea. One of them is certainly Mercury." she said." On leaving Lady Stanhope. you are under the influence of very different countenance. in order to construct with its ruins a pedestal for the envious baseness of their extraction. Gigantic blocks. or perhaps by the earthquake which shook Lebanon to its foundation. You must he a poet it is legihle in your eyes. and life into a renovated world. two chains of mountains." " What is your name ?" " I told her." " I never heard it before. and the same moral perfection. and more picturesque valley than any we had yet traversed. which imparts clearness and colour to the mind and tongue. I see now three. and society have formed. instead of constructing it of divine and moral sentiments of virtue and liberty. " Ah. and who overthrow the edifice. with an accent of truth. hut did not sufficiently regard the materials witli which he re-composed it. She said those nities " It would grieve me much to include you in the number of young Frenchmen. and there may he more. at the same time that they respect those above them. freshness of images. replete in richness of language. when the Son of Man. and falsehood. stars. three or four hundred feet high. who raise the popular fury against all the dig: ****** . gave that last sigh which repelled the spirit of error. there is an influence of energy and action. and scattered like pebbles by the hands of ^children into the stream. the desire or dream of whom it may be to invite all men. which appeared to have been recently separated : — from each other by a blow from the Great Framer of worlds. and a rapid succession of interesting and stirring M. Right and left arose. incidents " After a ride of two hours we reached a deeper." I will consult the stars to-night. and in the upper part of your Lower down. almost in opposition . the same liberty. not far from these mountains. which have caused my name to be repeated a thousand times by all the literary echoes of Europe but even that echo is too feeble to cross your ocean and your mountains. liberty. at present perhaps five. In my life I have composed a few verses.

" of two days only. which has passed over the souls and the harps of the poetic nation. shall be nothing but a mubeneath the feet of the terrible Judge who shall come to visit it. some. who have only before our eyes nature. This country must have been the primitive land the land of tragic poesy. IX the horrid. mild. the decay of ages. the singularity of their appearances. a chaos of stones. It was an ocean of stones. the crash of matter. DE LAMARTINE. more or less striking. beautiful. and rugged bed of this dried-up torrent some of whose stones were masses higher and larger than the loftiest houses. in the vicinity after an illness . and nourished them with a sustenance more invigorating than that on which we feed we.MEMOIR OF M. — . We followed this valley of lamentations for two hours without any variation in the scene than that arising from the circuitous route which the torrent itself took amongst the mountains. ruin. when all shall have been consumed by fire. suspended by their angles. and cultivated nature civilized but withered. pathetic. was being restored by the air of Asia. " This valley will never be effaced from my imagination. through which the streams peacefully flow vallies mute and lifeless. and it would have been a perfect model It is a river of the last hours of the world. either in the torrent or in the cracked and abrupt declivities on each side of the abyss. deep. streaked with flame colour and white opaque waves of a granite flood not one drop of water in the deep interstices of this bed. — . as we are ourselves. calcined by the burning sun of Syria not a blade of grass. Some rested solidly on their bases. — — ! bowels. the variety of their positions. or by the manner. its rallies. and human lamentations the pathetic and lofty strain of prophecies is felt here in its wild. the superhuman inspiration. the wasted and aged heirs of the harp of antiquity. in the countrv-house. a stalk. or creeping plant. like solid and everlasting cubes . seemed to impart to them motion and fluidity. to Beyrouth. an endless avalanche of rocks rocks of sombre. the dissolution of worlds. and rolling downwards. vast. revealing its tilated block of calcined stones. where he had left his wife and child Julia . a cataract of rocks. the hell of stones the hell of barrenness. . All the images of biblical poetry are engraved in imposing characters on the furrowed surface of Lebanon and its gilded summits. after many wanderings. to which the diversity of their forms. If Dante had desired to depict in one of the departments of his Plell. and lofty nature. and supported by the pressure of other invisible rocks. The divine spirit. — " Sole daughter of his house and heart. the play of light and shade — — — : . presenting the appearance of ruin in action a perpetual falling. to whom God spake by symbols and images. hitherto delicate. She died in the arms of her father and mother. he needed but to have simply copied this scene. with which the rocks were grouped in their foaming stony bed. seemed as though still in the act of falling. Lamartine returned. and in the beginning of December he lost this and when the earth. black. the petrified gray. on their sides and surfaces. thus struck more forcibly the eyes of bards devoted to God from their infancy. when it was fondly supposed that her health." At the end of November.

with the beloved child they had lost. The journal was not resumed for four months after the death of the lost and lamented Julia. the poet and the statesman ascended the tribune together . 1834. or the amount °f sugar extracted annually from home-grown — beet-reot. doubly so. or in calculations on the quantity of oil exported. spoke of humanity. I still beheld lier in every part of it. DE LAMARTINE. He won at once universal admiration by his rapid glance over a subject.X MEMOIR OP M. for it is to me a sainted it interred. swept on. his lady. which Lamartine had sent back to Europe was not to return until May ensuing. It was not credited that he could narrow Ids mind to party brawls and discussions that his towering spirit would descend from " its pride of place." and mingle with the squabbles of the Chamber. We and now commenced his political career. even in dealing with business interests. tolerance. from the high place of the national tribune. overwhelmed by this In the month of May L' Alceste arrived but M. He learnt. whilst under the deepest loss an affectionate nature can endure. for the purpose of con. in which they were domiciled for the winter. that he first appeared in the tribune. whilst the body of the deceased daughter. scattering around it in its course the precious treasures of a vast and exalted understanding. when at Jerusalem. and his simple mode of arriving at the point . and full of all the impressions which his sojourn in the romantic and impressive clime of the East could not fail to make on a poetic and impassioned fancy. and his indefatigable friend Janin writes. — relic. veying to Saint. where she had expressed her dying wishes to be was confided to UAlcestt. and. The vessel of Beyrouth. 1833. in reference to his style of eloquence "That fine language of his. by that sustained and natural tone of eloquence which. It was on the 4th of January. These new duties called him to France . But they were soon reassured by the master-mind of the new deputy . to spare his wife the pang of returning in the same vessel that had brought them to Asia. It was not believed that a mind so keenly sensitive. They remained six months in the Lebanon. De Lamartine. the Sophie on board of which he. which had been embalmed. in a discussion on the Address. and his want of success with the constituencies of Toulon and Dunkirk. His friends and admirers had been in much anxiety as to his course as a politician. de severe affliction. and travelling companions embarked for France. then to take up the travellers somewhere on the coast of Syria. but more than all. remained still a language apart. we quitted the house in which Julia had embraced us for the last time and left us for heaven. and he writes: "At break of day. born of the noblest emotions of the heart. on the 15th of April. and of the fraternal bond which links men and nations with a heartfelt earnestness. freighted another barque. I kissed the floor of her chamber a thousand times. at this time. which conciliated all the sympathies of all who listened. and stepped it with my tears. that he had been elected deputy for the Department of the North. Lamartine." : . and his success as an orator. and charity. so highly imaginative. however.Point." have already briefly alluded to Lamartine's political aspirations.

civilizations. as a friend to order as well as good government. and legislations. he thus presented his practical system to the world You say that every thing dies.. dissolution of the Chamber taking place. the results. there is a faith . societies. and that there is no longer any faith or belief. and frequently developed his views. de Lamartine joined the Conservatives. of thinking to check the movement which the intelligence of society had begun. Then followed La Chute d'un Ange. XI Another critic said of him. animadverted upon their want of faith. organ. would strengthen the state. — . as well as inutility. their utter ignorance of the state of society. He argued strongly and chivalrously against the penalty of death (we shall presently see his earnestness when power was in bis hands). the place of his birth. but which repulsed would crush king. orin reality retrogiaded. until he was borne by the rapid progress of events from royalism to republicanism. and — — In his Voyage en Orient. inspired by his Eastern reminiscences and impulses but this had not the popularity of his previous productions. of the most complete sincerity and perfect conviction. and their rash determination to make no timely concessions to the wants and requirements of the people. be was elected representative of Màcon. the press is its apostle: it religions. for the first time.MEMOIB OF M. then idle and useless. which. we fully believe. because social labour is the daily and obligatory duty of every man whose lot is cast in with the perils and benefits of society. which was styled the " Parti Social. a splendid portraiture of feelings sacrificed to duty. . of policy. a second episode. " He flings over the Chamber of Deputies some of the rays of his poetical crown. the actual position of men and things. properly controlled. and of the folly. . based on a new system. Then his Recueillements Poétiques were published. On all questions relative to the East he displayed an intimate acquaintance with the diplomacy exercised. the poet-statesman still advanced. their resistance to progress. then headed by Guizot. and in a celebrated impromptu speech defended classical studies against the charges brought against them by the able champion for scientific pursuits Arago. M. which he urged upon the cabinets of Europe. In 1835 he published his poem of Jocelyn. . this faith is general reason language is its social : — " — . thus when the Conservative party became stationary. — . did not neglect the worship of bis earlier years. In this he used. and frequently." and he taking a lead soon went in advance of Guizot on the progress of social questions. lie disapproved of the course pursued by the king Louis Philippe and his ministers. throne." Lamartine soon became a valuable member of the Chamber of Deputies and although very attentive to his parliamentary duties. seeks to re-construct in its own image It seeks in religion. Lamartine gradually formed and beaded a party in the Chamber. DE LAMARTINE. On entering upon his functions as deputy. A his name and influence as a politician rapidly increased. dramatic form and modern history and the work is deservedly popular. remarkable for its preface. in which the author vilipends poetry when it is made more than the relaxation of busy life pitying those who make it the sole occupation of existence. and institutions beneath its vast and overwhelming progress.

which he has but lightly and referentially sketched in the first volume of L'Histoire des Girondins. A translation of this work will be published in the " Standard Library. and who assuredly contemplated nothing at most but a change of ministry which should place M. and the production will be unquestionably one of deep interest." It has been stated that M. and become the text-book for facts. and emphatic style. and that keenness of penetration which are chathat racteristics of the gifted writer whilst access to hitherto unpublished documents. There is announced for immediate publication. Thiers or Count Mole." latest published production of M. de Lamartine. de Lamartine. perspicuous. The character of Mirabeau. liis evident earnestness to state nothing but the truth his desire to place that remarkable man in all the phases of his character domestic. 24. would precede L'Histoire des Girondins.ot before communicated. humanity above all in legislation man equal to man. would be more incomplete if we failed to add a sketch of the Revolution of February 23. liamentary orations of the writer." of which the History of the Girondists forms three volumes. This Memoir. will give ample scope to his lucid. which must take its place in every library. one or both. God." a new work by M. legislative Christianity. A thorough knowledge of the subject has been aided by that spirit of philosophy. interdicted reform banquets in Paris. fire. have enabled M. of which quorum pars magna fui. perfect. however brief in quantity and scanty in materials. which. and as universally approved. are every where conspicuous in the work as in the author the work has been widely criticised all over Europe. so that "nothing may be extenuated nor aught set down in malice. and more particularly of the prominent part assumed by M.. de Lamartine's literary pen has been Histoire des Girondins. at the head of affairs still determined on . may well form the epigraph. . worship in politics. to be Entitled Confidences. It is written with remarkable ability. 1848. power of analysis. DE LAMARTINE. and 26. and political. as it is an example of purity. and an unswerving love and observance of the truth. 25. The opposition deputies. self-denying and sanguinary before the reader. which we now present to our readers in an English dress. enthusiastic and constant. de Lamartine to compose a historical work. especially if the writer adds an Appendix of the recent events in France. . It does not come within our province here to analyse or criticise the volumes in detail but we may refer to the impressive manner in which the writer has narrated the history of Charlotte Corday. An unaffected reverence for the Deity. de Lamartine is engaged on a Hiit'«>. . dogma eternal morality as its symbol . The government of Fiance. and the care he has bestowed on the delineation of Robespierre. and private details. in " La Presse. — — — — .• des Constituants. and that poetry of style which mark and dignify the par- The U . led by M. and which purports to be the autobiography of the illustrious author. chronologically (from 178!) to 1791). men the brothers of men. and with an impartiality which the most bigoted cannot fail to recognise. Guizot. one and as its its . social. and masterly delineation.Xll MEMOIR OF M. in Paris. adoration and charity as : — nationalities . amongst whom Odilon Barrot was the most conspicuous.

Honoré. which had been postponed from Sunday 20th. as no one but their superior officer or the minister could give such orders." The meeting and the introduced by a short address from Odilon Parrot. Before this. also issued a proclamation. were to line the route in double file to the Arc de Triomphe It was also announced at the further extremity of the Champs Elysées. At an early hour of Tuesday morning troops were in motion in every direction . was placarded through the . General Jacqueminot. some of whom were wounded. unless called upon by their chiefs. by which the deputies were to meet in the Place de la Madeleine between 1 1 and 12 o'clock. Guizot. where they deliberately loaded their guns. and the other guests in the Place de la Concorde. " Reform and the right of Meeting. renouncing the meeting.000 men. however. having formally objected to the meeting. that only one toast would be given. Meanwhile the opposition deputies declared their intention of impeaching the cabinet. and ministers intended to bring the legality or illegality of such meeting before the Law Courts. beyond placing a peace officer at the entrance. On Monday evening."and in the Place de la Concorde (now. about 1 1 o'clock. who. In the Rue St. and provincial deputations from the schools of law and medicine." to the hotel of M." and crying " Vive la Reforme ! " " A bas Guizot ! " " A bas V Homme de Gand. to Tuesday. had contravened the law. who retired quietly before a body of chasseurs. &c. singing the " Marseillaise. including eleven peers and one hundred deputies. Rue St. On Tuesday morning (22d) the committee of the banquet published a manifesto. and made a vast uproar. and that if that motion were negatived. In issuing these orders. the Place de la Concorde." This body. the utmost excitement prevailed. The markets. to two thousand. Martin. Denis. where they threw stones. was then to withdraw. and thence to proceed to the place appointed. A body of municipal guard entered the court-yard. the Place du Carrousel. in uniform but unarmed. prohibiting all assemblies. To this the government intended to offer no resistance. by the announcement in the^Chamber of Deputies that the government had resolved on prohibiting the banquet and a proclamation. 212nd of February. The garrisons of Paris were increased to 100. Tin thousand national guards. went in a dense mass. the people began to form barricades. singing the " Marseillaise. and it was announced to take place in the Champs Elysées. the Rue St. members of councils-general. It was capital. signed by the prefect of police. the government declared that the comby directing the national guard to line the streets and to march in procession with officers at their head. Xlii having this hanquet. and rencontres ensued between the troops and the people. magistrates. mittee. Place de la Revolution) was a body of 5000 or 6000 individuals. On Sunday the guests amounted national guard were then to disperse. commandant of the national guard. also illegal to arrange a procession of the students. DE LAMARTINE. once again. and other places. recommending at the same time order and submission.MEMOIR OF M. and an immense number of other . they would resign their functions as deputies. the Boulevards. the managing committee issued a fresh programme. prohibiting their attendance at the banquet.

After this it was notified that M. they would cause order was then closed. and Some skirmishes took place. leaving forbid its return. and ultimately smashed to pieces. " This Government has fled. to charge him with the reconstruction of a cabinet. and 40 pieces of cannon were on the Esplanade of the Hôtel des Invalides. Guizot). and all the furniture was taken out and burned. o'clock a body of the municipal guard were about to charge a group of inoffensive citizens. and prevented the shedding of blood. The members of the * Left mustered strong. A provisional government was then formed. The Chamber of Deputies met on Wednesday. sitting it The On Thursday morning . thebridges. the whole of The Paris was occupied as if civil war had been everywhere raging. While the present ministers continued in office (added M. At eleven rebuilding the barricades. troops remained under arms all night. and the will of this — behind it traces of blood. The Place Carrousel. and places were occupied by the troops — in' fact. de Lamartine. . which was carried in procession through the streets. they were told by GeneralJacqueminot. when the third legion of the national guard interfered. A to be respected. which will for ever . who seized on the throne. happily. and every other place in the neighbourhood of the Tuileries. but there soon followed a proclamation that the King had abdicated. Guizot said that the King had that moment sent for Count 3Iolé. as in Julv but. It has secured a national and rights. was evident that the change of ministry would not satisfy the people and the King was required to abdicate in favour of the Count dc Paris. The regency of the Duke de Nemours would not be listened to. The intelligence of the resignation of the ministry spread like wildfire through the city. in vain. the Place de la Concorde. All the military posts on the left bank of the Seine were disarmed and occupied by national guards and men of the people. The troops having evacuated the Tuileries. in popular Government it bas not been shed accordance with the great and generous people. " The blood of the people has flowed. de Lamartine beii g appointed Minister for Foreign Alfairs and the following is the (hit manifesto issued : — . the progress.xiv streets memoir of m. and was everywhere received with every demonstration of joy. During the night all the barricades thrown up were demolished. the private property of Louis Philippe. M. complete sack took place at the Palais Royal. Odilon Barrot had been commissioned to form a ministry. At went to the Tuileries. " A retrograde Government has been overturned by the heroism of the people of Paris. M. to when three o clock a deputation of the officers of the national guard demand that the ministry should be dismissed. " PROCLAMATION OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT. under the regency of the Duchess of Orleans. the palace was immediately occupied by the insurgents. their commander. On Wednesday large numbers of the populace were under arms. that the ministry had given in its resignation. were crowded with troops. " To the French People.

" Such is the democratic government which France owes to'. Courtais. M. Ledru Rollin. Carnot. Government are MM. Marrast. for the institutions which are about to be given you. But if 1 shared in that testimony of respect for a great misfortune. " Liberty. " The government of the nation by itself. and will be reconstituted under another bill. DUPONT (de l'Eure). superior Commandant of the National Guard of Paris. Minister of Finances. Cremieux. " Neither the people of Faris nor the Provisional Government desire to substitute their opinion for the opinions of the citizens at large upon the definite form of government which the national sovereignty shall proclaim. M. President of the Council/ M. " The people to devise and to maintain order. formed henceforth of all classes of the people which compose it. Louis Blanc. " Dupont (de l'Eure).000 of men. These are the first acts of the Provisional Government. Cremieux. (Great applause from the tribunes. Michel-Goud(Signed) chaux. Minister of Public Works. Garnier-Pac. The protection of the city of Paris is confined to the National Guard. LamarThe secretaries to this tine. under the orders of M. M. M. General (\\ HGNAC. Adjoint. M. M. Minister of Foreign Affairs. Bethmont. equality. ought to inspire. (Great applause in the tribunes. give to the world the example Paris has given to France. who are The Municipal Guard is disbanded. It is composed of MM. Ledru Kollin. and securing the national victory. it must be cemented by solid definitive guaranHow will you find the conditions r. Ledru-Kollin. These citizens have not hesitated for an instant to accept the patriotic mission which has been imposed upon them bv the urgency of the occasion. Dupont de l'Eure. sitting of the 24th of the Other proclamations and manifestoes followed with rapidity. Governor of Algiers. Minister of Commerce. Prepare yourselves.) Let us not deceive ourselves let us no' imagine that an acclamation in this Chamber can replace the co-operation of 35. Bedeau.(100. is at the call of the people and some deputies in the for the moment invested with the care of organizing Government desires a republic. The other mayors are provisionally retained. Garnier-Pages. M. M. ARAGO. I also share in the solicitude in the admiration which that people. after having quitted her deserted palace.^cessary for such a government. and Ferdinand Flocon. General Bedf. in the midst tees of the floating elements which surround us ? By descending into the very depth of the country itself. Caknot. M. now fighting during two days against a perfidious Government for the purpose of re-establishing order and liberty. Marie. " Such are the first acts of the Provisional Government. and Gamier-Pages. Minister of Justice. Whatever government be established in the country. Minister of War. General de Courtais. Bethmont. t!. '• Frenchmen. The Municipal Guard is dissolved. as well as the adjoints. GeUNARD. Marie. IiErtRT. Minister of Public Instruction. to place herself under the protection of the nation. Cavagnac. under the orders of M. Mayor of Paris. under the name of mayors-adjoints of arrondissement. Commandant-General of National Guards. At the Chamber of Deputies. Thé Prefecture of Police is under the orders of the Mayor of Paris. Minister of the Interior. „ M. XV A Provisional Government.MEMOIR OF " M. DE LAMARTINE. Armand. boldly sounding the great mystery of the right of nations. Arago. The guard of the city of Paris is entrusted to the National Guard. Minister of Marine." French people. M. to these — — — ! . Courtais. " The Provisional sitting of the 24th of February. Lamartine. and fraternity for its principles.) In place of having "recourse to these subterfuges. Arago. Adjoint. pending the ratification of the to be immediately consulted. " Vunilé delà nation. de Lamartine. de Lamartine spoke : as follows — " Gentlemen . I shared in the sentiments of grief which just nowagitatcd this assembly in beholding the most afflicting spectacle that human annals can present that of a Princess coming forward with her innocent son. by order and confidence in yourselves. and which our efforts will assure to her. Goudchaux.

de Lamartine and Ledru-Rollin attempted severally to obtain a Several of the national guards. all interests. not definite. emotions. who was present in the Chamber. In the midst of shouts and cries the bon. I propose a government charged. well provided with arms. and you will approve) or reject them. Vive la République!" "To the Hôtel-de. and the national guards and the people had the Chamber to themselves. heart. and pointed their muskets at the deputies below. Dupont (de l'Eure) took possession of the chair.XVÎ MEMOIR OF M. M. but provisional civil first of all. The next instant M.000 of men. in the name of the people of Paris. and who appeared to have just come from a combat. quitted the Chamber by a door on the extreme left M." (Tremendous applause from the — — — people in the tribunes. and breast. I shall vernment cannot be organised in a light or careless manner. and in the next place a government on which we all Chat shall impose the duty of convoking and consulting the people in its totality posses. immediately the persons near the Duchess of Orleans. and nearly all the deputies who had remained quitted their places. seemed to address her energetically. as you ! — — ! ! — think fit. of putting a stop to a government which we appoint without putting aside any thing of our war (cheers). The Presse says Five times during the day (25th) M. the right of a citizen. Some of these weapons were also turned in the direction of the Royal party. to you to form a government. The names the nanus Other voices. and. Nearly all the deputies had by this time but nothing could be heard. A Provisional Government will be at once M. with her sons and the two Princes. We arc obliged to close the sitting in order to M. head. read over the names aloud. Ledrit-Rollin. A Provisional GoM. Sauzet at the same moment withdrew from the president's chair. which was not entirely rilled.000. de Lamartine addressed the people assembled under the windows of the Hôtel-de- — Ville : — " It is thus that you are led from calumny to calumny against the men who the have devoted themselves. instead of a Republic invested with the strength of their consent that is to say. be Lamartine. but unsuccessfully. with the task of stanching the blood which flows. also made similar attempts. in their title of man. to make of that liepublic. proceed to the seat of government. Several of them forced their way to the front seats. the rights of 35. being opened a number of men rushed in. to vote them an absolute Republic. and a moment after she rose. A cry then the people. in order to maintain one of those fictions which have no stability. DE LAMARTINE. imposed — . departed. Ledru-Roluk (in the midst of the noise). deputy read out the names. but without effect arose in one of the tribunes of " Let Lamartine speak " and at once all the others took it up.) At this moment a violent and imperative knocking was heard at the On the door door of an upper tribune. resentments and our indignation. (Enthusiastic cries of" Vive Lamartine!") proclaimed. to give yen a real Republic Republic of all rights.Ville From all sides This most extraordinary sitting was then brought to a conclusion at — — : ! 4 o'clock. The people withdrew in the utmost tumult. and some of hearing. Yesterday you asked us to usurp. and all the legitimate rights of the people. .

. the to address the people.') We have brought it with us. ' " Royalty is abolished. lie was raised on a step of the staircase. Citizens ! and I will explain in a word why I will for my part. recommenced his address. and I will now read it to you. de Lavociferating. It is. fresh masses of people arrived. and determining them either to withdraw. " The people will exercise their political rights. in the midst of an irritated . shaking his hands. brandishing amis of all kinds over his head.) " The Provisional Government of the Republic has only joyful intelligence to announce to the people here assembled. mations. de Lamartine descended the steps of the great staircase of the Hôtel-de. accompanied by the unanimous acclamations if the innumerable population who covered the Place of the Hôtel-de. the abolition of the penalty of death for political matters. was again called upon to receive anew the consecration of the popular voice. national guards. " The Republic is proclaimed. citizens. the will of a part of the people. VOL. (Unanimous that is. crowd remained for half an hour without consenting to listen to him. (' Yes. and bearing him in triumph. given to them by a crowd of citizens. ness its gratitude for the magnificent national co-operation which has just accepted these new institutions. (1'rolonged acclamations from the crowd and National ' " — Guard.Ville. supplicated to go once more.' people than the ' ' ' ' ' — ' iiot a more becoming homage to a spectacle of its own At the conclusion of this manifestation the Provisional Government. students. the 26th. Gentlemen. and they finished by embracing him.) " Finally.MEMOIR OF M. crowd. yes!') It is the character of the French nation which escapes in one spontaneous cry from the soul of its Government. (Renewed acclamations. XV11 ami not consented. 1 will never adopt the red Hag oppose it with all the strength of my patriotism. a . or to hecome themselves the safeguard ni' the Provisional Government. and presenting himself in front of the edifice with a paper in his hand." . the Republic was officially announcedbyM. and scholars.) '• This is the noblest decree. armed with sahres and bayonets. trained through torrents of the blood of the people. and finished by softening and appeasing the people. that has ever issued from the mouths of a people the day alter their victory. after a most fatiguing sitting of sixty hours. On Saturday. He w. for the last time. To-day yon demand from us the red flag instead of the tricolour one. ('Yes. — Citizens " ' The Provisional Government of the Republic has called upon the people to wit. thus expressed himself: . bravo. " National workshops arc open lor those who are without work. In a moment after. They knocked at the doors they filled the salles. The National Guard indissolubly unites itself with the people so as to promptly restore order with the snrne hand that had only the preceding moment conquered our liberty. Gentlemen. The cry was. under the Republic and the empire. every one was suddenly affected by his words hands were clapped and tears shed. with our liberties and our glories. the Provisional Government was anxious to be itself the bearer to you of the last decree it has resolved on and signed in this memorable sitting. bravos. was called for. martine folded his arms. DE LAMARTINE. de Lamartine stifle the members of the Provisional Government. surrounded by the other members of the Provisional Government and the four secretaries. (Immense accla.Ville. because the tricolour flag has made the tour (if the world. At this part of the speech of M. instead of the will of the whole Lamartine. de Lamartine. M. There is " magnanimity.) " ' The army is being reorganised. yes . and that the red Hi? has only made the tour of the Champ de Mars. that all was lost that the people were about to fire on or M. III.

is not the principle of the French Revolution. and regular reign of the people themselves. who desired. and those whicli had conquered equality and liberty. but to retrograde with regard to time. Government was formally to One acts of the Provisional abolish punishment of death for political offences. following — M. the French Republic does not require to be recognised to exist it springs from a natural right. The principles which govern them have successive phases. There are now no longer distinct and unequal classes. under that name. it was not the entire'people who had entered into possession of their government it was the middling class only who desired to exercise liberty and to enjoy it. their tranquillity.s they dishonour themselves by allowing it to escape without seizing it. Liberty has enfranchised all. and not as a phenomenon that disturbs European order. comprehending. not in retreat . Fraternity. without exclusion and without preference. r. would not be to advance. as if. You are aware of 'the events in Paris. and of intellectual moral and material development amongst the nations: like individuals have their different Monarchical. they were not its Object. complete. the application of which we proclaim. are the expression of these different degrees of maturity in the genius of the people. of the victory of the people. and with the jealous foreigner to refuse France its revolution. after half a century. proof against the attacks and alarms of invasion.'equality and democracy in proportion as they are more inspired with justice and love of the people. " War. It desired to retain for itself alone the rights conquered by all. however. " The proclamation of the French republic is not an act of aggression against any form of government in the world. common sense itself governed France. " The French revolution has thus" just arrived at its definite period. for this purpose. and in very few days after. and to make them understood around you. and which may exist face to face mutually comprehending and respecting each other. "They demand more liberty in proportion as they feel themselves more capable of supporting it they require more . explains the necessity of peace. we desire that the world and ourselves should march to fraternity and to peace. The Revolution of yesterday is a step in advance. These differences you must apply yourself to comprehend. and the one in which we now are. by this union itself. which contrast with each other. in this interregnum of visible power. the sincere. de Lamartine issued the "CIRCULAR OF THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS TO THE DIPLOMATIC AGENTS OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC. and theocracy. Constitutional. Between 1792 and 1848. their moderation. The triumph of the middle class was then egotistical. France is a Republic. as we do. it was not that of "the more enlightened democrats. To-day the Revolution has been effected by the people and for tliem. Subsequently. there is half a century. is about to unite every one. by pretcipitating them towards the field of battle. The French Republic. Thisyiversion was war. then. and who does not render her. There is not a single citizen in France to whatever opinion he may belong. it is requisite that you should promptly inform the government to which you are accredited of the principles and tendencies which will henceforth direct the external policy of the French government. The dispossessed classes united with captive royalty. and the benefits of which the National Assembly will soon organize. " If the situation of the French republic in 1792 explained the necessity of war. " In 1792. To return. to operate a grand diversion to the accession of the people. This is a question of time. It behoved it. Monarchy and Republicanism are not in the eyes of true statesmen absolute principles which mortally oppose each other they are facts. to prevent them from taking possession of heirj own government. it is a national v ight. the nation was not united. who does not rally round the principle of the country before every thing. idea of the Monarchists and of the Girondists. all classes. of which the nation is composed. and Republican Governments. "Sir. to the principle of 1792 or to the principle of conquest of the Empire.XV111 MEMOIR OF of the first M. It is the will of a great nation which only demands its title from itself. . Equality has levelled every thing in the eyes of the law. of geographical situation. Two people existed upon the same territory. by invasion. . the differences which exist between that epoch of our history. : — . as is the triumph of every oligarchy. the people were but the instruments of the Revolution. Arisages. and re-establishment of order by the concurrence of all the citizens. A terrible struggle was still prolonged between. desiring to enter into the family of the already instituted governments as a regular power. the classes dispossessed of their privileges. and to substitute in its place monarchy. " In 1792. their heroism. as it became its glorious and fatal necessity in 1792. DE LAMARTINE. War was the. tocratic. aristocracy. . A people lose themselves by anticipating this maturity. Forms of government possess a diversity as legitimate as the diversity of character. " In 1792.

were so forgotten. warp the affection of nationality. and to the regular agitations of liberty. which will be the copestone of theFrench Revolution. and if the republic openly declares that it has the right and mission to attain regularly and pacifically these modifications. however. which is its complete form amongst more matured nations. newspapers. not only better order. " But/exclusive of these disinterested considerations. we openly declare If the hour of the reconstruction of some oppressed nations in Europe. to the forms. the good sense. and compromise her first and most universal alliance. agriculture. equality a scandal. The idea of the men who govern France at present is this will be fortunate. and profaned by the old feudal dynasty and sacerdotal traditions. and Rousseau. They will habituate themselves to the republic. Monsieur. as a benefit to the human race. " In 1792. but more true order in this government of all for all than in the government of a few for afew. will not provoke war with any one it has no need to say that it will accept it. and the senate's meetings have raised European intelligence to its highest pitch. XIX they bring to it their new cares of labour.MEMOIR OF " In entering into it. would render her invincible at home. But if the treaties of 1815 exist no longer. " Thus. and the republic a problem. the republic doubtless desires glory. Fifty years of liberty to think. if they were misunderstood. principles which she can present without fear and without defiance to her friends and to her enemies. the spirit of the people and the genius of civilization. the conscience. cheap living. They will recognise that there is a conservative liberty . To-day' philosophy is popular. Books. soldiers forget institutions for men . hidden. and to write. they will acknowledge that there can be found: in the republic. has created amongst their minds this grand intellectual nationality. and are for Europe a better and more honourable guarantee than the letters of those treaties it so often violated or modified. Monsieur. tomed to the motto. save as facts to be modified by general agreement. industry. before giving them to our rights and our honour. propriety. the interest alone of the consolidations and the duration of the republic would inspire the statesmen of France with thoughts of peace. or Napoleons. navigation. and not for Cœsars. which are the principles of France. and as a point of departure in her relations with other nations. her impatience of action. to make this emancipation of the republic from the treaties of 1815 comprehended and admitted in good faith. and to accept. should conditions likely to cause war be imposed upon the that France French people. DE LAMARTINE. Democracy made thrones and the foundaTo-day thrones and nations are accustions of societies tremble at the same time. 3T. if war should he declared against her. " Lastly. and the prudence of the republic exist. Reason. and the constitution of international fraternity all over the globe. or threatened. The rights of the people. nevertheless the territorial limits of these treaties are a fact which she admits as a basis. and she be thus constrained to increase in power and glory. even in those which are monarchical. Montesquieu. you will do well to impress on your mind the following ! — . beyond the limits of nations. still less to sue humbly for the position of a great right and a great people in Europe they have a far more noble object to make sovereigns and nations reflect to prevent them from involuntarily deceiving themselves as to the character of our Revolution. but she desires it for herself. some pledges to humanity. " After these principles. she would turn against herself the remembrance of her conquests. In the second case. commerce. should appear to us to have sounded in the decrees of : — . morality. in 1792. The prestige of a glorious name veils the design on national sovereignty . have produced their result. " Do not. " The French Republic. as a pledge for European security. contentment. glory dazzles patriotism. dreaded perhaps beyond her frontiers. which are all the necessaries of peace are one and the same word. in spite of her moderation A terrible responsibility for France In the first case her if the republic itself declares war without being provoked to it martial genius. — — : . exercised in diverse proportion almost in all states. but to bestow true light and a just appearance upon the event . in short. " Endeavour. then. or elsewhere. that the most legitimate interference of the people in their affairs appeared a monstrosity to statesmen of the old school. have not for their object to obtain the pardon of the republic for its audacity in daring to spring to life. it is liberty. and her force that has been augmented by so many years of peace. ami The people and peace lastly of civilization. after calm reflection. The thought of the past age existed only in the heads of a few philosophers. the grand harmony of nations between themselves. deceive yourself: these ideas which the Provisional Government charge you to present to the powers. — : : — ! ! — — — declarations : " The treaties of 1815 no longer exist as a right in the eyes of the French Republic . War is almost always a dictatorship thrones tempt the ambitious. to speak. It is not the country which runs the greatest danger in war. and to show that this frank declaration possesses nothing inimical to the repose of Europe. the moderation. instruction. liberty was a novelty. the ideas of France and of Europe were not prepared to comprehend. to give. scarcely discovered by Fénélon. shining every where.

a long. The republic. deeply marked at the sides. It knows that no liberty is durable. Switzerland. you see. It will make no secret propagation or incendiarism amongst its neighbours. R. Alphonse de Lamartine is about five feet ten inches in height. " Member of the Provisional Government of tiie Republic and Minister ofForeign Affairs. which weighed for seventeen years upon our national dignity. which have invested its soul." . recovery of the rank which she ought to occupy in the scale of the great European powers. our liberal alliances and peace. March 13th. It proclaims itself the intellectual and cordial ally of all the rights. The sense of these three words. It will allow no one to interfere between the pacific halo of its liberty and the regard of nations. with sharp features. It is equally decided never to veil its democratic principle abroad. France. our faithful ally since the time of Francis I. now tinning grey. for the solidity of this natural alliance. and of all the legitimate developments of the institutions of nations who desire to live under the same principle as its own. Equality. " hop. relies more upon the conformity of principles than upon the successions of the house of Bourbon " Such is. If France has the consciousness of her part in the liberal and civilizing mission of the age. His courage. long nose.— the French republic would conceive itself entitled to arm itself to protect these legitimate movements of augmentation. It was not republican France which established this warlike question. there is not one word which does not betoken peace. The republic his no nepotism. eloquence. Monsieur.XX Providence . " Receive. let Spain be independent and free. save that which is born upon its own grounds. and in the midst of the heat of a contest not provoked by the people.. the physiognomy is striking and prepossessing. but welldefined chin. noble look. of all the progress. thick head of hair. Sir. " Lamartine. MEMOIR OF if M. prominent brow. three words. M. reputation. and Fraternity. . by the wholly personal ambition of its family alliances in Spain. by the abolition of pain of death in political matters. We — We ! — . if the indépendant states of Italy were invaded if limits or obstacles were imposed upon their interior changes. (Signed. the true commentary of these three Words at home give them also their true commentary abroad. and moderate policy which you will have to represent. accomplished. firm. Cut it will exercise. applied to our exterior relations. If Europe be prudent and just. lastly. Such will invariably be the character of the frank. the declaration of alliance and friendship with all nations. thin and rather arched. H. and dark complexion altogether. One only question of war had been agitated. at the first stpp. which she is forming at home. and by the spectacle of the order and peace which it hopes to display to the world. if the right of uniting anions themselves to consolidate an Italian country were contested by an armed hand. weighed down. The republic has no ambition. by its pretensions to another crown at Madrid. enfranchisement of France from the chains which confined her principles and dignity. is impossible human eye but assuredly the singular prediction of Lady Esther Stanhope has been. I 8-18. a wide mouth and thin lips. She gave on the following day. T. It is decided never to conceal liberty at home. dark and somewhat deep-set eyes. the sole and honest proselytism the proselytism of esteem and sympathy. and. It does not inherit the pretensions of a family. In person. the era of proscriptions and dictatorships. that peace should be preserved. The republic pronounced at its birth. at the same time. is fixed every eye in Europe. for humanity's sake. and all the best hopes of the regeneration of his native land. in a great measure. it was the dynasty. a year ago. and aptitude for affairs have certainly saved his country from the immediate horrors of anarchy and bloodshed and on him. and of nationality amongst the nations. : To to foresee the progress and result of Lamartine's career .* it also. the spirit of the council of the republic. between France and England. oval countenance. the assurance of my most distinguished consideration. were constrained or threatened in the movement of aggrandisement. Thus this domestic policy of the fallen dynasty.lhas passed. by the light of its ideas. DE LAMARTINE. That dynasty bears with it that danger of war to which it had given birth in Europe. at this moment. Let Spain govern itself . desire. is this . high and expansive forehead. to lend further power to the fasces of democratic governments . and which will call down upon its cradle the benedictions of God and of man Liberty. there is not one of these words which signifies war. .

Stabs Marat in his Bath. The Finances. Arrest. Struggles at Home and Abroad. Rtflections 93 VOL. Popular Excitement. National Arrangements. Marat's Speech. Puisayes' Defeat. Merlin's Decree. Executive Committee. Her Imprisonment. Arrest of Custine. Address to the French. III. Girondists in Caen. Charlotte Corday. Chaumette's Ferocity. Ascendency of La Montagne. The Funeral of Marat. of the Commissioners. Page 1 BOOK XLII. Levasseur's Speech. Weakness of the Convention. La Montagne. Letter to Barbaroux. pierre's Firmness. Insurrection. Condition of the Girondists. Danton heads the Chamber. His Opinion of Robespierre. Tumult in the Convention. Remarks- - 23 BOOK XLIII. Robespierre attacks the Girondists. Address of the Jacobins. b . Progress of the Danton's Anxiety. Their Position. Conspiracy against the Girondists. The Convention. Danton opposes Vergniaud. RobesCapture of Mayence.CONTENTS. Committee of Public Safety. Fury of the Orators. mittee of Public Safety. Alarm of the Girondists. XLI. XLIV. Her arrest. Marat. Girondists unpopular. Couthon's Motion. Madame Roland's Heroism. Perils of the Nation. Her Execution - - - 53 BOOK XLV. BOOK niaud's Views. National Procession. Fall of the Girondists. ComTheories of Governments. Republic invaded. Adam Lux. Saint-Just's Report. Revolutionary Tr bunal. The Convention a Nullity. VergRobespierre's Policy. Fresh Outbreak. State of Paris. Danton's Tyranny. Letter to her Father. Proceedings in the Convention. Her History. Insurrection. Their Fate. Danton retires. Flight of the Girondists. Robespierre's Projects. Arrest of Roland. Ascendency of Marat - - - - - - - -89 BOOK Her Trial. Reign of Terror established. Decree of the Convention.

Miserable end of Bailly.-ondists. Republican Principles. Four thousand six hundred Prisoners in the Gaols. Condition of Lyons. Robespierre's Notes. Legrand D'AUeray. Destruction of the City. Traits Blood-thirsty Jacobins. Execution. Armies of the Republic. Hours. Lyons decimated. The Convention besieges Lyons. BOOK XLVI. Toulon. Pétion. Progress to tion. Trial. Her Letter to Robespierre. Amar's Report against the Gi.. Lyons. Capture Précy heads the Lyonnese. Madame du Barrv. - Duc d'Orléans. Trial. Châlier excites the Jacobins at Lyons. gress of the Demolition. Death of Guadet.. nave. Trial - and - Last - Moments. on the Prison Walls. the Guillotine. and Buzot.. The Priests. Frightful Massacres. Marie Antoinette's Execution urged on. Couthon recalled. BOOK LI. The Woman Tison. Pichegru. Madame Richard. Their Last Demeanour in the Prison afterwards. Siege of Dunkirk. Battle Night Attack on Rexpoede.161 Reflections Execution.Crancé. 226 Madame tion Roland. of Heroism. Writings Their Trial of the Girondists. Marie Antoinette's Captivity.. Their Imprisonment. Napoleon Gillet's Letter. Barbaroux. Her Piety. Dubois.XXU CONTENTS. Siege of Maubeuge. Reign of the Guillotine. Massacre of Citizens. Her Last Hours.. Remarks -187 BOOK XLIX. LII. Hue. Sentence of Death. Battle of Wattignies. Salles' Salles. Custine. of Hondschoote. Coalition. Biron. Condemnation -. Severe Measures against Couthon's Moderation. Removal of the Queen to the Conciergerie. BOOK The XLVIII. Policy Death of Dampierre. Her Conduct.256 BOOK The Fugitive Girondists. CondemnaHer Husband commits Suicide . M. Imprisonment of BarDupont. Hoche.194 of the City BOOK L. ProDemolition of the City. Condemnation. . Fouché. Letter to his Wife. Châlier executed. Last Moments. Vergniaud.. Simon. Her Execution - Page 131 BOOK XLVII. Slaughter of the Inhabitants . and Execution. Two Hundred and Ten shot at a time. Comte de Attempts of the Count d'Artois.. His Daughter-in-Law. of England. . Bonaparte. CondemnaHer Last Letter.

Saintand Robespierre. Madame Elizabeth. Naval Engagements. Robespierre and his Brother 307 His Cruelty Isabeau. Robespierre's Illness. Madame Condemnation and Execution. Desecration of the Dead . Desmoulins' eloquent Writings. Last Hours of the Dantonists. Danton's Cupidity. Robespierre abandons Desmoulins. Dantonists in Prison. Robespierre's Influence over all Parties 318 BOOK Robespierre doubts Danton. Robespierre's Saint-Just. Legendre's Appeal. Page 272 BOOK Carrier. Battle of Fleurus. His vision- Proposed Government. Arrest of the Hébertists. Danton's Defence. Excesses. Men opposed to . Royal Prisoners. Le Vieux Cordelier. Religion obnoxious. XXiil Republican "Calendar. Campaign of 1794. Their Execution. Nature paramount. Camille Desmoulins assailed. pierre. silences La Montagne. Camille Desmoulins. Robespierre attacks Hébert. Armies of the Republic. Hubert's Rage. Hoche. His Baudot. Lucile and Madame Hébert. Her Robespierre's Ascendency. Robespierre's Report. Views. Noble Conduct of Gregory. ment. -----BOOK LIV. Horrors of their ImprisonRoyale. Female Prisoners. Danton's Defence of himself. Danton. Camille's last letter to his Wife. Robespierre's Presence of Mind. Paganism established. Worship of Reason. Joseph Lebon.. M. Trial of the Dantonists. Their Progress to the Scaffold. Père Duchesne. Execution. Condorcet's Death. Meeting of Danton They part in Anger. Court. Rose Lacombe. Laréveillère. and the Arrest of. Weakness of the Hierarchy. LV. LIU. Naval Affairs. The Nuns of Montmartre. Catholicism abolished.CONTENTS. Danton in Danger. Revival of the Terror. Saint-Just. Quarrels of Desmoulins and Hébert. He Saint-Just accuses Danton and his Accomplices. He is imprisoned. Character of Danton -355 BOOK LVI. Abbé de Fénélon 393 BOOK Indifference to Life. He attacks Klootz. Chaumette harangues the Women. Lebas' Letter. Robespierre acknowledges God. His Ideas of His daring. ary LVII. Camille's Letter to his Wife. Terror continued. Tallien. Madame de Fontenay. Hébert defeated. His Harangue against Danton. Danton duped by RobesClemency. to the People of Nantes. Destruction at St. Louvet. Condemnations en masse. de Malesherbes. Robespierre's Reply.. Victory over the Austrians. Amar's Appeal. Denis. Just's Charges against. The Parisian Women. Lucile Desmoulins' Appeal to Robespierre.

XXIV CONTENTS. Execution of the Sainte. LVIII. Toleration of Robespierre. Tallien interrupts him. Robespierre Altercations with Robespierre and his Opponents. Barrère. Collot d'Herbois. RobesAddress. Saint-Just's Oratory.Amaranthes. Execution. BOOK LIX.. Reflections. Robespierre shot. sent to him. pierre's LX. His final BOOK LXI. Closing Remarks 529 . Revolutionary Tribunal. Madame Catherine Théos. de Quesvremont. His Downfal. Police. BOOK The Terror in full Force. Dom Gerle. tory. Atheism Protests against Atheism. 7th of Thermidor. His Exultation. Progress of the Conspiracy. Decrees of the Convention. openly preached. Robespierre.. Billaud-Varennes Plaine. Dupin. Instinctive Love of the Supernatural. Tallien's Denunciation of Robespierre. Hesitation of La Preparations for a Struggle. Robespierre imprisoned Trial and Pro• gress to the Guillotine. 488 Roucher and Chénier guillotined His Solitude.Amaranthe. Levasseur. Coffinhal. Page 417 Success of his Declaration . assails Robespierre. Deity. Cécile Renault. Anonymous Letters His secret Notes as to his Antagonists. Attacked in the Convention. Attempts at Reconciliation - 469 BOOK Plots against Robespierre. Insults heaped on him. Suicide of Lebas. Directs the quarrels with Vadier. and outwits him. Barrère. Henriot released. Tallien's Letter to Robespierre at issue with some of the Members. Vadier intrigues against de Sainte. &c. Ladmiral. His great Speech Robespierre's Reputation destroyed. Legendre's Taunts. Convention reassured. Robespierre. Barras' Promptitude. Popular Excitement. in Exculpation of his Conduct. Robespierre's Arrest demanded and conceded. M. a Dictator. Alarm of the Committee. Robespierre's Address. Vadier. Sensation amongst his AudiExcites the Jacobins. 440 Struggle for Ascendency Family Feuds. him. The Thermidoriens. Public Celebration of the Restoration of the Saint Just's Speech in favour of Robespierre creates Enemies. Sartines. Debates of the Thermidoriens. Robespierre a Deist. Conduct of Payan and Henriot. Theresa Cabarus' Letter to Tallien. Saint-Just's Speech. His Tower in the Jacobins. Robespierre and his Friends imprisoned. and withdraws from the Tribunal. Billaud-Varennes.

united at the house of Valazé. Vincent. upon these pretended traitors of the country. Marat. panic. a young man. the publication of the fabricated correspondence would devote their names to public execration. designed to cast infamy. They might spread abroad the report of their flight to foreign lands. Varlet had fabricated false correspondences of the Girondists with the prince of Coburg. Varlet. the American Fournier.HISTORY OP THE GIRONDISTS. Hébert. cut beforehand in a garden attached to this house. Whilst the Girondists. unfolded a comprehensive plan of individual murders. and as yet obscure. On the morrow. Jacques. without form. and conceal from the public the mode of their disappearance. re-assembled at l'Archevêché. in a hall. Varlet. and conducted. where they were to be subjected to a private trial. BOOK I. Henriot. and excite the execration of the people. Dobsent. The night was full of agitation. Ditches. who was to Marat what Saint Just was to Robespierre. vol. more depraved than enlightened by his education. concerted amongst themselves the means of regaining a victory which the Montagnards owed only to a surprise. thousand plans were debated. and some sixty of the most violent members of the sections. whence the public were excluded. could cover the remains of the victims. and meetings. XLI. B A . the Spaniard Gusman. evidently inspired by the remembrances of September. m. During the night they were to be arrested one by one in their dwellings. to an isolated house in the faubourg St.

Why do they not take a man for their leader? This woman She is the Circe of the republic. in the Convention. " these : admirable speakers do not deserve such anger they are enthusiasts. shut himself up on the evening of this crisis in complete seclusion. in speaking of them. disquieted and troubled for the consequences of this schism in the Convention. It was agreeable to the executioners of September. Danton. . First. Pache.2 CONSPIRACY AGAINST |_ B XLI 2 * ' * and when the tardy truth should refute all these suppositions. the death of rivals whom he admired the most. and that there the great leaders of La Montagne had reciprocally delivered up their enemies. It was resolved to work out the purification by the people themselves. and necessary to his popularity. and some other principal members of the Commune and the Convention." said he. This signal came from Marat's mouth. that on this same night another superior executive assembly. This sufficed him his heart leaned to their side. The conspirators separated to go and convey the password in the sections and faubourgs. others to eighty. and secondly. as reducing the victims to a number too limited. and feared the least. ton alluded to Madame Roland. who had humbled his pride. on the evening. proved. was left to chance. He had the advantage of popularity over them. for fear of causing it to deviate or miscarry. Some carried the numThis ber of proscribed heads to thirty." Danwill destroy them. in a house where the plots of the 20th of June and the 10th of August had been laid." It is written. and trifling as the woman who inspires them. drawn in spite of himself into this struggle. II. as tainted by a fraud unworthy of the people. This has never been like Octavius. and Lepidus. were assembled at Charenton. Danton. and was " No half measures. Robespierre. and to point out to them as many victims as were requisite for their vengeance. would have wished the victory to have been confined to the He was far from conspiring humiliation of the Girondists. the Commune regenerated. and Such was Varlet's the people would thank their avengers. composed of Robespierre. He only threw into the balance some words indispensable to his situation. " No. but was rejected by Dobsent and Marat himself. plan. Fabre. like a man who dreaded to touch an event. the republic would be saved. Anthony. .

and to 3 Marat alone inflamed the anger of the personal enemies. XLI. his révolu- . Lanjuinais was not a Girondist.B. curiosity. Isnard resumed the president's chair. or to die at his post. floating on the Seine. met early in the morning at the Assembly. The confusion of the moment. himself a distinguished advocate and a Christian philosopher. of an honourable family. until they III. He returned to instruct Valazé. already known. and of La Plaine. In spite of the decree of the evening which suppressed the Commission of Twelve had still sat during the night. nor in those of the 10th of August. and report to them what he should see and hear. The next day his body was found. saved him. accident of the resolutions of the meeting. body should be levelled. He possessed neither the ambition nor the wrongs of that party . united at Valazé's. which the guardian took for the sign of recognition. Born at Rennes. They were admitted by showing people pressed to the door. of their party. resolved to regain his ascendency over it. he had neither mingled with the plots of the 20th of June. pierced with wounds. It had deliberated upon the measures of resistance which the Girondists proposed to take in the Convention on the morrow. were informed by an federal Breton. The deliberation had hardly commenced. Valazé and his friends conjured this man to return on the following night to the focus of the conspiracy. nor in the condemnation of Louis XVI. still bearing the copper medal by aid of which he had surprised the conspirators. arrived but a few days in Paris. but he had been followed. He departed without having been suspected. and ran to warn a deputy of his department. His countenance. This deputy conducted him to Valazé's. Lanjuinais boldly demanded permission to speak. removed all distrust from the conspirators. and trembled lest he should be discovered. The Girondists. The Breton again devoted himself. met his body. and Avas admitted. The Breton. the Girondists. impelled by a copper medal to the keeper. 4. passed the Some groups of night of the 27th before l'Archevêché. when A the imprudent man saw his error. the majority. IV. drew from his pocket a piece of copper money. and the agitation of people's minds.] THE GIRONDISTS. Every member of this party. people.

4 tionary ideas LAN JUIN AIS. " Nobility. "upon the pretended decree of yesterday. further. At his appearance La Mon" I have tagne expected a protest. and the parliament of Rennes." said Lanjuinais. with the gesture of a man who " all is lost and I decontemplates the ruin of his country." wrote he in Equality was one of his dogmas. He possessed." Lanjuinais was one of those men whose purity of soul stood alone in the midst of party. then. The oppression of the Girondists. were but a form of [B. affecting a languishing voice and exhausted strength. and the sedition of the people. XLI. be consigned to the procès verbal." " You have protected the aristocrats of your department you are a villain !" vociferated the members of La Montagne against Lanjuinais. "And " I demand that the speech of Legendre I." Murmurs from La Montagne interrupted him. nounce to you. to attest the liberty which we enjoy. his evangelical faith. . " is not a necessary evil. one of his early productions. ! " I declare that I will ascend and precipitate him from the "Do you take me. a conspiracy a thousand times more atrocious than those which have been — ! plotted as yet. and whose generosity of heart devoted him to falling causes. 4. had exasperated him. the " Club Breton. on the evening before. It was enough that a party was oppressed to enlist Lanjuinais in their ranks. a right to be heard. pronounced SGme tribune!" — . This same spirit the clergy. " All is lost." resumed Lanjuinais. of opposition had caused him to be named deputy to the He had there been one of the founders of States-general. for an ox?" replied Lanjuinais. Robespierre. and they remain unpunished !" " If Lanjuinais is not silent." He had exerted himself in the parliamentary debates during the conflict of the third estate of Brittany against the aristocracy. that courage which rose before the tumult of the assemblies. by La Montagne and the people. and if there have been." said Barbaroux. when he thought he discerned therein j ustice and truth. alluding to Legendre's trade of a butcher. and refused to hear him. citizens. in the decree of yesterday. it should be revoked. I maintain that there has been no decree." cried Legendre. as that of the soldier under fire. for three months past your Commissioners have committed more arbitrary arrests in the depart' ! Why ments than in thirty years of despotism Men have preached these last six months murder and anarchy.

the liberty of Hébert. Petitioners assembled. The Plain. revocation of the decree of the evening before. bitter The The A We . noise of La Plaine drowned the words of the orator. hastened to vote it. Astonishment petri" must veil the statue of Liberty. prompted by the Girondists. " Will you order. " And we." resumed Danton. who still sought to elude the definitive rupture of the representation. on the proposition of Boyer-Fonfrède. feeble majority annulled this decree. was put to the vote." said he to the Conquerors. Interrupted by the noise of La Montagne and the tribunes. and. They will make. 4." All the members of La Montagne joined. Consider. " that the people no longer confine themselves to defensive warfare that they attack the abettors of ?n odé ra titisme. and not from the people in the tribunes." said Danton. " the impression of such an address ? The French people are ready to turn their arms against their enemies." fied La Montagne.B." majority for you in the republic and in Paris. rose and adroitly presented a last means of conciliation to the Girondist con" Your decree of yesterday." The Montagnards demanded. if the thread of the conspiracy should not be broken. Danton. XLI. by gesture and acclamation." replied the Girondists. after having proved that we surpass our enemies in prudence. vention. if the magistrates of the people be not restored to their functions. answered the tribunes. demanded to be heard. which abolished the Commission of the Twelve. cried Collot d'Herbois. I am glad to think it will be renewed before the end of this session but should the Commission of Twelve resume the power which it desired to exercise even over the members of the Assembly. we will prove to them that we surpass them also in boldness and revolutionary vigour. "was a great act of justice. yes. in the declaration of " we demand Danton. see their nothingness in a single day. those men who are stupid enough to believe there is a distinction between the people and the citizens. It is time that we march boldly on our career It is time that ! ! B S . that. if they boast of a majority against you here. the petitioners received the felicitations of Isnard and the honours of the Assembly. — — — vengeance from the departments. conformably with the insinuations of Danton. 5 and lachrymose phrases upon the tyranny of the Twelve.] DANTON HEADS THE CHAMBER." " It is time. you have an immense " Yes. when they desire it.

5. who am exhausted by four years of revolution." This eloquent diversion of Danton. consumed by a slow fever. and above all by the fever of — ! — ! patriotism. the Commission of Twelve should be delivered over Hébert." answered one of the most enthusiastic people. No Paris shall not perish. to the groups which surrounded him. " of prescribing to the people the means of saving themselves. covered with unanimous applause. detaching the crown to the revolutionary tribunal. " I only see our enemies. and left the day "What signify your quarrels to me?" said undecided. Rousseau The sitting of the club of the Jacobins on the 30th preWhilst the insurrectional luded the storm of the morrow. or she will see in us only twenty-five millions of cowards I say that to-morrow the trumpet must be sounded. from the hands of Chaumette. XLI. men would ! . from his forehead.6 POPULAR EXCITEMENT." V. It was demanded that. on leaving the Tuileries. no. "I feel myself incapable. this harmony Jacobins lions of ." said Robespierre. Danton. we It is time that we confirm the destiny of France! coalesce against the plots of all those who would destroy the have shown energy one day. nourished the flame of opinion. " never will posterity believe that twenty-five milallow themselves to be subjected by a handful of intriguers. and let those who will not rise against the common enemy be declared traitors to the country! When the tocsin shall thunder. the cannons roar. terminated the meeting. and we have republic conquered. [b. and by It the heart-rending spectacle of the triumph of tyranny for me who am is not for me to indicate these measures. In the evening. This power is This is not granted not bestowed upon a single individual to me. Hébert was brought back in triumph He received there a crown of laurel to the Hôtel-de.Ville. placed it on the bust of Jean Jacques the first apostle of liberty. Legendre and Robespierre at the Jacobins. committee of the Archbishopric concerted the movement. and Marat and Danton at the Cordeliers. in expiation of the captivity of Hébert. Let us march to! We ! gether against the enemie: of our country." This apparent resignation of powerless patriotism was the most subtle incitement to the despairing energy of the " No.

began to speak magisterially. who. and to The sections. more similar to a defeat. began at last to foresee their ruin. The disasters of the army of the Pyrenees the retreat. . governed the country so will encourage the . incited by hidden agitators. imputed the calamities of the moment to the Girondists. a whole people armed. and directed by the organised Jacobins: the triumph could not be doubtful. On the one side. and we shall exterminate our enemies. and exasperated the public spirit against the men. To resist this torrent of unpopularity directed against them. sembled. whether weak or perfidious. 7 cowardly they will rise with us. making appeals to departments too distant to hear them. . disastrously.Ville. Still they loved to flatter themselves that fortune would yet return to them The all — .] GIRONDISTS UNPOPULAR. The disastrous news which arrived daily from La Vendée. some intrepid orators. rent at the same time the Convention to the core. and counting day by day the duration of a resistance which was believed impossible the republican troops defeated at Fontenay by the royalist peasants of Lescure Marseilles on fire. the Girondists had but the abstract power of the law. The Girondists. re-assembled in permanent session at the Hôtel-de. people. according as the absence or presence of the sectionaries took away from. . or conceded the majority. reassured at first by the legality of their cause. of the army of the north Valenciennes and Cambray blockaded. . The insurrectional measures of the central committee of the Archbishopric transpired throughout Paris. not knowing whom to lay hold of. The council of the Commune. XLI. . from the frontiers and from the south. and Lyons letting the first sparks of the insurrection which lurked within its walls escape all these calamities bursting at once upon the republic. without the power of receiving succour. less as politicians than as martyrs. threw terror into the minds of the people. and the favour with which the citizens of Paris surrounded them. to one or other of the two parties. 6." VI. The bayonets and pikes of the national guard wavered at the will of the versatility of the sections.B. and prepared their minds for it. Bordeaux in agitation. -on the other. were engaged in contradictory deliberations. and disposed them to desperate measures. tumultuously asthreaten the Convention.

Guadet. Pétion. but they wished to die fighting. and forced and pledged the Convention from the first evening to deliver up Marat. and Robespierre to a revolutionary tribunal. these wavering thoughts. sometimes confident. They were prepared to die. Isnard. — crime.. national representation those They carried bayonets which they carried to defend it. There. into the different nocturnal meetings which they attended after the assemblies of the night. they asserted should have prevented the blow of the Commune. by turns animated and bewailed these discourses. Rebecqui. Danton. or to the scaffold of Marat. the sections. Pache. These were the political men of the party. humbled by his fall. Louvet. Fonfrède. Barbaroux heard her with the respect and enthusiasm of his age. Buzot adored in her the image and the voice of the country. whence issued anarchy. Ducos. and fear. and the masculine stamp of her character. these same men had much regard for their own safety to abandon themselves by delivering the heads of twenty-two of their colleagues to They refused to ostracism. these intrepid young men accused the sloth and hesitation of the Commission of Twelve. sometimes at a female's attached to one of them. already concealing themselves from the observation of the people. the Convention were too timid to attack with them the power of the Commune. Siéyès. Barbaroux. Siéyès . 7. Roland. their departments. VIL Vergniaud. Condorcet. hidden in the depth of a court of the Rue de la Harpe. to reorganise to call the forces of the departments to Paris. in order to place their heads under the They thought that. and to crush anarchy. displayed that sombre energy of words which costs nothing to weaponless hands. and close the clubs. one by one. and coveting the glory of strengthening the wavering republic. divided between the impassioned interest which her heart experienced for her friends. the staircase of Roland. believe that the honest armed men of the sections would too ever employ against th«. Madame Roland. if the modérés of protection of Paris. sometimes at the younger Fonfrède 's. ascended. xli. They urged address upon address from at the last moment. Buzot. sometimes discouraging.— 8 POSITION OF [b. who. and Gensonné met more frequently together in the Rue Saint Lazare or at Clichy.

but not of execution. as alone equal to the magnitude of the danger. too courageous to fear death. drawn away by tile torrent of his own enthusiasm. was strongly urged by all to take the supreme direction of this struggle.] THE GIRONDISTS. equally ready to conquer or die. their speeches. to crush conspiracy by law. Vergniaud listened unresolved to the demands of his friends. provided that such a result occurred in a fit of enthusiasm in the tribune. Guadet. and too well versed in history. were retained to their They were still more reparty by hatred to Robespierre. not desire solely to take upon himself. believing in its power upon the Convention. eloquence. tained by those bonds of friendship which are stronger than the bonds of opinion amongst men of heart who have sworn Ducos and Fonfrède inclined to disfidelity to each other. and intrepidity. and Ducos. their sentiments. Too clear-sighted to dissemble to himself the extremity of the danger. and the last popular stay of his party. and to restore that courage to good citizens which his silence had gradually extinguished in every heart. Fonfrède rather than abandon his ideas but with his blood. to allow his indignant spirit to blaze forth before his country . which appeared to him already con- summated. 9 counselled vigorous acts. burning with ardour. Condorcet was indignant at the abor- A tion of his ideal theories. whose imprudent provocations they blamed.B. to mount the tribune. more reflective and better exercised in the means of government. 7. XLI. Vergniaud. which he no longer found in the oscillations of a wavering majority. Gensonné. still preserved that stoical calmness which surpasses both. claim the Commission of Twelve. the glory. no longer impelled by illusion or ardour. to prepare their thoughts. the strength. the responsibility of which he did man of energy. which . desired no other plan than that conceived at the moment. Vergniaud felt a repugnance to assume the responsibility of the defeat and ruin of his party. he was also too politic. and no other arms than his eloquence . and devoted himself to death. no other tactics than improvisation. Montagnards in thought. to delude himself with the different plans they proposed to him. Vergniaud. wished for protection and triumph from the bayonets of the sections.

In Vergniaud's soul patriotism entirely stifled party spirit. by yielding the government to La Montagne. and prevent the rupture between Paris and the departments. and his own proscription and death. He had sacrificed to time in accepting the republic on the day following the 10th of August. Vergniaud. the great orator felt. The wanderings aside. without even vanity for his name. calculated to make anarchy itself tremble. from the struggle in which he was engaged with the Commune. who had the same views. He felt that the most implacable enemies of France could not accomplish any step against her more fatal than that of the voluntary dismemberment. Louvet. was not so much the proscription and death of his friends. xli. 8. the necessity of fortifying the unity of the republic. with all the indifférence and heroism of free will. lie had never adopted federalism in his speeches but as a desperate argument. The desperate federalism of Barbaroux. Danton. when he still believed. of his party had seldom drawn "With his eyes fixed upon Europe. asked nothing from destiny. In this perplexity of mind. entertained in VIII. and which. struggling without hope. or his enemies. in order to resist the dismemberment of the country. to oppose the anarchy of the people. as profoundly as Danton. [b. These two concessions had adjourned the danger. dreamed of by some madmen. He had sacrificed to time when he had. Vergniaud inclined then to measures of accommodation. against his conscience. and Madame Roland excited his pity.10 vergniaud's views. as the insurrection and dislocation of the departments which must ensue from this destruction of the representation. it cost him nothing to cede power to his rivals. but for the fire of this patriotism. sees the critical moment approach without blenching. Vergniaud . but time. in the transitory necessity of a constitutional monarchy. voted the death of Louis XVI. accepts defeat as men accept martyrdom. Vergniaud desired still to adjourn. by accumulating and aggrandising their weight. but as the dyke repels the waves. on the evening before. like all men placed in the face of impossibility. and. from his friends. What he dreaded for his country. His speeches would not have been so ardent. Without ambition for himself.

X. 11 good faith these conciliatory dispositions of Vergniaud. not to break it. certain henceforth to conquer. to establish a legal terror under the name of an intimidated and subjected national representation. so to discipline the insurrection. but which the least concession on their part would appease as in former days. and Marat himself. Robespierre and Pache. to give the majority to La Montagne. and sustained. according to the quarters and the clubs whence the information was conveyed. and that the troops directed on the Tuileries should not know whether they went to deliver or constrain the representation. to deliver the revolutionary government to the Commune of Paris. To suppress the Commission of Twelve. The meeting of the 30th. Danton. He inspired the Commune with his policy. . and to blend in its proceedings the orders of the Convention and those of the Commune in such manner that the revolt should possess the character of legality. for some days beforehand. and without discussion. known to the Girondists. the double part of provoker and moderator of the movement. better than Pétion had done on the 10th of August. short. to reduce the insurrection to the character of an irresistible demonstration of the will of the people. such was the new word of command which Pache and his accomplices circulated. applied themselves. no victims . IX. Robespierre. The reports which were made to them were various. conveyed through mutual friends. agreed at — Henriot received an injunction length in this prudent idea.] Robespierre's policy. They desired to weigh upon the Convention. These an*angements. demanding the abrogation of the Commission of . to these were confined the results of the day as prepared by the conspirators. Pache. xli. This hypocritical and equivocal character of the days of the 31st of May and the 2nd of June was entirely due to the astute genius of Pache. to expel twentytwo members from the Convention. No blood. 10. was only marked by a deputation of twenty-seven sections of Paris.b. left them to believe that the sitting of the 31st would limit itself to a violent struggle for the majority a struggle in which the people would take no further part than by their curiosity and shouts in favour of La Montagne.

in order to save themselves. The tocsin from the 14th of July had been the pas de charge of the great seditions of the people. entered the council-hall of the Commune. Those dismal sounds. that the people. injured in their rights. Dobsent declared. XLI. few in number the benches in the centre being empty voted that this petition be printed. Antoine. Hébert. and devoted to the Jacobins. Pache. In the evening the general council of the Commune assembled. came to take extreme measures. an orator of the committee of the Archbishopric. a young man named Dobsent. resigned their mandate. and the arrest of its members. [b. This resignation accustomed the Commune hourly to greater audacity and the — — national representation to further patience. Sergent. and became the active focus of insurrection. friends to order. St. the other extending from the Hotel-de-Ville to the extremity of the two large faubourgs. It was three o'clock in the morning. Paris was from that moment divided into two camps the one which embraced in its bosom the Tuileries. and Panis affected to preserve during this night. : XI. soon spreading from belfry to belfry. still held for the Girondists . In the midst of the tumult which this noise excited at the Hôtel-de-Ville and on the Place de Grève. terror in the minds of others. in the name of the sovereign people represented by the sections. The Convention. Hardly had Pache finished speaking. the Carrousel. and swore not to separate themselves from the nation. Marceau and St. and all the opulent or commercialists of the city. at the head of a deputation of a majority of the sections. Twelve. . They retired amidst cries of "Vive la republique!" citizens of Paris. in their speeches and their acts in the council of the Commune. whose battalions were composed of citizens. the appearance of legality.12 STATE OF PARIS. Chaumette. awoke in surprise the and producing excitement in the souls of some. the Palais Royal. All the members of the council arose. At these words Chaumette summoned his colleagues in the Commune to abdicate their power into the hands of the people. when the sound of the tocsin was heard in the towers of the cathedral. and that the municipality and all the authorities of the departments were dissolved. 11.

on horseback. to prevent the escape or the mastheir functions in the in the mean sacre of the captives. Henriot associated. a 13 Dobsent created. the public force to the insurrection which they seemed destined at once to aggrandise and to restrain. and on the Carrousel. which the countenances of the crowd contract. made the battalions march. Vergniaud alone had obstinately refused to take any measure of safety. the whole city was on foot . on the new council. power. It ordered Henriot to have the alarm gun fired. and mustered the troops round the Tuileries. XLL 14. on leaving to the insurrectional — — . had not slept in their dwellings. upon the Pont Neuf. instant. the impatience of the event.B. dreading the results of this night. and predisposed them to anger. and declared itself the revolutionary council-general of the Commune of Paris. The want of sleep. changed its title for one more significant. Henriot. The menaced deputies. while. the dictator of a night.Ville. Day appeared . Members of the council accompanied him to place themselves. and those reinstated in rity consisting of the ancient name of the insurrection. Every quarter of an hour new deputations and battalions from the sections came to adhere to the motion. This council included Pache. to sound the tocsin at the Hôtel-de. The sky was overcast. Hébert. An immense column of people followed Pache to the Carrousel. the mayor Pache. the sound of the tocsin. if there were need. arrived at the Convention. between the poignard and the mayor. the freezing wind irritated the fibres of the men. ran through the sections. the majo- members. " What signifies my life to me ?" he had replied. ment. Chaumette. The national guards shivered under their arms. to send reinforcements to the posts of the prisons. XIII.] rROGRESS OP THE INSURRECTION. and fraternise with the insurrection. The council. on the eve or the morrow of great attempts. XII. Such was the aspect of Paris at day-break on the 31st of May. to render to it an account of the situation of Paris. The gens d'armes and and took their oath the national guards again defiled. as Pache. the cold. like to that of a criminal. and formed a popular guard for him. the roaring of the doubt. and uncertainty gave to the physiognomy of the people and the soldiers a dull and sinister expression. astonishalarm gun.

alone. tried to force the gates of that garden. and levelled their cannon. without having been . with pistols and daggers concealed under their clothes. Louvet thought he perceived a smile of joy. and upon himself. Danton. recognised." said he to Guadet. The forty thousand federalists. Let them shed it. walked about with visible anxiety. While bourg St. had profoundly affected their hearts. whom he looked upon with regret as victims. and strongly imbues them with the sense of their own feebleness but it never weakens them. if it must fall again upon them !" At three in the morning the alarm gun and the sound of the " Ilia suprema dies " cried Rabaut St. At the sight of the Girondists. The hall was. and presented a last point of defence to the modérés of the Convention against the oppression of the Commune. upon his country. Rabaut arose tranquil and fortified. learning that the fauties XIV. " it is to-day that Clodius exiles Cicero. and impatient of those of the day. intrenched themselves in the garden of the Palais Royal. xli. A The sceptical Louvet a»d young Barbaroux related afterwards that this prayer of Rabaut. They reached." the hall was filling. He talked with two members of La Montagne. and the groups of depuinquired of each other the events of the night. ! pious man. 14 Valazé's the evening before " my blood will be perhaps more eloquent than my words in awakening and saving my country. The sections of the centre . tocsin awoke them. on hearing these noises. and a convulsive motion of pity contracted his mouth. ments when the thought of God forces itself into men's souls. the armed section of La Butte des Moulins. their posts in the Convention. charged them with grape. Rabaut Etienne. arrived at the gratings of the Palais Royal. . supported by five surrounding sections from the centre of Paris. [b. and invoked aloud the Divine mercy upon his companions. loud enough to be heard by Danton. empty. Danton made a gesture of sorrow. His friends and himself descended at six o'clock into the street. Antoine was marching to disarm it. as yet. agitated by the events of the night.14 i> Anton's anxiety. formerly a minister of the There are moGospel. " Do you see. "what horrible hope shines upon that hideous face?" " Doubtless. knelt down at the foot of the bed on which he had just slept free for the last time." said Guadet.

Garat. I demand that the Commission of Twelve. in the tribune. and the federalists contented themselves with demanding an entrance into the garden for the deputations of their battalions." Thuriot succeeded to Valazé. The minister of the interior. in order to assure themselves if it were true that the sectionaries of the Palais Royal had set up the white cockade. of the meeting of yesterday. and at last interrupted by the sound of the tocsin. by order of whom ? Dare you look Henriot. rendered an account of the agitation of Paris. the générale has beaten. and the examination of their acts deferred to the Committee of Public Safety." resumed Valazé. ascended one of the first Vergniaud. It is a manifest prevarication punishable by the pain of death. made a sign of displeasure. Pache. XLI. that seals should be placed upon their papers. 15 disposed themselves to defend them. with intrepidity. . Vergniaud. He demanded that the Commission should be again immediately dissolved. " I declare that I will make my character respected. 14. after him. " Since the breaking up friends. Blood was about to They came to a parley. recognised the absurdity of this calumny. Valazé. These words of Thuriot were broken off. The alarm gun drowned all. " I am so persuaded of the truths you have been told regarding the fatal consequences of the combat which apflow. so much calumniated." said Valazé. I demand that Henriot be called to the bar. and shook hands with their brethren in arms. others for that of Thuriot. some for the motion of Valazé. and put under arrest. provisional commandant. The deputations being introduced. The sitting of the Convention opened at six o'clock. I am here the representative of twenty-five millions of men. and restrained the battalions of the two parties. has sent at the guilty ? to the post of the Pont Neuf the order to fire the alarm gun. and. who dreaded the temerity of his to the tribune.B. impatient to decide the day. made a gesture of pacification. be called upon to communicate the reports which they have received.) " If the tumult continues. Confused cries arose." (The tribunes rose at these words. which they attributed to the restoration of the Commission of Twelve. " the tocsin sounds.] PROCEEDINGS IN TIIE CONVENTION. This episode appeased the anger of the people. and at length obtained silence.

If it is guilty. You created this commission. But it must be heard. an adjournment until to-morrow. Examine its acts. and let us order the commandantgeneral to appear at the bar. cries . Danton desired to wrest for the Assembly a victory " Justice before all the already half ceded by Vergniaud. even in A — . the Convention should prove to France that she is free. it is not necessary to dissolve the commission to-day. if it has done this. " It has merited popular indignation remember my discourse to you man whom nature has created with a benign against it. He satisfied La Montagne in taking from them the odium of violence. let us know who has ordered the alarm gun to be fired. he who desires to see himself en- gaged in it is an accomplice of our exterior enemies. then. and. am so convinced that this combat will eminently compromise liberty and the republic — my consideration. which will terrify all those who do not respect the people. then. above all. of applause arose to sanction this adHe neither saved liberty nor He honour. Without doubt. The Girondists felt themselves at once lost and saved Those who thought of in the concession of their orator. has himself engaged to release his victims to you. it ought to be dissolved. in his most powerful voice. He preserved the heads of the Girondists by promising their abdication. make a terrible example of it. those who thought of their their own lives applauded him honour remained in mute consternation. that avoided in the day of agitation. 15. disposition. I demand. And the commission is pointed out to you as the scourge of France at the moment even They demand that it when you hear the cannon of alarm should be dissolved if it has committed any arbitrary acts. this is not the moment. appeased the people by promising them the victory. to the pect to the law. the minister of the interior. be preparing inJParis — I 16 pears to that. ! Well. w^eak. to prove so. XV. However. It was a vain protestation of resIt belonged to all. whatever be the success of it. XLI." journment of Vergniaud. This report will necessarily clash against the passions. without passions. in my opinion. Unanimous Commission.— DANTON OPPOSES VERGNIAUD. In the mean time. to hear its report. . not for itself but for yourself. which should be What is requisite is. but he saved the attitude of the Convention." said he. in [lï.

led away himself far from the moderation which he meditated in commencing his speech. rendered useless when you vol. m. has only wished to warn all the citizens to come and demand justice of you. " This people is the advanced guard of the republic. glance of disdain upon La Plaine.] danton's excitement.B. The cannon have thun- only desired to give a grand signal which are laid to you. Danton." The bravos of the tribunes did not allow him to finish this justification of Henriot. and that he irritated the rage he desired to allay.< What people ? " cried out La Plaine to him. by dissolving your commission. from the aristocrats. The commission has been sufficiently devoid of sense to issue rash arrests and notify them to the mayor of Paris. and Louvet. This chaos must be reduced to order. others applauded. would wish to prolong a movement. and the cannon of alarm. If He resumed thus some men. conveyed this insolent " I say to the apostrophe to Guadet." He showed with his hand the innumerable heads which leaned from the height of the public tribunes. : . from their own anger. making a sign his feet. — ! ' . Paris has still merited well of the country! Far from blaming this explosion. " consider the grandeur of your aim it is to save the people from their enemies. " of whatever party they may be." Danton threw a Some murmured. " This people is immense. you say ? For myself. and not to those absurd persons who know not how to speak. I believe that they have only listened to their own resentments. first. 15. All avow this grand movement which shall exterminate tyranny. Buzot. if But Paris lias to excite the representations — — . which was in agitation at " I only address myself. xli. All the departments execrate tyranny. if Paris. I will be the first to render ample justice to those courageous men who have caused the air to resound with the tocsin. 17 their revolutionary exaggeration. by a too solemn convocation. I demand the judgment of its members. but by their passions. and the glance of his eye." The motion of his head." said he. turn it to the profit of the public weal. justice must be done to the people " . felt that he was intoxicating himself with the delirium of his auditory. You believe them irreproachable. some political talent." continued Danton." said he. c dered. and of the revolutionary committee of the Commune. " I only address myself to those who have to Vergniaud.

apostrophised by the tribunes. they are a few villains. seemed ready " Let this Dumouriez speak. arise again to arrest the liberty" Denounce destroying plots of the contra-revolutionists !" these plots. " that the laws belong to the sections of Paris or to the entire republic ? To establish an authority above the laws is to violate the republic. A . that is. And are not those above the law who cause the tocsin to sound. you calumniate it." said he. " The petitioners. and as that class could not exist without labour. The president threatened to make the tribunes " evacuate the hall. to Bourdon de l'Oise. have had justice. to communicate the measures they had taken. Paris herself will annihilate them!" concluded by demanding that the Assembly should be consulted upon the suppression of the Commission of Twelve." His voice again expired in the tumult. that in lieu of saying they have discovered them. 16.18 shall TUMULT IN THE CONVENTION. the General Council. They hardly heard his proposition to annul all the measures taken by the municipality. demanded that " You accuse us. He would have continued." said the orator. Bourdon de l'Oise. the gates of the city to be shut. rival authority raises itself by your side." cried Rabaud they should be evacuated. [b. " Do you think. XLI. He ! " The people who rose a first time. they only deceive themselves in one word." said to rush upon Guadet." resumed Guadet." cried out La Montagne to him." replied the orator. " I am the friend of Paris the enemy of Paris is yourself. in the name of toire was admitted. " because you know that we ought to accuse you " The deputation of the Section of l'ObservaThey desired." cried the Girondists to him." The tribunes. they ought to say they have executed them. they said. irritated by so much audacity. and the alarm gun to thunder ? They are not the sections " You desire to destroy of Paris . They had placed property under the care of the sans culottes. XVI. at these words. and to charge the Commission of Twelve to discover and to punish those who had caused the . " to hurl the tyrant from his throne." Paris . Guadet. " speak of great conspiracies . they had allotted them a sum of forty sous per diem. Vergniaud." pursued Guadet. rushed to the tribune. but shouts and invectives cut short his speech. " if you permit this revolutionary committee to subsist.

XLI. 19 and the cannon Vergniaud succeeded Guadet. who supplied the " Give. whom such an assimilation reminded of the 10th of August. and feeling that some sacrifice was required by circumstances to disarm the people. excited the groans of the tribunes. we caused Hébert to be arrested. .' has caused a commission to be created. it ran the risk of an appeal to armed force. appeared to rejoice in the bad feeling he had excited. " Are the Girondists alone permitted to speak?" cried out Legendre to him. he ascended " And I also. — c 2 . to kindle civil wax." Afterwards resuming his sang froid. 16. which." said he. " The Commune has caused the tocsin to sound. that the court. It is this taction which desires. between the acts of the two tyrannies. It is a criminal faction." said Coubarriers to be shut. to cover a great conspiracy. "I demand that you . the tocsin to be sounded.the Commission of Twelve the commission of the court issued a arrested him also mandate of arrest against three deputies . Recall to yourselves. If there has been commotion. and there proclaiming a tyrant. " "Where is the insurrection ? It is an insult to the people of Paris to say there is an insurrection." said he. The commission of the court thon. citizens. The orator." Robespierre spoke in a low tone to his confidant. the tribune. desires a great disturbance. by spreading its calumny. Is this not precisely what the Commission of Twelve has done ? " This cunning parallel of Couthon's. Vergniaud felt the blow his heart denied utterance. " a glass of orators with a glass of water blood to Couthon he is thirsting for it. " Let Couthon speak. fired. . seeking always new means of suppressing liberty. it is your commission which has caused it. contrived to establish a central committee. " Without doubt there is a movement in Paris. but are in a moment of crisis now.] FCRY OP ITS ORATORS. seeking to allay the irritation produced by the speech of his friend. when it can take under its responsibility those measures rendered necessary by circumstances. and followed him with his eye to the tribune.B. and was only prevented from resuming his discourse by his breath literally failing him." Guadet accused him of having prepared the insurrection. when it saw that opinion abandoned it. and to afford our enemies the means of entering France. Thus the faction of the ' Hommes d'Etat. : . He turned towards the usher. interrupted by the clapping of hands.

the administration of Paris came to read a denunciatory " They have desired the address against the Girondists. en masse. Vergniaud and Doulcet exclaimed against a confusion which stopped all discussion. tlie sections of Paris have deserved well of the country in maintaining tranquillity on this critical day. " our places will be well kept by the petitioners " La Montagne obeyed. Roland. and precipitated themselves to the side of the Girondist?. who demanded traitors to the country more imperiously that the deputies should be delivered up to the blade of justice they demanded a revolutionary army of Paris." said Lhuillier. then. Lebrun. and Clavière. Their maof so much apathy. ! . Isnard has excited civil war and the annihilation of the capital demand from you the decree of accusation against him and his accomplices. the members composing culottes. . [B. Paris should disappear from the face of the globe." said Levasseur de la Sarthe. each of the two thinking it voted against the other. Gensonné. the deputies of La Montagne pass. and make a great ex! ! ! ! ! We ample " ! this address heard. But fresh petitioners came unexpectedly. Vergniaud. was decreed through weariness by the two parties. admitting two senses. on this side. and annulled XVII. legislators. Brissot. " let the law. Hardly was " Well. (pointing to the empty benches on the right). Let their enemies tremble The jestic anger is ready to break out. " If destruction of Paris. Avenge yourselves on Isnard and Roland. their president." sition. 17. levied and paid at the rate of forty sous per diem the arrest of twenty-two Girondists the price of bread fixed at three sous per pound at the expense of the republic and the general armament of the sans After these petitioners. Guadet. when the crowd which followed the deputation seated themselves upon the benches of La Montagne. Buzot. and that you should invite them to continue the same surThis propoveillance until every conspiracy is developed. XLI. : . in Vergniaud demanded that the the right division of the hall. Let them tremble universe will quake from their vengeance. it will be from having defended the unity of the republic against It is time. — — . Barbaroux.20 decree that FRESH SACRIFICES DEMANDED. to them Posterity will avenge us The reason of the people is weary terminate this combat.

the orator. ! ! ! Robespierre regarded his apostrophe. an armed force in the hands of those who desire to direct it against the people " Here Robespierre appeared to desire to oppose. the different measures proposed under the circumstances. " cannot deliberate in its present state let us go and join the armed force. " I will not occupy the Assembly with the flight and return of those who have deserted their posts. I am about to interrupter with a disdainful smile. in the receive the orders of the president. " The National Convention. regarding Vergniaud from the height of the tribune with disdain. against any deliberation adopted under the dictation of insurrection. the organ of Barrère." Vergniaud. " Conclude. weary of awaiting the blow which Robespierre thus balanced over his head. then " Violent murmurs broke out against against its Take members petitioners have just indicated to you. It is not by insignificant measures that one can save the country. — those vigorous measures which the There are men here who would desire to punish this insurrection as a crime You would place. who heard these last words of .B.] ROBESPIERRE ATTACKS THE GIRONDISTS. said. But do you believe that is sufficient to satisfy our disquieted friends of the safety of the country? No! Already has this commission been suppressed. and place ourselves under the protection of the people. either repulsed by the multitude. Vergniaud arose. Vergniaud." said he. without explaining himself clearly. or having regretted leaving the tribune to his enemies. at these words. Vergniaud. conclude. then. went out with some friends. Robespierre. 17. in a tone of impatience. has made you many propositions. Robespierre desired to speak. Your Committee of Public Safety. cried out. " Yes. XLI. and the course of treason has not been interrupted. There is one which I adopt it is that of the suppression of the Commission of Twelve. and reproached the Assembly with the hesitation of its attitude. name of four hundred thousand souls whom he represented. 21 commandant of the armed force should he summoned to Valazé protested. demanded leave to speak. Robespierre already occupied it. at this ! Vergniaud c 3 . who. but returned soon afterwards." said he. " and against you against you. and the insignificance of its resolutions.

" Which : . The Convention proceeded. trembling to signalise themselves by their absence. traversed." Each of the conclusions of Robespierre. [_B. alleviations. deprived Vergniand of every idea of replying. during the night. the petitioners. some measures of hypocritical independence. This humiliating triumph.22 ASCENDENCY OF LA MONTAGNE. feigned joy on one side. who have persecuted with bitterness those same patriots. with the suppression of to the vote. The decree proposed by Barrère was put This decree contained. at the triumph over themselves. and communicated itself from the tribunes to the exterior of the assemblage. which filled the hall. whose criminal vengeance has provoked this insurrection. Bazire proposed to the Convention to go and fraternise with the people. The Commune instantly caused Paris to be illuminated. was Vergniaud. They were silent. which you desire now to make the My conclusion is the decree of accucrime of your victims sation against the accomplices of Dumouriez. This Fear has also its proposition was adopted with enthusiasm. cruel on the other. It was voted without debate by La Plaine. who conspired with Dumouriez against you. 17. and to mingle in the concord of all the citizens. with signs of forced joy. after the revolution of the 10th of August. and were present. followed the cortege. whose heads Dumouriez demanded against you. broke out in the Assembly. Gensonné. surrounded by torch-bearers. the twelve. followed by the sectionaries. All the weight of the Convention and of the people seemed to crush the Girondists. XLI. applauded by La Montagne. and the tribunes. to which the people drew them already in chains. and Fonfrède were there. avenged the conspirators of the 10th of August had their 20th of June. who have incessantly provoked the destruction of Paris against you. which might save appearances in the eyes of the departments. A Louis XVI. the principal quarters of the capital. and against all those who have been designated 'by the petitioners. Condorcet. Pétion. and answering by their shouts to cries of "Vive la Republique! " The Girondists. as well as by La ! ! ! ! ! ! Montagne. desired to conduct those to the scaffold who caused it against you. and. and the first derision cast on their long punishment. was the presage of their approaching fall. who desired to save the tyrant against you.

XLII. it conducts us — to it. the insinuations of Robespierre. requesting c 4 — . 23 this ovation." returned Roland. and ordered him to follow them. " I shall refer to the council of the Commune. to Vergniaud. and the danger to which her husband was exposed. the sectionaries presented themselves at Ins abode. Madame Roland. who walked with downcast brow by his side. exhibiting at the same time a " I do not recognise the authority of this written order. — thus confounding the pretended crimes of Roland with those attributed to his friends. with stoical indifference . If you employ violence. " there is no choice between this walk and the scaffold . " It is all the same to me." replied Vergniaud. pardon him. " and I will not voluntarily obey orders emanating from an illegal authority.B. the invectives of Marat. I can only oppose the resistance of a man of my age . whilst his friends were yet struggling in the Convention. the perpetual alludefeat. all prevented the people from forThey feared him too much to getting the fallen minister. sent a note to the president." " I have no orders to employ violence. and the name of Rolandists given to the Girondists. the revolutionary sions of the Jacobite journals to the occult influence of this family. warrant.] ARREST OF ROLAND. but I will protest against it with my last breath. loudly enough to be heard. "Whilst the Girondists thus followed the cortege of their committee sent armed agents to The genius and beauty of his arrest Roland at his house. At six in the evening." replied the bearer of the warrant. She. and believed that they arrested in his person a whole conspiracy against the republic. do you prefer. in the name of the revolutionary committee. hastily wrote a letter to the Convention to demand redress. and leave my men here to assure themselves of your person. wife. 1. moreover. popular report. which converted his abode into the focus of conspiracy against the Montagne." BOOK I." II. XLII. or the scaffold ?" said Fonfrède. equally indignant at this violation of the law.

and on Robespierre. . She had long steeled her heart against persecution. courage may shame the nation. patriotism. and the only abode open to her would have given rise to calumnies which she dreaded more than death. and Madame Roland traversed the brilliantly lighted streets. " Obtain entrance for me. On her arrival at the Carrousel. and that the victorious municipality would soon order the arrest of the twenty-two. and returned. and a hearing. stunned by this intelligence. She returned home. the concierge informed her that her husband." said this courageous woman. her return home. admittance to the bar of the house. deputy of La Plaine named to the Tuileries.24 and drove madame roland's heroism. remained to guard the doors of the national palace. It had been dark for the last two hours. and despairing double passion. III. an example of and arouse the Convention from its stupor. touched and invigorated. and she resolved to await her doom at her own hearth. where forty thousand men had so lately thronged. Rozé. quitted him to endeavour to obtain admittance to the Con: — vention. found that he had already quitted this asylum she followed him. informed him of what she and again had already attempted. xlii. who watched by a piece of cannon. " I will declare truths which will be useful to the republic." Vergniaud persuaded her to relinquish her design. embraced her sleeping daughter. freed from the surveillance of the sectionaries. rejoiced at his safety. she found it silent and The sitting was ended. and even assassination and. pressed her hand as if for a last farewell. full of a love devoid of weakness. She questioned a group of sans culottes. . They informed her that the Committee of Twelve was overthrown that this sacrifice had reconciled the pathe reign of the Paris had saved the republic triots traitors was at an end. The place where her husband had taken refuge could not conceal them both. and a few sentinels only deserted. 3. . got into a hackney coach. and deliberated whether she should save herself from arrest by flight. in death oidy a refuge for her virtue. but refuge in an adjoining house. procured her an interview with Vergniaud. had taken She hastened thither. — she beheld — . [b. . threw herself into his arms. without knowing of which party these illuminations celebrated the triumph. to reply to A — Madame Roland quitted the Tuileries .

At daybreak she was torn from her weeping daughter and servants. when the sectionaries broke into her house. proudly.] HER IMPRISONMENT. surrounded by gens cV armes . 4. She wrote an account of the events of the day to Roland. She had trusty friends to whom she could bequeath and.B. relieved of this anxiety. repentance. She was placed in a carriage. I shall go to the scaffold as fearlessly as I go to prison. preferring to depart without bidding farewell to her friend. She requested permission to write to but as the chief agent insisted a friend. ." "Justice!" replied Madame Roland . and. not assume the attitude of crime and shame. than denounce a friendship which would be perverted into a crime. 25 and a brilliant immortality for her name. IV. A . niated party. who had naver seen in this beautiful and accomplished woman aught but the leader of an odious and calum" Because I love. the faults. as though quitting her house for ever." returned she . and. XLH. " How much you are beloved. which was granted on being made acquainted with the contents and address of the letter. the hopes. and caused her to be awakened by her femme de chambre. had just fallen asleep. in whom she beheld the germ of her own talents. and presented to her the order of the Commune for her arrest." returned Madame Roland. she was ready this treasure for the worst." returned the commissary. " if there were justice. The sitting of the entirely occupied Convention of the 1st of June was by the reading of the proclamation of the . with more mental control to direct them. and heroism of her party seemed to enter the dungeon with . She arose. overwhelmed by sorrow and fatigue. she indignantly destroyed it. "you calmly await justice. The sectionai'ies awaited her in the salon." said the chief of the sectionaries. and I brave those of my enemies. the populace crowded round. her. instantly divining their errand. I despise life. She regretted nothing in life save her daughter. ." The doors of a prison closed on her and all the virtues. " oppressed innocence should closed. dressed herself and made a packet of her garments. I should not be here." " You have much more resolution than many men. I do not fear the looks of honest men. shouting "A la guillotine!" commissary of the Commune asked Madame Roland if she wished to have the windows of the carriage " No.

at the same time covering them with its inviolability. The opinions were divided. act in a manner befitting your rights and interests. Guyton de Morveau. Committee of Public Safety to the French people. — . passed the night and a part of the next day in deliberation. Pache. Lacroix d'Eure The committee. also deliberated. assumed a more imperious tone. On the other hand. must see. xlii. the tocsin. Treilhard. six from its own body." said he . whose errors the Convention had repaired . V." La. " who represents the nation the National Convention or the Commune of Paris. the alarm gun were voted." said he to Pache. " you Lave no resource but in your own energy. were summoned before them. The measures of the rising of the Parisians en masse. and the intended arrest of the twenty-two. seemed repugnant even to Barrère. [b. intoxicated with its victory. the Commune nominated twelve commissaries. and Danton. and Bouchotte. sovereign people.26 mauat's speech. and was composed of only nine members Barrère. Delmas. minister of war. minister of the interior. It was then principally composed of deputies of La Montagne. 5. Bouchotte. Robert Lindet. Garat. the Committee of Public Safety. Pache. and six from the insurrectional committee. drawn up and read by Barrère. the rappel. in whom the decree of the Convention had vested the powers they had torn from the Commission of Twelve. and a few neutralists of La Plaine. and met to complete their victory. and tool of Pache's. Your mandatories betray you. informed by its et Loire. This proclamation excused the insurrection as a fortunate illegality on the part of the people of Paris. The Commune. The Committee of Public Safety sat in secret. Bréard. and do not depart After which you will until you have obtained an answer. This cruel necessity of immolating their colleagues at the ostracism of " "We the multitude." At the voice of Marat. Marat presented himself at the tribune. read your address. agents of the resolutions of the Commune. and exhibited the Girondists as representatives of a too rigid virtue. to bear the address to the Convention. and Garat did not conceal from the committee that the arrest of the twenty-two was the only measure which could calm the excitement of Paris. Present yourselves at the Convention. " Rise. the pay of the sa?is culottes. Cambon.

adopted this plan which." returned Garat. "I " but it see but one means of saving them. He caused Robespierre to be sounded but the lattex*. We and our enemies must exile ourselves in an equal number from the Convention. " not his power. Athenians. and the fatal consequences of such a sacrifice made to the brutal force of the mob. if necessary. 27 member of the Cordeliers' club." cried Danton. 5." he said.] COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY. more politic and less generous. a fanatical . without knowing whether he will find crime or virtue. Garat lamented the imminence of the peril. in order to restore to it strength and peace. the victory to patriotism only. for he had none. which had as. as the genius of the republic. by dividing it into two factions Aristides saved his country by his greatness of soul. I will hasten to propose this to our heroic friends of the Montagne.B." " Well." The whole committee. saved the Girondists. triumph over our corpses. as if suddenly illuminated by one of those bright flashes which dispels darkness and difficulty. did not venture to give an opinion before his master had spoken and even Danton seemed for the first time undecided. which threatened the destruction of their country." " Speak. carried away by the generosity of Danton. then. XLII. whilst it left the honour of the sacrifice to the Montagne. dissipated the illu" His logic did sions of Danton in the eyes of his friends. who wavered between himself and his rival. seizing the allusion before Garat had applied it to the present circumstances. and I will offer to go as a hostage to Bordeaux. not permit him to abdicate. Then.'" You are right. .* the unity of the republic must." exclaimed he demands a degree of heroism for which I dare not hope in " our souls these corrupt times. and gave . but the mandate of the people. . you will never be happy and tranquil until you have cast Themistocles and myself into the gulf into which you cast your criminals. . . Danton carried away a few of his friends by his example the rest demanded time for reflection. . are right . ' ' '.' said he to the people. " You croix. — . "remember the quarrels of Themistocles and Aristides. But enthusiasm soon grows cold." replied Danton are worthy those of antiquity the Revolution has not degraded human nature. with the hesitation of a man who sounds the abysses of the heart of another. devoted to Danton.

VII. met for the last time. Lacroix. Barrère. was intrepid when he faced death . amidst the tolling of bells. XL1I. Dobsent. and blockade it. Hassenfratz. all adherents of Marat." VI. and the drums beat to arms flexibility of Robespierre. or even of those sallies of wit with which these intrepid men fortify themselves against their death. Marat inspired them with the idea of ordering the volunteer battalions. Barbaroux. and was composed of Varlet. — in all the quarters of Paris.Ville. but to prepare and — isolated They supped in an mansion in the Rue de Clichy. the sound of the drums. paralysed by the inwere compelled to abandon this project. Dufourny. The heroism of Danton was but the pity of a weak heart. Pétion. cheered their last interview. and the rattling of the guns and tumbrils. but to bequeath a better example to the republic. the alarm bells rang. These sounds did not deprive them of their calmness of mind. surround the Convention. 6. and there invoke the vengeance of the departments. Whilst the emissaries of insurrection were sent to fetch these battalions. ]_B. The Girondists. now marching to La Vendée. Gensonné. until the twenty-two and the Committee of Twelve were surrendered. They accepted their destiny. accustomed to the sight of war Buzot. whose heart beat with the heroic impressions of his unfortunate friend. The executive committee now sat permanently at the Hôtel-de. with the ardour of the south. at the sound of the tocsin and the drums. Madame Roland. and Gusman. showed the arms he carried concealed beneath his — . and surrenders the Revolution to a few tears. wished to await their death in their places in the Convention. not for their own safety. Garat. in a room adjoining the Council of the Commune. All could have escaped. to retrograde on the capital. and saw no chance of safety for the Convention save in the prompt and voluntary abdication of the twenty-two . and only discussed at the conclusion of their repast the manner in which they should undergo it. none would fly. Danton. so feeble in the face of popularity. not to deliberate. Henriot advanced to the Convention. and they strove to convince these deputies of the necessity of sacrificing themselves to the unity of the republic. signed to him the post where he wished to die. — .28 THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. which bends before its duty.

Marat's plan had been followed Henriot had all night surrounded the Convention with the battalions of volunteers. placed less Carrousel. that he was indifThe force proceeding from despair ferent which he chose. circulated by the Montagne. who sat opposite to him " this night conceals in its shades the one or the other let Were this wine us not think of ourselves. Vergniaud relied on chance and his genius. but our country. Their seats were long vacant at the sitting in the evening. others went. recalled from the environs to the city. citizens. the most genei'ous and the most imprudent went to the Convention to die at their posts. he was not a combatant. The unhappy Girondists were obliged clothes. and the tramp of the armed sectionnaires hastening to their posts. "Let us drink to life or death. I would quaff it to the safety jof the Republic. his courage or his weakness .B." Stifled cries of "Vive la Republique!" answered the sublime words of Vergniaud. only produces resignation. 29 and conjured his friends to follow his example. which began Already reports of their treason and flight were at ten. whom they were about to die. Each took counsel from his illusions or his despair. and rouse the departments. and would determine on nothing in his eyes every road of the Revolution seemed to lead so surely to death. announced to them that they had no time for deliberation. and it was evident from the appearance of these . some escaped through the barriers. VIII. . : to lower their voices whilst addressing their last adieus to their country." said he to Pétion. and revenge themselves by destroying the most dangerous of the assassins. my blood. the alarm guns fired on the Pont Neuf. to await the result of the sitting. and those battalions in whom the Commune dependence. formed a second line round the A profound silence reigned in this army of which was no longer a meeting of seditious men. — . Vergniaud was the most eloquent of citizens. and they separated without resolving on any definite plan. but a camp. XLII.] ALARM OF THE GIRONDISTS. the roll of the drums. 8. The sound of the tocsin. and entreated his friends to fly. when the appearance of the most courageous of the twenty-two gave them the lie. lest they should be overheard by the people. at the houses of friends not suspected of federalism . Louvet blamed this useless heroism. hundred and for : A sixty guns.

[b. did not move Lanjuinais. "deliberates. and drove back the officers and guards of the Convention. Billaud-Varennes. for the last three speak the truth." returned Lanjuinais. even at the the sitting was opened. acts. to tear Lanjuinais from thence. you have deliberated beneath the knife . XLII. they were resolved to obtain what they denational representation. bas Lanjuinais !" cried the trimounted the tribune: " " So long " He wishes to re-kindle civil war. filth of Paris!" At these words La Montagne and the tribunes seemed to overwhelm SITTING OF TIIE CONVENTION. Mallarmé was again Séchelles. and even now surrounds you. tli. boldly " nothing for the dignity : . " if such disorders continue. these arms which rattled at a few paces from him.30 troops. At daybreak More moderate than Hérault de Lanjuinais proscription in all the dignity of the law. manded from the bayonet's point. by your eternal calumnies. days. this petition was brought this list of your proscribed colleagues. Yesterday. and Julien. when this rival and usurping authority surrounded you with arms and cannon. found in the to you. whose very life for the last two days has been threat" Scoundrel. ! which the law punishes with death have been committed. without their cannon. he knew how to give violence the appearance of legality. These cries. " you have sworn ened. rushed towards the tribunes." exclaimed Thuriot. Drouet. S. nothing for the inviolability of its members." Geoffroy." bunes as it is permitted me to make my voice heard. and this revolted Commune yet exists. and an usurpatory authority has fired the alarm gun. "I will not suifer the character of a representI will ative of the nation to be humbled in my person. It is but too true that." " An usurping assembly exists. and the Montagne intrusted to him the care of enveloping this president. directing committee proclaims civil war. The president covered his head " Liberty is at an end. a rival power Within domineers over you. Legendre." " What have you said he." of the Convention . conspires." continued the unmoved speaker. Crimes are their paid assassins A ." done?" replied Lanjuinais. The crowd that filled the corridors of the Convention uttered cries of death. who concluded by demanding to destroy the republic A — .

" cried a deputy of the right. that were they innocent. under deputation of the revolutionary authorities succeeded " Delegates of the people." said he. if they have merited it." At this hesitation of the Convention." cried Legendre. but the frank and loyal foe. the friend of Danton. " The order of the day. " Save the people from themselves. should be discussed at this sitting." Billaud. The counLet them tremble the ter-revolutionists raise their heads. A Varennes demanded that this petition." said they." "No. The Plaine demanded the order of the day. mounted the tribune . Commune. "no weakness . Representatives. and legally tried by the Convention. and mounted the tribune — ! : ! . which seemed a concerted signal between the Montagne and the people. the crimes of the factious members of the Convention are known to us. 8. and I will prove it. we will all share the fate of our colleagues " Levasseur. " to protect them from the fury of the people. he wished to purge the Convention without shedding the blood " The provisional arrest of these twentyof his colleagues. 1 maintain that they should be definitively arrested. They have merited it. they were at least suspected and that therefore they should be arrested. Barrère at length arrived from the Committee of Public Safety. no !" returned the generous Lareveillière-Lépeaux. the enemy. Save us. Levasseur continued to enumerate in a long speech the crimes ascribed to the Girondists.B. is demanded. named Richon " Save the lives of your colleagues by ordering their provisional arrest. the spectators and women raised the cry " To arms " The pressure of the crowd burst open the doors. The silence that followed Levasseur's speech attested the mental struggle of the Assembly. at these words of Legendre. . . and the Convention believed its precincts forced by the populace. instantly referred to the Committee of Public Safety. of the Gironde. .] levasseur's speech. " during four him. 31 the knives of its the repression of the emissaries. and will soon crush them. XLII. thunder rolls. The torch of liberty grows dim the columns of equality are shaken. or we will save ourselves." At these words loud applause told the Girondists they were lost. days Paris has not laid down her arms during four days her demands have heen laughed at. two. "is to save the country. and maintained.

" said he. The silence of the Montagne and the murmurs of the tribunes showed the Girondists that this measure but half appeased their enemies. I would lay my head on the scaffold. mounts stantly adopted. to read the report of this committee. and. they did not insult them. " has not. the only measure which can avert the calamities with which we are threatened. the tribunes. " I always I declare that if my blood were lean towards the country." the people who thronged the hall." said he. country are put in the same balance. Some of them hastened to seize it as a means of safety which would escape them unless inIsnard. and desire no other safeguard than that of the people. " dragged the victims to the altar. contracted when he looked towards the Plaine. briefly. LANJUINAIS. with my own hands. and restore peace. and the armed force of Paris. " The committee." said he. whose invectives drowned his voice. XLH. I suspend myself. The committee has taken measures to place these members under the protection of the people." said he. Lanjuinais glanced disdainfully at this multitude. when he looked towards can end the dissensions which harass the republic." IX. "I "I bebelieve. lately the most impetuous. as if to expiate " When a man and the his blasphemies against Paris. replied by imprecations and threats of death. foretold the resolutions of which he was the organ and inspirer. ISNARD.32 BAIÎRÈRE. and the felicitations of others X. decreed the arrest of the twenty-two. " When the ancient priests." At this majestic image. in a voice firm as his conscience lieve that up to this moment I have displayed sufficient energy for you not to expect from me suspension or resignaAt this declaration the Montagne. [b. but deems it better to address itself to their generosity and patriotism." Isnard descended amidst the cries of some. Cowards they covered them with flowers and garlands. the only measure which. and tion. and demand from them the voluntary suspension of their power. necessary to the safety of my country. loosen the steel that Our suspension is demanded as should deprive me of life. out of respect for the moral and political situation of the Convention. with slow steps and dejected air. heightened by the sinister analogy — ! . 9. smiling the Montagne. His features. Lanjuinais mounted the tribune for the last time. the tribune.

. " The Convention is menaced with grape shot. all debate." continued Lanjuinais. XL . X) . we must know how to die. . the priest with the people. Barrère exclaimed that the humbled Convention could not make laws that new tyrants watched over it that this tyranny was in the revolutionary committee of the Commune that that council enclosed wretches in its bosom (meaning the Spaniard Gusman. like Marat. XLII. We cannot quit this place. I should say deprive me of it posterity shall be my judge. precipitated himself into the interior. and suspended for a moment Lacroix. and demanded that the Committee of Public Safety should be charged to avenge the oppressed representaVOL. cannon are pointed against us no legal wish can be uttered in this place. the weakness of Barrère's conclusions when a new tumult broke out at the gates of the Assembly." Billaud-Varennes combated. succeeded Lanjui" If my blood were necessary to the consolidation of nais." said he. They attested that many of themselves had been repulsed in the hall. and had undergone outrage.B. and under the eyes of the Convention. less eloquent. . " If the sacrifice of my honour were necessary. like a man who implored an asylum and vengeance against assassins. Expect no resignation from me. 33 of the speaker with the victim. the tumult ceased. Danton supported Barrère. . aud the people in their turn hung down " All is over. with outstretched arms. " Arms have been directed against my breast. to die freely!" La Gironde and La Plaine confirmed the words of Lacroix. I would shed it. and the gestures of fear. I have sworn to die at my post. the voice. the friend and confidant of Danton. If the Convention deems the suspension of my functions necessary. We sworn to live free or to die . . or even open the windows to demand justice from the nation . well then. have ." Barbaroux. the friend and agent of Marat) that at that moment. I will obey its decree but I will never myself lay down the authority with which I have been invested by the people. and I will keep my oath. liberty. secretly thrust by him into this crisis." said he. I am dumb. insurrectionary pay was distributed to the troops which surrounded it. . III. He assumed the attitude. " their heads. Danton showed himself equally indignant. but equally inflexible. IL] FRESH OUTBREAK.

11. appeased the people by his promises. "Do not stir!" cried the Jacobins to them from the tribunes. had uttered at this crisis one of his magnificent harangues. XLII. They advanced towards the Carrousel. with gestures of appeal. unmoved by these shouts. [e." said he. this centre?" replied. the deputies of La Plaine. the president of parade in days of weakness It may be that. which will doubtless protect them. They decided at last upon descending from their benches and joining the cortege. whilst making them believe that there are two Conventions. if Vergniaud. and silenced La Montagne." At these words Hérault de Séchelles descended from the chair. St. this endeavour of Lacroix and Danton to save the twenty-two heads would not have been fruitless. another without. had all the absent Girondists been present. " What you will abandon your colwill be murdered " ! ! ! ! ! A decree leagues. let us know if we are free I demand that the Convention should go and debate in the midst of the armed force. The Girondists and La Plaine hastened after them. Just. The sentinels presented arms. and a group of Jacobins. La Montagne. The crowd gave free passage to the representatives. remained immovable. The Convention. The multitude which were Cries of " Vive la Conon this space saluted the deputies. enfeebled in voice. marched in procession towards ! ! . Deliver up the twenty -two Down with the vention Girondists!" mingled sedition with respect. and placed himself at the head of a column of deputies disposed to follow him. But all Barrère a the orators of La Gironde were away or dumb. whose moderation had captivated La Plaine. ordered the armed force to withdraw from Mallarmé. " It is a snare You into which the traitors wish to conduct the patriots.34 tion. " I repeat to you. second time aroused the Assembly " Citizens. yielded the presithe centre. and deliver them thus up to certain death. Robespierre deliberated a moment with Couthon. indecisive. and caused the Coivention to blush at the sight of its oppression. who are going to cast themselves into the midst of the people. TR0CESS10N OF THE CONVENTION. Danton threw himself generously into the midst of them. one within. The gates were opened at the sight of the president wearing the tricoloured scarf. dency to Hérault de Séchelles.

" You will not leave this spot. hesitated and halted. "I require no bayonets to defend the liberty of my thoughts. but posts. and then said in an imperative tone to the Convention. 35 the cannon. passage before attaining the Pont Tournant. but unanimous. the list of the proscribed Fonfrède. captives. in Hérault de the midst of his staff seemed to await them.B. Couthon. Hérault de Séchelles directed his steps troop of the insurgent section's barred his towards them. The Convention. repeated by the officers along the whole line. Hérault de Séchelles passed with the deputies by the archway of the palace into the garden. caused his horse to prance. " Gunners. whilst receding some paces. grouped around their pi'esident. who had abandoned their The Convention. escorted by a column of young Cordeliers. not even the respect due to its situation. issuing then from a cross-walk. to the soldiers. There the faithful troops. and some others. pointing with his finger to Henriot. Saint Martin. called to the members of the Assembly with shouts. At pieces these words. who felt in himself the omnipotence of armed insurrection. re-entered the hall." answered D 2 . XII. Petitioners offered themselves as hostages to the depart- ments whose deputies were to be imprisoned. feigned. Marat. 12. to your Soldiers. who cried out " Vive l'ami du peuple. The soldiers ! remained immovable. however. Couthon added derision within to the violence they had experienced without. and Marat uttered. Henriot. swearing to protect them with bayonets. The Convention retrograded. Legendre. the commandant-general. to return to them. affecting to be somewhat satisfied with the step they were permitted to take. a motion of concentration around the guns took place. and to grant a free passage to the national representation. by which Henriot. posted at the end of the great walk upon the Place of the Revolution. They effaced from. exclamations of pity in favour of those their A A members of the Commission of Twelve who had protested against the arrest of Hébert and Varlet. Séchelles ordered Henriot to withdraw this formidable array." summoned the deputies.] THE CONVENTION A NULLITY. to arms !" cried Henriot to the troops. XLir. applause attested that nothing now remained to the Convention. until you have delivered up " Seize this rebel!" said Hérault de Séthe twenty-two !" chelles.

to watch over them in their dwellings. It from sedition legalised by victory. — was honoured for their intentions." " And "I demand hostages. and the loyalty of the people of Paris." Not one insulting murmur responded to these last words of the twenty-two. vainly expecting the armed men who were to secure their persons. XLIL 13. which they had founded.36 Barbaroux : FALL OF THE GIRONDISTS. which lasted during three days. but to prevent civil war from breaking out. There are two requisites for statesmen in order to direct the great movements in which they participate perfect intelligence of those movements. whom they had overthrown. had been entertained rather as a fatal necessity than embraced as a system by the others. The died as it was born day of the 2d of June is still called the 31st of May. XIII. Gens d'armes were sent by the revolutionary committee. [b. are the purity of my conscience. opened the lengthened vista to the scaffold. " I have no need of hostages to protect my life. was to La Gironde the 10th of August. in whose hands I place myself. Such was the political catastrophe of this party. they retired to their own homes. and Gardien. as did the king. In the Legislative Assembly they had long covenanted with the monarchy. they had : . they had dreaded the fruit of their labour. The Girondists had not thoroughly one or the other. deplored for their misfortunes. The republic. This party fell from weakness and indecision. and because their chiefs.Mollevault." saidLanjuinais. remained on their benches. as a mother who had been delivered of a monster. and to maintain the unity of the re- My hostages — public. and had not comprehended that a nation can scarcely ever be transformed and regenerated under the hand and under the name of the power from which it has just escaped. not for myself. From the morrow of its proclamation. crushed them after This group of republicans only eight months' existence. because the struggle. who I. The republic. Barbaroux. Instead of endeavouring to strengthen the rising republic. admired for their talents. and regretted on account of their successors. but not seeing them arrive. have long since made my life a sacrifice. and the feeling of which these impulses are the expression in a people. timidly planned by some amongst them.Vergniaud. Lanjuinais. by their fall. badly received by them.

but ridiculing their acts. and left them only their lives. under another form. and resisted defeat. they had been unfortunate without. had defied conThe 10th of August had cession. With some more months of such a government. and devoured by anarchy. and cast upon them. The popular cause felt itself from the first suppressed thereby. rich in orators. The constitution which they proposed to it. They contested with it. XIV. torn to pieces by her own hands. or to languish. The fortified towns of the north were given up. even in the decree wherein Vergniaud Danton had proclaimed the dethronement of the king. Aristocracy revealed itself. without discipline. The people in their turn defied the arm. their warrior. They defied the people. 37 been solicitous of weakening it. or protected only by their walls. The head dreaded . snatched from them the proscriptions of September. half conquered by the foreigner. XLII. federalism dislocated the south. The Convention. Society was compelled to be in tumult. and the Commune now wrung from them their abdication. Their armies without chiefs. 14. in all their civic institutions. fell from defeat to defeat. wrested from them the throne. reconquered by the counter-revolution. Royalism conquered the west. bore the semblance of regret. the suspicion of their participation. and without recruits. or to punish by protecting the victims of their own body. after their accession. Lastly. and factions tyrannised over the capital. would have ceased to exist. Robespierre had exacted from them the head of Louis XVI. The Girondists. each organ of its life and strength. Feeble within. wavered in their hands. the preservation of which they still dreamt of. All must have perished in the hands of these declaimers.. The Jacobins had deprived them of the ministry in the person of Roland.B. one bv one. the arm feared the head. them.] RESULTS. Pache. had betrayed the republic. Marat had wrested from them his impunity and triumph after his accusation on the 10th of March. which they had not known how to prevent by a display of force. Hébert. also. but without political leaders. admiring their discourses. Chaumette. by his treason. Dumouriez. France. rather than that of hope. cowardly surrendered in exchange for their own. anarchy paralysed the centre. either as a republic or a nation.

The capital of a nation exercises over its members an initiative power. ments do. without consulting or awaiting her. these theories unfortunately yield to fact under exceptional circumstances and that fact — . for cities it is justified by its necessity. of which the head is the seat. and the republic. Without doubt those are which are the ment : . the right of existence. could have reached Paris. seeing clearly that they were about to perish. on that dictatorship which no one as )'et had dared to assume in the Convention. Strict polemics may with reason contest this right scats of . the Revolution. when Paris had acquired for her. in a nation as well as in an indiï'idual. was necessary either for resignation to perish with them. for the 1 1 tli of July. its cradle. or even for the 10th of August. Avhatever may be the theories of abstract equality amongst the towns of an empire. seditiously seized the helm with their own hands. at the distance they were situated from passing events ? Before they could have been consulted. In extreme danger. [B. A . public danger. that of leading and resolving. before they could have answered. and wrested it from those who shrank from it. first to provide against it. France did not reproach her either before and after 1789. It seized. or armed bodies. and of having substituted the What could the departwill of Paris for the will of France. Besides. was presented to the eyes of the patriots as the insurrection of public safety. The people considered they exercised in this their supreme right. the reach of the arm is the measure of power. governbut members of the national body but this member is the head. 14. the Tennis Court. although fomented and directed by evil passion. proximity constitutes a right. the coalesced forces would have been at its gates the the republic smothered in Vendeans at the gates of Orleans. possesses its own right. town then exercises the dictature of its position. They were accused of having arrogated to themselves the initiative over the departments. The people. Force acquired the upper hand. connected with t he most energetic feelings. relying upon Paris had exercised it several times ratification afterwards.38 It REMARKS. said the patriots of the 3 1st of May. it belongs to that party of the people most approximated to In such a case. as it had done on the 10th of August. XXII. before their weight of opinion. or to strengthen the government. The insurrection of the Commune.

M The 10th of August. The law existed no longer. not by right. or in Bordeaux. XLIII. when their power than to display provided they thought it free. however. a government is everywhere equally proportioned. for his personal ambition. led astray by their patriotism. "alone saved liberty. and the plots of traitors. XLIII. either in La Montagne." : ! history cannot deny A . it was the law. In the hour of extremity. the people made no other use of and to exercise the pressure of Paris over the representation. in this reciprocal and continued usurpation. it. They considered they had delivered the Convention from That the yoke of the ambitious. the law was the instinct of preservation in a great people. everywhere. That man was Marat. D 4 . One man only wished. Law there was not. for this violence appeared to them the only measure which could save the country and the Revolution. the title of the Girondists. in speaking of it. in Paris. to render the motion abortive. It was disorder but in their eyes. where it is in possession. He was hafïïed. and was obliged to exonerate himself to the Jacobins from the accusation of aspiring to the dictatorship. They were ready to obey the Convention. they separated without committing any excess. All had violated it. but by fact. The 31st of May was illegal who justified it ? But was the 10th of August legal? It was. 39 In times of no excitement. in La Gironde. thought to promulgate it in the midst of the tumult and sedition of these three days. "What party could then legitimately invoke the law ? None. BOOK I. The law was the Revolution itself people. Afteu this day. the government is. or rather." said they. the 31st of May saved the nation. in the Commune. No endeavour to urge them further could have led them to establish a tyranny. 1. sufficed them.B. however.] 3IAEAT.

" added he. accused upon accused. and sent immediately to the different committees for execution. "When the people shall have found another Danton they may be ungrateful with impunity. But I do not fear. by displaying before the people the revolutionary titles of the man of the 10th of August and the 2d of September. Danton already tottered. Varlet thought that the moment to break this gigantic popularity and to found his own upon its wreck. 3. with the exception of that of public safety. They stripped the executive power of the little independence and responsibility it heretofore retained. Danton was in and conduct towards the Girondists. The same Varlet who had proposed the most atrocious steps towards the Girondists in the committee of the Archbishopric dared to attack Danton in the tribune of the Cordeliers. They decreed a forced loan of a million upon the rich. They threw into the majority their most decided members. annulled the project of the constitution proposed by the Girondists . and sacrifice me to their caprice. said Danton. Revolution. They pressed forward the recruiting and armament of the revolutionary army that levy of patriotism en masse. IL Marat reprimanded for his ambition. The impulse of the evening impressed them with the strength of the multitude. They deposed those ministers suspected of attachment to the conquered sent commissioners into the doubtful departments . XLIII. but cursory motions. entirely democratical. had arrived. one to incite the his turn reproached for his supineness. The credit of Danton issued still unsullied from this Camille Desmoulins having come in the evening struggle. — . striking his forehead with the palm of his hand " here are two heads. They sent one after the other. " I thank you. . and in the very focus of his power. Their sittings were no longer deliberations.40 LA MONTAGNE. to the revolutionary tribunal. La Montagne caused the committees to be reinstated on the morrow. in the midst of his friends. " for having avenged me of this reptile. another to guide it." to relate to him this insolence of Varlet. and charged the committee of safety to draw up in eight days a project for the constitution. In tact. decreed on the instant by acclamation. Camille Desmoulins defended his patron against Varlet's insinuations." III. [b. Continually called into .

V. Rabaut Saint Etienne to Nismes. and rejoiced to see the republic. Biroteau and Chasset had arrived at Lyons. The armed sections of this town were agitated with contrary. sent by Vergniaud. seemed to shut their eyes to these evasions. Grangeneuve. Toulouse followed the same impulse of resistance to Paris. ministers became no more than the passive executors of the measures they decreed. Lesage.B. Salles. and hurried to protest against the mutilation of the country. in the Rue St. Brissot fled to Moulins. and after having traversed it. inciting all the departments between Paris and the Ocean. Danton and Robespierre. The Assemblies became almost mute. Danton. The departments of the west were on fire. exiled them from their seats as legislators. warned of their danger by this first blow of ostracism. the members of the Commission of Twelve. Guadet. The others escaped one by one.] FLIGHT OF THE GIRONDISTS. offer them the : A . The victims of the 31st of May had not been cast into the dungeons after The Commune contented itself with having the first day. Bergoing. Louvet. In the meanwhile the twenty-two Girondists. and promulgate their orders. Kervélégan. threw themselves into Normandy . Cressy. fled into their departments. Honoré. discussion was at an end action was all. 41 the bosom of their committees. with the exception of those few days when the great party chiefs. the Committee of Public Safety. Robespierre. established at Caen the focus and centre of insurrection against the tyranny of Paris. Eloquence was proscribed with Vergniaud. and Ducos. 5. Fonfrède. to Bordeaux. had already taken this step. not to refute opinion. as if desirous to be rid of victims whom it would pain them to strike. The greater number of those who had awaited the issue of the insurrection of the 2d of June at the house of Meilhan. raised troops ready to march upon the capital. spoke. Barbaroux. and already bloody commotion. torn into contending factions. IV. but to intimate their will. They gave themselves the name of the Central Assembly of Resistance to Oppression. and a certain number of their friends. dead silence reigned henceforth in the Convention. and even the people themselves. From this day. Pétion. also. and Lanjuinais. The disappearance of the Girondists deprived the Revolution of its voice. Buzot. XLIII.

This general. The emigrants. saw General Dampierre expire in endeavouring to defend it. Le Lot. They imprisoned the commissioners of the Convention. concentrated their first two The mountainous forces at Evreux. Royalty. and Austrians entered upon the departments of the north. centre of France. and where the distance of the frontiers rendered exterior dangers less alarming. Lyons and Bordeaux likewise imprisoned the envoys of the Convention as Maratists. Brittany and Normandy uniting. 6. ready to reascend the Rhone. Marseilles enrolled ten thousand men at the voice of Rebecqui and the young friends of Barbaroux. L'Ain. Le Puy de Dôme. in despair at the involuntary blows which he directed at the republic. insensibly transformed this movement of patriotism into a monarchical insurrection. Rebecqui. parties for the restoration of royalty. L'Isère. where the Parisian yoke was less accepted. and the Prussians. the Austrians. abandoned with a garrison of twenty thousand perilous. in all sixty-two departments. Le Jura. bombarded by thi'ee hundred pieces of ordnance. declared themselves at variance with the Convention. These departments charged their constituted authorities to take every measure to avenge the national representation. and at seeing loyalty avail itself of the rising of the south. and form a junction with the insurgents of Nismes and of Lyons. L'Hérault. blockaded. Mayence. Six thousand Marseillais were already at Avignon. VI. Dutch. entrenched in the lines of Wissembourg. [b. The first columns of the combined army of the departments began to move in all directions. Le Tarn. They reciprocally sent deputations to combine their revolt. Roux and Antiboul. was but a mass of cinders protected by impenetrable ramparts. L'Aveyron. — — . Condé. Custine and our garrisons on the Rhine scarcely kept them in check. the situation of the Convention was no less England blockaded all our ports. thought of seeking refuge in Strasburg. throwing himself into the sea. had passed the Rhine. An army of a hundred thousand men English. was agitated. escaped remorse by suicide. Valenciennes. and threatened the departments of Alsace with an invasion of more than a hundred thousand fighting men.42 aid of one of the PERILS OF THE NATION. XLIII. Without. always brooding in the south. Le Cantal.

who commanded the army of Italy. our war with Spain. was confined to the passes. the . at the head of seventy thousand men. The Convention possessed that faith. maintained its energy to the level of its danger. in the face of Custine. It had but the choice of deaths it chose : a glorious one. 43 chosen soldiers. and Lyons. thus paralysed for active warfare. The king of Prussia. Not to despair of the struggle which the concentrated republic had to sustain in Paris. effeminate and inglorious on both sides. and devoted itself. the Commune of Paris.Comté. This was its glory. menaced Toulon.] PERILS OF THE NATION. it was necessary to have in the soul the entire faith of the nation in liberty. leaving our provinces of Roussillon under the shock of an always delayed but always imminent invasion. on the heights of the Comté of Nice and at the confluence of the high passes of the Alps of Savoy. XLIII. To show that it did not despair of the future. Twenty thousand young volunteers of Franche. and rendered the approach of Haut Jura practicable to the intrigues and arms of the emigrants. VIII. The disasters of the revolutionary army in La Vendée completed this tableau of the calamity of the republic and the extremity of the Convention. In the Pyrenees. Danton and Robespierre. awaited only the news of the surrender of Mayence to strike the last blow.E. which they impressed upon it. From Strasburg to the Alps the Girondist insurrection arouswl Franche-Comté. were ready to descend upon Lyons and Mâcon. Grenoble. VII. in the midst of another armed force. They placed it between the counter-revolution and the scaffold. its excuse. and devoted France. defended itself heroically against the attacks of General Kalkreutz. either to death or to this grand work. some thousands of discouraged and undisciplined troops to cover at once Provence and the frontier. sometimes by the enthusiasm. and the Jacobins. to swell the army of the south marching against Eighty thousand Savoyards and Piedmontese. had but republic. 8. urged to royalism by their indignation against the Montagnards and Marat. The only alliance amongst factions is a common enemy. sometimes by the terror. and resolved to combat against all hope. These foreign trooj)3 offered the royalists of the interior their armed succour against the tyrants of the Biron. posted Paris. Power existed no longer but in the heart. and its safety.

Convention voted. and shielded by the iEgis of Robespierre. . Beware of the fresh mask with which the aristocrats are about to cover themselves. such as Roux and Chabot. wrote to the Convention. in consideration of the ardour of his youth. 9. who are linked with the Austrians. and pardoned Varlet. XLHI. after some days' debate. Valazé. to be presented to the acceptation of the French people. chased from their society. " Mistrust. In effect such was the advice of Danton useless severity oppressed him and the remembrance of September made him shrink from murder. as disturbers and anarchists. the new constituwhich it had charged the committee of public safety Hérault de Séchelles read the report. They sent a deputation. was of that race of men who only put down a tyranny by tyranny still greater." said he. only regarded the people for their power . As regarded Danton. who affeci. Robespierre. Report then spread that the Convention.ed always to preserve the advantage of moderation over the Cordeliers. he thought little he of liberty. The constitution. to supplicate the Cordeliers to silence the detractors of the constitution. The Cordeliers. whose principles had prevailed in this conception. and to rally every heart to a work which time would render yet more popular. of DANTON 'S TYRANNY. neither daring to senproposed to make a sacrifice to peace. tence nor acquit them. IX. convoked in primary assemblies. was sent to all the municipalities of the republic. and a reconciliation with the departments. and who owed to this reflecting and politic character of their acts a part of their power. [b. by granting an amnesty to the twenty-two. to present a scheme. and disquieted himself less about the future. " these ci-devant priests. indignant at the outrage concealed under such a pardon. that he could not believe — — — : . defended it in the Jacobins against the attacks of aggravated demagogues.44 tion. applauded Robespierre's speech. thus sanctioned by the two sovereign societies of opinion in Paris. he threw this constitution at the He people as a toy which he considered already broken. influenced by the Jacobins." The Jacobins. Roux and Leclerc des Vosges. of which Collot d'Herbois was the orator. embarrassed with the Girondist captives in Paris.

to support the reading of these letters and petitions in favour of the pro- — — . wrote a letter in the same sense. Robespierre was astonished that they had dared to call in question what the people had decided. " They are firebrands of civil war that are thrown to you. prior of the Côte-d'or." exclaimed Couthon . above truth : Danton seemed to arouse at these words from his inexpli- . XLIU. and who threw defiance at his conquerors from the depth of his prison. Thuriot. He therein glorified the 31st of May. " hasten to extinguish them. hostages to the alarmed departments. 45 this project of the Committee of Public Safety. in the face of all the cannon of Europe. by passing contemptuously to your debates. Lacroix. that the administrators of the insurgent departments had arrested the commissioners Romme. Barrère read a report of the Committee of Public Safety. were indignant at this weakness. prior of Marne. and Ruhl. scribed. and that he should reject the pardon with disgust.B. Barrère." cried Legendre . " doubtless you have not placed yourselves upon the most elevated point to raise yourselves deign then to hear it. and Legendre. Yergniaud. encouraged by the rising of the departments. I have placed myself voluntarily said he in a state of ai'rest. It was announced at the same moment to the Convention." " If I am guilty." The Convention dismissed these petitions. 10-] ARREST OF COMMISSIONERS. Citizens I appeal to your conscience your justice will in its turn be judged by posterity. demanding severe measures to bring back the Jacobins and the Commune to respect for the supreme power concen" Men of La Montagne. " I demand a trial. and give." The remainder of the Girondist party. I in my turn demand my colleagues that they be sent to the scaffold." said trated in the Convention. whilst awaiting Robejudgment. Do not pronounce your opinion hastily upon the culpability of the colleagues whom you have cast from your bosom. in conclusion." spierre. repaired in a body to the sitting of the Convention. " I know Ruhl. " he will yet be free. and offer my head as expiation for the treasons of which I may be convicted. Some members of the right proposed feeble or perfidious measures of expediency. that liberty was less dear to him than honour. equally intrepid." The prompt punishment of the rebel administrators was demanded by acclamation. If my calumniators — — : do not produce their proof against me.

these events ments will be the glory of this great city I declare it in the face of France. who had remained with Fonfrède upon the deserted benches of the Jacobins. the state of Paris then. but moreover the eulogy of the Commune of the people. the republic ? It is in the moment of a great delivery that political bodies. endeavoured to appease the anger of the conquerors. insurrection in Paris caused the movements in the departI declare in the face of the universe. "We are surrounded by tempests! the thunder growls well. it pended over us appears that danger only affects those who have created La Fayette and his faction were soon unmasked. as physical ones. That Brissot. Couthon converted into a motion the enthusiasm excited by his language. " do they seem to doubt cable lethargy. 10.. and menaced everywhere. and bestowed upon it before France the baptism of patriotism.46 couïhox's motion." said he. favour of his colleagues. that man who boasted of his courage. but for the cannon of the 31st of May. [n. Vergniaud was accused of having desired to corrupt the ! ! — ! ! We ! — — — — — ! ! ! ! ! . liberty This day the new enemies of the people are already in flight that Coryphée of the under false names. Ducos. in arresting him as a conspirator. Recall to yourselves. . the conspiraLet the crime of this insurrection tors would have ruled us " fall back upon us X. Danton associated himself with the victorious insurrection of the 31st of May. impious sect which is about to be scotched. and prided himself on his indigence. during the days of the 31st of May. citizens. and caused not only the amnesty of the bands who besieged the Convention to be voted. what Recall passed at the time of the conspiracy of La Fayette patriots oppressed. " What. This proud defiance to posterity met with an unanimous echo from La Montagne. and even of the Insurrectional Committee of Paris. then it is from the midst of its lightning that the work will issue which will immortalise the French nation.the greatest misfortunes susare to-day in the same situation . and to obtain their indulgence in He was answered by murmurs. appear threatened with immediate destruction. me is in accusing me only a wretch to whom the people of Moulins have done It is said that the justice. proscribed. of being covered with gold. xliii. and 1st and 2d of June.

Let us leave these wretches to the remorse which will follow. The escape of Lanjuinais and Pétion. and Vergniaud of having made his gaolers drunk. the coalition of the tyrants of Europe . who affected fagens d'armes ' naticism for Robespierre . " consists in their flight. embracing in one single document all the calumnies of Camille Desmoulins against the Girondists." he said. At definitive report that party into a vast conspiracy to re-establish abolished . Maure. " I demand that the first rebel the of these insurrectionists (crushing by his gesture the friends of Vergniaud). Just. who were gone to rejoin their colleagues at Caen." contito the Abbey. " Let us cease. " that a parallel dare be drawn between the Convention and certain conspirators ? Is it here that the language of La Vendée is held ? This injurious apostrophe to the right side was received with denials and murmurs. and the holy constitution which has been raised since they have been no more Citizens." said Legendre. the audacity of conspirators. "What is their crime?" ex" Their crime. " to occupy ourselves with individuals.] st. the laws which they have prevented us from making.B. instigated XII. Drouet accused Brissot of seeking flight. La Montagne accepted or rejected these private petitions according to its partiality for or against the parties. " I demand. Robespierre demanded the immediate report upon the detained deputies. This report." replied claimed a voice from La Plaine." first — — — — — ! XL by Robespierre. are the public nued Robespierre. was alluded to." Fonfrède tried to obtain that the decree of imprisonment against his friends should indicate at least some private prison wherein they might be locked up. 12. transformed last St." " their crimes." said Robespierre at last. " What. calamities. just's report. The wives and children of the captives implored permission to partake the lot of their relatives. This discussion was prolonged." They were soon apprised of the flight of Kervélégan and Biroteau. XLIII. let no pusillanimity induce you to tamper with the guilty : the people are your own. who shall interrupt the orator be sent " If you wish to know their crimes. 47 who guarded him. Cold indifference alone awaited him. read the upon the events of the 31st of May. is it here. without confounding them with criminals. citizens.

Louvet. and Pétion. Whilst the Convention was thus rigorous at home. a member of the Commission of Twelve. "Behold!" said Saint Just on concluding. patriots mal- At Nismes a government commission was estaEverywhere blood flowed." This report offered amnesty to the insurgent departments. . and the treated. raised the sections. and to deliver the republic over to foreigners. they Avould murder the son who required his father at their hands. [b. Louvet. on the termination of this report. to the bosom of the Chabot. are a prey to their emissaries. judge the others. STRUGGLES AT HOME AND ABROAD. XLIII. 13. who were detained in Paris. sinated ? They will not perish. as the ebullition of Let metals casts forth from the crucible the impure dross. traitors to their country it placed in accusation Gensonné. who had just courageously defended his friends in an address to the French. Salles. Le Calvados Pétion. Bergoing. Guadet. Federalism was depicted as the constant and systematic aim of that party. You owe them destiny is stronger than your enemies. Tyrants. XIII. Buzot excited L'Eure and assisted him. for that son. Your are shut up with you in Paris. combating in every direction against the Girondist emissaries. marched at their head against the first gathering. more odious than Pisistratus. and Barbarous The popular meetings were closed. It recalled Bertrand. and afterwards forgive.48 royalty. Barbaroux. Bordeaux heard the blished. deConvention. and the mother who wept . and the rights of man. Proscribe those who are You do not there. They treated you as that king of Cyprus who was fettered with chains of gold. ! nothing since they desolate the country. cry of Vive le roi mingled with execration against the Convention. "they wished to enslave you in the name of your safety. Mollevault. and Gardien. them rest alone with their crimes. it carried on a desperate struggle abroad. This decree declared Buzot. Biroteau. It resolved itself into a decree. Its commissaries. Did you hear the cries of those whom they assasThe liberty of the world. Lanjuinais. desire to be implacable. ready to ally themselves to La Vendée. Vergniaud. Gorsas. Marseilles and Lyons. It is the fire of liberty which itself has purged you. rallied the troops. manded and obtained a decree of accusation against Condorcet. and crushed the insurrection in .

Bordeaux remained undecided as to whether she would avenge her deputies or obey La Montagne. and excited the minds of the federalists by the recital of their private VOL. Romme and Prieur. But the focus of the federal insurrection was at Caen. these were Girey-Dupré. which was to remove from time itself all impression and tradition of the past. Meilhan. devoted to their cause and to their fate. " until after having annihilated the proscribers and the factions. Let us cast a glance upon this town and these provinces. indignant at the doctrine of La Montagne. Buzot. Guadet. and Marchenna. Salles. during the early part of June. because this town had not waited for their provocation to pronounce itself against the day of the 31st of May. Lanjuinais (for some days only). These deputies had thrown themselves into Caen. General Carteaux cut oif the road to Lyons from the Marseillais volunteers. It decreed the command of the troops to General Wimpfen. E — We A ." meeting took on itself the government of the insurrection. will not lay down our arms. Valady. to be arrested. It was during this imprisonment that Romme thought of the plan of the republican almanac. of the Montagnard party.B. destined to assure the liberty of the Con" vention. They had been rejoined by three young writers. de Wimpfen was from Bayeux. Louvet. Each of them on his arrival presented himself to the insurrectional committee. 49 the bud. Rioufie. the council of the department of Calvados had voted the formation of a departmental army. The eighteen deputies who had taken refuge in Caen were Barbarous.] ' THE INSURRECTION. III. The fugitive deputies arrived successively at Caen. Lesage d'Eure-et-Loire. a child of ten years old. Remaining faithful to his country. and put them to flight near Avignon. 13. Boutedoux. M." said the address. drawn up in the same assembly. de Cuny. Bergoing. Kervélégan. For some months. in Normandy and Brittany. The insurrectional assembly caused two commissaries from the Convention. Mollevault. Gorsas. had openly broken with the society of the Jacobins of Paris. who was accompanied by his son. and the violation of the national representation. Guadet. an old constitutional deputy. the Jacobins of Caen. he was still a royalist at heart. Larivière. They were confined in the chateau of Caen. and Pétion. en masse. Duchâtel. XIiErt. On the very night of the 31st of May.

xlih. a returned emigrant. The troops of Bretons themselves retraced their route to their departments. 13. de Puisaye. This man was at once an orator. de Puisaye beheld in the insurrection only the overthrow of the republic. They refused. The same indolence which had destroyed them at Paris destroyed them at Caen.50 prosecutions. M. Robert Lindet. which rapidly increased by some regiments in garrison at Caen and in its environs. Once a conqueror. a diplomatist. They trembled lest liberty should succumb in this combat offered in her name. puisaye's defeat. and restore constitutional royalty. commissary of the Convention. — men. for fear of confounding their in England. The deputies now only thought Wimpfen offered to assure them an asylum of their safety. he kindled the lire of revolt against the republic. de Puisaye had already passed a whole year concealed in a cavern in the midst of the forests of Brittany. some discharges of cannon from the troops of the Convention were sufficient This repulse was the signal of the defeat to disperse them. But having imprudently encamped them in the neighbourhood of Brécourt. and personally abandoned them during the night of the 13th of July. Lorient. a character eminently adapted for civil war. He tried in vain to strengthen himself by voluntary enrolments. The advanced guard of these troops. and of Brest. M. by his manœuvres and correspondence. de Puisaye marched his troops. [b. of the mustered forces in every direction. where. which produces more adventurers than heroes. and a soldier. None of them developed those . and by some battalions of volunteers. composed of the chosen youth of Rennes. upon Vernon. he thought he could easily make his troops change colours. dispersed throughout the department. cause with that of the emigrants. The emissaries of La Montagne. He now assumed the tri-coloured banners and the opinions of the Girondists. was posted at Evi'eux. returned to Caen without opposition. devoted to the king. of administration. His soldiers mistrusted him. General Wimpfen remained at Caen with the principal force. ancient hall rather than actors. M. extinguished and discouraged the movement. under the command of M. in the insurrection. to the number of 2000 The town granted them hospitality at the They remained spectators.

He excused himself for his vote of death in " It was not my personal opinion. They excited more curiosity than enthusiasm. XIV. He announced to him the defeat of Vernon. All pi-oved abortive under their hands. "Always an orator." to Caen. Every day the suspicion of federalism sent to the revolutionary committee those whom this name pointed out to the vengeance of the people Marat incessantly stigmatised with this name all those who leaned to the proscribed ! — E 2 . and countenance. They contemplated their fate without endeavouring to help it. Their civil war was but a commotion which did not even approach the ramparts of Paris. His " Behonest countenance belied such atrocious imputations. Louvet and Barbaroux went to Lisieux. speech. The republic which they had created refused them even a field of battle. They displayed at Caen more indifference to their fate.B. said Valady. Pétion justified himself with indignation from the suspicion of having participated in the massacres of September.] THE GIRONDISTS IN CAEN. " behold the man they want to pass off as an assassin." said Barbaroux jestingly of him. hold " said Barbaroux of him. who fled with the troops of that general. " it was the wish of my constituency . found Barbaroux lying on the floor of his chamber in an inn at Lisieux. 51 resources of character and mind which supply the lack of numbers and create the means of action. Barbaroux occupied himself with poetry. with the intention of marching with the advanced guard upon Paris. and reserved them only for the scaffold. 14." Pétion appeared absorbed in the cares he bestowed on his son. said he . " Barbaroux. than character to redeem it. will be a Girey-Dupre* composed insurrectional stanzas great man " to replace those of the Marseillaise in the struggle against ! La Montagne. Barbaroux returned Valady and he never separated. I was bound to express it. XLin." Guadet had a tragical appearance. as if in the leisure of a happy life. in ten years. One of their friends." the process of the king. who. They arrived there at the moment when the disbanded troops of Puisaye were retreating towards Caen. They lost days in dry debate with the members of the insurrectional committee. " is a sublime idler.

tude. names of Robespierre and Danton. he said. he scarcely issued forth from the dark and retired dwelling he inhabited. Marat was in their " must have Marat. of the Cordeliers. and the moderation of the Jacobins at this time elevated Marat to the apogee of his popularity and power. he said. both of them incapable. He thought to sum up in his own person the whole right of the numbers. Pie dared to do all he dreamed of. the slothfulness of vention. to pronounce as a judge upon those whom he considered as personal enemies. Robespierre." After the expulsion of the Girondists. and the blade of the law. he ceased not to publish proscriptions to the people. all is nought. His feverish He imagination no longer placed a limit to his delirium. The Girondists dispersed in the departments. " as long as we have Marat with us. His judgment was insurrection. for beyond the opinion of Marat. and the will of the multiHe adored in himself the divinity of the people. the other in genius. He disdained the judgment of the Convention. and by a hideous leprosy. and no one can supersede him. — XV. said Camille Desmoulins to Danton. he had in- spired the ignorant and turbulent part of the nation with. the one deficient in virtue. he had excepted against himself as deputy. to accomplish a revolution. the visible scum of the ebullition of his blood. Marat had constituted himself. He disdained affected great contempt for the Convention. 10. This worship which he had for himself. either from opinion or from attachment. Thence. He goes in advance of every one. to increase the horror of We . and to promulgate his orders The Convention heard his letters to the Convention itself. unseen and ill. since his triumph. deputies. the people will have confidence in our opinions. His head swam with the height to which his madness had conducted him." eyes the acmé of patriotism. the public accuser of the Commune. and even of the Con- The hesitation of Danton. and particularly the populace of Paris. with real disgust. He shrugged his shoulders at the to assist at the meetings. but with affected deference. XLIII. to excuse himself for his adulation towards this man . and regenerate a people. Devoured by a slow fever.— 52 ASCENDENCY OF MAKAT. not wishing. to point out the suspected. and will not abandon us . the cause. [b. to mark down victims with his finger.

in murder. 55 France against their enemies. notwithstandcountry. In a large and thronged street which traverses the city of Caen. through their mistaken zeal. occupied one angle of the narrow low door. windows. and took pleasure in contrasting the one betwo species of fanaticism in bodily conflict neath the hideous guise of popular vengeance. stained by the weather and dilapidated by time. all the horror. BOOK I. whose fluted lintels courtyard.. By personifying crime in this living and sinister being. an end. and all the anarchy of the moment. the shadow of a grand idea was flitting over the mind of a young girl. XLIV. in the person of Marat .— B. covered with moss. there stood at the bottom of a courtyard an ancient habitation. the capital of Normandy. but by blood II. but the hand. with their small octagon panes of glass held in K 3 " — : — ! A A . uniting in an arch over the top. 2. But whilst Paris. fountain with stone brim. at that time the focus of the Girondist insurrection. they rendered crime itself more terrible and odious. This opprobrious denomination had still further raised Marat in the imagination of the multitude. This building was styled le Grand Manoir. gave thern the name of Maratistes. by throwing the arni and the life of a female athwart It would seem as though the destiny of the Revolution. not by the mind. and thus unfortunately presenting themselves before posterity. with grey walls. which was to disconcert events and men. The departments summed up in this man all the terror. but as a means. ending. Providence deigned to mark out the greatness of the deed by the weakness of the hand. not as not by the aspect. the other under the heavenly charm of love of each. France.] CHARLOTTE CORDAT. exposed the worn steps of Two a winding staircase which led to the upper story. in a Jeanne d'Arc of liberty ing. XLIV. the leaders and the armies of the factions were thus preparing to rend the republic to atoms.

Natural grace and dignity. Women are naturally as enthusiastic as the one. when fastened in a large mass around her head. XLIV. beaming forth. stamps its mark upon the brow. This girl was then in her twenty-fourth year. childless. reading for hours at a time in the courtyard. and as courageous as the other. Here resided. III. yet very beautiful imprint of this dull abode and sequestered existence. which exists between idea and fact. 3. "With her had lived for some years a young female relative. a grand-daughter of the great French tragedy Poets and heroes are of the same writer. in order to comfort her old age and relieve her from utter isolation. displayed itself in her steps and action. The one does what the other conceives . a widow. lead-work. arising from that strength of mind which. and infirm a Madame de Bretteville. This young creature was tall. The inhabitants of the district who saw her walking out with her aged aunt on Sundays in order to go to church. whom she had adopted and brought up. aged. This house belonged to a poor woman. and love inherit the same blood. anticipating the event. like the rhythm of poetry. without exceeding the usual height of the high-statured and well-proportioned women of Normandy. There was in her something not of this earth. relate that their admiration of her was mingled with prestige and respect. or that deep feeling of the soul imprinted on her features. The misty daylight in this antique and obscure abode impressed on it the character of vagueness. seated in the sunshine at the brink of the fountain. and melancholy. intimidates the vulgar eye. Pierre Corneille. at the commencement of 1793.54 CHARLOTTE CORDAT. or that presentiment of a tragic destiny which. It seemed gold — — — — — . or caught a glimpse of her through the doorway. Poetry. which the human fancy likes to see spread as a shroud over the cradle of deep thoughts and the abodes of strongly imaginative minds. mystery. feebly lighted the staircase and the empty chambers. Her serious but fine features seemed to have received the grave. There is between them no other difference than that race. but the thought is wholly the same. heroism. or arranged in clusters on each side of her brows. [lî. The ardour of the south mingled itself in her complexion with the high Her hair seemed black colour of the women of the north.

as of strange and unforgotten music ineffaceably imprinted on the memory. with a hat of grey felt. and her fingers taper. E 4 . This young girl was named Charlotte Corday d'Armont — . Long eye-lashes. Her chest. offered a bust of sculpture scarcely undulated by the characteristic contour of her sex. was simplicity itself. cut like a riding habit. blacker than her hair. wide and somewhat thin. equally formed to breathe love or patriotism. and disdained every artifice or whim of fashion in her dress. Her skin had the wholesome and marbled whiteness of perfect healthiness. gave the appearance of great depth to her glance.B. — — . Her Grecian mouth displayed the well cut lips. Those who saw her in her youth describe her as always attired in a gown of dark cloth. and that her voice formed a portion of her beauty. like the ear of corn. Her attire. whose expression. impossible to depict. There were in this scale of the soul notes so sonorous and deep. Her arms were full of muscle her hands long. round and like those worn by women of rank at that period. XLIV. almost black when called into animated play. were of a colour variable like the wave of ocean. conformable to the humbleness of her fortune and the retirement in which she dwelt. She blushed or turned pale very suddenly. divided by a deep dimple. Her nose.] CHARLOTTE CORD AY. gave to the lower part of her face a character of masculine resolution which contrasted with the perfectly feminine contour of her lovely face. large and expanding almost to her temples. turned up at the sides with black riband. ten years after they had heard it. that they said to hear was even more than to see her. which borrows its tint from the shadow or the day beam blue when she reflected. fluctuated between tenderness and severity. 3. deeper and more lustrous than the wheat-stalk in the sunlight. Her eyes. The tone of her voice that living echo which bespeaks the whole soul in a vibration of the air left a deep and tender impression in the ear of those whom she addressed and they spoke still of that tone. which united with her brow by an almost imperceptible curve was slightly expanded near the middle. Her cheeks had the freshness of youth and the firm oval of health. The projecting chin. She relied on nature. 55 coloured at the points of the tresses.

which she was destined IV. like the young girls of Normandy. which prevented him alike from lowering himself by his manner. still young.— 56 CHARLOTTE CORDA Y. [b. pined in the obscurity of his petty fief of Ligneries. 4. but really bequeathing to her orphans that domestic tradition and daily inspiration which death carries off from children when it bereaves them of their mother. bike them. His wife. and sad pressure of want. she was born in a cottage called le Ronceray. M. inaction and poverty. He was wretched in his his soul for a coming revolution. almost running wild. The land which such rural nobility cultivated in its small and inalienable domains Nobinourished. he could not father. Pier to quit by the scaffold. not far from d'Argentan. and a vague hope of a return to fortune. in the bosom of his yearly increasing family. or of raising himself by his labour. Although of noble blood. died. lity and the soil seemed to be wedded in France. without humiliating it by its indigence. François . and literary tastes. or the malevolence of fortune. working make his He — . leaving her husband to her daughters. and. which restrain the highest talents in oblivion. the ardour of the newly springing philosophy. then very common in this cultivated He longed with all portion of the nobles of the population. in the village of Ligneries. Charlotte and her sisters lived on after this for some years at Ligneries. This nobility preserved nothing of its ancient elevation but a certain respect for the family name. and his productions were full of the feeling which was speedily to burst forth. de Corday dArmont. de Corday united to this agricultural occupation a restlessness in politics. two sons and three daughters. of whom Charlotte was the made him feel daily with more acuteness the stern second. was one of those country gentlemen whose poverty made him almost on a level with the peasant. and the conviction of the necessity of a revolution but either from lack of genius» restlessness of temperament. XLIV. He had written some casual pamphlets against despotism and the law of primogeniture. clothed in coarse cloth. Misfortune had ushered her into life. Five children. as aristocracy and the sea are wedded in Venice. He had a horror of superstition. way through events. Jacqueline-CharlotteMarie-de-Gonthier-des-Autiers.

friendship. wife of William the Conqueror. yielded more this heavenly fire. At length necessitycompelled M. These were deeply studied in the seclusion of the cloister and in opposition to monastic pettinesses. she found repose. She neither forsook God nor virtue. V. with the books then in vogue. and of burying herself in this living tomb. the two earliest difpassions of her soul. But the stronger were her feelings. rapidly did she penetrate and reach the extremity of her thoughts she rapidly plumbed the depths of her childish faith. Charlotte was then thirteen years of age. and contemplated beyond her domestic ideas others. after having been deserted. easily. through the gratings of nunneries. making bay. For some years she was a model of piety. male and female. was then magnificently restored and at this day forms one of the finest hospitals in the kingdom. XLIV. and happiness. for some time captivated the young girl. .— B. gleaning. degraded. of which Madame Belzunce was abbess. philosophy formed its most ardent adepts. more tender. — The iron disposition of Madame Roland would have warmed and softened in presence of Charlotte. who lived apart from the world. but she gave them other names ferent shapes. in the universal tional exercises. by Matilda. and gathering 57 the ap- in the garden. and forgotten in its ruins. She dreamed of ending her life as yet hardly opened at its first page. still hearing all its reports and sharing in all its movements. These convents were then really Christian abodes for women. where. The monastic life. de Corday to separate from his daughters. by favour of their nobility and their indigence. the more. which was then irradiating France with its lights. herself — : — — . replete with pleasant employments and close friendships. fresh luminous sublime. The youth there. instead of death. a state which the careful watchfulness of a superior and the power of imitation so easily change in infancy into faith and devo. ples on the small estate of their father. until 1730. and one of the most splendid public buildings in the city of Caen. who. gained admittance. Her ardent soul and impassioned fancy threw her into that state of dreamy contemplation in which enthusiasts fancy they behold God. entered a monastery at Caen. whose vast cloisters and chapel of Roman architecture were built in 1066.J CHARLOTTE CORDAY. This abbey. O. Philosophy.

she was poor. The abbess. 6. and the assistant. the old aunt. The penury of her father's home had increased with time. Her two brothers in the king's service had emigrated one of her sisters was dead. : . Charlotte passed her days in the courtyard and garden. like her family. had distinguished Charlotte. inclining them all for the new ideas which had sprung up. Madame Doulcet de Pontécoulant. opinions. At the period when monasteries were suppressed. but of forMesdemoiselles de Faudoas and tunes humble as her own de Forbin. Madame de Belzunce. Charlotte aided her in domestic duties. Her age and infirmities cast even a deeper gloom over her condition. the other managed her father's poverty-stricken home Madame de Bretteville. Charlotte formed in the convent those affectionate predilections of infancy so like the relationships of the heart. [b. and the republican sentiments of Charlotte's father had been more or less imbibed by every member of his family. and they admitted her into those somewhat mundane parties which custom permitted the abbesses to keep up with their relatives in the world even in the seclusion of triumph of reason. Her friends were two young girls of noble houses. XLIY. living in that obscurity and silence which hardly allowed the nearest neighbour to be aware of the existence and name of a poor widow. 58 fetters broken.— CHAKLOTTE COUDAY. No one interfered or directed her in any way her freedom. dame de Bretteville were habits rather than convictions . and where some remnants of the ancien regime were still tolerated in their attempts to console each other. though. and superstitions of the past. but smiled to herself. respecting these regrets state of circumstances. Charlotte into her house at Caen. never cast a word of reproach on them. Charlotte was nineteen years of age. accompanying her aunt in the evenings to those meetings of the nobility which the fury of the people had not wholly destroyed. VI. Char. whilst in her inmost soul she kept up the already kindled flame of different opinions a flame which daily burnt more ardently. reading and musing. received at Argentan. and in their lamentations over the Charlotte. and studies were wholly The religious and political opinions of Maunconstrained. saw their — their convents. and adored their regained liberty.

which transform the vague instincts of humanity into sublime theories and historical productions. theories into actions and ideas into men. virtue. and became a vague. 7«] CHARLOTTE CORDAT. 59 age inclined lier to the perusal of romances. and imparts life to the events and characters of his heroes. Her feelings led her to pursue works of philosophy. nor her youth its chastity. and works of that class. her dependence. she had resolved on its consummation. which supplied visions ready drawn for unemployed minds. whilst from time to time she read Héloïse. occasion VII. her reserve. arbitrary imprisonments. These three works were incessantly in her hands. the — . not for the profit of glory or ambition. and the desire of immolating herself was her love or her to this had wholly possessed her. and however bloody was the sacrifice to be. a fanatic of in Plutarch. thus restrained. Her love. in order to The convulsive precipitate France into a bloody anarchy. throes of liberty. She had reached that enthusiastic state of mind which is love. whilst her imagination was thus warmed. the hateful tyranny of the mob of Paris. like Judith or Epicharis. represented by its deputies . inspiring. She only awaited the it came.B. — the suicide of happiness. Yet. the philosopher of and the poet of politics in Raynal. who humanity paints more than he relates. XLIY. a personification of history. which convert of government lotte's . Absorbed in the desire of loving and being loved. the assassinations of September. yet sublime devotion to a dream of The passion with which she would have public happiness. but for the sake of liberty and humanity. and destitution always repressed the avowal of such feelings. The Jacobins only desired to wrest the republic from the Gironde. and she thought to seize it. like Madame Roland. and sometimes experiencing the first symptoms of love. her mind lost none of its purity. . It was at this moment that the Girondists were struggling with daring courage and prodigious eloquence against their enemies in the Convention. She found this two-fold desire of her imagination and heart satisfied in Jean Jacques Rousseau. been inspired for some one individual consumed her in her ardour for her country. the conspiracy of the 10th of March. substituted for the legal sovereignty of the nation. changed not its nature but its ideal. .

the expulsion and proscription of the purer portion of the Assembly. Buzot's constancy. capital of that province. crowned by impunity. industrious. property. had excited even to adoration the attaclunent of the city of Caen towards the Girondists. and threatening every species of independence. life in the departments terrors. |_ B * :siL1V ' 8. the martyrdom in the tribune of Lanjuinais. Isnard's cry of despair. insurrection of the 30th and 31st of May. also. triumphing over the laws by sedition. whose very name had become synonymous with crime. was attached to the person of Louis XVI. and execration against Marat. a Marat. the eloquence of Vergniaud. became suddenly mute. Thence their enthusiasm for these Girondists. and had offered him an asylum before his fall. VIII. men of the constitution of 1791 thence. and the sacred hearth of every citizen. that hope of good citizens. and all these convulsions. the probity of Roland. the dregs and leprosy of the people.. who appeared to defend in the breach the last ramparts of society. who only required that he might parallel that his tongue should be nailed to the Cicero's fate rostrum .60 CHARLOTTE CORDAT. interesting or sublime. attaining the dictatorship of anarchy. from axi idol become a victim. The city of Rouen. Pétion's integrity. The presence in Calvados of the proscribed and fugitive deputies. and agricultural. that remorse of froward ones. The other cities of this part of France were rich. — : . the youth of Fonfrède and Barbaroux. and a secret disposition to establish a régime. which should unite the assurances of a monarchy with the liberties of the republic prevailed amongst them. What was desired in Normandy before the 10th of August was not so much the overthrow of the throne as an equalising constitution of the monarchy. spoliation. where liberty would ascend with them. and a horror against the king's murderers. carried into the tribune on the arms of the faubourgs. had deeply shaken the provinces of Normandy. Peace and shipping were requisite to their prosperity. and lighting up the hearths of the department in order to call up avengers for the country. and finally. and leaving honest men to their discouragement. appealing to liberty against oppression. . and the wicked to their infamy: in the place of these men. their scaffold in perspective. The scaffold of that prince had saddened and humiliated the good citizens. excesses. liberty. assassination.

By rising against the omnipotence of Paris. and combining it with the republican insurrection of Brittany. in recruiting battalions of volunteers. whom the city of Caen had taken under its care. to avenge the one. in order not to damage the esteem in which these two popular and important personages were held by the Jacobins of the The multitude was deceived. Buzot. had been for some time assembled at Caen. every virtue was thus sensibly assailed. in the eyes of the insurgents.B. and the dictatorship of the Convention. XLIV. neither importance nor authority over the people. Pétion. which was to march on Paris. nor her blood spilled in vain. loss of France. which link of crime it was most urgent to cut through. in their localities. and save all. J CHARLOTTE CORDAT. Danton and Robespierre. despair. Kervélégan. amongst the rest. She considered things. IX. in order that her courage might not be fruitless. Charlotte Corday felt all these blows directed against her country concentrate themselves in anguish. circumstances. Charlotte. She pondered for many days punish the other. Bussy. All patriotism was thus attacked. nor the sanguinary delirium of Marat. Gorsas. Barbaroux. and She saw the daring in her already deeply stricken heart. Meilhan. had. and saw tyranny departments. 61 the hope which clung to their restoration and their vengeance. men. Bergoing. 10. and occupied themselves with fomenting the general insurrection in the departments of the north. Mollevault. She swore an inward oath. X. and sending them to the army of Puisaye and Wimpfen. They left the names of these two great partisans of the Montagne in the shade. without clearly resolving on what deed her country required at her hands. Louvet. was so mistaken. all lived together in the old palace of that Marat only. Duchâtel. all hope of real liberty died with them. and freedom in one man's hands only. The Girondists. . saw the victims. the fire of indignation in the departments which were to consume their enemies. over the vague determination of her heart. The shadow of Marat darkened all the republic in her eyes. Henri Larivière. and believed she discerned the tyrant. and in keeping up. Valady. The Girondists. the youth of the departments believed they were rising against less conspicuous in the last efforts of the people against the Girondists. Salles. Giroux. Lesage (d'Eure-et-Loir).

the king of Paris. together with the insurrectional committee . assembled in the town of Caen. of liberty. arms in hand. whither the seat of the federalist government was removed. flocked in crowds in order to see and hear these first victims of anarchy. and misfortunes and they went about appealing to arms. whose youth and beauty adorned eloquence. Louvet. rising. brothers to enlist in their Charlotte Corday. XLÏV. your towns. CHARLOTTE CORDAT. recalled the patriotic insurrection of 1792 drawing to the frontiers all who desired to live no longer. Citizens you who may see these friendly phalanxes pass through your roads. Barbaroux. Do not suffer bloodyour villages. tears.62 city." More than six thousand were already sands of volunteers. and which was only betrayed by her . if the country no longer existed. pleaded more powerfully than their orations to the imaginations of Calvados. Buzot. and made them proud of They were overspeedily avenging such illustrious guests. [b. and exciting sons. The vicissitudes of revolutions softened the spectators. Charlotte Corday was with the Parisians ! — . On Sunday. 11. husbands. they were passed in review by the Girondist deputies and the authorities of Calvados. and pointed as they passed to Pétion. go to fraternise tottering statue of the department which are on their road to " do not seek enemies to combat them: they they go to support the . and the timidity of her sex and age. the 7th of July. to Barbaroux. with all the requisite preparations This spontaneous assemblage to electrify their courage. hero of Marseilles. of her rank. XL Louvet addressed inflammatory proclamations : cities of the south — to the " The forces Paris. and here were held assemblies of the people. where the citizens. present in a balcony at this enrolment and departure. surmounting the prejudices battalions. and was remarked for the silent enthusiasm which increased her feminine beauty. and fraternise with them. courage. The . to go and die in avenging liberty for the insults of anarchy. liberty. ventured frequently to be present with some friends at these meetings. come by the energetic accents of these persons." said he. thirsty monsters to establish themselves amongst you to These words produced thouarrest them on their march. and even the women. these last avengers of The names so long prevalent of Pétion.

de Franquelin. it was said. XLIV. She had given her portrait to the young volunteer. and Charlotte Corday it might be from life. and permitted him to This young silence the love her. growing pale on seeing this battalion defile to depart. She felt indignant at the small number of enrolments which this review had added to the regiments and battalions of WimpThere were not in fact on this day more than a score. M. had not been able to remain insensible to this concealed adoration. death-stricken himself by the counter-blow of the axe which had decapitated her whom he adored. retired to a There. man was named Franquelin. alone with his mother. He adored in young female repuhlican. " if they did not depart ? " The young maiden : blushed." said he to her. lingered for some months. to spare made no reply. abandoning their firesides to go and protect the violated hearth of the national representation. at least through her image. who thus tore themselves from their families. Tears Pétion.] CHARLOTTE COKDAY. fell from her eyes. and sure of obtaining a glance and approbation by arming himself in the cause of liberty. was astonished at this weakness. he village in Normandy. comprehended Pétion had not the future revealed it to him. was endeared to her by the mysterious but pure feeling which one of these volunteers. who passed under the balcony. This enthusiasm. and thus addressed her " Would you then be happy. 12. Young Franquelin. bore towards her. fen. She even found it too cold. and withdrew. Charlotte had but one thought : to anticipate their arrival in Paris. and who knew Charlotte. XII. after the trial and execution of Charlotte Corday. lie carried on a corShe respondence with her full of reserve and respect. 63 enthusiasm of these young citizens. borne away by the general impulse. : this distress — . responded to her own. and brave cannon-balls or the guillotine. answered with the sad and tender reserve of a young girl who had no dowry but misfortune to bestow. requesting that the portrait and the letters of Charlotte Corday might be buried with him that image and that secret repose in that cofiin. their love. but she immolated this attachment to one more sublime. had enrolled himself in the Charlotte could not help trembling and battalion of Caen. After the departure of the volunteers.B. and died.

beautiful. tagne and Marat.64 tlieir CHARLOTTE CORDAY. ceal from her friends the thought of sacrificing herself for their safety. She discoursed twice with BarThe conversation of a young. under the guise of politics. it was said. She wished She to sound them without disclosing herself to them. The name of Marat To check such caused a shudder like the mention of death. She saw Buzot. the more agreeable would she be as the voluntary victim to the liberty which she desired to appease. three thousand at Marseilles. [c. 13. twenty-eight thousand at Paris. if it triumphed. Such was the secret disposition of her mind. where the citizens who had business with them could approach the deputies. Charlotte desired to shed her own. A The terror already spread over France at this moment. XIII. but was not the cause of it. Louvet. the parties interested in this cause. thusiastic maiden with the youngest and the handsomest of the Girondists. The monster. She presented herself under specious pretexts at the Hôtel of Intendance. ment. She could not better enlighten herself upon the state of Paris. but Charlotte desired to see clearly before she struck the blow. endured rather than tested. It was so at the first moment. and three hundred thousand in Brittany and Calvados. than through the Girondists. had already written the lists of proscription. who afterwards wrote a hymn to the purity and glory of the . was one of the sorrows of her devotion. victims were marked out in Lyons. could only defend itself by the hand of the executioner. generous lives. an effusion of blood. and counted the number of heads which were necessary for his suspiTwo thousand five hundred cions and his vengeance. Pétion. and render patriotism useless. respected them sufficiently not to reveal a project which they might have possibly regarded as a crime. They spoke of speedily carscaffold was erected in Paris. The more she broke her ties on earth. or prevented She had the constancy to conas a generous but rash act. The power of La Monrying it through all the republic. or at least to excite the smile of incredulity upon some lips. XLIV. presentiment of The true cause was her patriotism. upon men and matters. and Louvet. in deThis attachlivering France from tyranny before them. was calculated to give rise to calumny. and enbaroux.

and making allusion to the contrast between such a step and her birth. on crossing the public hall of the Intendance. to feed herself.] CHARLOTTE CORDAY. and. totally occupied with another image." said he at a later prehend. from his discourses. 65 young heroine. one day you will know who I am. and the projects of La Gironde. Buzot. vol. the enthusiasm. The sound of her voice struck Barbaroux with a presentiment which he could not then com" If we had known her design. XLIV. and the insinuation so wounding to her purity. "Citizen Pétion. she said. believed at first in one of those vulgar seductions of the senses with which he had embellished his notorious romance. claims to present to the government in favour of Mademoiselle de Forbin. in. where Charlotte awaited Barbaroux.B. she assumed the humble part of a suppliant . for Argentan. which would introduce her to the minister of the interior. and was suffering poverty in Switzerland. vexed afterwards at having done so. kindly rallied her on her assiduity. 14. hardly cast a glance upon Charlotte. Pétion. Barbaroux gave her a letter for Duperret. her friend in infancy. This letter of Barbaroux's. She had. F . She blushed." said he. Charlotte went to pay her farewell acknowledgments to Barbaroux. Salles. " Behold then. and which she designedly prolonged. Furnished with this letter and a passport which she had taken out some days before. you judge me today without knowing me . answered in a serious yet gentle tone. she requested from the young Marseillais a letter of introduction from one of his colleagues in the Convention. upon the constitution. who comes to see the republicans !" The young girl comprehended the smile. In these audiences which she obtained of Barbaroux. Barbaroux confined himself to recommending a young female of Caen to the consideration and protection of Duperret. which afterwards led Duperret to the scaffold. one of the seventy-three deputies of the Girondist party who were overlooked in the first proscription. Mademoiselle de Forbin had been induced to emigrate by her relatives." XIV. " the beautiful aristocrat. did not contain a single word which could be imputed as criminal to the deputy who received it. with the republicanism. He announced to him a publication of their mutual friend.

" said she." The On the same day. revealed the voluntary agony of her self-immolation. that on entering Charlotte's chamber to awaken her. XV. hand. she found upon her bed an old Bible open at the Book of Judith. 1 5. " and the country is dying!" testified the impatience and preon the 7th July for Argentan.66 period. ill concealed from the eyes of her relatives. and in which she had read this verse. Her manner and speech She set out at length . She told them that she went to seek a refuge and existence in England against the Revolution and misery. On embracing her father and sister. She concealed this interior we had been capable of a crime by such a was not Marat whom we should have pointed out combat by careful and well-managed dissimulation. She returned on the same day to Caen." The gaiety which Charlotte had always mingled with the gravity of her patriotic conversations vanished from her countenance on quitting for ever the dwelling of the Girondists. and over yours. She there deceived the tenderness of her aunt bv the same ruse which had deceived her father. with an accent of bitter irony. Charlotte having gone out to make her preparations for departure. and if [b. " You play. where some emigrant friends had prepared her an asylum and a lot cipitation of a departure. she wept more over the past than for the future. Whilst Marat lives. and some tears. adorned with a marvellous beauty. and that she desired to receive the paternal benedicHer father approved tion previous to this long separation. The last struggle between the thought and its execution was going on in her mind. gravity of her countenance alone. over those of my relatives. of this decision. Interrogated by her aunt : "I weep. She told her that she should soon set out for England. " CHARLOTTE CORDAT. XLIV. "over the misfortunes of my country. it for her vengeance. There she took her last adieu of her father and sister. which the Lord had bestowed on her to deliver Israel. underlined with a pencil : " Judith went forth from the city." said she. no one can be sure of a day's existence. she met in the street some citizens who were playing at cards before their door." Madame de Bretteville remembered afterwards.

from the society of those great men with whom she had lived and wished to die. which she no longer " that is for you be required to keep her in countenance a good boy. " Here Robert. She continued to play during the first day with a little girl." said she to him. on the 9th of July. as if she did not desire to separate herself. With a sheet of drawing-paper in her hand." And she embraced the child. the 9th of July. for in 67 her own country. She distributed her favourite books amongst the young persons of her acquaintance. and the various arrangements for her departure. embraced her aunt. XVI. She ordered and paid in advance. and that natural curiosity which attaches itself to the name and fate of an unknown girl of dazzling youth and beauty. whom chance had placed beside her in the carriage. which she could not hope ! : . 16. in the street. she took under her arm a small bundle of the most requisite articles of apparel.B. you will never see me again. giving him the drawing-paper. named Robert. At the foot of the staircase she met the child of a poor labourer. and reserved none for herself but a volume of Plutarch. That was the last tear on the threshold of the house of her youth. She had privately arranged it for the morrow. Whether it were that her love for children overcame her pre-occupation of thought. good-will. in the crisis of her life. She sometimes gave him little toys. by the Paris diligence. at the tradespeople's shops in Caen. The child was accustomed to play in the court. for some little presents of dresses and embroidery destined to be worn after her departure. XLIV. very early in the morning. she went out to return no more. and she provided through one of her friends for the old servant who had taken care of her in her youth. The freedom and harmlessness of her conversation in the carriage which conveyed her towards Paris did not inspire her travelling companions with any other sentiment than that of admiration. by some youthful companions of her early days. This pretext concealed the sorrow of her adieux. and told her she was going to sketch the haymakers in the neighbouring meadows. Finally. and tenderness towards that aunt to whom she owed such long and kind hospitality. leaving a tear upon his cheek. She had nothing left to give but her blood. attention. and kiss me. F 2 . who lodged in the house.] CHARLOTTE CORDAT. Charlotte filled up these last hours in gratitude.

She charmed her fellow travellers to the end of the journey. Charlotte returned and passed the entire day in her chain- The A . the object of her journey. Without a confidant. measure the force of her thought. 17. She retired to rest at five 17. dressed herself in a simple but respectThe friend of Barable gown. and went to Duperret's. who was more reserved. and were profuse in imprecations against the Girondists. She was conducted to an hotel which had been indicated to her at Caen. Her loneliness at that age encouraged them to familiarities. no one knows what passed in that mind. or that she had already laid aside the burden of her trouble. during those long hours of solitude and agitation. by that delightful conduct from which all regretted to separate themselves. and the evasive brevity of her answers. and without a witness. in the evening.. who fled from the suspicion of federalism to Paris. and desired to enjoy these last hours of sport with innocence and with life.68 CHARLOTTE CORDAT. ture ? XVIII. She turned this sudden love ask her hand of her relations. ventured to declare to her his He implored her to authorise him to respectful admiration. No. Duperret would not be home until the evening. in the baroux was at the Convention. which she repelled by the modesty of her manners. She entered Paris on Thursday. in a public house and amidst the noise of this capital whose magnitude and tumult absorb the ideas and trouble the senses. seduced by so much modesty and such charms. absence of their father. and slept profoundly until the next day. other travellers were Montagnards. and the resistance of naThe thought prevailed. the Hôtel de la Providence. Attracted by the graces of the young girl. which she was enabled to terminate by feigning sleep. at noon. and in adoration for Marat. [b. His daughters. She arose. in the Rue des Vieux Augustins. to let him know her name and her disposition in regard to himself at a later period. 11th of July. young man. She promised the young man into kind raillery and mirth. received from the young stranger Barbaroux's letter of introduction. upon her awakening and recollecting Who can the resolve which summoned her to execution. XLIV. XVII. they strove to draw from her her name. and her address in Paris.

] CHARLOTTE CORDAY. reflection. Charlotte explained to him the service she expected from his courtesy. Garat. . and begged him to conduct her to the minister of the interior. and made some steps as if about to withdraw. At six o'clock she returned again to Duperret's. " Believe me. something strange and mysterious. Duperret. and to aid by his presence and credit the suit she had to urge. and rejoin your colleagues and brothers. with which he was struck." plied Charlotte." replied the repre" You are in error. you can do no more good there go to Caen. Duperret was one of the . the sense of which was only known to the stranger. She left her name and address with Duperret. He told them that a young female. and to derive from her discourse with him full information and proper indications. He rose and received her in his drawing-room. These words. told her he could not conduct her on that day to Garat's. but that he would call upon her at her residence on the following morning to accompany her to the ofiices. " quit the Convention . with a significative and almost suppliant appeal. with whom he had just discoursed. 19. In the evening a decree of the Convention ordered seals to be put on the furnitui^e of the deputies suspected of attachment to the twenty-two. and which commanded from him reserve and circumspection. without a witness. XIX. but as if overcome by the interest with which the honest countenance of this good man and the youth of his daughters had inspired her. " I will not leave it. had. This request was but a pretext on her part to bring her into contact with one of these Girondists for whose cause she was about to sacrifice herself. pressed by time and recalled by his guests. the better to assure her steps and her hand. The deputy was at table at supper with his family and friends. 69 ber in reading. He went and reseated himself with his friends.B. " Permit me to advise you." she added in a lower and more rapid " fly." " My post is at Paris. in a voice full of mystery and warning ." resentative . in her attitude and speech. XLIV. fly. were interpreted by Duperret as a simple allusion to the urgency of the perils which menaced those of his opinion in Paris. F s . and in prayer. before to-morrow night!" and she departed voice without awaiting an answer. Citizen Duperret : " said she.

Garat did not receive them. on the following day. that his position as one suspected. and inquired. at the great ceremony of the federation which was to take place on the 14th of July in commemoration of the triumph of liberty. paid three francs for it. Her first idea had been to approach Marat. concealed it under her handkerchief. The stranger remonstrated but little. She went out immediately. . and with slow steps returned to the garden. where she seated herself for a moment upon one of the stone benches abutting on the arcades. to Charlotte at her lodging. not as a stranger who desired to satisfy her curiosity by the contemplation of monuments and public gardens. The adjournment of this ceremony until the republic should suppress the Vendeans and the rebels. He represented to the young girl. [b. Duperret left her at the door of the Hôtel de la Providence. number. She pretended to enter it. for the shop of a cutler. She entered one . which should strike terror into the minds of the imitators of the tyrant. and conducted her to Garat. deprived her of her theatre and her victim. Her second idea was to strike Marat at the summit of the Mountain. She desired to make of this murder a solemn immolation. and that in default of this formality his proceedings would be futile. beneath the eyes of his adorers and accomplices. under the galleries. and who did not desire to lose a step or a day. but as a traveller who had only one object in the city. however. Duperret. He went. rendered his patronage henceforth more that besides. Her hope in this case was that she herself should be immo. The minister could not grant an audience before eight o'clock This contre-temps appeared to discourage in the evening. She sought Avith her eyes. she was prejudicial than useful to his clients not furnished with a power from Mademoiselle de Forbin to act in her name. the 12th. the way to the Palais Royal. selected a poignardknife with an ebony haft. very early in the morning. She entered the gardens. XLIV. and sacrifice him in the Champ-de-Mars. street by street. in the very midst of the Convention. accost him.70 CHARLOTTE CORDAY. as a person who had no more need of the pretext with which she had coloured her first steps. 19. and who contented herself with the slightest ai'gument to abandon her idea. and the measures taken against him on that very night.

and the good she should effect such was to the last the single ambition of her mind. and her first punishment. I repeat that I am just arrived F 4 — ! ! ! — . effect of this note. I hope that to-morrow you will grant me the interview I request. I will put you in a position to be of great service to France. the first remorse of her conscience. went at the appointed hour to Marat's door. I shall present myself at your abode about one o'clock ." she wrote. the conversations she had had since her arrival in Paris with Duperret and others informed her that Marat would not again appear in the Convention. and wrote to Marat a billet. However. Charlotte decided on striking the blow. Conscience is just in the presence of posterity. " did you have my letter ? I cannot believe it. which she sent to the door of the friend of the people. asking her shame or renown but from her own conscience." she said . Renown she deGlory seemed to her a salary too sired not for herself. God. Shame she would not have it for her family's sake. relying on the. and grant me a moment's conversation. and unworthy of the disinterestedness of her deed. and but calculated to deteriorate her virtue. and to obtain access.] HER ARRIVAL AT MARAT's. " I wrote to you this morning. She returned to her chamber. and seek no recompence but in the act itself." Charlotte. XX. it was necessary to deceive him. 20. courage into stratagem. and torn in pieces by the people. have the goodness to receive me. but could not obtain access to him. but the means she was compelled to adopt cost her more than the deed itself. Marat. leaving no other trace or recollection than of two dead bodies and tyranny destroyed in its own blood. " I have just arrived from Caen.B. 71 latecl the next moment. commonplace. To bury her name in oblivion. Thus it was necessary to find the victim elsewhere. This she resolved on . This she herself confessed. and immolation into assassination. yet was the dissimulation which was so foreign to the natural loyalty of her nature. "Your love of country makes me presume that you will have pleasure in hearing of the unfortunate events of that portion of the republic. more pressing and insidious than the former. as they refuse me admittance to you. which changed the dagger into a snare. She then left with the portress a second note. XLIV.

" XXI. " Look at the friend and model of the people he has not cast off its abode. and that I am so should give me a claim on your patriotism. then all-powerful over the nation. a sleeping-room and dining-room looking on to the street. Numerous publications of Marat's were piled on the newspapers of the day. With this attractive aspect Her A she knocked at Marat's door.. Marat inhabited the first floor of a dilapidated house in the Rue des Cordeliers. the pride of poverty. Her white gown was covered over the shoulders by a silk scarf. His apartment consisted of an antechamber and a writing-room. revealed her deadly purpose. as it were. — — ! manners. Without awaiting his reply. 20. was originally named Catherine Evrard. and have secrets . the worn all attested the steps of the staircase. female. M. though a display. by a more studied appearance. was desirous of saying to his visitors when they contemplated his squalidness and his labour. press. and fastened her cap. hair was confined by a Normandy cap. were scattered about on the chairs and tables. still damp from the the floor. clad with more than usual care in order. women employed in folding and addressing pamphlets and journals. a small room containing his bath. was yet real. the ill-swept passages. the cause of liberty I am unhappy. It was very meanly furnished. XXII. looking out on a narrow courtyard. No paleness of complexion. printers' lads coming in and going out incessantly. This abode displayed. 21. Charlotte left her chamber at seven o'clock p. from Caen. riband was bound around her brows. you most important Besides. No. falling over her bosom. movement and disorder which surround a man much occupied. It appeared as though its master. Her hair fell loose down her back. to attract the persons about Marat. fastened behind. and the perpetual crowd of persons in the house of a journalist and leader of the people.72 CHARLOTTE COKD AT to disclose to [b." This misery. now Rue de l'Ecole de Médecine. the long lace wide green silk of which played against her cheeks. who controlled his house affairs. Marat's domestic arrangements were those of an humble artisan. which. no tremulousness of voice. XL1V. or dress. but was called Albertine Marat from the A . I am persecuted for for the safety of the republic. no wildness of gaze.

messenger. and when he had leisure. None were admitted to his presence but assured friends or denouncers strongly recommended. The day was on the wane. in the face of open sunshine. Access to his residence was forbidden. taking her for his wife one day in fine weather. 73 time when the friend of the people had given her his name. he was perpetually writing. which he desired The terror to leave free from all enemies after his death. More anxious to kill than to live. although she apprehended them. as so many hostages given by the knife to the completed revolution. Offended at the silence of the Assembly on the reception of his messages. he had recently addressed to it another letter. particularly in the The quarter darkened by lofty houses and narrow streets. XXIII. Now in his bed. employed himself in the antechamber in packing up parcels of the papers and bills for the A friend of the people. after the example of Jean. One servant aided this woman in her household duties. XLIV. seemed to fear that his last hour. would not leave him time to immolate sufficient criminals. He left no repose either to himself Full of the presentiment of death. 23. Charlotte was not aware of these obstacles.B. whilst exciting the Convention and the Cordeliers. did the out-door work. now in his bath. which issued from Marat's house returned thither under another form the unending dread of assassination. The incessant activity of the writer had not relaxed in consequence of the lingering disease which was consuming him. in which he threatened the Convention that he would be carried in his dying condition to the tribune. that he might shame the representatives with their cowardice. The inflammatory action of his blood seemed to light up his mind. coming on too suddenly.Jacques Rousseau. as it would be to the palace of tyranny. She alighted from the coach on the opposite side of the street. apostrophising. inveighing against his enemies. and who had submitted to interrogatories and severe examinations. named Laurent Basse. and dictate to them fresh murders. he hastened to send before him as many victims as possible. he only or to others. in front of Marat's residence. His companion and his intimate associates believed that they saw as many daggers raised against him as he raised over the heads of three hundred thousand citizens.] VISITS MARAT. — .

and half-written articles for his publication. hairy chest. Albertine. His matted hair. as she quitted her. prominent cheek-bones. reached Marat's ears. the judgment and proscription of the last Bourbons tolerated in France. that she might hear the lowest whisper or the smallest movement of the sick man. 23. whilst the other endea- At voured to close the door in her face. or give pause to a meditated blow. obeyed with much ill-will and grumbling. who comprehended. and livid skin such was Marat. In a loud and imperative voice he ordered that she should be admitted. Beside the bath. so much blood. open letters. of the meanest fabric the foul source whence. roughly planed. he allowed his mind no leisure. was A — covered with papers. had flowed so many delirious outpourings. He held in his right hand the pen which the arrival of the unknown female had suspended on its This was a letter to the Convention. so many denunciations. Marat's mistress half-opened the door. laid across the bath. for fear her countenance might betray the horror she felt at — . for three years. Charlotte took care not to look him in the face. Marat was in his bath. portress at first refused to allow the trate into the courtyard. and his right arm out of the water. shrivelled limbs. shoulders. The room was faintly lighted. the upper part of his chest. XXIV. and refused to allow a female whom she did not know to The confused sound of the altercation between these enter. She showed the young girl into the small closet where Marat was. XL1V. covered in his bath with a cloth filthy with dirt and spotted with ink. either from jealousy or distrust. and as- cended several stairs.74 CHARLOTTE CORDAT She insisted. and left. There was nothing in the features of this man to affect a woman's eye with tenderness. was a leaden inkstand. by the few indistinct words that reached him. these sounds. to demand of it page. the door half open. one of whom entreated that she might be allowed to speak to the friend of the people. on a large block of oak. protruding eyes. vast and sneering mouth. regardless of the voice of the concierge. yet in this forced repose of his body. [b. that the visitor was the stranger from whom he had received two notes during the day. plank. with receding forehead. wrapped in a dirty handkerchief. Marat. young unknown to penehowever. had only his head. women.

that they might avenge the body of the people's idol. with fierce exclamations that they would throw the assassin out to them. before they are a week older. plunged it to the hilt in Marat's heart. and her arms hanging motionless by her side. and order was. The transparent material allowed her form to be Laurent.B. The reddened water gave to the sanguinary democrat the appearance of having died in a bath of blood. help " cried Marat. taking up a chair. which knocked her to the floor. with superhuman force. re-established. At the noise that ensued. she drew the knife from her bosom. motionless. and as if petrified at her crime. and he wrote them down. struck her easily distinguished. and endeavoured to stanch the wound. At this cry. as if Charlotte's mind had awaited a last offence before it could resolve on striking the blow. " Well. she stood close to the bath. It was a dead corpse that they lifted into the bed. XXV. my dear. The file of bayonets which surrounded her could his ! — ! — — . " Help. and the cries of the two women. Albertine. awaiting until Marat should inquire as to the state of Normandy. the inhabitants of the house hastened thither. where Marat's mistress trampled her under foot in her rage. XL1V. giving to her replies the sense and tone likely to pacify the demagogue's wishes. 75 "With downcast eyes. Charlotte. Soldiers dead yet still warm and national guards entered. and let it fall at her feet. was standing behind the window curtain. and when he had concluded. a clumsy blow on the head. She then drew the bloody weapon from the body of the victim. 25. STACS MARAT IN HIS BATH. and. in the voice of a man sure of his vengeance. and very speedily the whole quarter. He then asked the name of the deputies who had taken refuge at Caen. said. and Laurent Basse rushed into the apartment.] sight. neighbours and persons passing in the streets ascended the staircase and filled the room. the maid servant. waiting until cords were brought to confine them. Two soldiers held her with her arms crossed. the court-yard. Surgeons arrived. in some measure. they shall have " the guillotine At these words. She gave them to him. and caught Marat's sinking head in their arms. as if in handcuffs. demanding. Charlotte had risen from the floor without any assistance. and then expired. She replied with brevity.

the bitter smile " Poor people. consoling her. Her countenance appeared to express towards this woman astonishment at not having thought that such a man could be loved." she said. and the groans of the people at the loss of their idol. Only. full of excite-» . no change was perceptible either in her features or complexion. by turns uttered imprecations against Charlotte. She made her confession as though in it The report of the death of the were praiseworthy. XLIV. named Langlois. and regret at having been forced to pierce two hearts Except the feeling of pity which the in order to reach one. Guillard. [b. or fainted. entered. which she gave calmly. scarcely keep back the crowd which sought to rend her in Gesticulations. Marat's concubine. fixed and petrified by this movement. into tears.76 EXCITEMENT OF THE MOB. " as they ful gestures. had picked up the bloodstained knife. and brandished pieces. and then burst fanatic Cordelier. these gestures. at the invectives of the orator. to commence the interrogatory. reproaches of Albertine for a moment impressed on her lips. 25. who had made up her mind to any death that should follow. Cast me to that infuriate mob. and had Charlotte conducted into Marat's dining room. which the proud satisfaction at the act she had committed was alone perceptible. and made a funereal harangue over the victim. the commissary of the section of the Theatre Français. where he wrote down her replies. excited furious imprecations and fierce gesticulations. whilst you owe me an altar for having freed you from a monster. they are worthy to be my executioners. to the soldiery . with a firm and resolute tone. in He This regret him. and seriously. by men running to and fro. "People's Friend" was spread abroad with the rapidity of an electric shock. swords menaced her with a thousand deaths. the hands and arms agitated so near to her." she of contempt was visible on her features. escorted by a reinforcement of bayonets. for a moment. " you desire my death." remark. was. but was only affected by the piercing cries of Marat's mistress. afterwards. clearly. said. Charlotte. clenched fists. as a defiance to the fanaticism of the multitude. escaping from the females who were. He drew up the procès verbal of the murder. sticks. A interrupted his lamentations and eulogiums with revengewhich he seemed to be perpetually thrusting the knife into the assassin's heart. a staymaker in the Rue Dauphine.

! . and at the calmness and firmness of her replies. thanked those who had protected her from the brutalities of the crowd. Drouet. All Paris was struck with stupor at the hearing of this deed. Mistrust green ribands. She appeared so to alter it in their eyes that they felt a sympathy for her even in the very presence of her victim. 26. breathed vengeance.] TAKEN TO THE ABBAYE. frequently bursting out into vociferations and excess of rage. the deputies ordered that Charlotte should be conveyed to the Abbaye. Detachments of fusileers came up . They were overcome with surprise. she regretted that she still survived. and let us swear to avenge the death of this great man " XXVI. Marat has been assassinated by a young girl who rejoices at the blow she has struck. came in. and supported by two national guards. members of the committees of government. the scarves of the commissaries. and giving the first reports of the event. the people closed round the wheels with such gesticulations and groans that she felt as though her limbs were torn piecemeal by thousands of hands. and that dire events must spring from Marat's murder. Chabot.B. XLIV. Look carefully after your own lives . as they would refuse to give credit to a sacrilege. at the sight of her youth and beauty. There they found the crowd increasing every moment. The commandant-general of the national guard. and cleared a way. The Rue des Cordeliers was thronged with people. whilst Charlotte was replying to the interrogatories. yet she. All refused to believe it. with her hands bound with cords. The deputies Maure. the same peril threatens all. The procès verbal having finished. all of you. Henriot. 77 ment. and Legendre. the nearest prison." he said. and made the transit difficult. and confirmed " Yes. crossed the threshold of the house to step into the coach. left the Chamber immediately and went to the spot. Never had crime before presented such features to the eyes of men. kept back the mob. several deputies entered the Convention. " tremble. the news. and the respect felt for the members of the Convention. interrupting the business. and fainted. It seemed as though the republic was thunderstruck. Returning to herself. At the moment when Charlotte. She entered the same hackney coach that had conveyed her thither. Pale and trembling. with deep emotion. whose angry voices.

and her passport. her silver thimble. which disconcerted the " I never before saw him." " Did you not quit the city of Caen with the decided resolution of assassinating Marat ?" " That was my sole motive in quitting that " Where did you procure the weapon ? What percity. two hundred francs in assignats and money. proud of his revolutionary importance." She was searched. detailing every particular as to her arrival at Paris. with whom I my journey." sons have you seen in Paris ? What have you done since Thursday. made at Caen. XXVII. and what she had done since. lived. the life or death of such a man important to the safety of the republic. " Yes." " What led recognise this knife ?" she was asked. I do not esteem deputy's pride. believed or feigned to believe that he recognised in Charlotte a young girl who had come to him on the previous evening in the dress of a nun. and in her pockets were found only the key of her trunk. I deceived my father similarly. which lasted until very late. and whom he had sent away." " Have you never had a lover ? " " Xever. [b. Few persons visit my relations. Legendre. the day of your arrival?" To these questions she replied with the utmost sincerity. where she underwent a second examination. Beneath her neckerchief she still concealed the sheath of " Do you the knife with which she had stabbed Marat. " Citizen Legendre is mistaken. a gold watch. as to the object of . with a smile. " Did you not attempt to escape "I should have gone out at the door if after the murder ?" Iliad not been prevented. Drouet. and anxious to be thought also worthy to be a martyr to his patriotism." " Mention the persons who urged you to this detestable crime. Chabot. XLIV. and no one could have had the slightest suspicion of my idea." "Are you a single woman ? " " I am.78 HER EXAMINATION. you to this crime ? " " I saw. some implements of needle-work." " No one I deceived my aunt." knew my intention. " civil war ready to rend France to atoms : persuaded that Marat was the principal cause of the perils and calamities of the land. 27. I have sacrificed my life for his to save my country. and Legendre followed her to the Abbaye." said Charlotte. a ball of cotton. which you could not have conceived of yourself." she replied.

The following are the principal textual passages of this address to the French. and bent herself almost double to conceal her nudity from her judges. The cords had left blue marks on her arms. made the hearers reflect frequently on the power of the fanaticism which employed and strengthened so feeble They hoped to discover an instigator beneath this a hand. candour and beauty. and extended his hand to take it. and when the guards were preparing to again bind her. It was too late. These and intrepidity. He fancied he perceived a folded paper pinned to the bosom of her dress.B. but the horror and indignation she felt caused her to make so sudden and convulsive a spring backwards. which contained an address to the French. she was unable to put out her hands which were bound. Advantage was taken of her hands being free to make her sign her replies. that the string of her dress burst. and Charlotte. proud. with his eyes. drawn up by herself. and exposed her bosom. precise. alternate. 28. in large bold characters. M. the whole person of the young girl. disappointed at the result. the features. It is written in the hand of Charlotte Corday. Paillet. Patriotism had not rendered these men cynical or insensible. XLIV. She saw in the gesture and look of Chabot an insult to her modesty . and which has been communicated to us since the commencement of the publication of this work by the present possessor. arranged her dress. and her chastity had to blush at the looks of man. At . The accent and gesture of the poor girl were so touching that Harmand turned aside to conceal his tears. with which they complied. and they appeared to suffer as much as Charlotte at this involuntary torture of her innocence. She entreated them to untie her hands. save inspiration XXVIII. the hair. as though destined to be legible at some distance. and calling on them to punish tyrants and restore concord. turning round to the wall. Chabot. she entreated to be allowed to put on her gloves. The paper is folded in eight. 79 answers. devoured. in order to save her unnecessary torture. the end of the examination. and they found nought. which has been hitherto lost to history. Quick as thought she stooped. and disdainful. Charlotte had forgotten this paper.] HER MODESTY.

should you destroy yourselves to establish the tyranny they Factions break out on desire on the ruins of France ? every side . and alarms Danton. but it must be promptly employed. O France thy I do not repose depends upon the execution of the laws. " Already the departments are indignantly marching on Already the fire of discord and civil war consumes Paris. by falling beneath an avenging steel. lead these detestable are labouring at our own destruction with more plots. he is beyond the pale of the law. Marat. a republican government. " Address to Frenchmen friendly Peace. pierced by the pin that fastened it [b. to Charlotte's dress. What tribunal will verse. " O my country thy misfortunes rend my heart. in order to render their fall more terrible. Let the destruction of the Montagne leave nothing but I know not if Heaven reserves for us brothers and friends. but a Montagnard can be given to us only in the excess of divine vengeance. zeal and energy than we ever employed in the conquest of but a brief space. whose very name presents the image of every crime. will remain but the recollection of your existence. place of the general interest. victims of their fury. a few monsters. I can only offer thee my life . and I thank Heaven that I am at — — ! ! . there is but one means of exvillains substituted the We ! — Already tinguishing it. the Montagne triumphs by crime and oppression . seated on this bloody throne. light in trouble will you deunhappy Frenchmen and division? Too long have the factious and ! interests of their ambition in the Why. that vilest of wretches.80 and is HER ADDRESS TO THE FRENCH. so was Alcides when he destroyed the monsters. the half of this vast empire . and to deter all those who would seek to build their fortunes on the ruins of a deceived people. Rise march! "Frenchmen. and the other brigands. shakes the Montagne. Robespierre. you know your enemies. bathed in our blood. 29. surrounded by the thunders which the avenging gods doubtless only suspend. XLIV. condemn me ? If I am guilty. Condemned by the uniinfringe them by killing Marat. and nothing O Frenchmen liberty. to the Laivs and " How long.

qu'à sortir de l'esclavage " " My pai'ents and friends should not be molested. I join my baptismal register to this address. written in my blood and that the universe may declare that I have merited well at the hands of humanity. to show of what the weakest hand is capable. borne through be useful to my fellow citizens Paris. ou d'admiration. I will not imitate Paris (the murderer of* Lepelletier de Saint Fargeau) by killing myself. when aided by the most entire devotion. XLIV. But this is not the case they are in Voltaire's tragedy of " The Death of Cresar. If I do not succeed in my enterprise. Frenchmen. subjoin it : " Citizens. one of which is addressed to Barbaroux. Soit Mon devoir me suffit. peu jaloux de vivre en la mémoire.B. Ne considère point le reproche ou la gloire: Toujours indépendant et toujours citoyen. ne songez plus. you will oblige me by informing me. G . Mon esprit. tion. citizens. !' Allez. These letters are circulated in so mutilated a form that it will. 1H.] HER ADDRESS TO THE FRENCH. I desire that my last sigh may that my head. Arise march Strike them!" On reading these verses written by the hand of the grand- — ! daughter of Corneille. And I declare that. may serve as a rallying point for all the friends of the laws that the tottering Montagne should behold its destructhat I may be their last victim. if my conduct were viewed in another light. I forward to you the report of the examination of Charlotte Corday. perhaps. we are at first led to believe that they are by her ancestor. No one will be a loser by my death." The authenticity of this address is attested by a letter of Fouquier Tinville. . I have shown you the way. : We VOL. — . This letter of the public accuser is directed to the Committee of General Safety of the Convention. I should care but little. and that she thus invoked the Roman patriotism of the great tragic author of her race. 81 liberty to dispose of it. 29. " ' Qu'à l'univers surpris cette grande action un objet d'horreur. tout le reste n'est rien. after having read them. You know your enemies. be necessary to print them in their pi-esent state . and if. and the two letters written by her in confinement. you think there is no obstacle to printing them. No one was acquainted with my plans.

to examine her. Touched by so much beauty and youth. Montane. as to induce the judges to look on them as the proof of madness rather . I never saw him Fauchet. the relation of Belzunce. and convinced of the sincerity of a fanaticism which almost absolved her in the eyes of human justice. spite of her repeated The Comprotestations against this profanation of her sex. I attest its truth. be so good as to send me a miniature painter. I hear the account of the arrest of my accomplice. I renew my request to be allowed to sleep alone. good citizens is carefully preserved." Charlotte Corday was placed in a cell and watched. in order to perpetuate their crime. XLIY. "With this "As feeling she wrote to the Committee of General Safety I have yet some moments to live. and he is the last man in the world to whom I would willingly have confided my project. 29. constantly cried in the streets. two years ago. If this declaration is of any service to him. even during the night. came on the next day. " FOUQUIER TlNVILLE. I neither love nor esteem him. the 16th. that you will permit me to sit for my portrait. Charlotte and did not deem this voice of the people that of posterity through the horror she foresaw her apotheosis. and that since this period she has displayed an implacable hatred towards Marat .82 HER IMPRISONMEKT. may I hope. who was killed at Caen in an insurrection. and the shouts of the crowd. If you grant my request. but once from a window. She could hear in her cell the voices of the criers who hawked about the streets the account of the murder. to induce her to commit this horrible murder. demanding the death of the assassin. mittee of General Safety hastened her trial and sentence. citizens. as the likenesses of this souvenir to my friends. and tacitly dictated the answers. that I have just learned that this female assassin was the friend of Belzunce." . The president of the revolutionary tribunal. as I would fain leave Besides. so curiosity sometimes seeks those of great criminals. [b. he washed to save her life. and Barbaroux appears to have availed himself of the criminal feelings of this girl against Marat. and that this hatred appears to have been re-kindled at the moment when Marat denounced Biron. " I would observe. : — XXIX. and so framed his questions. a colonel. by two gens d'armes.

who was about to devour the remains of France by the fire of civil war . who says that you should not speak the truth to tyrants. You know his resolution he told them the exact Nothing can be alleged against him. the wife of the gaoler. but 1 question if he uttered any. and that I had seen Duperret. I regretted." she continues. after I had given him your names and those of the administrators of the department of . Madame Richard. Thanks to the indulgence of her guardians. But Charlotte frustrated his merciful attempt.B. received her with the compassion inspired by this proximity of youth and the scaffold. The last words he said to me were. but his firmness truth. who But they are not satiswas ignorant of my very existence fied with having only a woman to offer to the manes of a The name of Marat disgreat man. in which she recounted all the events of her sojourn at Paris. who never dreamed of this man. believe it. in order to spare them the annoyance of an interrogatoire . when too late. O men honours your race. Legendre wished to have it believed he had seen me at his house that morning. of which she availed herself to write to Barbarous a letter. I declared at first that I did not know them. . and death-like sweetness and sorrow in the last cup of a farewell repast. I. g 2 . ! ! ! ! . It was through the lady who travelled with me that they learnt that I knew you. and clung to her crime as though glorying in it. thank Heaven. pens. and solitude. Charlotte obtained paper. in a style in which were mingled patriotism. Pardon me. Fauchet is imprisoned as my accomplice He. him.] HER LETTER TO BARIiAROUX. XLIV. mirth. I believe the last words of Marat have been printed . 83 than crime. I do not think him likely to become the tyrant of his country besides I cannot punish them all. and I endeavoured to repair my error by persuading him Would you to fly and rejoin you but he was too resolute. and of the sudden affection with which she had inspired a young passenger " I did not know. . He was a ferocious beast. and I followed on this occasion the maxim of my oracle Raynal. that I had spoken to is a crime. She was removed to the Conciergerie. 29. " that the Committee of Public Safety had examined the passengers. After giving an almost facetious account of her journey to Paris in company with Montagnards. he is not a Frenchman by birth At my first examination Chabot had the air of a madman .

for he would have them all guillotined at Paris in a few days. who are at Evreux. and probably at twelve. XLIV. but he no longer went to the Convention. I reflected how so many brave men were about to take the life of one man whose death (had their design succeeded) would have caused that of that this man was unworthy such many excellent citizens — an honour. I have chosen mine from the Montagne . The Committee of Public Safety has sent me no reply. I am tried . pierre or Chabot. country reck not what costs them.— 84 HER LETTER TO BARBAROUX. I had recourse to a perfidious artifice to induce him to receive me. The letter was interrupted here by the removal of the captive to the Conciergerie. [b. can calmly sacrifice As I was really perfectly collected herself for her country. — remember that I promised to make Pétion repent his unjust suspicions of my sentiments. moderns there are but few patriots who know how to immoAll is egotism. This is a great preliminary. for up to this period I have not the . at eight o'clock. I I know not how my last moments will be shall have lived. though I confess that what These words decided his fate entirely decided me was the courage with which our volunYou teers enrolled themselves on Sunday the 7th of July. I must have a defender . and that the hand of a woman would suffice. passed it is the end that crowns the work. I enjoy this peace for the last two days. The happiness of vivid imagination and a sensitive my country is mine. ! : — : . She continued in the follow"I had the idea yesterday of offering my poring terms trait to the department of Calvados. that is the rule. I was pained at the cries of some women. I have no need to affect insensibility . and it is now too late. that they cannot comprehend how a useless Avoman. when I left Marat's house to go to the Abbaye. I intended originally to sacrifice him on the summit of the Montagne. 30. to use the language of the Romans. whose longest term of life would be good for nothing. A and I pray those who heart promised but a stormy life Amongst the regret me to consider this and rejoice at it. it But those who save their May peace be established as speedily as I desire. All the Parisians are such good citizens. Calvados. What a late themselves for their country. he told me to console myself. " wretched people to form a republic XXX. I confess. and at one time thought of naming RobesTo-morrow.

as such a deed admits of no defence." This allusion to a verse of her ancestor. at eight o'clock. and written in a style rather of grief than mirth. Misfortune renders us compasleast dread of death : . I am tried. Her — all my heart. 32. I hope that you will not be molested but you have defenders at Caen. but I shall say nothing to my other friends. Conciergerie. whose address in Switzerland I enclose. who will be disabused some day. it was because I hoped to remain unknown." said she. Tell General Wimpfen that I believe I have aided him to gain more than one battle by faciliAdieu. XXXII. whom I love with letter to . I embrace my sister. my dear papa. : 85 I have never esteemed life save by its utility. by showing him the illustrator of Roman sentiments applauding her devotion beforehand. : sionate : this is my last reflection. the gens d'armes conducted her to the revolutionary tribunal. She guarded against the entrance of weakness or reproach into the heart of her father. Marat will not go to the Pantheon he yet well deRemember the aifair of Mademoiselle de Forbin. . seemed to place her action beneath the safeguard of the genius of her family. like the people in the streets. will rejoice at their deliverance from a tyrant. The next morning. served it. The salle was situated above the vaults of the Conciergerie. or rather. I but father ask from them to forget me speedily their affliction would dishonour my memory. recalling to her father the pride of their name and the heroism of their race. The prisoners of the tating the peace. A * " The crime and not the scaffold causes shame " ! g 3 . " ' Do not forget this verse of Corneille. to rejoice at my fate the cause is noble. other disasters." her father was brief. If I sought to persuade you that I had gone to England. fait la — Le crime honte et non pas lechafaud !' * "To-morrowr . and tell ber that I I am going to write to my love her with all my heart. XLIT. I pray of you to forget me.] LETTER TO HER FATHER. Citizen. far from insulting me. Adieu. seem to pity me. at eight o'clock. and prevented many The people.B. XXXI. " Pardon me for having disposed of my existence without your permission. *' I have avenged many innocent victims. I have chosen Gustave Doulcet de Pontécoulant but only for form's sake.

afterwards illustrious by his defence of the queen. that a friend had undertaken this office. or the antique Nemesis. as though of malediction. she arranged her hair and dress. exclaimed. dark and steep stair. substituting conscience for law. conducted the accused. 33. in Paris the previous evening. I that killed him. When she was seated on the bench of the She replied prisoners. " Yes. yes." She then related the premeditation of the act for three months . and already famous for his eloquence and courage in causes and times when the advocate shared the peril of his client. features. had attracted an immense crowd. . than this murmur of rage was When changed into a shudder of interest and admiration. and her pride and modesty. and brought back the condemned criminals to their dungeons. not to absolve. [b. Before ascending. a murmur. she was asked if she had a defender. Charlotte gazed on him. she appeared. ennobled by the very grandeur of a crime which she bore in her heart as a virtue. and her very judges seemed to be culprits in her presence. Chauveau Lagarde placed himself at the bar. known interest. assigned to her the young Chauveau Lagarde. moved by her grief. formed in the massive basement walls of the Palais de Justice. her defender would abandon some part of her honour. excited Her by the solemnity of the occasion. her project of stabbing him in the — . but to recognise her and tremble ! XXXIII. coloured by emotion. gave her a charm mingled with terror. burst from this throng. pray let my breakfast be ready on my return my judges are doubtless pressed for time. XLIV. to appear decently before death then she said smilingly to the concierge. 'twas Charlotte. Men deemed they saw divine justice. The widow of Marat wept whilst giving her evidence. and appearing to demand from human justice. and pity. "Monsieur Richard. as though she feared lest. troubled by the confusion of a young girl exposed to the regards of so many. to save her life. The president then she supposed his courage had failed him. but scarcely had she passed through them in the full blaze of her beauty.86 HER TRIAL. horror." The hour fixed for the trial of Charlotte Corday was . that troubled all eyes and all hearts. but not seeing him. and I wish to take my last meal with Madame Richard and yourself. Curiosity.

" I only know Fauchet by sight. " I confess." "Since when had you formed this design?" "Since the 31st of May." she replied. but . " confesses her crime. when the deputies of the people were arrested.B. then. which reveals no remorse in presence of death. . She pushed it from her with a gesture of disgust. she avows its long premeditation. I was a republican long before the Revolution. that she might recognise it. which placed the poignard in her hand. At this suggestion. she " Oh." " His crimes. " My own was sufficient besides." said he. by assimilating her to professed murderers. calm and this forgetfulness. and I despise him. Citizens. " He takes me for an assassin!" she. is not natural they can only be explained by the excitement of political fanaticism. this is her whole defence." Fauchet was confronted with her. XLIV. Her defender rose. I look on him as a man devoid of principles . and the Curé of Saint Jean. sublime in one point of view." The knife was shown her. and observed that she must doubtless have been well exercised in crime. I have killed one man to save a hundred thousand." at Caen ? " " Very few I saw Larue." " What did you hope to hate in him ?" effect by killing him?" "Restore peace to my country. This imperturbable calm and entire forgetfulness of this self. you always execute badly " What did you that which you have not devised yourself." said she." " Who inspired you with this hatred of Marat ? " she was asked. disdainfully. perhaps. " that this it was necessary to appear to esteem this man in order to obtain access to him." " Do you. means was unworthy of me.] . — : o 4 . the monster " exclaimed uttered a cry of horror. ! Fouquier Tinville summed up. 33. in order to render it more certain. and the ruse she had employed 87 to obtain access Convention to him." " What persons did you visit replied she . think that you have assassinated all the Marats ? " " Since he is dead. a municipal officer." said she. with humility. " I recognise it. DEFENCE OF HER COUNSEL." " Did you confess to a conforming or non-juring priest? " " Neither one nor the other. and gives the most overwhelming details. " Yes. " I did not need the hatred of any one else. " The accused. the others will tremble. which destroyed all her ideas. and demanded that sentence of death should be passed." The accuser reproached her with having dealt the fatal stroke downwards.

and already sat for her portrait. She heard unmoved and the president having asked her ." said she. ." During her examination she perceived a painter engaged in taking her likeness . — I wished to be defended J thank you I owe you a proof of my gratitude and esteem. She thought of immortality. and comprehended that. XXXV. but. at the moment when all on earth abandoned her. in order that he might the better see her features. he drew pressed. marked him for a native of the north. insensible to her own fate. she had anything to say relative to the punishment inflicted on her. 34. and she thanked him with a look." their verdict if The jury unanimously sentenced her to die. blue eyes. she made no reply . a German republican. to concert the movements of Germany with those of France. These gentlemen (pointing to the judges) have just declared my property confiscated . with the gesture of a man who protests from the bottom of his heart.88 It is ADAM LUX. and that amidst this hostile or indifferent throng she possessed an unknown friend. whose fair hair. and then sank back. " you have defended me as fender. and I offer you one worthy of you. the attention of the audience and of Charlotte Corday. she smilingly turned towards the artist. and to associate himself by gesture. by involuntary exclamations. to immortality. His eyes were rivetted on the prisoner . and I bequeath to you the payment of this debt. Charlotte. At the moment when the president passed sentence of death. as though his strength had failed him. with the sentiments she exUnable frecmently to repress his emotion. turning to her de" Monsieur. you to decide what weight so stern a fanaticism should have in the balance of justice. sent to Paris by the revolutionists of Mayence. He seemed to drink in her words. XXXIV. His eyes followed Charlotte until she disappeared : . in the common cause of human reason and the liberty of the people. the young man half rose from his seat. and at each reply he shuddered and changed colour. perceived this movement. without interrupting the examination. for [b. to himself. and enthusiasm. a kindred spirit attached itself to hers. and pale complexion. xliv. I leave all to your consciences. I owe something in the prison. This young stranger was Adam Lux. attitude. Behind the painter stood a young man.

It was addressed to Doulcet de Pontécoulant." The executioner arrived she requested him to allow her time to finish a letter. and on whom she believed she had called in vain to be her defender. and send it to her family. His thoughts never quitted her. and the . and I shall retain a grateful recollection of him to my last moments. she requested the concierge to allow him to finish his work. whom she had seen at her aunt's. and requested him to paint a miniature from the portrait. Charlotte Corday smiled on her companions in prison. she also charged him to hand down her mind and her patriotism to unborn generations. but the judges detained me so long that you must forgive me for having broken my word. to have relows fused to defend me when it was so easy.] CHARLOTTE CORDAY's PORTRAIT. Suddenly a gentle knock was heard at the door. the young Pontécoulant." Her indignation was unjust. Hauer. The letter was as fol" Doulcet de Pontécoulant is a coward. : — : . . She conversed with M. who had ranged themselves in the corridors and courts to see her pass. who was absent from Paris. Hauer on his profession. The artist who had sketched Charlotte's likeness at the tribunal. a painter. and the peace of mind she felt after the execution of her design she also spoke of her young friends at Caen. 89 amidst the gens d'armes beneath the arch of the stairs. and on his arrival Charlotte thanked him for the interest he appeared to take in her. 36. and quietly sat to him. was M. return to the prison. XXXVI. She said to the concierge "I had hoped that we should breakfast together once more. On her return to the Conciergerie. which was neither the outpouring of weakness nor regret.B. and officer of the national On her guard of the section of the Théâtre Français. which was so soon to yield her up to the scaffold. the events of the day. XLIV. as though whilst she permitted him to transmit her form and features to posterity. but the last act of wounded friendship addressing an eternal reproach to the cowardly spirit which — : — had abandoned her. He who undertook it performed his task with all possible dignity. had not received her letter his generosity and courage were a sufficient guarantee that he would have accepted the office and Charlotte bore an error and an injustice to the scaffold.

" said she. already. and the bust merely sketched. she gazed on the populace with eyes beaming with serenity and comit to A passion. This portrait." She collected her long hair." said she. Hauer. are the only sacrifices I can The executioner then cut off her hair. The sky cleared up. interrupted by death. and severing a lock of her long fair hair. who watched the preparations for the scaffold. Keep it in memory of your kindness and my gratitude." As she spoke. Hordes of women. and the rain which wetted her to the skin. presented himself to " Thank. but The blood I have spilt. priest. arranged by somewhat rude hands. and the streets along which she passed. but the lightning and rain did not disperse the crowd who blocked up the squares. and gave it to Madame Richard. " I know not how to thank you for the trouble you have taken I have only this to offer you. Hauer. Charlotte. but it leads to immortality. XLIV. painted. Then recovering her composure. own which I am about to shed. sent by the public accuser. offer the last consolations of religion. to the artist. But the painter. she took the scissors from the executioner. turning pale.90 HER LAST MOMENTS [b. the bridges. displayed the exquisite symmetry of her form. like those of a woman leaving the bath. or rather furies. perceived the " What scissors and red chemise he carried over his arm. insensible to these insults. obliged her to hold up her head. The rays of . and my I need not your ministry." exclaimed she. he painted her in this costume. was so struck with the sinister splendour added by the red chemise to the beauty of his model. is still in the posThe head only was session of the family of M. looked at it for the last time. and set off the outlines of her figure. gave ! . turning round. and put on the chemise des condamnés. a violent storm broke over Paris. M." said she. " those who have had the attention to send you. " This. 37. and glancing at the unfinished portrait. and this forced rigidity of the muscles gave more fixity to her attitude. offer the Eternal. but. As she mounted the fatal cart. " is the toilette of death." bound her hands. followed her with the fiercest imprecations . executioner entered. to him. XXXVII. Her hands bound behind her back. " Monsieur. that after Charlotte's death.

but. she placed herself under the axe. The appreciation of such an act places us in the terrible alternative of blaming virtue or applauding assassination. Adam Lux awaited the cart at the entrance of the Rue St. and her complexion. 39. which should have melted a stone. history dares not praise. — . ascended the scaffold with as light and rapid a step as the When the long chemise and her pinioned arms permitted. took it in his hand and struck it on the cheek.B. flashes that broke forth like burning ideas from these bright eyes." XXXVIII. we must leave this mystery to be debated in . Thus an enthusiastic and unearthly attachment accompanied her. Honoré. XLIY. turned pale." to quote his own words. She resembled celestial vengeance appeased and transfigured. Charming eyes. and prepared to follow her. and Charlotte. executioner. removed the handkerchief that covered her bosom. to gaze on her for all those who anticipated assassination were curious to study in her features the expression of that fanaticism which might threaten them on the morrow. " this unutterable sweetness amidst the barbarous outcries of the these vivid crowd. XXXIX. assistants. turning to the The heavy guillotine. Robespierre. heightened by the red chemise. had placed themselves on her passage. dares not condemn her. " He engraved in his heart. seemed of an unearthly brilliancy. in hope of an eternal reunion. yet penetrating. and followed it to the foot of the scaffold. then. to the very scaffold. Like the painter who. such were the In the face of murder life and death of Charlotte Corday. and in the face of heroism. this insult to her modesty moved her more than her impending death .] AND EXECUTION. in which spoke a soul as intrepid as tender. 91 the setting sun fell on her head . that look so gentle. soon recovering herself. named Legros. at the sight of the fatal instrument. to bare her neck. It is said that a deep crimson suffusion overspread the face. One of the blade fell. as though dignity and modesty had for an instant lasted longer even than life. The cart stopped. Danton. and her head rolled on the scaffold. and Camille Desmoulins. cast a veil over the face of the figure. and from time to time she seemed to seek a glance of intelligence on which her eye could rest. without her knowledge. despairing of rendering the expression of a mingled sentiment. Such was the death of Marat .

the scaffold which the blood of his model had hallowed. a name which should at once convey the enthusiasm of our feelings towards her and the severity of our judgment on her action. who was himself so soon to die for that common fatherland of all great souls pure A — liberty.92 remarks. and term her the Angel of Assassination. few days afterwards Adam Lux published the " Apology of Charlotte Corday. let us seek a weeping willow." He perished soon after. as he entered the prison. saluting. for she is dead for her country. did not morality reprove them. for her. and generous murderess of a tyrant. pure intent and culpable means." and associated himself with her deed. No. for No. no. without appeal. no. direct to the tribunal of God. men are no judges. " It is the tomb of Charlotte. xliv. for she is dead for her country. Had we to find for this sublime liberatrix of her country. The culpable devotion of Charlotte Corday is amongst those acts which admiration and horror would leave eternally in doubt. [b. but she teaches us how to die. she is dead in vain for her country " ! ing. murder and martyrdom. of the crime. and let your tears be blood. There are human actions so strange a mixture of weakness and strength. Arrested and sent to the Abbaye. " She destroys us. he exclaimed. plant nothing. in his dungeon. but weep. and plant it o'er her tomb. The heroism of Charlotte was sung by the poet André Chénier. '• Whose is this tomb ? " sings the German poet. There are deeds of which the abysses of the human heart. that we know not whether to term them crime or virtue. on learnand death of Char* exclaimed. error and truth. trial. in order to share her martyrdom. then. Let us gather flowers and scatter them over her ashes. as the altar of liberty and love. we would coin a phrase combining the extreme of admiration and horror. gather nothing . Vergniaud." . 39. lotte. " I shall die. and which mount. Klopstock.

Some proposed that an empty tomb should be erected Robespierre alone to him beneath every tree of liberty. Danintoxicated the people. in order The Convention orthat they might erect it into an idol. The purest virtue is deceived. XLV. " Doubtstrove to moderate this idolatry of the Jacobins. and flowers. and did not reach the place of sepulture until midnight. the bath. The poignard. and theon. cast his corpse to them. pens and papers were displayed by his side. and the Convention inaugurated The sections appeared at the Conhis bust in their hall." at the funeral.] FUNERAL OF MARAT. 2. the inkstand. less. He placed the body of Marat in the church of the Cordeliers. as the arms of the philosopher and the proofs of his stoical indigence. to demand that he should be buried in the PanOthers asked that his body should be embalmed. The blood of Marat The Montagne. TI. 93 BOOK XLV. as we inter a warrior on his field of battle. the block of wood. ' Deputations of the sections succeeded each other with harangues. happy at being freed from a rival whose influence with the multitude they feared. in her aim when she borrows the hand and weapons of crime." said he. and pronounced terrible vows over the corpse. The Convention decreed that it would be present en masse The painter David arranged the obsequies. carried through the departments to the very limits of the world. priority has been established by chance. The night after his death the people hung garlands at his door. In the evening the funeral cortege went forth. vention. I. ton. the court of the club of Cordeliers. and permitted a god to be made of him whom it had blushed to own as a colleague. " the honours of the poignard are reserved for is me . and my fall near at hand. dained the worship of Marat as a diversion to anarchy. The body was lowered into the grave under the shade of .B. Robespierre. on a catafalque. lighted by the flambeau of the church. incense. and strove to imitate those of Cajsar. The place selected for the reception of Marat's remains was the very one where he had so often harangued and agitated the people.

the electors. and a tomb for Young girls. the Commune. seillais. Riouffe. The club of the Enclosed in an urn. abandoning Normandy and Brittany to the royalists on one side. dressed in white. The mayor of Nismes caused himself to be designated the Marat of the south the mayor of Strasbourg. it was Cordeliers claimed his heart. shed over his tomb the soft and serene light of ancient elysium. of cypress and oak in their hands.94 CONDITION OF THE GIRONDISTS. Salles. under the banners of the sections. lastly. III. even in its disasters. where the advanced guard had fled at the first shock of the cannon. The theatres were decorated with his image. The conventional carrier called his troops the army of Marat. stanching blood. After the rencontre at Vernon. [b. " shall we be perjured in presence of thy manes ? Thou demandest vengeance " of us. addressed the last national adieu to his shade. Barbaroux. The poignard of Charlotte Corday. who adhered to this cause. Kervélégan. and mingled the heart of this apostle of murder in the same adoration as that of the Christ of peace. . Thuriot. the Marat of the Rhine. The society " Precious relics of a god " exvoted him also an altar. the departments. . The widow of " Vami du peuple " demanded vengeance from the Convention for her husband. The people. those trees whose leaves. XLV. a young Marin the Girondist ranks . the fugitive Girondists at Caen sought to regain Bordeaux. 3. claimed an orator at the foot of this altar. Marchenna. Pétion. Girey-Duprey. the Cordeliers. in lieu of sanguinary. Derisive apotheosis The president of the Assembly. voluntarily enrolled and. the Jacobins. illuminated by thousands of lamps. and to the commissioners of the Convention on the other. appeared to have opened the veins of France. sung around the funeral All the burden of these chaunts was car hymns to Marat. Places ! ! ! and streets changed their names for his. assisted at this ceremony. Meilhan. and the Convention. Gorsas. The Convention acquired ascendency everywhere. Louvet. He announced that the Convention would place the statue of Marat by the side of that of Brutus. a Spaniard. suspended to the roof of the hall of Assembly. and holding crowns herself. and thy assassins yet breathe people congregated every Sunday at Pilgrimages of the the tomb of Marat.

where they had some hours' repose. series of miracles from the dangers which surrounded them. which had protected them as far as Lamballe. who by turns gave him their arm. and the houses to seize them.] CONDITION OF THE GIRONDISTS. The others conThey had arms. and directed them that night towards a lonely house. Salles. Henri Larivière and Mollevault." they took refuge in the woods. XXV. Giroust and Lesage separated from their companions. Lesage. and Louvet alone preserved their indefatigable vigour. although scarcely twenty-eight years old. who had watched bodies. his feet torn with walking. threw away his arms. departed with the battalions. Bergoing. Cussy. Guadet had come to rejoin them shortly afterwards at Caen. preceded the fugitives to Quimper. had the unwieldy stature and embonpoint of a man advanced in age. the woods. tortured by an attack of gout. He could not walk without the assistance of Pétion and Louvet. groaned Buzot. 4. and illness decimated them. They passed weary hours concealed retreat was suspected. wearied out. and Valady. and having heard a murmur about them of " that is that is Buzot. and marched by cross roads. scattering in all directions his indignation and his courage. and mixed with those soldiers. the deputies quitted the highways. as at every step. Riouffe. Their Pétion. staining the road with his blood. soliciting from cottage to cottage that hospitality which might each moment betray them. They heard the générale beaten by the drums in the village. He only aided in their ruin. and accepted hospitality in the suburbs. Pétion. Barbaroux. They escaped by a peasants whom they could not seduce. a burden too heavy for him. The rain streamed over their benumbed young citizen of Moncontour. sprain had inflamed his foot. anxiety. They intimidated the tinued their route. Duchâtel. Buzot. Being recognised at Moncontour by some federals. in order to reach Brittany. came to them. dragged himself along. They searched the fields. not auxiliaries. Lanjuinais had preceded them to Brest. and separated from the battalion of Finisterre. 95 assumed the uniform of the volunteers of Finisterre. their flight. The wounded and the — A A sick like better to await death on the spot than to fly from . members of the fatal Commission of the Twelve. under the leaves. thirst. IV. Reduced to the number of nineteen.B. Meanwhile hunger. and prepared them asylums.

5. but dared not enter it. This guide grass. messenger on horseback. and in a marsh whose freezing waters benumbed their limbs. did not return. which contained his deliverance and his death. number were Salles. bread. though not his Louvet pressed to his breast the loaded courage. . V. however. enervated by hunger. made them blush They arose. Buzot wrapped himself up in silent melancholy. discovered the fugiHe conducted them to the house of a tives in the marsh. weapon. They sent one of their guides to warn Kervélégan of their approach. Barbaroux even felt his hope. sheltered themselves in an isolated country house Louvet. Vergniaud. after having raised him so high. Riouffe and Girey-Duprey lost the gaiety of their youth. the ceded him to Quimper. XLV. he was at this juncture arrested at Moulins. received an asylum at Kervélégan's Buzot was confided to the discretion of a generous citizen. Overcome with fatigue. They waited for two-and-thirty hours. they at last reached Quimper. and wine somewhat restored them. Barbaroux. and afterwards separated in different groups. devotion. . The beloved of Louvet had preShe brought to her friend. A peasant. They there recovered their strength. where fire. Avhich had until then sustained them. and transported . and ask from him the necessary indications to reach the retreats which his friendship had doubtless assured them. Cussy invoked death as more clement than his agony. silence. and Cussy. to Paris. In the mean time Kervélégan watched at Quimper. As to Brissot. sent by him. without shelter or nourishment.96 it. and reposed there. Pétion and Guadet. the hope. and Riouife in the house of a patriot of the town. the stoical indifference of a man who defies fate to precipitate him lower. The image of the adored female who sought his track to Pétion preserved rejoin him alone determined him to live. He had reached the depths of misery. The energy at their weakness. and the illusion of love. there to languish in prison. Girey-Duprey. in a house in the faubourg of Quimper . and laid which hid their bodies and protected their slumber. A constitutional curate of the environs received them afterwards. in which different fortune and end. FATE OF THE GIRONDISTS. beaten by the rain. [b. and continued their way in down some leagues farther on in some high of Barbaroux. Pétion. where each one had a Five amongst them. vanish.

Barbaroux. VI. . Buzot. having fallen back in Landau. so light in his amours that his inconstancy never knew a durable attachment. Barbaroux. Two hundred pieces of ordnance defended the place. Custine. Louvet retired with Lodoiska into a cottage. While the vanquished Girondists fell one by one into the hands of their enemies. XLV. who was dying. 6. Buzot. which she had prepared He there tasted. Grain was abundant in the city. and cur own places in the north. but there VOL. H — — We . this happiness which the proscribed Louvet owed to devotion and fidelity. commanded the place. The blockade was composed of fifty-seven battalions and forty squadrons. Couched under some mats in the bottom of the hold. fell have seen that under the cannon of the coalition. land of liberty. moments of happiness so much the more poignant when that halt of the unfortunate on the road to death. was invaded at its extremities.B. These proscribed men entered the waters of La Gironde. he said. at once representatives and soldiers. known by the marvellous Germany. general officers as enlightened as intrepid. at length one night in a fishing-boat. or prolonged so painfully the agony of their party. a small port in the neighbourhood of Bordeaux. and disembarked at Bec-d'Ambès. by flight. in order that the troops should fight under the very eye of the Convention. the republic. 97 Guadet. and Dubayet. envied. had left an imposing garrison at Mayence. Kléber. those for him. Doyré. and Pétion embarked country. works at Cherbourg. The news of the capture of Toulon by the English redoubled the surveillance and the persecution of the patriots towards the federalists accused of the dismemberment of the Louvet. III. had shut themselves up in Mayence. they passed through twenty-two republican vessels without being discovered. menaced. were unprotected. the places conquered by the army of Custine in Germany. refused to embark at Brest. and awaited in their asylums the cure of their friend. which was to conduct them to a vessel anchored off' the coast. that they might not be separated from Barbaroux. as the promise of a second invasion of General Meunier. They thought they had attained the it had become the land of death. were his lieutenants Rewbell and Merlin de Thionville. established in The frontiers its centre. between two tempests.] THE REPUBLIC INVADED.

chief. nevertheless. The French resuming every moment the offensive by terrible sorties. only the hope of a heroic defence. to carry to Mayence the order of honourable capitulation. driven from its bosom to the number of two or three thousand. The commissioners of the Convention. were equally repulsed by the Prussians. of boldness. to the troops. between the two armies. under the cannon of the The hospitals. and the generals commanding the town and the troops. withbatteries. 6. or in the agony of hunger. Horses. was a deficiency of powder. with their colours and their arms. ceased their fire. seized with expired some days afterwards. Merlin and Rewbell. The blockade was closed by the Austrians and Prussians. as well as bread. . and mice were devoured by Pitiless famine compelled the generals to the inhabitants. Fifteen thousand soldiers." The bombardment commenced with three hundred pieces The mills which furnished flour to the town of ordnance. was wanting. forced the hostile army to conquer again each step of approach to the walls. " but France loses a great man. were despatched to La Vendée. dogs.98 CArTURE OF MAYENCE. without medicines. out provisions. fire-proof by the long siege of Mayence. XXV. admiration and respect. cats. The Prussians. General Meunier. and converted into a siege. Old men. to give the French time to raise the tomb of their general in one of the bastions " I lose an enemy who has done me much misof the town. could no The town capitulated. Custine sent an officer to the Prussian army. left. This defence even paralysed twenty thousand of our best soldiers. and children. accompanied by a Prussian officer. Meat. under the condition of not fighting for one year against Prussia. and energetically repelled this insinuation. The troops departed free. send from the town all useless mouths. longer shelter the wounded. assembled a council of war. struck by a ball which broke his knee. and courage which Merlin de Thionville exemplified. blockaded on the other side of the Rhine in their conquest. and its garrison were set on fire." exclaimed Frederic William. The prodigies of ability. without roofs. heart and hand. [b. This officer demanded permission to cross the lines as a flag of truce. and expired. women.

Every one was The news from afflicted. The representative braved the clamour. and were each moment more bitter. and lost.] ARREST OF CUSTINE. refused him military honours. rendered the Jacobites at once mistrustful and rash. Demonstrations against Custine multiplied. soldiers in the town. one of the frontier Dampierre died endeavouring to places in the north."' " Let him be restored to us " cried the angry troops. the arrest of Custine in the midst of his army. and fifty for the passage The terror alone of the name of our brave and of Ferrand. after having slain twenty thousand foes. left breaches large enough of cavalry. as if he desired to make his tomb of its ruins. and this success on the other. and could not even furnish more than four days' provisions at They were obliged to surrender. XLV. General Ferrand. as more had been hoped from him. on that rate. The soldiers' rations were only two ounces of bread. thirty thousand thousand bombs. fell. 7. the departments reassured the Assembly. surthe 12th of July.B. of these disasters alarmed Paris. shells. This general was the more readily acBazire demanded cused. had defended the town for three The months. the representative desired a review of the The soltroops : forty thousand men were under arms. General Chancel. Levasseur de la Sarthe charged himself with this perilous mission. Valenciennes at last capitulated. though seventy years of age. h 2 The news couraging it. 99 the same juncture. " Soldiers of the them. seven thousand fighting men r were permitted to return to France with their arms and colours. soldiers. that brave lieutenant of Dumouriez. diers. Condé. shut up with four thousand succour it. itself. had neither provisions nor ammunition. Republic!" said he to them. as prisoners. destroyed by bombs. protected the place. no one despaired of the country. and the garrison. shaken to their foundations by the battering of At two hundred thousand balls. These reverses on the one side. Valenciennes. Arrived at the camp. who suspected Levasseur of coming to carry off their Levasseur exacted chief. ! . fortifications. and made them lower their colours. rendered on the 28th to the English and the Austrians. VII. without disThe constancy of the Convention in the midst of reverses strengthened the public mind. " the Convention has arrested General Custine.

and preferred the scaffold to the land of Arrived in Paris. he defended Danton . He of popularity. Robespierre opposed himself. he will be restored to you if he be guilty. VIII. the Minister of Marine. people their most ancient friends. whom they a right to lay the slightest reproach cannot underrate until after having proved that they have more energy. Danton. Do you desire to keep the Committee of Public Safety in leading strings ? New men desire to destroy in the mind of the patriots of a day I cite. walked about the Palais Royal. He defended the Committee of Public Safety when accused of too great leniency. " if Custine be innocent. [b. just now?" said he. What does it avail to praise " the dead. " Soldiers!" resumed lie. regarding " antagonists here are the nobility. provided one may calumniate the living IX. on whom no one has Danton. or love for the country. This passive obedience encouraged the Jacobins to further denunciations. did not intimidate him. "What signify all these commonplaces you make use of. although he made no part of it himself. the Minister of the Interior. The murmurs of the ultra-Jacobins. 8. which was imputed as a crime to him. but in so far that he believed anarchy necessary to the triumph of the Revolution. seeking popularity in public riez. The general was arrested. his blood will expiate No pardon for traitors Woe to rebels " his crimes. xev. placed himself energetically against the instigators of disorder. Garat.100 eobespierke's firmness. My — — ! ! . who is calumniated. anarchy. he found there a remnant the stranger. with the same firmness. Danton. for example. . While Robe pierre. he defended Garat and Dalbarade against Chabot and Rossignol he denounced the denunciators. ! ! He obeyed. talent. which drowned his voice. and Dalbarade. no more republicans than myself. became there the objects Robespierre. Some days afterwards. to the accusations which were generally circulated against the nobles employed in the armies. Custine did not imitate Dumou. and was admired by the females and the younger classes. The silence of duty alone responded to this speech. than he! They give great praise to Marat for having the right to rail against the present patriots. from the moment that he thought the Revolution assured. who had not favoured of odious insinuation.

. 10. protected by Robespierre.. He appeared to abandon the Revolution to its course. Danton deserted the tribune of the Jacobins. thus moderated the Jacobins. a more respected. Private passion fatigues and wears itself out. at least for a moment. since Marat had disappeared from La Montagne. The fall of the Girondists had disconcerted Danton. Danton had arrived. seeking repose.B. But Danton had been too great to H 3 . Robespierre had this advantage over Danton. and desiring to redeem it by amnesties and generosity natural to the present state of his heart. incessantly occupied by Robespierre. humbled by his sanguinary renown. Danton was equally repugnant to one and the other of these two parties. No wavering was longer possible. Danton was a man Robespierre was an idea.] DANTON. one while towards La Montagne. their beacon in tumult. spoke rarely at the Cordeliers. in a crisis. and at another towards La Plaine. their hand but. X. to see the wreck pass and await the reaction of opinion. and sustained by a disinterested idea. and to seat himself upon the bank. Danton had for some time astonished his friends by the languor and incoherence of his resolutions. XLV. by turning. La Montagne really did like him. for him. In this disposition of mind. when it is not man of passion. their voice in action. Danton desired to repose in his domestic happiness. Furthermore. in his own person. not of theory. never. . He was. one of the weights of the equilibrium. if not to abdicate. Fatigued Avith being terrible. Thus. in a manner. A — . more serious rival than Marat. Absorbed in the delight of the attachment with which the young female he had just espoused had inspired him. since the triumph of the Commune. and. which he had hoped to establish to his advantage in the Convention. and assumed the position of a minister. The Girondists were. at that state of moral lassitude which sometimes seizes upon and consumes the most fiery ambition. because it was disinterested. that his passion was indefatigable. Danton found Robespierre there. at least to adjourn his ambition. It was incumbent either to be a proscriber or proscribed. he experienced the weakness of nature. and was silent in the Convention. 101 reason and the power of government. he wished to be loved. public passion. . Danton allowed himself to be.

the poignard had disembarrassed him of Marat. was too humble or too proud an act for a man of his importance in To separate himself from the Convention in the republic. or it was to declare that he would not join in a compact with the government. Danton knew it. He. M. Camille Desmoulins. 11. Danton had a secret conference with . in the secrecy of was the horror with which the apdomestic confidence proaching sentence of the queen. Time flies swiftly in revolutions. in order that he may bring you. had become. XLV. [d. and Chabot. and inspired him even with a secret pride. XI. which began to raise the indignation of good citizens. reasoned Danton. Danton flying from Paris. who still lived. like himself. suspected at the Cordeliers and the Jacobins. Reproaches made Danton smile with disdain. under pretext of lassitude and exhaustion of strength. the true causes of his retirement. therefore. He did not pretend to austerity. instinctively. The disconOblivion protects mediocrity. the crisis of its perils and its oppression. He alleged. death had delivered him from the superiority of Mirabeau . was to declare that he felt himself useless to the country. at his hour. the necessity of presenting his new wife to his mother and his father-in-law. He counted rather upon obscurity. Marie Antoinette. Before his departure. all that fortune has in store. It was at this period that Danton. also. was too well versed in the mysteries of the human heart. Thus. the 31st of May had relieved him from the superior eloquence of Vergniaud .102 DANTON RETIRES. in such a moment. chance might free him from the rivalry of Robespierre. pressed by his young wife and new family to separate his cause and his name from the cause and name of terror. and against his Legendré. The principal motive of this retreat the motive which he avowed to his wife and his relations. he had not the hypocrisy of disinterestedness. he rather displayed than concealed his natural weaknesses. Ricordin. tented Revolution fretted itself against him. A — — him. Fabré d'Eglantine. Such an attitude was an abdication or a threat. disguised. friends. inspired be forgotten. It suffices to place oneself upon the route of time. decided on quitting the scene. not to comprehend that this retreat. and retiring to Arcis-sur-Aube.

his mother. swore to each other mutual esteem and constant support. He sought to wash himself of all association in the Neither did he dissimulate his massacres of September. sometimes virtuous.Aube. in appearance friends. He he did not receive one from did not write a single letter. Danton. from the Convention. in his rural retreat of Arcis. visited him sometimes the deputy Courtois. sometimes — : cruel. Danton did not disguise his sincere repentance for the revolutionary transports into which the fire of passion had cast his name and hand. XLV. 103 himself before his rival. Paris. always chimerical. XII. although ill and exhausted by mental labours which would have consumed other men.sur. He requested him to defend him. to confide to He humbled his him Danton departed. The two rivals. who possessed some Their conversations turned upon mills at Arcis-sur-Aube. took good care not to retain Danton.B. One deputy it was alone. on the contrary. Robespierre. to devote his powers with more ardour than ever to the pursuit of his ideal of government. hope of again acquiring the ascendency due to his political genius. with his wife. . The thread of all his plots was cut. He spoke of Robespierre as a dreamer. Robespierre. when present convulsions should have worn out the shallow talent and weak characters who reigned in the Convention. and his paternal fields. and M. so far as discouragement at the state of public affairs.] HIS OPINION OF EODESPIERRE. He also wrote a great deal but he burned it as soon as written. He spent much time in reading the Roman historians. the happiness of seeing his mother again. lived entirely occupied with his love. 13. He desired to leave no trace of himself but his name. the friends of his youth. during his absence. He augmented his ambition in confounding it entirely with the H 4 . Robespierre. of public affairs. satisfied with this deference and the retirement of the only man who could compete with him in the republic. forgot himself. XIII. the surveillance of his domestic interests. against the calumny which the Cordeliers incessantly heaped upon his patriotism and probity. In his intimate conversations the dangers of the country. He appeared to have entirely cast aside the weight. his compatriot. Ricordin. the care of his young chil- dren. and even the remembrance.

according to him. he thought he had attained his end. Robespierre became more assiduous than ever at the evening meetings of the Jacobins. so often calumniated then and since. the repentance. provided he were the main The weaknesses. or to constitute a republic. of whom he was the oracle. to distract them from factions. who threatened the independence of the representation. wherein the dominion of wealth should be substituted to the rule of the church and the throne. from all the corrupted men who desired to mingle demagogism with the Revolution. He kept aloof. His popularity even. three things. He turned the thoughts of this society towards the great problems of social organisation. the reign of which. as impure alloy is mixed with pure metal to render it more pliable and easier to mould. to rally public opinion in the Convention through the Jacobins. This end was the representative sovereignty of all the citizens. and. He dispensed it with as much prodigality as it had cost him care and patience to acquire it. went not beyond this. From this day. He did not wish to abase republican principles to the level of an oppressed and worn out — . in short. and where the people would have some thousands He had seen in the of tyrants in lieu of having only one. XIV. in an elective The ambition council. day more general and fanatical amongst his followers. which should be all the government. to establish harmony and unity of action in the organisation of He did not mingle any personal a committee of government. concentrated in an election as extensive as the people themselves. from day to cupidity with these ideas. had sincerely persuaded him that these men desired to retrograde towards monarchy. Since their fall. commercial aristocracy of the Girondists. with more apparent disgust. and acting by the people. to resist the anarchical encroachments of the Commune. He had also changed his attitude and language from He only studied the time the Girondists had disappeared. xlv. ought to be passed.104 Robespierre's projects. [b. and for the people. of Robespierre. 14. XV. ported little to him. ambition of the republic he desired to found. the landed and matters. was for him an instrument and not an end. citizens the most dangerous enemies of universal democracy The past imspring of all and of philosophic levelling.

not laws. For the moment. but vague and implacable logic of democracy almost to adoration. and of a field Robespierre himself. Although their theories were different. 10Ô desired to elevate the people's thoughts to the people. He united himself in most intimate friendship with the very small numher of rigid. These were Couthon. unfortunately. the best government. and whence he would contemplate. Just. they there intiamed their imaginations with the ravishing perspective of the justice. Every member of this assembly had this instinct that of safety when the laws were broken. The Convention should be the arm as much as the head of the republic. They did not present the constitution to the eyes of the people but as a plan of institution in perspective. These deputies. assembled almost every evening at the house of their oracle . over which a veil would be thrown after having shown it at a distance to the nation. The laws ought to be arms. and by the sole attraction of truth but they were. They were institutions of peril which France required. that their system would prevail. apparently more weary of to cultivate. according to them. France and liberty were in peril. was. who urged on this vigorous. No blood stained them yet. and St. men pure until then of all They hoped except fanaticism. the minds of . nothing to their system. XXV. They there spoke only of the happiness of abdication from every public position. spoke only of an isolated hut in the depth of Artois. not even the sacrifice of entire generations. the equality. resolved to refuse. of a humble trade to exercise. XVI. through the evidence of reason alone. agitation. Lebas. and the felicity promised by the new doctrine on earth. the general happiness.B. from the bosom of his private felicity. Convention did not ask for the dictatorship she did not — . He Robespierre and Danton accorded then iii concentrating the power in the Convention. and more restless. immediately afrer the triumph of their principles. whither he would take his wife. but honest men. most spiritual height of principles. few in number.] THEORIES OF GOVERNMENTS. The government best adapted to assure victory over the inimical factions of the Revolution. 16. This The instinct manifested itself on the instant in their acts. to govern was to conquer. .

either to tyranny or death. by the organ of its reporter. then. 17. Such was the situation of the Convention in the month of July. for usurpation that history should reproach the Convention. the 31st of May. Had it accepted death. the Convention called to itself every power in 1793. It is on this condition alone. and distributed amongst these great commissions the different functions of power. that God and posterity absolve governments. of incessantly stretching to contract again . It is a law of power. government. XVII. royalty. the nation and the Revolution would have perished with it. bond of unity was — A . it had created government commissions in the very bosom of the national representation. have a thousand heads and a thousand languages. [b. Each of these commissions brought up. for the sanction of the whole Convention. It was condemned. THE CONVENTION. after delegate it she took it. people revoke their delegations. 1793. This dictatorship was resumed. It seized the dictatorship. The appointed forces were In extreme crises essentially weaker than the direct ones. the more ought equity to reign in their place. in the Committee of Public Safety. but the means it employed The farther laws are separated from a in exercising it. The Convention thus reigned well. In the same manner that the nation had recalled to itself its inalienable sovereignty in 1789. It had commenced by creating ministers. when it becomes action. It is not. instituted government commissions. afterwards completely. whether they may be termed They could not hesitate. They require only a hand when they possess themselves of the executive power. XLV. or law and magistracy. It was not to blame. invested with a certain responsibility. afterwards. There are legitimate usurpations they are those which save the ideas. intuitive perception of this truth. as under the Girondist ministry of Roland. Conscience is the law of laws. The Convention had at first fully. It had afterwards almost entirely annulled the action of these ministers. and the institutions. by this situation. while they remain deliberative assemblies. the results of its deliberations. and with a certain independence. the people. and personifying Political bodies may itself amongst a small number of men. but it ruled with incoherence and weakness. as special and diverse as any of these ministries .106 .

From the month of already well known in the Convention. Pétion. 107 wanting to these scattered commissions. the surveillance of all the ministers. Guadet. and Cambacérès oracle of despotism sprung from the councils of liberty. 18. Barrère. The chief members of the Committee of Public Safety. alone.] THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY. not orders. as Robespierre. Gensonné. Lathat future source. combated this idea. Vergniaud. proposed Buzot to strengthen it by transforming and purifying it. foreseeing death in the blade his friends were forging. trary imprisonment of the citizens. Delmas. and the right to adopt of itself decrees of urgency. and decreed This was the abdication of the to it all the government. This committee possessed the power of originating all laws and measures which were rendered exigent by the danger of It called the ministers into the country. Condorcet. Albitte. Camille Desmoulins. Bentabole. Some Girondists themselves. Camus. Bréard. Quinette. the force of action concentrated in a committee of few members. Isnard. The name of the Committee of Public Safety was . Danton. Prieur (de la Marne). which they drew up. The number of the members in the committee was limited to nine in lieu of twenty-five. every man of presentiment in the Assembly. united to Danton. They were advices.B. the right of suspending the decrees which it should judge to be prejudicial to the national interest. Guyton de Morveau (the assistant of Buffon). and rendered an account evgry eight days to the Convention. Marat. Sièyés. XVIII. Ruhl. March preceding. had they known how to make use of it. and re- uniting in its hands all the scattered threads of the too much They had instituted this relaxed design of executive power. were Dubois-Crancé. — — . and Quinette. Danton. it controlled their acts. centre of government. The Girondists had there been chosen by majority. within and without. This instrument of force was in their hands. The right of secrecy was bestowed upon it. Isnard. to the number of twentyfive. It was adopted in spite of his entreaties. It reorganised the Committee of Public Safety. XLV. Only that of arbione single act of sovereignty was interdicted. their centre. Convention but an abdication which gave it the empire. Jean Debry. Barbaroux. Robespierre. Buzot. Private funds were allowed to it. Fabre d'Eglantine. had demanded unity of views.

the definitive committee of public safety.108 THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY. XLV. 19. They were applauded. "form it without me. Danton had still reserved to himself in the committee the direction of exterior affairs. and expulsions. stronger and more numerous. also. and shrouded himself in apparent indifference. which betrayed so high a feeling of his importance. and such humiliating disdain for his colleagues. But his friends had The the majority. XIX. who had not vested with every power. either by éclat or by obscurity. smelt of the usurper and unveiled ambition. Cambon. as he had been accused for his authority in the committee. led him. Danton had been exiled by the Girondists in this committee. abstained from entering the committee at first. . proclaimed by Danton himself to be a provisional government. Danton not finding energy amongst his colleagues. and by Thuriot. After successive hesitation. nominations. towards which his universal genius. but noted. He retired to his bench. He there studied government as a man who meditated the assumption of it on some future day. Danton withdrew himself from these duties. Bréard. one of his organs. and that men of fame were not permitted to extinguish or conceal " Form another committee. that he might not eclipse Danton. was inThis once Danton. and caused his spirit to rule therein. He was accused on account of his retreat. Delmas. Its members were Barrère. Whether he thought he should appear greater when seen alone. Guyton de Morveau. sought it in the Commune. confidence in an institution from which he was excluded. They were deceived by their tactics." These words. which might awaken envy. one of his partisans. After the defeat of the Girondists. military and diplomatic. Danton. imprudently refused to enter it. Lacroix (d'Eure et Loire) and Robert Lindet. he caused himself to be represented by Hérault de Séchelles. He saw that certain names could not escape the attention of mankind. Robespierre. Theilhard. I will be its spur in place of being its bridle. [b. The Committee of Public Safety was to be renewed every month by an election of the Assembly. . or whether he desired to isolate himself in disgust from public affairs. Envy followed him there." said he themselves. in order to neutralise his influence in the midst of the weak and indecisive members of La Plaine.

d'Or were called there. Carnot and of the Convention put Robespierre in his place. Couthon. and disorganised armies . Billaud-Varennes and Collot d'Herbois charged themselves with kindling the public spirit.André. XX. It was the armed genius of the country defending the frontiers during the convictories. Just arrogated to himself the empire of established theories as vague and as absolute as his imperturbable Couthon took the surveillance of the police. and Jean-BonGasparin having retired.B. and all the maledictions of posterit}r . . Barrère. XLV. tion the criticism and correction of their faults. The members of the — . St. which took upon itself. The extremity of the crisis. the material administration of the war and Carnot the supreme military directhe plans of campaigns. the inspiration of the generals. 20. cast the lot and distinguished the ranks. Robert Lindet. which could not betray its dissension but in falling altogether. Just. Thuriet. that La Montagne complained of seeing themselves languish under the chilly breath of Robespierre..St. Robert Lindet had the commissariat a vital question at the moment when famine was in the towns. the sworn and guarded secrecy. the danger of weakening itself by disunion. length Billaud-Varennes and Collot d'Herbois completed it. ever destroying unity. the unanimous cry Saint. all the dangers. Just. . conformity with his scrutinising and sombre mind. the marine Prieur. all the glory. in metaphysics. Jean-Bon. The exterior relations devolved upon Hérault de Séclielles. without as ubiquitous as service. who was secretly inspired by the European genius of Danton. Prieur de la Côte. during this convulsion of fourteen months.] THE COMMITTEE OP PUBLIC SAFETY. Hérault de Séclielles. Committee of Public Safety parAbility took of its attributes according to their capacities. Gasparin. 109 eight members were St. Influence was there It deposed importance. Thus was constituted this decemvirate. the unextinguishable zeal. and carried the spirit of Jacobinism to such a height. the preparation of . from the necessity of personifying the military genius At of France in presence of the armies of the coalition. a few days afterwards. St. and Couthon.André. and the difficulty of the task bound together this terrible group. through the correspondence of the committee with the agents of the republic in the departments. and the reparation of reverses. all the power.

was no president. Profound secrecy was obthese fatal facilities of the pen. save that of war. or who had refused such and such a life. colouring of events. his mind on the details. the Convention called the envoys of the primary cipitation of a — — . a pliant. He had the gift of choosing men. 21. Bonaparte. — committee which determined even five hundred matters in the course of the day. Prieur (de la Côte-d'Or) assisted Carnot in the Fifteen hours' work every day. Thought. animated. vulsion of the heart and the exhaustion of the veins of France. lastly. He designed the end and the politician of the committee. there yielded even their reputation. And. the others propelled the machine. XEV. but did not overwhelm the organising genius of Carnot. members XXI. He uttered from the height of the tribune words prepared for the people. nevertheless. and often without examination. Marceau. moved not the wheels. stretch over all the maps and all the positions of our campaigns. The responsibility of each member merged into the general responsibility. digested the deliberations of the committee. Pichegru. encouraged these faciMany heads fell through lities without justifying them.110 THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY. All were all were heads the republic presided. No one knew who had sued for. possessed itself of the government. and Kléber were amongst so many future heroes. Moreau. prompt. thus transformed into an executive council. [b. All adopted every These men had thing. the appearance of a master was dreaded. An anonymous dictatorship was desired. even though all had not consented. served. While the Committee of Public Safety. These signatures of confidence were lent and bestowed too cruelly at a later period amongst The prethese colleagues. Jourdan. marvellous to say. lights of his discernment. Robespierre the road . Hoche. sufficed to render measures executive. and his hand marked out their future fame. His attribute was The debates were determined by the majority of council. In a chief. Barrère. The signature of three members. Desaix. and literary spirit. Bonne. The committee did not suffer from this want of a head. And. RobesHe was pierre presided over all questions. and rendered the reports to He had the the Convention in brief and effective terms. He carried into council the sang froid and the fire of the field of battle.

fruit. around the national representation. presided over this fountain. the people en masse. representing the eighty-six departments. reason. each section its symbol. assembled there at sunrise. the Jacobins. the anniversary of the 10th of August and the acceptation of the constitution. a long tricoloured ribbon. XLV. and unrolled from one hand to the other. Soul was wanting there because God was absent. The authorities of Paris. received the water in a cup of gold. and fresh ears of corn. walked round the members of the Convention. the bearers of the votes of the whole people who sanctioned the new constitution. by eight of its members. the members of the Commune. to the sound of cannon. David was inspired by Robespierre. marked as the first step of the Republic. to Paris. Nature. The people were there the only majesty. The painter David conceived the fête which assimilated. whose breasts poured forth water.] NATIONAL PROCESSION. 21. The members of the Convention advanced last. raised it to his lips. The cortege defiled. — Robespierre dared not yet unveil his image. was the site of the Bastille. These envoys arrived there to the number of eight thousand. " I am on the verge of the tomb. Hérault de Séchelles. Eighty-six envoys of the primary assemblies. in a like popular solemnity on the Champ-de-Mars. and the ark in which the constitution was enclosed." exclaimed the old man. and the Convention. president of the Convention. which seemed to enchain the deputies in the all human . creed. called the Fountain of Regeneration. the envoys of the primary assemblies. Each society raised its flag. washed away the traces of former servitude. as in all the fêtes of the Revolution. the Cordeliers. and transmitted it to the most aged of the citizens. Symbols and allegories were the sole objects of adoration. were carried as holy relics into the midst of the Convention." The cup circulated from hand to hand amongst the assistants. Ill assemblies. The tables on which the rights of man were written. Upon the ground of the Bastille a fountain. each one holding in the hand a bouquet of flowers. colossal ties A statue of Nature. country were the only divinities who presided at this regeneration of the social world. The place of union and the point of departure of the cortege. " but I think T shall be born anew with the regenerated race. in short.B. upon the Boulevards. the fraternal socieof women.

rural life. Public instinct. rappel to be beaten in all the sections. presented by Hérault de Séchelles to the acceptation of the republic. benevolence. The foundlings in their cradles. labour. however. sceptres. the crowd dispersed itself The representatives and estaover the Champ-de-Mars. bonds of the country. the envoys of the departments urged the Convention to conPeril called for arbitrary meatinue the government alone. XLV. An address. XXII. and which at this moment would have served to undermine liberty itself. and warlike virtue marched behind the representatives. pride. all these symbols of slavery. was an arm which the Revolution should have restored to its enemies. The salvos of cannon seemed themselves to swear extermination to the foes of the country. a million of voices steps of this immense amphitheatre swore to defend the principles of the social code. the deaf and dumb conversing in the language of signs which science had given them . was carried by thousands of citizens to the Convention. drawn up by Robespierre. A . lastly. crowned with olive branches. his wife and his children . No regular constitution could fulfil its duties in the hands of petition from enemies of every democratic constitution. and. should be adjourned until the pacification of the empire. cised the influence of the people over the Convention to A — A . exemplified the reconciliation and the unity of the members of the republic. blished corps ranged themselves upon the steps of the altar million of heads bristled upon the sloping of the country. 22. tumbrils loaded. surrounded by the labourer. and caused the sures. to conjure them to retain the supreme power. where the multitude saluted their own image in a colossal statue of the people trampling on federalism.112 NATIONAL PROCESSION. a triumphal car. crowns. innocence. whereon their names were inscribed . as if they were vile spoils. according to La Montagne. Close by a station before les Invalides. glory. and broken arms superstition. only accepted the constiEvery one felt that its execution tution as a future matter. enclosed in urns. national fascis. the ashes of heroes who had died for their country. with fragments of tiaras. was accompanied by sound of drums and the It was evident that the Jacobins exervoice of the tocsin. [lî. Liberty. This dialogue of a thousand voices of the people and its representatives. Pache re-assembled the Commune.

the sudden attack. I make We . without other tactics than their impetuosity destroyed the Roman empire. of a general appeal to the people . " have until now not known the true national temperament. 113 " Legislators. The Romans were tacticians they conquered an enslaved world the free Gauls. It withdrew into its office.] it ADDRESS OF THE JACOBINS. It is easier to move a whole nation than a part of it. while holding its sitting. The irruption. 23. where traitorous and perfidious generals sell the blood of the citizens. the revolutionary tribunal. Ordain a fixed hour when the tocsin of liberty shall sound throughout the republic. — . they are so. When a great people desires to be free. address.B." said Barrère. and overthrowing the dykes of despotism such is the image of a war of liberty. " The generals. provided their territory furnishes them metal wherewith to forge arms. in his report. have pointed out to you the sublime step their perils. XLV. . the inundation of an excited people. The real meaning was terror. If you required one hundred thousand men. — . The Committee of Public Safety blushed at the insufficiency of its measures in defence of the frontiers. the project of a new decree which raised all France. perhaps you would not find them if you deiriand millions of republicans. and death." said they in the give birth to terror." The ConVOL. and reported. let agriculture alone reserve the arms necessary for the sowing of the earth and the reaping of the harvest let the course of things be interrupted let the grand and only business of the French be to save the republic let the means of execution not disquiet you only decree the prinwill present to the Committee of Public Safety ciple the means of making the national thunder burst upon all " tyrants and all slaves XXIII. ! We ! — — . you have only acquired Half measures are always mortal in exthe first rank. This subterfuge of the Jacobins was transparent. " elevate yourselves to the height of the great desThe French people are themselves above tiny of France. ! . Let no one be exempted . III. treme danger. you will see them arise to crush the enemies of liberty The people no longer desire a war of tactics. " It is thus that the impetuosity of the French shall level with the dust this colossus of coalition. drowning in its tumultuous waves hordes of enemies.

pieces and naked weapons will be bestowed upon the public force in the interior. the service of the armies. men and material. belonged entirely to the Revolution. and the love of the republic. which are plete the corps of cavalry. all the heroic names of the They military empire of France were there to be found. Arms of calibre will be exclusively consaltpetre from it. the public places into arThe soil of the cellars will be lyed to extract mouries. The glory with which despotism armed itself at a later period against liberty. will be converted into barracks. all the French are in permanent requisition for the The young men will go to battle. not required for agriculture. for the execution The representatives of the people. and will there be exercised in the use The banner of arms. absolute powers for this object. are sent into their respective circuits. to require all throughout the republic. XLV. married men will forge arms and transport provisions. the children wiU make lint to dress the wounded. very far from alarming the generality of France. : — They will repair to the principal children. are invested with The levy will be general. vention arose in enthusiasm. until their departure for the armies. of each organised battalion shall bear this inscription : ' Le peuple Français debout contre les tyrans V" These measures. the women will make tents and clothes. or widowers without tives to citizens. [b. Those citizens who are unmarried. Fowling fided to those who march against the enemy. 24. originate every thing.114 DECREE OP THE CONVENTION. as an example of representaand voted the following decree XXIV. On registering the lists of the first officers who were named. Saddle-horses will be required to comAll draught-horses. will conduct the artillery and The Committee of Public Safety is charged to provisions. place in their district. . " From this moment and until the day when the enemy shall have been driven from the territory of the republic. to organise every thing. who of these measure. will march first. the old men will cause themselves to be carried to the public places. to excite the courage of the warriors. the hatred of The national buildings kings. and will serve in the hospitals . Battalions were raised with more celerity and regularity than in 1792. sprung from the republic. were received by patriots with the enthusiasm which had inspired them.


XXV. 25.]



These decrees were completed in the space of two months by others impressed with the same defensive energy. It was the organisation of the enthusiasm and the despair of a people who knew how to die, and of a cause which must triumph. France was at the Thermopylae of the Revolution, but this Thermopylae was as extended as the frontiers of the republic, and the combatants consisted of twenty-eight millions of men. The Commission of Finance, through Cambon, its reporter and its oracle, ruled with an honest and healing hand over the disorder of the bankrupt treasury, and over the chaos into which the mass and the discredit of the assignats had thrown private and public affairs. There were in circulation about four thousand millions of francs, of valueless assignats. On one hand, the loan forced upon the rich, equivalent to nearly one year's revenue a light tax to save the capital by
saving the country, caused one thousand millions of assignats to come into the hands of government. Cambon burned them as he received them. On the other hand, the mass of taxes in arrear amounted almost to a thousand millions. Cambon absorbed them at a nominal price in the cash of the state. The sum of paper money thus was reduced to two thousand millions. To raise these assignats in public opinion, Cambon abolished all companies who produced actions, to the end that the assignat should become the only national action in circulation. Capitalists were prohibited from investing their funds otherwise than in the French banks. The commerce of gold and silver was interdicted, on pain of death. These metals were reserved, from urgent economy, fur the use of the mint. To increase the quantity of ready money requisite for the small daily transactions of the people, the bells of the churches were cast, and the sacred metal was thrown to the people struck into coin of the


Cambon furthermore sounded the gulf of the debt of the towards individuals. The word bankrupt might have

up this gulf, but it would have choked it with spoil, with debt, and with tears. Cambon desired that probity, the virtue of citizens amongst themselves, should be above all the virtue of the republic towards its creditors. He executed a measure of equity. He took possession of all the




XLV. 26

claims, he valued them, he amalgamated them under one general and uniform title, which he called the Ledger of the National Debt. Each creditor was inscribed in this ledger, for a sum equivalent to that which the state acknowledged The state paid the interest of this recognised to owe him. sum at five per cent. This stock, which was freely bought and sold, thus became a real capital in the hands of the creditors of the state. The state could redeem itself, should the stock in commerce fall below par, that is to say, in regard to the interest of the This operation would exempt the capital at five per cent. As to the state without oppression and without injustice. The government capital, that was never to be reimbursed. acknowledged itself the debtor of a perpetual interest, and The perpetual rent had moreover this ponot of a capital. litical advantage of combining the interest of the masses of the citizens with the fortune of the state, and of republicanising the creditors by their interest. In short, it created a fruitful germ of public credit, even in the ruin of private The public prosperity of France still at this day fortune. rests upon the basis instituted by Cambon. XXVI. The unity of weights and measures; the application of the discovery of balloons to military operations the establishment of telegraphic lines to bear the hand of government, as promptly as its thoughts, to the extremities of the republic the formation of national museums to excite by example the creation of an the taste and cultivation of the arts uniform civil code for all parts of France, to the end that in short, justice should there be as one with the country public education, that second nature of civilised people, were the objects of the many discussions and decrees which attested to the world that the republic had faith in itself, and founded a futm^e, by disputing the morrow with its enemies. Equality of education was proclaimed, as a principle To give two souls to the flowing from the rights of man. people was to create two people into one, and to make helots and aristocrats of intelligence. On the other hand, to com; ;



pel all the children of fortune, of different religions and conditions, to receive the same education in the national


XXV. 28.]

to falsify all social order, to
to violate all family freedom.


all professions,

Robespierre desired, and was bound to desire, this forced education, in the radically balanced logic of his ideas, wherein family, condition, profession, and fortune disappeared but to The the country and man. give place to two unities uniform tyranny of the design of the state ought, in his principles, to precede uniform justice and equality amongst The Convention decreed national establishits children. ments of public education, which all the youths of the country should be compelled to frequent ; but it permitted families the right of retaining their children under the paternal roof ; thus bestowing instruction upon the state, education to the fathers, heart to the family, and soul to the country.

decrees of violence, vengeance, and sacrisprung these decrees of power, wisdom, and magnanimity. The menacing movements of the people of Paris, who were beset with the reality of famine and the phantom of monopoly, the ravings of Chaumette and Hébert in the Commune, compelled the Convention to make deplorable concessions, which resembled zeal, but which were only weakness. In requiring from the people all their energy, the Convention considered itself also obliged to put up with all their transports. It was not as yet strong enough to govern its own that is to say, force. The Convention decreed a maximum below which no bread, meat, fish, salt, an arbitrary price wine, coals, wood, soap, oil, sugar, iron, hides, tobacco, and stuffs could be sold. It fixed likewise the maximum of wages. It was making itself master of all the liberty in commercial transactions, in speculation and labour, which exist only in


was placing the hand of the state purchasers, all labourers, and all proSuch a law could not but produce prietors of the republic. the concealment of capital, the cessation of work, the languor It is the nature of of all circulation, and the ruin of all. circumstances which fixes the price of provisions of the first
a state of liberty.


all sellers, all

it is not the law. To order the husbandman to ; give his corn, and the baker to give his bread, below the price that these provisions cost them, would be to command the one to sow no more, and the other no longer to knead.


XXVIII. The maximum brought


its fruit

by com-



Robespierre's policy.


xlv. 28.

pressing in every direction the circulation of ready money, labour, and provisions. The people laid the blame of these calamities of nature upon the rich, upon the merchants, and upon the counter-revolutionists. They pursued the counterrevolution, even to its most impotent victims, buried in the dungeons of the Temple, and the remains of its kings intei'red in the tombs of Saint Denis. The Convention decreed, " that the process against the queen Marie Antoinette should be acted upon ; that the ro/alist tombs of Saint Denis should be destroyed, and the ashes of the kings swept from the temple which the superstition of royalty had consecrated to them." These concessions were not enough for the people. They demanded loudly a zealous tribunal respecting property or pillage. "If you do not give us justice on the rich," exclaimed an orator in the Jacobins, " Ave will take
ourselves." The addresses of the societies of the departments also demanded an institution which should restrain the force of the people, and regulate their violence, in the shape of a perambulating army, charged with the execution of its will. This was the revolutionary army, to Avit, a corps of popular pretorians, composed of Aetei'ans of the insurrection, hardit

ened against tears, blood, and punishment, and parading throughout the Avhole republic the instrument of death and

CroAvds of woi'kmen, of beggars, and women, vociferating death or bread, collected round the Hôtel-de-Ville, and threatened the alarmed Convention Avith a new 31st of May. Hébert and Chaumette encouraged these assemblais. Robespierre, one while appeared indignant at this excess of anarchy, which proceeded to annihilate the ReA'olution by revolution itself; at another, feigned to comprehend it, to pardon it, and himself to instigate, in order yet to rule it. " The people are alarmed by persuading them that provisions " The desire seems Avili tail them," said he to the Jacobins. to be, to arm them against themselves, to carry them to the prisons, there to murder the prisoners, Avell assured that means Avoidd there be found to allow the Avretches to escape who are detained there and to allow the innocent or the patriot, whom error might have conducted there, to perish. At the moment when I speak to you, I am assured that


XLV. 29.]

chaumette's ferocity.


himself besieged by some wretches who abuse, " insult, and threaten him The embarrassment of Robespierre was visible in these words, yielding with one hand, to grasp with the other the errors of the people who led him. He had not, with complacency counted, like Marat, the number of heads to be laid low by the steel, to arrive at this result. He would have wished to have been able to abstain from death in his work of regeneration but he accepted even that as a last necessity. XXIX. Robespierre in vain essayed many times to restrain these petitioners, thirsty for pillage and blood. His popularity, with difficulty, survived his resistance to excess. He often entered alone and forsaken into his dwelling. Pache came one night to confer secretly with him upon " It is done " said the means of calming these ebullitions. " it is all over with the Revolution, if Robespierre to Pache it be abandoned to these fools. The people must be defended by terrible institutions, or they will tear themselves to pieces with the arms with which they think to defend themselves. The Convention has but one method of wresting the blade from them that is, to take it itself, and strike its enemies without pity." He was indignant at Chaumette, Hébert, Varlet, and Vincent, who fomented these commotions of the " Do not permit," said he to Pache, " these multitude. children of the Revolution to sport with the thunder of the people let us direct it ourselves, or it will burst and destroy us." Pache went, however, to the sitting of the 5th of September, to present there the pretended claim of Paris. He charged Chaumette with the reading of the petition, thereby leaving to the solicitor of the Commune the responsibility of an act to which he was himself visibly opposed. " Citizens," said Chaumette, " they desire to starve us. They wish to







compel the people to exchange with shame their sovereignty New aristocrats, no less cruel, no less covetous, no less insolent than the old ones, have raised themselves upon the ruins of feudalism. They calculate with an atrocious indifference how much they may derive from a famine, an insurrection, and a massacre. Where is the arm which shall turn your weapons against the breasts of these traitors? Where is the hand to strike these guilty heads ? Your enemies must be destroyed, or they will
for a morsel of bread.





XLV. 30.

They have defied the people ; the people this destroy you. day accept the defiance. The mass of the people will crush And you, Montagne, for ever celebrated them in the end in the pages of history, be you the Sinai of the French! Hurl the decrees of the justice and the will of the people in Holy Montagne become a volcano, the midst of thunder No more quarter whose lava shall devour our enemies No more mercy for traitors Let us place between them demand of you, in the and us the barrier of eternity name of the people of Paris assembled yesterday upon the Let public place, the formation of a revolutionary army. this be followed up by an incorruptible tribunal, and the instrument of death, which cuts off at one blow the conspiracies with the lives of the traitors." XXX. Each of these apostrophes of Chaumette was interrupted by the applause of La Montagne and of the tribunes. The propositions of the orator, summed up into motions by Moïse Bayle, were unanimously voted. The deputation of Jacobins, excited in the evening by Royer, spoke afterwards. " Impunity emboldens our enemies," said they. " The people are discouraged by seeing the most guilty escape their venthat monster vomited forth Brissot still breathes geance. by England to distiu-b and shackle the Revolution. Let him be judged, he and his accomplices. The people are also indignant at seeing privileged persons in the midst of the Why, Vergniaud, Gensonné, and other wretches, republic. degraded by their treason from the dignity of representatives, would have a palace for a prison, while the poor sans culottes groan in their dungeons under the poignards of the federalists! It is time that equality should direct its scythe over Well, all heads ; it is time to terrify all the conspirators " then, legislators, let terror be the order of the day At these words, as at a revelation of public fury, applause " Let us be in a state of revolution, since shook the hall. the counter-revolution is everywhere plotted by our enemies." (" Yes, yes," replied La Montagne, rising.) " Let the steel Institute a revolutionary army ; level all guilty heads institute a tribunal of terror as its attendant ; let the instruBanish all the ment of the law's vengeance accompany it nobles, imprison them until the peace ; that blood-thirsty " race shall henceforth see no blood flow but their own
! ! !












XLV. 31.]



president announced, in his answer, that the Convention had already anticipated the demands of the people and of the Jacobins, and that it was about to fulfil them. XXXI. Barrère, who was cautioned by Robespierre and prepared for the evening, ascended the tribune, in the name of the Committee of Public Safety, to demand the origination of terror, and to regulate it when decreed. " For some time past," said he, "the aristocrats of the interior have meditated a movement. Well, they shall have this motion but it shall be against themselves. They shall have it organised, and regulated by a revolutionary army, which will, in short, execute that great motto which we owe to the Commune of Paris. Let us institute terror as the order of the day. The royalists desire blood well, they will have that of the conspirators, of Brissot, of Marie Antoinette This is no longer illegal vengeance, it proceeds from extraordinary tribunals, which have wrought it. You will not be astonished at the means which we shall present to you, when you know that from the depth of their prisons these malefactors still conspire, and that they are the rallying point of our enemies. If you desire to annihilate La Montagne, well La Montagne will crush you. The decree which these words summed up, was carried " There shall be in Paris an by acclamation in these terms armed force of six thousand men, and twelve hundred artillery, destined to restrain the counter-revolutionists, and to execute every where the revolutionary laws, and the measures of public safety decreed by the National Convention. This army shall be organised during the day." second decree banished all those who had belonged to the military establishment of the king or his brothers to a distance of twenty leagues from Paris. third ordained that Brissot, Vergniaud, Gensonné, Clavière, Lebrun, and Baudry, the secretary of Lebrun, should be immediately delivered to the revolutionary tribunal. fourth re-established nocturnal visits in the dwellings of
; : ! !





the citizens.


fifth ordered the transportation of common women, corrupted the manners and enervated the republicanism

of the young citizens, beyond sea.


sixth voted a
left their


XL A*.


workmen who

payment of two francs per day to those workshops to assist in the assemblies of their section and of three francs per day to the men of the people who should be members of the revolutionary committees. It fixed two sittings per week, the Sunday and the Thursday, for these patriotic assemblies. The sittings were to commence at five o'clock and to finish at ten.
Lastly, a seventh reorganised the revolutionary tribunal.


was the justice

of terroi

This tribunal, instituted by the vengeance of the morrow of the 10th of August, had been until then tempered by the forms and humanity of the Girondists. In two years, it had only tried one hundred accused, and had acquitted the greater number of them. The installation of this tribunal of state recalled


by its forms, that the people took all power into their hands, even justice; and that they were to sit themselves, and judge their enemies by means of juries composed of simple citizens chosen from and elected by the crowd. XXXII. This decree of the reorganisation of the revolutionary tribunal was hardly carried when the Convention


The judges were men chosen the judges and juries. by the Jacobins, from their ultra principles and inflexibility
of heart; the juries from


of blind patriotism and of

voluntary compliance with the passion which employed them. They believed Party spirit constituted all their justice. themselves honest in not refusing any head, and incorruptible in interdicting themselves from all pity. Possessed by one principle, the grandeur of the cause and the interest of the people removed crime from them, and only showed them the result. Death, according to them, was necessary in the dawn of They consented to act the part of death. the Revolution. Such men are found throughout all history as wood, iron, and fire are found to construct an instrument of punishment, so are judges found to condemn the vanquished, and executioners to imsatellites to pursue the victims, molate them. XXXIII. These judges were, Hermann, president of the Sellier, judge at Paris; tribunal of the Pas-de- Calais Dumas, of Louis le Saulnier; Brule, Coffinhal, Foucault, BravetZj of the Hautes Alpes ; Deliége, Subleyras, of the



xlv. 34.]

merlin's decree.


South Lefetz, of Arras Verteuil, Larme, of Saint Pol in Picardy Ragmey, of the Jura Masson, Denizot, Harny, David, of Lille Maire, Trinchard, and a literary man
; ; ;

lawyers, or underlings, accustomed to those legal subtleties that harden the heart, and The jury was formed the formalities that stifle conscience. of citizens of Paris or the departments, chosen from the inferior class of artisans, possessing no other guide than their instinct, or claim than their devotion ; they were selected for their ignorance, as that ensured their obedience. The Convention then appointed Ronsin general-in-chief Since the massacres of Meux, of the revolutionary army. in which Ronsin took part, his name possessed the prestige Ronsin, the protege of Danton and the of terror and blood. friend of Chaumette and Hébert, had gained every step in rank amidst the insurrections of Paris. Ardently desiring
all barristers,


in the deepest abysses of

it in literary pursuits, and then demagogism, casting aside the pen for the sword. He recruited the revolutionary army amongst all the disorderly horde of bandits that filled Paris. When the army was organised and the tribunal composed, there yet remained to point out and legally to hand over to

glory, he


at first


them the

universal as the great accusatory law, arbitrary as the dictatorship, and vague as suspicion, was, according to the Montagne, necessary to the omnipotence of the Convention. The Jacobins loudly demanded the adoption of this measure against those men who, without being absolutely guilty, Danton and yet gave the republic cause for uneasiness. Robespierre wished that the very fury and injustice of the


people should be moderated and controlled. XXXIV. Merlin de Douai presented on the 17th of September, a project of a decree whose meshes, woven by the hand of an able lawyer, enveloped the whole of France in a legal net, which left no resource to innocence, nothing free from treachery. Merlin de Douai was one of those erudite legislators, who, without really sharing in the blind fury of passions in troublous times, place calmness and knowledge at the service of the reigning ideas. The secret intentions of Merlin in presenting this decree were, it is said, rather to shield the victims from thé people than to surrender the




XLV. 35.

Sucli was the state of guilty to the revolutionary tribunal. the times, that the prison seemed to him the only refuge

from assassination.
decree of Merlin, composed of seventy -four incriminarising from all the suspicions that lurked in every man's brain, became the most complete arsenal of arbitrary rule that the complaisance of a legislator placed in tbe hands of power. The first article was, " Immediately after the publication of this present decree, all suspected persons who are found in the territory of the republic, and who are still at liberty,




be arrested.

those who by their conduct, suspected, writings, or language, have proved themselves partisans of tyranny and federalism, and enemies of liberty. " Those who cannot prove they possess the means of existence, and that they have accomplished their civic duties. " Those to whom certificates of citizenship have been

"Are deemed


" Those of the ci-devant nobles, fathers, mothers, sons, daughters, sisters, husbands, wives, and agents of emigrants who have not constantly manifested their attachment to the

"The nobles suspected; "Suspected," added Barrère the courtiers, the lawyers, suspected ; the priests, suspected ; the bankers, the strangers, the speculators, suspected those who lament what the revolution has achieved, suspected ; those who grieve at our success." last article, supplying all omissions, extended this decree even to those who had been declared not guilty, and authorised the tribunals to detain in prison those whose innocence they had declared, and whose acquittal they had



immense number of

prisons were not sufficient to contain the prisoners, and the public edifices, the confiscated hotels, the churches and convents, were converted The punishment of death, mulinto places of confinement. tiplied in proportion to this multiplication of crimes, came from hour to hour, and decree to decree, to arm the judges Did any one with the right of decimating the suspected. refuse to march to the frontier, or surrender his arms to




XLV. 36.]



Death. Did any one shelter those on their way thither Did any one transmit Death. an emigrant or fugitive money to a son or friend beyond the frontier Death. Was

an innocent correspondence maintained with an exile, or a Death. Did any one aid prisoners single letter received Death. Was the value to communicate with their friends Death. Were they purchased at a of assignats diminished premium Death. Did two witnesses attest that a priest or a noble had taken part in an anti-revolutionary meeting Death. Did a prisoner endeavour to burst his bonds and Death pursued the very instinct of life. Death escape was soon suspended over the heads of even the judges. decree, dated a few days later, ordered the dismissal, imprisonment, and trial of such revolutionary committees as had left a single suspected person at liberty. XXXVI. Thus a law which would not recognise the innocence of those whom it wished to consider guilty suspicion converted into proof; treachery held up as a duty; a



revolutionary tribunal to apply this code ; a revolutionary army to control Paris, and conduct the suspected to prison, and the accused to trial ; the guillotine erected in all the principal towns, and borne about in the smaller ; commissioners of the Convention, appointed by the Committee of Public Safety, sharing the provinces and the armies, and every where watching, accelerating or moderating the terriThe Convention, deliberble working of the dictatorship. present every where in its emissaries, ating and acting, maintaining an incessant correspondence with them, insuch spiring, stimulating, punishing, and recalling them, was the terrible mechanism of that dictatorship which succeeded the hesitations and commotions of the government after the fall of the Gironde, and which is called the Terror. Irresistible and atrocious as the despair of a revolution which feels its aim frustrated, and of a nation which feels itself perishing, this dictatorship makes us tremble with This government astonishment, and shudder with horror. of an extreme crisis cannot be judged by the rules applicaIt termed itself revolutionary ble to ordinary governments. government ; that is, subversion, strife, tyranny. The Convention considered itself as the garrison of France, shut up in a nation in a state of siege. Resolved to save the revolution

XLV. The Convention was in the presence of a double danger. 36. now that they sought to establish Robespierre did not picture to himself. and foreign war.the Revolution. nor their their own heads. and felt that it would civil contentions. It created the dominion of public safety against itself and its enemies . and decimated by the tyranny of its own constructing. The Convention did not do this merely through that brutal impulse that leads Caen to recognise as just and legal that passion alone which fanaticises them for an idea. and torn by contending factions. as the the republic. realisation of his dreams. superior to. been in contact with sedition whilst serving their principles. representation.• 126 THE REIGN OF TERROR. or their fortunes. or perish in their ruins. Marseilles. and stronger than itself thus voluntarily submitting to be ruled. soon be a sport of the caprices of the Commune. if it did not accept from these very demagogues the arm of the terror which they offered to-day. and t lie seditious movements of the populace of Paris agitated by the subaltern demagogues. Danton did not picture to himself. as on the 10th The nearer these men had of March. and the country. would They wished to ensure respect for the national soon perish. which it did not conceal from itself. sprung from. but the solid and irresistible government of a naThey both felt that the Revolution. . the permanent agitation of the capital. or rather. as the realisation of his dreams. and to dominate by a legal terror that popular terror which had so often made the representative power tremble. — — . who would dictate laws to it. and which it would suspend on the morrow over Neither Danton. to intimiThey needed it to urge the date and curb . but also from policy. or that fury with which they are animated against their enemies. Robespierre. the more they knew its fury. They needed the revolutionary terror. it created a revolutionary machine. but the calm and regular reign of a people personified in its representatives. enlightened colleagues wished to surrender the Convention to the mercy and derision of the first factious member of the Commune. against Lyons. masses to the frontiers. humbled. Toulon. and the more they dreaded its struggles. a turbulent and furious populace . and the 31st of May. [b. it suspended all laws before that of the common danger. centrated at Paris. contional republic.

until from this pressure. by discipline. which all men exercised against each other. levies en masse. the dread of losing a concpuest they valued the more from its being the Barnave Marat. by stupor on all. Robespierre . B. than against the excesses and anarchies of . Brissot. Danton. Moreover. At the moment when the Convention organised it. from which their genius furnished them with no other means of extricating themselves than by destruction and death. which they so loudly demanded. And in the people themselves the convulsive agitation of a revolution of three years' duration. Brissot . XXXVIII. by victory on Europe. The Terror could not reach the emigrants and Vendéeans. and crimes . Marat. for popularity. . Robespierre. the Terror was not a calm and cruel calculation of a few men. of which each man and party reproached his or their opwith ponents with not offering sufficient to the revolution . — which Barnave reproached Mirabeau . the royalists and aristocrats no longer gave any one cause for alarm. 38. placed in difficult positions. armaments.— THE KEIGN OF TERROR. there should result a general emulation half feigned. on the contrary. half sincere which should envelope them in the mutual dread they communicated. . the Revolution herself. and to extort from the nation by fear those supernatural efforts of taxes. it would only serve to render them more irreconcilable with a reThe emigrants public which only offered them a scaffold.] 127 and La Vendée. and Vendéeans were the pretext. that struggle for proofs of patriotism. to impose on the armies. and the scaffold. — . The terror was invented by Robespierre and Danton. was principally erected for themselves. Hébert. every man and party were forced to exaggerate their proofs by exaggerating measures. Danton . deliberating coldly on a sysIt sprang by degrees from circumtem of government. suspicions. It arose chiefly from that fatal and ambitious rivalry. XLV. who had taken up arms . excesses. and which they cast on their enemies to avert from themselves. which they could no longer extort from its discouraged patriotism. by the sinister prestige of the Convention. the anarchists the real objects . stances and the tension of things and men. on the generals. every one the Girondists: so that to prove his patriotism. XXXVII. less against the internal enemies of the republic.

a contagion to which every one lends his share of miasma and complicity . the thirst of blood inspired by the days of the 14th of July. armed with powerful intimidation. the Vendéeans setting up the standard of royalism and religion. more recent and more contested the incessant fever which the tribunes. and already fraternised with Royalism in Valenciennes and Condé. La Vendée had roused the whole of the West. XLV. the 2nd of September. — . and from which predisposed minds no more escape than morbid bodies from a prevailing disease . Could the Convention altogether discard the necessity of an arbitrary and dictatorial government. the scarcity of money. scious of its birth. 6th of October. despairing patriotism. [b. and which demands to such were gorge itself with blood when it has once tasted it. the treason of the generals.* and the clubs disseminated each day amongst the populace the cessation of labour. concession in those fear and passion in the greater number a moral epidemic tainting an already vitiated air. and general pillage by those greedy of gain. the famine panic.128 THE REIGN OF TERROR. the journals. when it results from a thousand different and complicated causes. any more than it was conSuch is the progress of human things. ment in others weakness in these. without being conscious of its death. and encircled it with 700. and to which is given the name of one man. when they should bear the name of the period. and the counter-revolution without. the invasion of the frontiers. entraînethe elements of the Terror.000 men. and with one . which lurks in the instincts of the multitude. The emigres were advancing at the head of foreigners. XXXIX. Without a concentrated and exclusive government. the statesman cannot for a moment hesitate. 39. for which our infirmity leads us to seek one cause. — — . The coalition of crowned heads watched every movement of France. 10th of August. the prospects of the agrarian law. and that furious rage for extermination.and even itself was placed? Whatsoever may be the reply which the philosopher or jurist may make to himself. when the tension of affairs was relaxed. . . which awakes in time of great commotion. and died as it was born. Calculation in some. the Revolution must have inevitably perished beneath anarchy within. the Terror sprang from itself. . under the circumstances in which the republic France -.

the Cordeliers. south. The people only talked of doing justice to itself. worship. property. declaring itself a sovereign arsenals to the English. III. the journalists. and imperiously demanded of the Convention measures against customs. in the midst of such a tempest. or to defend itself in Paris by the law which had been snapped asunder in its hands. Hébert. 129 hand united its religious rising with the insurrection in Normandy. XL. in fact. Pache. and opening their roadsteads and Lyons. and erected its guillotine for the partisans of the Convention. maintaining however an attitude which bespoke menace rather than respect. omnipotence. the public squares. had not disunited the gatherings of 31st May. How could a political body. The Commune of Paris. Ronsin. and unless it were surrounded by a prestige. K . and offered their aid to render the representatives compliant. and declaimed fiercely against the supineness of Danton. Vincent. echoed these doctrines. 40.] THE REIGN OP TERROR. elated at its recent triumph. and commerce. and the procrastination of the Committee of Public Safety. revolutionary committees. they openly declared their intention of again decimating it. Leclerc. The friends and enemies ? dictatorship of the Convention . the Revolution concentrated in Paris. to pacify the insurrections of the interior. assemblies in sections. cast into prison the representatives of the people. Clubs. which it was impossible for that body to grant without utterly reversing every element of social order. unable either to negotiate with Europe. and of renewing and even of surpassing the assassinations of September. and the Revolution was VOL. maintain and save with itself the republic and the country. in the face of the national representation. and that amount of force and active power equally intimidating — to its was not altogether an usurpation for the Convention was. and with the other joined the insurrection in the Marseilles had unfurled the flag of federalism. XLV. affected. the mo- deration of strength. the friends and contumateurs of Marat. Jacques Roux.B. plotting their defection. Chaumette. the weakness of Robespierre. municipality. the faubourgs. Proud of having already decimated the Convention. by the mere abstract power of a constitution which no longer existed. Toulon and the fleet were scarcely yet defeated in Paris.

against all laws and against all justice. with care and selection. to give to citizens their . irresistible. Revolution ? Yes. REFLEXIONS. The sole law at such a moment was an universal beyond the law {hors la loi). and impartial laws. and to this day liberty expiates that crime. . [b. To make temporary. This was or remorse. that this law intimidating. the law of the moment ? Yes. This power Robespierre.— 130 France. Danton. Is the national Do cirthe sovereign will. put down every attempt laid hands. cumstances require. at resistance. dictatorship it believed it was forging an indispensable weapon for the safety of liberty but the weapon of tyranny Instead of threatening is too heavy for the hands of man. accordingly. and to take upon By giving power to the itself an eternal responsibility. 40. and without which all must have perished. on a power which was wanting to all and to every thing. it struck at random without justice The weapon overpowered the hand. and enforce their penalty. secure. as legitimate and faction. to deliver not the accused to the tribunals. which suppressed all plots. decidedly. Such government. to associate itself with their enterprise. possessed then. but victims to the executioner. crushed all by an exercise of promptitude aided by the general stupor. to proscribe and kill. France and the Revolution had at this moment no The Convention national government but the Convention. to inundate scaffolds with blood. which comprise truths the right to struggle these ideas and these truths. XLV. and the Mountain had the daring to seek and to find in the very bosom of anarchy The Convention had the energy and the misfortune itself. conjoined intimately with the Convention. have a right to defend themDoes the Convention represent the selves and to triumph. be effectual against all factions — and consequently exclusive ? Yes. and . : . all the rights of the Revolution and of France. even under pain of death. its crime Thus did it reason " Ideas have a right to burst forth revolutions. The first of these rights was to save itself and still exist. Does the safety of such revolutionary idea and truth require a dictatorship of the National Assembly. : omnipotent as the nation itself? Yes. to command verdicts instead of awaiting them. was consequently inevitable at the moment when it was formed. is the right of every dictatorship . Has it the right to save it ? Yes.

which history will perpetually stir without ever being able to efface from its name. not dictatorship but proscription. to throw to assassins the spoils of the sufferers. One of the first great victims of the Terror was General Custine. His crime was having mingled science with war. hubands. sex. 131 enemies as judges. By the one the Convention will remain as a monument in the breach of a country saved Revolution defended by the other its memory will be stained with blood. BOOK I. a severity of discipline which was rigorous. daughters in the crimes of fathers. brothers. to hope. is. and ignorant generals to invent modern warfare. wives. The Montagnards desired a rapid and cursory campaign . old people. The immense popularity which had attached to him from his first invasions into the heart of Germany. — — . to pervert into crime the feelings of nature. sort of soldier-like coquetry. children. had arrived in Paris to render an account of his inactivity. to imprison and immolate on mere suspicion. His presence in Paris had revived all these K 2 We — A — — — — — . by the commissary of the Convention. to confound ages. Such was the two-fold character of the Terror. a large fortune generously expended in an aristocratic name.] CUSTINE. yielded prestige. opinions which were thought to incline towards the Girondists.— a B. to encourage informers. and relaxed at the proper moment. who fondly suspected his inmost thoughts of leaning to monarchy. manners at once free and martial. carried away from the midst of his army. have seen how Custine. XLVI. and the taking of Mayence. mothers. XL VI. by whom he was adored. 1. they required plebeian generals to direct the plebeian masses. Levasseur. every thing concurred to spread around Custine the interest which attaches itself to glory. to which democracy itself the camp. and to persecution. still surrounded him. the secret favour of the royalists. The officers admired him the soldiers loved him. concealing adulation under asperity. in short. a natural eloquence.

with that unquiet and irritable eye with which the Roman knights. and Delmas. on leaving the senate. Merlin de Thionville. were perceptible in reference to the army . in pressing the accusation of Custine. Chabot. he said character. intelligence which attested in these conventionals the after-thoughts of military intervention. Two parties in the Convention and in the Committee of Public Safety. at a later The crime of Custine was that of appearing indispensable. judges. through pity for the lightness of his The Montagnards had regarded him. and that the a master obedient general might be induced to act the part of CromIt hastened to arrest him. that some generals' heads would be lost. the instruments of which they caressed. in the theatres. when indispensable men were not required they wished that the country should be alone and every thing. Bazire. The friends of Danton and Legendre himself. to Paris. himself. said. made the Convention fear accused. whom he wished to place in command of the army of the north. and in the itself of every power. invective. Merlin de Douai. and the party of Robespierre. It was not at the moment when it desired to possess : sentiments the enthusiasm and the appearance in public places. that in calling a man. Drouet. with the generals of the republic. Camille Desmoulins. and fierce by wounding. Danton and his colleagues. it had only called applause excited by his promenades. [C. Alquier. and to deliver him to the well. was willing to recognise in the and to spare an ascendperiod. 1. the party of Danton. Quite recently. Fabre d'Eglantine. Robespierre only followed the instinct of his nature and obeyed the mistrust of his character. patriots Camille Desmoulins had excited the anger of by declaring himself the friend of Dillon. and in lowering all the military : . that it army any popularity but its ency with which. own . had always main. the accusers of this This hair-brained writer had accused the Committee of Public Safety of disorganising the armies. Legendre. Contentions had become acrimonious since the flight of Dumouriez. with general. XL VI. through unskilful The indignant La Montagne had only pardoned hands. tained. by interfering with the plans of the generals. when suspected of having joined in the conspiracy of Catiline. it would have to reckon.132 : TWO PARTIES. Camille Desmoulins. regarded Cassar. every thing appeared treason.

were perverted into acts of treason. Custine had been to her. was the arm of kings. in the people themselves. Custine. Custine's only guilt was in the weakness and inconsiderateness of his pride. He chiefs . fatal He persevered in his idea. the ironterrorist. Victories had found him more cold and bitter than defeat for he saw more danger in the renown of a fortunate general than in the loss of a battle. indifferent to truth or to calumny. Numerous — mouthed — K 3 . Dumouriez. the public accuser. according to him. The army. he Avas jealous of it even to sacrificing patriotism at . III. Custine. Luckner. who was already imprisoned. and tears moved to compassion the most obdurate This young female had espoused the only son of hearts. whose beauty. even to cruelty. read a long and garbled accusation. It was the first great act of ingratitude of the re- public. Tbe whole strength of the people ought to consist. 3. spirit. wherein all the military acts of Custine. and sustained by the presence of his daughter-in-law. She had besieged the judges. the instrument of glory. to dispel suspicion.B. in his eyes. XLVI. accompanied by the remembrances of his triumphs. Liberty was his aim he desired no army but one ready to defend it in its cradle. and the members of the committees with solicitations. fascination. The misfortune of the general had caused Madame Custine to forget all. She only quitted the cell of her husband to console her father-in-law in his prison. She had devoted herself to the safety and the consolation of the man whose severity she had so often deplored. 133 upon whom the army might cast their eyes.] CUSTINE'S DAUGHTER-IN-LAW. Fouquier Tinville. The army. rather than upon the country. and principally his retreats. and abandonment of Mayence. its shrine. but an exacting and peevish censor. II. Dillon. had foreseen from afar treason or a dictatorship more to revolutions than anarchy itself. Custine appeared before the tribunal. by the side of Custine. and Biron had never obtained favour from him. She wished to prove her love for her husband by restoring to him a father. and to accompany him to the tribunal. grace. La Fayette. during his elevation. An exclusive admirer of democracy. the juries. had always been converted in history into the instrument of tyranny. like innocence. She showed herself before the tribunal.

who scoured the camps to register the vague murmurs and personal discontent of the troops . and dates. witnesses were heard some were informers by title. In the meanwhile the impatience of the Jacobins reproved The conviction of innocence. re-established the facts. and the revolutionary eloquence of the undoubted patriot. [b. in delivering up his own soldiers to the mercy of the enemy: "I!" exclaimed Custine. He threw glances of uncertainty over the crowd. The anxiety of doubt blanched his countenance.134 SENTENCE OP DEATH. a clearness. circumstances. "I! to have meditated the massacre of my brave brethren in arms !" Some tears flowed from his eyes. The tribunal pronounced the sentence : it was that of death. surrounded by a body of gens d'armes. The indignant patriotism of the general was evidenced in accents of greatness and sincerity which confounded the ingratitude of his country. compassion. The juries. No proof was produced. gained all hearts. the inaction of the tribunal. and annihilated every inculpation with a sang froid. re-entered the hall to hear his sentence. the dignity of sentiment. others were German demagogues from Mayence. . It was night. XL VI. which justly increased the renown of his talent upon that field of battle where he contended for his honour and his life. The torches which lighted the judgment-hall for . or from Liege. Levasseur de la Sarthe having told the tribunal that he had remarked in the conduct of Custine the same symptoms of treason which had characterised that of Dumouriez. who charged the French general with having despised their counsel and checked their zeal. by an unexpected majority. IV. and he believed himself in his acquittal. nothing. The general. as if to interrogate But the crowd itself knew their features as to his fate. Custine terminated the debate by a defence of two hours. without further reply. inspired all spectators with emotion and respect. wherein the clearness of the refutation. His daughter-in-law shed tears of joy. Custine examined the different heads of the accusation. Suspicion only rested in the minds of those who Avished to harbour it. or admiration. dispated the evidence. 4. They believed. No one uttered the Avord treason. and force. declared him guilty. and were his only refutation. the masculine and sober pathos of the warrior.

of his blood. re- move tied. palpitating audience. and science reproaches me for nothing. announced to Custine that the deliberation of the jury bad been long. . his innocence in the hearts of the people when time should cart. 5. against the recompence he had received from it. Not perceiving them. the waitinghall He there fell upon his knees. and passed the entire night with the minister of God. which retained some military and ornament. according to custom. crucifix which his confessor. He ascended the with his hands lace surtout of blue cloth. and remained thus prostrated for two hours. asked him. Custine turned towards the tribunal with a gesture of despair " I have no longer one single dethey have all vanished. Applause broke out amongst the people outside. XL VI. threw looks around him in search of his defenders. They carried away his daughter-in-law in a swoon. buried in reflection and without uttering a It might be that he weighed within himself the word. and sident. which the public accuser summoned the judges to pronounce upon him. seated by his side.] LAST MOMENTS. His champions had withdrawn.B. in the brilliant days of the republic. innocent. impressed him for the first time with the presentiment of the scafibld. On rising. the dismayed appearance of the judges. to recommend to him the care of his memory. He seated himself. with his eyes fixed on the preCoffinhal read the declaration of the jury. their suspicions. 135 first time since the opening of the trial. and of his duty towards the throne. He required strength to die for that religion against which he had fought at the head of the soldiers of the republic. less by the He terror of death. than by astonishment at the injustice. and The that his head had been a question of dubious debate. His end belied his life." V. The soul of Custine appeared overthrown. My confender. He wrote a feeling letter to his son. sacrifice he had made of his rank. his face buried in his hands. alone revealed the dignity of the general He ardently kissed the in the costume of the condemned. and the re-establishment of between life and death. the : ' ." he exclaimed I die calmly. Custine returned to the registry of the Conciergerie. he requested a priest. pressed to K 4 A . and of his Christian faith to the Revolution. and to implore one last appeal. if he had any thing to urge against the punishment of death.

the counter-revolution chained. as a ple. appeared to redouble in fervour. the people well knew tion existing. Robespierre himself. so incensed against the king. . virtuous display of their opinion." said he. Louis XVI. but still the counter-revoluIn slaying Louis XVI. he placed and died. the head of their most popular chief had fallen before the It showed them that they had no other astonished army. Already. court was. There was no member of the committee who did not regard the queen as innocent of hatred towards the republic . MAIRIE ANTOINETTE. all sorts of insubordination to affect duty . as if it were the bayonet of the country. in the words of the hardened people. and was long continued. The blind unpopularity of this unfortunate princess had outlived even her fall and disappearance. served the queen. In their eyes. VII. with the enemies of royalty. hands of the people could no longer be withdrawn. were alternately rected from the crowd to heaven. Descending from the cart at the foot of the scaffold. as if he reproached the people with inconstancy. At length he ascended with a firm step. past. some blushed at the necessity of delivering up this victim. VI. no one thought her dangerous to the Revolution . would have pre" Revolutions are very cruel. XL VI. The Committee of Public Safety ordered Fouquier Tinville to press the sentence against the queen. di- His eyes. and demanded justice of God. lie again His fell upon his knees on the first step of the ladder. — chief than the Convention.136 his lips. the council of the Commune resounded with significant accusations against those commissioners of the Commune who displayed any respect or pity for the prisoners in the TemInsolence and outrage were commanded them. She was. bedewed with tears. [b. was the personification of royalty. which no one dared to interrupt. in Marie Antoinette. The soul of the that they had but immolated the hand. and regarding the knife for a moment. for some days in his wife was lodged its crime. Ninety-eight executions had in sixty days imbued the The axe of terror once placed in the scaffold with blood. This himself in the hands of the executioner death caused all thoughts of treason to re-enter the hearts of the generals. Implacable and cowardly vengeance incessantly demanded the head of Marie Antoinette. prayer. 6.

moment when the king tore himself from their last embraces to walk to the scaffold. Cries of " Vive la République. had remained during the long hours of agony of the 21st of January plunged in continued swoons. 137 " they regard neither sex nor age. a widow. She ardently desired to know the sad details of the last thoughts and the last words of her husband. at the VIII. The queen. divine the instincts of the multitude in order to please them by subserving to them. to attach his soul to her own. renders us Every one had too much pity for himself to egotistical. spare it for the misfortunes of others.B. and Barrère. paralysed by terror. she wanted to know if he had died as a king. who had become more precious to her since his last communications with his master. Fear. Camille Desmoulins. had indicated this moment to the queen. but the people should also know how to forgive. and a captive. and who was still. whom she had lost as a spouse on earth. a mother. Cléry. Legendre. The compassion of opinion remained. If my head were not necessary to the Revolution." which resounded nearer and nearer. like prosperity. the path of the republic. interrupted by sobs and prayers. for upwards of ." Saint Just alone would not allow any feeling to affect the inflexibility of the line he had traced in the committee for As to the rest of La Montagne. She sought to divine the exact moment when the fatal knife should sever the life of her husband. at this period — — We Any weakness before his people and posterity would have scaffold. there are moments when I would offer that head to the people in exchange for one of those which they demand of us. Collot. XLVI. from the foot of the guillotine to the foot of the Bastille. left the royal family in the Temple. 8. was governed by the scaffold. Billaud Varennes. and to invoke him as a protector in heaven. But opinion. which might create feeling for a queen. and the rolling of the pieces of cannon as they returned from the boulevards to the sections. carried away by anger and drawn by weakness they sought to into the general movement of the moment. humbled him more than the The council of the Commune refused Marie Antoinette this consolation. She knew that he would die as became a man and a wise one. reclined in her clothes upon her bed.] : HER EXECUTION URGED ON. immolated with indifference by a whole people. Ideas are pitiless.

if not as a hope. Only. to take a little air and exercise upon the platform of the tower. These relics." she said. at least as a diversion but the queen remained insensible to it. had no longer any interview with the captives. At first. Taken away by the pious theft of a municipal named Toulan. Elizabeth and the young princess sought to excite this idea in the queen's mind. The council of the Commune. but upon conditions of simplicity and parsimony which resembled a sumptuary law over grief. they were ^ent to the Comte de Provence. were sealed and deposited in the hall of the Tower where the commissioners of the Commune dwelt. imprisoned in the Tower. . 9.138 the queen's conduct." Neither air nor heaven could compensate her for such a suffering of mind. or that liberty without the throne and without her husband was less desirable than death. alarmed for the consequences of such complete seclusion to the health of her children. [b. or the marriage ring. IX. hoped that the contented republic would not delay setting at liberty the women and the children. to her tears whether that she believed not in the return of humanity to a people who had urged their resentment towards a once beloved king even to the scaffold. The queen requested permission of the gaolers to bestow the last mark of respect on the memory of her husband by wearing mourning. " It would be impossible for her. She obstinately refused to descend into the garden. a month. This request was granted. throwing herself into her sister's arms. she consented. Some indulgent municipals allowed the Madame possibility of this to escape in their speech. the promenade of which been reopened to her. excited in . on the first story in the tower. informed of the curiosity which these promenades. perceived from without. almost stained with the blood from the scaffold. who concealed under the semblance of duty a passionate devotion for the queen. He could not restore even the locks of hair. XLVI. " to pass before the door of the king's chamber. the commissioners of the Temple. She constantly beheld there the trace of his last step upon the staircase. towards the end^of February. captivity of the princesses followed the death of the king. By another special debate the council of the Commune granted also fifteen shirts to Some relaxation of rigour in the interior the king's son.

the noise from the streets. and to contrive means of communication from without. and Michonis. Bruno. Vincent. the reports. and the plots outside. some of the municipals to soften the captivity of the princesses. ever. the colour of which was only revealed by exposure to the fire. HUE. 139 the neighbouring houses. and thus transmitted to the princesses the facts. her the aspect of an odious city. and only permitted her to behold the heaven to which she Her health changed. The events within and A look A . They concealed from children. and the mediation of inanimate objects. was destined to warm a hall on the first story. It ordered. . which served as a common antechamber to the queen and Madame Elizabeth it was in the pipes of this stove that Turgy deposited the notes. Toulan and Lepitre borrowed the hand of Turgy. pierced with heat-holes. were a benefit to the queen. could not reach the captives without precautions and devices. The sensibility. The commissioners mutually watched each other. which the decay of her body. permitting the air to penetrate. were revealed in the morning by her features. and the precautions of the Commune. yet intercepted These precautions. Merle. verbal cr written. 10. Lepitre. after a debate of the 26th of March. stove. or the fragments of the public papers. which affected their situation. without her mind perceiving aspired. and suspecting the communication of intelligence by looks. had introduced devoted men plot was framed by through the wickets of the Temple. was in communication with these commissioners. the advices. prevented the captives from even the sight of the horizon.S. Beugneau. M. to them. who had remained free and forgotten in Paris. howX. which rules even opinion. or a gesture of intelligence surprised by one would have conducted the other to the scaffold. Toulan. which. which were cruel towards the the view.] M. Hue. which could inform the princesses of what was wished to be made known The princesses in their turn concealed their notes. She passed sleepless nights. XLVI. These communications. deceived the surveillance of the other commissioners. valet de chambre to the king. which blinded the eyes of the other commis- A sioners. written with sympathetic ink. Her captivity became closer. the hopes. that spaces of the battlements of the tower should be filled up by shutters.

declared to them that they should kill her on and to odious. sometimes affecting pity. 11. entered thus into the prison of Marie Antoinette. threw herself at the feet of the queen. and disturbed the prison for many days by the sight and the noise of her madness. lost her reason. XLVI. the progress of La Vendée. The princesses. hope entered not into her soul. and their accomplices had been denounced by the wife of Tison. the success of foreign armies. the glare of false hopes. [b. without it. sometimes abusive. had drawn them more rapidly on to their XL On understanding Hébert and Chaumette came from time to time to death. ordered her to be separated from her son. of despair and stillness of the sepulchre with the sensibility of life. and gave to men. the disposition of men's minds. some letters. Toulan. the distant murmur of the commotion which They did not know. until many carried off the Girondists. forgetting the denunciations of this unfortunate being. more measures a character of rigour and persecution still Each municipal proved his patriotism by exceeding his predecessor in insults. days afterwards. After the 31st of May. in consideration of her repentance and insanity. The child threw himself into his mother's arms. interposing herself between him and the municipals. the 31st of May the princesses heard. feed upon the spectacle of their misery. and. instead of delivering them.140 TIIE WOMAN TISON. to purposes. who waited on the queen. This woman. implored her pardon. beseeching her not to abandon him to his executioners. according to the rage or suavity of the people. They desired this order to be read to the royal family. without. and noShe possessed not even the agitation thing more to hope. and. lastly. She combined the peace of that suffering which struggles. which enlightened chimerical conspiracies for their deliverance. of the fall of these men who. and deprived themselves of their own food to relieve her. bathed in tears of real friendBut ship. The Convention. The horror of her situation was precisely that of having nothing more to fear. They were executed. . after having decreed that the queen should be judged. The queen placed him upon her bed. troubled by remorse. watched over her by turns. the terror which reigned in Paris penetrated even to the donjon. Lepitre.

the threats. He treated him as the young of wild animals are treated. princess did not report half the cruel information she thus The obscenity and brutality of Simon depraved received. The shoemaker Simon. and to hear his voice. and to watch for an opportunity of exchanging a look with him. and enerHe punished him for vated by the taming of their keepers. At length. He called him the at once the body and soul of his pupil. to the gaolers. carried the dauphin into the chamber where that young king was doomed to die. selected. he . The only consolation of the princesses was to ascend each day the platform of their tower. and waited upon the queen. until her strength was totally exhausted. from the brutality of his manners.] SIMON. The turnkeys alone ascended three times a day to bring them provisions and inspect the bars of the windows. The doors of the apartment of the princesses was kept bolted night and day. endeavouring to catch a glimpse of the shadow of her child. she contended for two hours against the injunctions. her eyes bent upon a fissure in the skylight. sensibility . he rewarded meanness . she dressed the dauphin. came from time to time secretly to inform Madame The Elizabeth of the situation and health of the dauphin. between the battlements. Fanaticism had murdered nature. to replace the heart of a mother. young wolf of the Temple. at once intimidated by blows. XLVI. having fallen through lassitude at the foot of the bed. The queen passed all the time of these promenades. at the hour when the young dauphin walked on that on his side.B. No waiting-woman had replaced the wife of Tison. and persuaded by Madame Elizabeth. bathed with her tears. who was Madame Elizabeth and the confined in a lunatic asylum. young princess made the beds. No supplication of the queen could obtain from the Commune the favour of a single interview with her son. 141 the spot sooner than approach him. The municipals themselves no longer appeared there. Tison. whom the remorse and madness of his wife had softened. TISON. and the gestures of the commissioners. he encouraged vice . and transferred him. and by her daughter. swept the chamber. the abuse. The child remained two days lying on the floor without accepting any nourishment. when taken from the mother and reduced to captivity. 11. Menaced in vain byviolence if she continued to resist the decree.

No word. and threatened to knock him down. of the " lanterne. Simon amused himself with this derision of fortune which delighted his base mind. to supplicate them not to separate them. at two o'clock in the morning. In vain did Madame Elizabeth and her daughter throw themselves at the feet of the members of the Commune. raised it over the child's head. and recognised therein But this man. in cruel sport. The queen. the former standing. the other from her mother. and which she wished nearer. was compelled to dress herself in the presence of the group of men who filled her chamber. .142 REMOVAL OF THE QUEEN [b. taught the child to insult the memory of his father. himself One day. Often intoxicated. XLVI. They ransacked They sealed up the little trinkets and jewels she carried it. entwined with hair. the piety of his aunt. was drunkenness and ferocity charged by fate with the debasement and denaturalizing of the last germ of royalty. nearly tore an eye from the dauphin's head. and feigned to compassionate his age and mi fortune. with initials.the Vendean army passed the Loire. upon which two hearts were engraved in gold. On the 2d of August. nearer the end which she saw was inevitable. about her they were a pocket-book. the queen was awakened. a pocket-mirror. speechless also. the innocence of his He made him sing sister. " Capet. by fanaticism. More frequently he was lenient with him." said he to him one day." and of the scaffold. a gold ring. a portrait of her Mend . 12. by striking him on the face with a knotted towel." replied the child. at his importance. in order to gain his confidence. the one from her sister. nor of lasting kindness. Another time he seized a poker from the hearth. the tears of his mother. Simon himself was affected by this answer. XII. and the fidelity of his partisans. no gesture answered them. that the decree might be read which ordained her removal to the Conciergerie. He made the child wait upon him at table. a paper. was neither It susceptible of constant brutality. and still half-naked. whilst her She heard the order read without trial was proceeding. obscene songs in honour of the republic. and by wine. and report his conversation to Hébert and Chaumette. he seated. at the moment when . led astray by pride the blood of Louis XVI. It was one step betraying either astonishment or grief. what would yoi: do ?" "I would forgive you. "if the Vendeans should deliver you.

and the same forgetfulness of persecution as Louis XVI. and then left the apartment. the earth gradually overwhelms the monuments of men in great cities. recommended to her she placed the hands of the young girl in those of Madame Elizabeth. for fear of exhausting her soul in one supreme emotion. ' . " nothing now can further harm nant with her destiny carriage. hollowed out of its foundation. covering her with blessings and with tears. folding her daughter in her arms. and love her as if she were myself. should she yield to emotion on her The queen. with slow step. bade her a last adieu. These subterraneous caverns . These sombre vaults of the Palace of St. conducted her to the Conciergerie. The prison of the Conciergerie is hidden under the vast structure of the Palais de Justice. She was asked if " Oh no. obey her. 13. They left her only a handkerchief and a bottle of vinegar. And you.] TO THE COXCIEEGEÏtlE. On issuing from the wicket. and some symbolic signs of devotion to the Virgin. " I leave in you another mother to my poor children . and. Louis are at present completely enclosed by the elevation of the ground. in an accent pregshe had hurt herself. It was doubtless a recommendation of that piety which governed and sanctified even her grief. into which two municipals ascended with me. It is thus. throwing herself into her arms. and which was escorted by gens d'armes. and even unto death!" Madame Elizabeth uttered some words in so low a tone to the queen that no one heard them. even in the dungeon." said she to Madame Elizabeth.B. she struck her forehead against the beam of the low door. which recalled two friends of her infancy at Vienna. XL VI. and as a remembrance of heaven in the dungeon. two other female portraits. my sister." said she. love them as you have loved us. to recover her from fainting. She recommended to her the same forgiveness of their enemies. The queen bowed her head in compliance. as it were. of which it forms the subterraneous floor. : A — ." said she. as a preservative in her misfortunes. 143 the Princesse de Lamballe. when dying. her eyes cast down. departure. and not daring to turn a last look upon her daughter and her sister. had. drew her into an angle of the chamber. which Madame Elizabeth had given her to wear." her. " the person who will be henceforth your father and your mother . Behold. XIII.

it was under this palace of feudalism itself that the vengeance or the derision of fate confined the agony of monarchy and the punishment of feudalism. the antechambers. and the oozing of the earth saturated with water. the gaols. and the hollow sound of the footsteps of the crowd which flocked. The day- light descends there perpendicularly. with which the Gothic chisels had decorated the edges and the capitals of the pillars. which receive light from the meadows. as into highway of the quays The elevation separates the Conciergerie from the Seine. of this floor above the level of the cells and the courts. changed into the common sewer of vice and crime. with the tears and the blood of a female victim of the throne. fantastical sculpture. Who would have told the kings of the first races. and seemed to present to them constantly the Massive pillars. and covered The the masonry of the edifice with patches of green moss. the walls. XLVÏ. 14. from which once all the fiefs This tower was the centre of of the kingdom were raised. during the hours of the tribunals. and the portico of death. on the other upon some dungeons. form the wicket-doors. the depths of large square wells. narrow arches. alas it avenged itself blindly. [b. to the halls of justice and the upper stories of the palace. a sepulchral humidity. and the The long corriposts of the gendarmerie and turnkeys. as low as cloisters. monarchy. the continued noise of carriages upon the quay. open on one side upon arcades. perpetually shook these vaults. dors. recalled the ancient destination of this palace of the kings of the first race. vaults. Thus. which constantly broke the cement. the wrongs and oppression of twenty kings XIV. and even the courts.144 THE CONCIERGERIE. diffused over the pavement. But. These noises rolled like distant thunder in the ears of the prisoners. These gigantic substructures served as a foundation to the high quadrangular tower. When you have descended the steps of a large ! ! . that in this palace they erected the prison and the tomb of their successors ? Time is the grand expiator of human affairs. are obscured by the high walls of the Palais de Justice. scattered in this vast square pile of stone. to which we descend by steps. plash of the river under the bridges. The narrow courts. low eternal lamentations of these abodes. The and from afar. and it washed out.

taking its light from the same meadow as that of the antechamber. from misfortune to misfortune. on the to filter through. This communication with that which breathes and feels on earth. blackened by the smoke of torches. led to a kind of sepulchral vault. were placed on duty in the first chamber. The queen found in the countenance. the Queen of France was thrown. locks. on issuing from the wickets. a link with existence. with naked sworcls in hand. The second of these doors. On the left of this first cell. formed all the furniture. ments cannot. It was there. looked into a small subterraneous chamber. this feeling concealed under the rigour of her duties. Two gens d'armes. XV. a miserable pallet. and massive bolts. the tions. allowed a light always similar to twilight At the botîom of this little cellar. Men A vol. 145 staircase. from Versailles and from Trianon. sound of a sympathising voice. oaken doors. window. in. and their eyes fixed on the interior of the queen's cell. paved and walled in freestone. ranged on the left under these corridors.] MADAME RICHARD. in the eyes. and garnished with trellis-work of interwoven iron bars. you enter into a cloister. being charged not to lose sight of her even in her A A sleep. a door still lower than the first.B. fallen from grade to grade. The hand ordained to bruise for their ferocity. but without fastenings and bolts. and two straw chairs. L . always find implacable instruEven dungeons have their mitigarespectful gesture. made the victim comprehend that she was not as yet totally shut out from humanity. the series of roughly planed promenade of the prisoners. such as that which passes from one bed to the other in hospitals and barracks. and by the light of a tallow candle. that in the middle of the night. and in the soul of Madame Richard. the arcades of which open upon a court. fastened with bands. the floor of which was lower by A barred three steps than the threshold of the corridor. without canopy or curtains. the wife of the concierge. a look of intelligence. a stolen word. XLVI. and have passed by two large doorways. 15. a small deal table. with the door open. and encrusted by dampness. however. with covering of coarse cloth. even in the last hour. even into this dungeon. a wooden box. side opposite the window. gives to the unfortunate. window borrowed light from a court narrow and deep as an empty cistern.

attention of the gens d armes on guard in the antechamber during these rapid interviews. . and the mother of kings. and her son. she still reigned. some necessary or convenient furniture into the dungeon of the queen. dium of commissioners. . Michonis. her became softened. Many municipals joined secretly in Madame Richard favoured the introduction plots of escape. was essayed by Madame Richard. a member of the municipality. and solitude. Rougeville. consigned to her mercy. and was detected in the hands of the queen by one of the gens d'armes. and administrator of police. Madame Richard. a royalist in remembrance. She cleverly engaged the of these devoted men into the cell. and joined her in all these consolations. continued the same devotion in the By his favour a royalist gentleman. felt less pride in having the guardianship of the daughter. She sent to the Temple to seek the tapestrywork. Richard. deprived of their functions. and offered her a flower which contained a note. was introduced into the prison. shared in all the feelings of his wife. as alleviation of the rules in captivity.146 marie Antoinette's captivity. news from The concierge the queen to her sister and the children. XVI. the balls of wool. Every tiling which the arbitrary law of a prison permitted to be adopted. This note spoke of deliverance. daughter. indulgence to enter. than in the She introduced happiness of being able to dry her tears. or wear it out by delay. Michonis was arrested. who had already proved his devotion to the royal family in the Temple. which she procured by correspondShe transmitted through the meence with the Temple. Madame Richard and her husband. who wei*e accomplices. xi/vt. at the peril of his life. saw the queen. nourishment. although apparently more austere. [b. the wife. named Conciergerie. over one heart. to prove to her prisoner that. and the needles which Marie Antoinette had left there Madame Richard herself prepared the She brought her news of her sister. even in the depth of her misfortunes. were cast into the dungeons where they had permitted The queen trembled. 16. in order to comfort her. through pity and devotion. People without were ignorant of the period at which Marie Antoinette was to be tried. her prisoner's food. This adjournment of the Committee of Public Safety caused a hope that they would deceive the ferocious impatience of the populace.

who were wont in former days to seiwe the royal houses. The humidity of the ground had caused the two only gowns which the queen possessed the one a white one. the former concierges of La Force. accompanied by administrators of police.XLVI. caused pure water to be brought daily from Arcueil. rejoiced to find in them well-known faces and faithful as hearts. by her gaiety and grace. of the prison on the brutal Simon. and to turn the mattress of her bed. to those gardens she had so much loved. contrary to the orders of the Commune. which she wore alternately Her three chemises. prepared her In place of the fetid water of the Seine. woman's hand could be found. the : — to fall in tatters. constantly Madame saturated with water. and who.B. 147 generous heart avoided the insults which Hébert and Chauniette ordered to be inflicted on their But this time a victim. such as Fruit the queen had been accustomed to drink at Trianon. were in the same condition.] MARIE ANTOINETTE'S CAPTIVITY. Bault's daughter mended these dresses and shoes. into the dungeon. and her shoes. and Madame Bault. who had protected them in the time of her omnipotence. which would lend itself an instrument of torture to another woman so highly born. peaches. she food herself. under The interior of the cell the most humble circumstances. secretly brought melons. which enjoined her to give nothing more to the queen than the bread and water allowed to the prisoners. with the intention of assuaging the captivity and The princonsoling the last hours of their former mistress. No Madame Bault. assisted to dress the queen. 16. as relics. solicited and obtained the post. other a black. and bouquets. affect harshness and incorruptibility in her surveillance. She dressed the priL 2 . and secretly distributed. her husband only prenever entered the princess's cell sented himself there. thus testifying the fidelity of his heart. and flower women from the market. who was admitted every morning them. thus presented to the captive some resemblance and odour of Madame Bault. her stockings. softened the harshness of the gens d'armes. which the concierge allowed to reach his prisoner. cess. the pieces and shreds which came off — This young girl. It was in contemplation to bestow the office of concierge M. and so lowly fallen.

she plaited a garter . and placed outside the door in the corridor. " you deserve to be sent to the guillotine The queen sought every means of bequeathing to her children or her friends some material token of the remembrance which she cherished for them even in death. transmitted to her daughter. Fouquier-Tinville came to notify to her his act of accusation. This last and affecting work of the queen. was. converted into tapestry needles. She listened to it as a ! . She plucked out the threads of the old woollen coverlid. and thus concealed it from the observation of the gens d'armes. the conversation. who visited her chamber The after her sentence. During the last days of her confinement. for a cotton counterpane lighter than the heavy covering of coarse wool. and fell from a head. and the continual insults of her inspectors. but thirty-seven years of age. that the gens d'armes should be withdrawn from the interior. One of the commissioners. white. the gaoler had obtained permission. stooped to pick it up. she made a sign Bault. extend so far as to alter the nakedness." answered Hébert " brutally. and the The queen having expressed a wish stillness of the prison. She had no longer any society but her thoughts. copied some of these inscriptions. once so thick and bright. and let it fall at her feet. [b. The queen wrote by means of a needle's point the thoughts which she desired to retain upon the stucco of the wall. These slight alleviations of captivity could not.148 soner's head marie Antoinette's captivity. however. and prayer. XVII. XVIII. had grown . Bault transmitted this request to the solicitor-general of the Commune. two ivory tooth-picks. one by one. pretending to to Bault. 18. which oppressed her in her sleep. greater number were German or Italian verses alluding to her fate. xlvi. The wall of the side opposite to the window was covered with them. " How dare you make such a request. which was With the assistance of stretched upon her bed. The rest were little verses in imitation of the Psalms and of the gospel. after her death. have dropped his handkerchief. her hair. when she had finished it. bathed in tears. The queen had no longer to submit to the stare. meditation. under the pretext of better guaranteeing his responsibility. On the 13th of October. She passed the hours in reading. the darkness. as if nature had prescience of the shortness of her life.

but ill effaced by the lines trial their eloquence. with all the decorum which the simplicity and poverty of her garments permitted. — of the revolutionary tribunal. at noon.B. received it she could not repent and she would not supplicate. the consort and mother of a king. of her husband. It was not jusThe queen knew it the woman tice it was vengeance. and dazzled Europe. Her crime was. and destroyed all human feeling. Her mouth sorrowfully preserved the folds of royal pride. Her eyes. and of high repute. She did not affect a display of the rags which should have made the republic blush. in the solemn secretly solicited this honour. Between her and the republic it was hatred even to death. but the applause of posterity. which causes the dying to seek a chance of safety. 14th of October. She noted some answers to the interrogatories to which she had to submit. which so solemn a vengeance had drawn into the passages. To love the Revolution. and faded by grief. had They sought. She chose. surrounded by a strong escort of gendarmerie. The following day. young. was neither humbled nor cast down. occupied the queen the remainder of the day and the following night. a remnant of that instinct of life. and her life. crossed through the multitude. being a queen. XLVI. Her dignity as a woman and a queen forbade her to make any display of her misery. — . still darted some rays of their former brilliancy upon the faces of lier enemies. : . . not a despicable salary for Nevertheless. which want of rest and tears had graved like a bed of sorrow beneath the eyelids. there was no legal form The stronger of the two inflicted it on the other. she dressed herself.] HER TRIAL. The beauty which had intoxicated the court. was no longer discernible but its traces could be still distinguished. two defenders Chauveau-Lagarde and Tronson-Ducoudray. She ascended the stairs of the judgment-hall. she must have hated nature. surrounded by that black circle. These advocates. She did not dream of moving the regards of the people to pity. . scathed by the Revolution. which was not worth the honour of discussion. and seated herself upon the bench of the accused. Her forehead. generous. and arranged her hair. 149 form of death. and the having abhorred a revolution which deprived her of a crown. her children. 18. as a matter of form. even when impossible. L 3 .

— — . whitened by anguish. 19. and who seeks forbearance in compassion. The natural freshness of her northern complexion still struggled with the livid palor of the prison. [lî. and Masson. not that of an irritated queen. These crimes were true. Denizot. and flowed down upon her neck as in bitter derision of the fate of youth and beauty. Sellier." answered the queen. and situation of a young queen . but they were the faults of her The queen could no more absolve herself from them. omnipotent over the heart of a weak king. of long suffering. XIX. seemed to rejoice at having this haughty woman at their feet. who remembered only that she was a woman. but that of a victim whom long misfortune had habituated to her lot. Deliége. Maire. rank. Foucault. insulting in the depth of her contempt the people who triumphed over her. of the act of accusation was only an odious echo of all the reports and murmurs which had crept during ten years into ." " Your age ? " " Thirty-seven. " Your condition ? " " Widow of Louis. rank. and measured their greatness and their strength by the fall of The crowd was composed their most formidable enemy. Her countenance was natural. who had forgotten that she was a queen. The remainder than the people from accusing her of them. formerly King of the French. adored in her court. nor that of a suppliant who intercedes by her humility. Coffinhal. Hermann presided. XL VI. The judges were Hermann. a stranger. Her hair. contemplated her with eager looks. silent through curiosity rather than The populace emotion. contrasted with this youth of countenance and figure. seemed to ask pardon of the audience for the greatness of these names.150 HER TRIAL. principally of women. prejudiced against ideas which she did not comprehend. in accused. Ragmey. The crowd. and against institutions which dethroned her." bunal. Her low and agitated voice Austria. This part of the accusation was but the act of accusation of fate. " What is your name ? " demanded Hermann of the "I am called Marie Antoinette of Lorraine. Fouquier-Tinville read the act of accusation to the triIt was the summing up of all the supposed crimes of birth. who claimed nothing of her vanished rank who resigned nothing of the dignity of her sex and her deep distress. who had undertaken to accompany the condemned to the scaffold with every possible insult.

" with the intention. of prodigality. She answered with presence of mind. wandered heedlessly over the bar of the chair. 151 public belief. taken from the prisons in which they were already confined. like those of a woman who recalls remembrances upon the keys of a harpsichord. The indignation of the audience broke out at these words. and with whom calumny Her and insult its poignancy. Outraged nature aroused itself. to whom she had been most tenderly attached. and were themselves affected at seeing the Queen of France in such ignominy.B. . extending even to the corruption of her own son. not knowing how L 4 shielded all . and regard. who bent with more respect before the downfal of the queen than he had done before her power." said he. The cynic Hébert.] HER TRIAL." The pious Madame Elizabeth was named as witness and accomplice in these crimes. She endured The the voice of Fouquier-Tinville. Each time that the debates of the trial brought up the names of the Princesse de Lamballe. fingers had lost its bitterness. The only error in this defence was the defence itself. imputed acts of depravity and debauchery to the queen. Of this number was Manuel. The answers of Marie Antoinette compromised no one. recalled other davs to her. her voice assumed a tone of feeling. She offered herand generously self alone to the hatred of her enemies . Hermann addressed the accused. and briefly discussed the evidence as she refuted it. XX. any sign of emotion or astonishment. After each evidence witnesses were called and interrogated. not against the accused. and who gloried in the accusation Bailly. and that if she delivered her head up to the people. The ignominy of certain accusations sought to dishonour her. Many of these witnesses. supposed licentiousness. as a woman accustomed to hatred. XLVI. her friends. but against the accuser. sorrow. She evinced her determination not to abandon her sentiments before death. and reigning in his name over the ruin of his understanding. and pretended treason of the queen. It was her unpopularity conShe heard all this without betraying verted into crimination. 20. who was heard as a witness upon what had passed at the Temple. " of enervating the soul and body of that child. accused of humanity in the Temple. even in her maternal feelings. but she heard him not. The queen made a sign of horror. she would not yield them her heart to profane. or the Duchess of Polignac.

XXI. Hermann summed up the accusation. The queen answered with no less dignity to the imputations which were alleged against her of having abused her ascendency over the weakness of her hus" I never knew that character of him. and my duty." cried she. and declared that the entire French people deposed against Marie Antoinette. . memory honoured or avenged. turning towards the women of the audience. 21. was but his wife. The sake. After the closing of these long debates. She wrapped herself in that silence which was her Ferocious applause followed her even to the last protection. " I appeal against it to all mothers here shudder of horror against Hébert present. was She did not sacrifice by a single to conform to his will. She listened to it without uttering a single word. XLVI. and arose as if to walk to her exeShe disdained to reproach the people with the cution. would have been to abase herself. " because there are accusations to which nature refuses to reply. ran through the crowd. juryman took up the to answer without soiling her lips. excited posterity without being able to affect the The jury deliberated for form's audience or the judges. and the indigna tion of modesty. queen was called to hear her sentence." said she . the most enraged against her. She shook her head. testimony of Hébert. would have been to acknowledge it to complain would have been to humble herself to weep. To supplicate rigour of her destiny and with their cruelty." said replied to this accusation ? she. in their jury." 'Afterwards. staircase which descends from the tribunal to the prison." word the memory and honour of the king for the purpose of her own justification. as well as my pleasure. Hermann asked her if she had any or making any motion. She had already heard it in the stamping and joy of the crowd. which filled the palace. and asked the accused why she had not "I have not answered it.152 HER CONDEMNATION. " I band. He invoked punishment in the name of equality in crime and equaand put the question of guilty to the lity in punishment A A — Chauveau-Lagarde and Tronson-Ducoudray. defence. and returned to the hall after an hour's interval. thing to say upon the pain of death being pronounced upon her. or to the pride of having reigned in She desired to carry back to him to heaven his his name. and summoning them by the testimony of their hearts and their community of sex. [b. . . rising with the majesty of innocence.

and wrote the following letter to her sister. and her friendship. I have been condemned. How much to him expressly: ' — ' Let him never attempt to avenge our death ! . by the pleadings on position do I leave you my trial. which was found afterwards amongst the papers of Couthon. in whatever position they may find themselves. that only awaits criminals. at half past four in the morning. I repeat them us. and rejoice in liberty at your tender care. render to his sister every care and service which affection can dictate May they.] HER LAST LETTER. not to an ignominious death. I hope one day. but to go and rejoin your brother. to whom Fouquier. I hope to show the same firmness as he did in these last moments. ! ! ! ! ! by consolation has our friendship given us in our misfortunes! And. they may rejoin you. Alas I dare not write to her poor child she would not receive my letter . executioner. paper. first light The " This 15th Oct. in happiness. She was placed. I know not even if this may reach you. to share it with a friend is doubly sweet. in the dark hall wherein the condemned await the She asked the gaoler for ink. when tbiey are older. I grieve bitterly at leaving my poor children you know that I existed but for them and you you who have by your friendship sacrificed all to be with us. while awaiting the hour of punishment. for the last time. and a pen. menced. May they both think on what I have never May their friendship and ceased to inspire them with mutual confidence form their happiness May my daughter feel that at her age she ought always to aid her brother Avith that advice with which the greater experience she possesses. In what a I have learned. ! — — ! . XLVI. that my daughter was separated from you. by these curiosities of death and relics of royalty. my — . in short. 21. Innocent as he. 153 of day began to struggle under these vaults with the flambeaux with which the gens d'armes lighted their Her last day had comIt was four in the morning. should inspire her May my son. sister.. both feel.Tin ville rendered homage.B. that they can never be truly happy but by their union Let them take example " I write you. Receive my blessing for both. steps. on his part. Where can one find any more tender or dearer than in one's own family? Let my son never forget the last words of his father.

and which I have always professed. I ask pardon of all those with whom I am acquainted. and what he day will arrive.154 HER LAST LETTER. I forgive all my enemies the evil they have done me. causes me the greatest regret I experience in dying. they may bring me perhaps But I here protest that I will not tell him one a priest. and Roman religion . the proceedings have been so rapid that I should really not have had the time. in particular. I hope that. God. not knowing if priests of this religion still and even the place in which I am would expose exist here them too much. for ever Adieu I ought no longer to occupy myself. . you my last thoughts. think of his age. in that in which I have been bred. My ! ! . Adieu . but with my spiritual duties. .. I hope. . word. as well as those I have long since made. Adieu. my dear sister . Let them. As I am not mistress of my actions. [b. how heartrending it is to quit them dren. he will accept my last vows. in that of my fathers . " I die in the Catholic. exclusively of their not permitting me to write. at least. ! . know that in my last moments I have thought of them. and to all my brothers and sisters. A — ! ! ! . and aunts. but. 22. having no spiritual consolation to expect. that he may vouchsafe to receive my soul in his mercy and goodness.. I sincerely ask pardon of God for all the errors I may have committed during my life. my sister. he will the better feel all the value of your kindness and It still remains to me to confide to affection for them both. for all the trouble which. and how you. without desiring it." XXII. and of you. XL VI. I may have caused you. This letter being finished. and that I will treat him absolutely as a stranger. " I must now speak to you of a matter most painful to my I know how much trouble this child must have given Pardon him. the idea of being separated for ever from them and their sorrows. easy it is to make a child say what one wishes. Apostolic. my good and kind sister May Think of me always this letter reach you I embrace you with all my heart. as if they could transmit the warmth of her lips and the moisture of her tears to her children. as well as those poor and dear chil. in his kindness. She folded it heart. I had desired to write them from the commencement of the trial . were they once to enter it. she kissed each page repeatedly. I say here adieu to my I had friends. when even does not comprehend.

and the sacrament of the Catholic religion. . the horror of the mission. XL VI. and they divided the prisons between them. He remitted it to Fouquier-Tinville. compelled him to augment the number of ecclesiastics who devoted themselves to these duties. 22. had not entirely broken. with God. the dread that the fury of the people would not permit the cortege even to reach the scaffold. It has been stated that she had received. Three amongst them. the habit of sending ministers of religion to the condemned. minal justice. and might sacrifice with the queen the minister of worship who should assist her upon the car the certainty of seeing themselves repulsed by a womanwho rejected the whole Revolution. 155 without sealing it. There were always at the bishopric five or six appointed priests. He informed the priests. . Her death had none of these consolations to assuage or to Here is. The same formality took place in regard to the queen only the high station of the victim. presented themselves during the night at the Conciergerie. in her last moments.] THE PRIESTS. rendered the priests of Gobel timid and tardy in the accomplishment of these duties with Marie Antoinette. even to its prayers. witness. There were constitutional priests. previous to execution. nor severed all the bands of man with religion and of the soul with immorbut it had tality. a visit from an unconfirmed priest. as was believed.B. the truthful account of the religjous circumstances which preceded the execution of the queen. and gave it to the concierge Bault. The bishop of Paris. pious sentinels. Gobel. Fouquier remitted it to the bishop. in short. even in its most terrible excesses. . It had nationalised its forms of worship neither abolished the exercise nor the wages of this nationalIt had preserved the ancient customs of criised adoration. the repugnance to attach their name in history to any circumstances of this murder. and timidly offered their min. scrupulously inspected this charitable service of the The multiplicity of punishments had clergy in the prisons. which would resound so remotely to posterity . They shifted the responsibility from one to another. from the lips of an eyefortify it in its last agony. who relieved each other in this species of funereal duty. however. the president transmitted a list of the condemned to FouquierTinville. The republic. Whenever the revolutionary tribunal had decreed death.

officious in conduct. St. to the woman who. She prayed alone. " but regret. however. touched the queen. the constitutional curate of Landry. of the stains of the republic. one of the vicars of the bishop of Paris the third an Alsatian priest. The atmosphere of the eighteenth century. " for I am a great sinner! But I am about to receive a great sacrament!" " Yes. and left in amazement. I shall have much need of it. and watching the return of a thought to God even at the foot of the scaffold. however. ! The Abbé Lothringer persisted in his charity. administering to most of the condemned in the dungeons. She coloured her refusal wi*h an expression of gratitude and " I thank you. She did not possess the calm and lively faith of her husband to supHer soul was rather passionate port her in her last hour. istry to the queen. and confessed herself only to God. in silence. of all on earth. The seemliness of their manners and conversation. He contemplated. the tears flowing from his eyes. my religion forbids me to receive the pardon of God from the mouth of a priest of any other than the Roman communion. limited in understanding. One was . solicitations could bend the queen. of pure republicanism. or make her kneel at his feet. named Girard another. of the executioner than as the precursors of Christ. in her last hours. than pious. 22. which more resembled an obligation than a holy work. a young man of a noble figure. of a stature rather military than sacerdotal." she said to the Abbé Gerard . with a mild and sorrowful humility. and not before the priest . one . and of a sincere faith. XLVI. He practised it with a restless and frivolous zeal. martyrdom " concluded the curate of St. had the most need of consolation. Such was the only comforter whom Providence gave. The schism with which they were infected was. which confessed itself in her heart before man. in a low voice. in her eyes. named LothThe queen received them rather as the precursors ringer." added she. and he retired bowing.1 56 HER DEMEANOUR. remained respectfully at a distance behind his two coadjutors. although agitated by the storms of the time. [b. . The Abbé Lambert. He was a man pious from conviction. and regarding priesthood as a trade. Landry. None of the Abbé Lothringer's importunate. this fearful expiation of royalty by a woman.

whom she had left as a mother to her children. here and there. XXIII. pressed round the gratings. the degradation of which humbled the court and weakened the throne. XLVI. This sister had procured for her. the worldly distractions of her habits . as a pious contagion. a white cap her hair. as her husband had died. emblematic of innocence on earth. at the hour of execution. to bestow upon her. some rays of the . a consolation which her piety deemed a necessity of salvation. A crowd of women enraged against the Autrichienne. But this faith of imitation and desire had not attained. Louis XVI. Honoré. her but a public form of decency. in secret. the roofs and the trees. Marie Antoinette cast off the black robe she had worn since her husband's death.] HER LAST HOURS. She had only recurred to it when in the depths of The example of the faith of the abyss of her misfortunes. A pale cold autumn fog hung over the Seine. and in which a Catholic priest would be on the day of punishment. perhaps. On her awakening. upon her soul. A black ribbon which bound this cap around her temples alone recalled to the world her mourning to herself her widowhood. the daughter of Madame Bault dressed and adjusted her hair with more neatness and respect for exterior appearance than on other days. to die in the faith of her race and in which reconciliation with Heaven. slept soundly for some hours. and death into apotheosis. too open to worldly vanities to enable her constantly to retain Religion had long been to before her the thoughts of God. froni above. Marie Antoinette was only resolved to die as a Christian. the absoThe queen relied on this inlution and benediction of God. and of his sister had acted.B. 157 she had inhaled . and permitted. to that state of security and beatitude which changes darkness into light. white handkerchief covered her shoulders. 23. lived. and political intrigues. after having written and prayed. were loaded with spectators. and even into the courts. latterly. and as her angelic sister. A . visible sacrament. and dressed herself in a white gown. and. and to the people her immolation. and unknown to the people. The queen. and joy for heaven. the cares of the throne. It was the number and the floor of a house in the Rue St. had often dissipated religion from her mind. before which the condemned passed. an etiquette of royalty. The windows and the parapets.

her toilette.158 HER PROGRESS TO THE GUILLOTINE. allowed herself to be bound without a murmur. Her cheeks changed continually from purple to paleness. notwithstanding her refusal. looks. and revealed the agitation and reflux of Notwithstanding the care she had taken of her blood. and that she would be conducted to the Having comscaffold. the tattered appearance of her dress. The Abbé Lothringer placed himself behind her. No feminine weakness. directed her steps. though dry. . Her red and swollen eyes. no trembling of the body. and issued with a firm step from the Conciergerie. as a person who suppressed the utterance of acute suffering. On entering from the staircase to the court. and " These are not your cushions the dignity of her attitude. and The hands parting the crowd by the breast of his horse. XL VI. she bowed her head in token of assent. voured by every means to preserve her equilibrium. sun to glitter upon the roofs of the Louvre and upon the tower of the palace. aide-de-camp of Ron sin. she perceived the car of the condemned. The cortege left the Conciergerie amidst cries of " Vive la Republique !" ''Place à V Autrichienne !" "Place à la bas la tyrannie !" The comedian Gramveuve Capet!" "A mont. She had thought that the people would have clothed their hatred somewhat decently. the laughter. brandishing his naked sword. Nature obeyed her will. deprived her of support against She endeathe jolting of the car upon the pavement. the common stuff and the crumpled plaits. The queen embraced the daughter of the concierge. At eleven o'clock the gens cCarmes and the executioners entered the hall of the condemned. of the queen being bound. moments with her teeth. towards which the gens alarmes She stopped. as if to retrace her road. and gestures of the people overwhelmed her with humiliation. revealed the long inundation of She bit her under lip for some care augmented by tears. The curls of her hair escaped from her cap and flapped with the breeze upon her forehead. gave the example and the signal to the people. in a close carriage. the coarse linen. pressed this emotion. and ascended Jhe car. no faintness of heart. cut her hair off herself. and lent her all its power to die as a queen. The cries. as the king was. dishonoured her rank. nor paleness of features were apparent." shouted some wretches to her. 23. the of Trianon. [b. and made a motion of astonishment and horror.

collected herself under the invisible hand which blessed her and. the ensign of patriotism.] HER PIETT. lowered her forehead. she made the sign of the cross upon her breast. made him known to her. The people thought. XXIV. Her eyes sought a. Her countenance regained not pity. the silence and serious aspect of If it was the crowd bespoke another region of the people. priest placed on the long seat by her side endeavoured in vain to call her attention.sign of safety amongst these signs of her loss. from which floated the tri-coloured banner. and she was at the foot of the guillotine. Marie Antoinette turned her head on the side of her ancient palace. with all their inrepel from her ears. that her light and puerile attention was attracted to this exterior decoration of republicanism. fell upon her knees. and the tumultuous quarters of Paris. disguised priest. 24. and stopped it for a short time before the entrance of the gardens of the Tuileries. The spectators thought that she prayed alone. by words which she seemed to Her looks wandered. She closed her eyes. 159 When she had crossed the Pont-au-Change. and witnesses have written. over the façades of the houses. XL VI. The priest and the A . inexplicable to the multitude. telligence. the leaders of the cortege caused the car to approach as near as possible to the Pont Tournant. Her thoughts were different. being unable to use her bound hands. An inward joy and secret consolation shone from this moment upon her countenance. it was at least dismay. so changed to her since sixteen months of capShe regarded above all the windows of the upper tivity. over the republican inscriptions. and respected her fervency. and over the costumes and physiognomy of this capital. by three movements of her hand. and regarded for some moments that odious and yet Some tears dear theatre of her greatness and of her fall. whence was to descend upon her head the absolution of a gesture. Some few more turns of the wheels. . the calm and uniformity of expression which the outrages of She thus traversed the multitude had at first disturbed.B. She approached the house which had been pointed out to her She examined with a glance the window in her dungeon. stories. On entering upon the Place of the Revolution. All her passed life appeared before her in the hour of death. The slowly the whole length of the Rue Saint Honoré.

felt less emotion at this murder than at that of the king. — . The assistant of the guillotine took it up by the hair and made the round of the scaffold. had not even the compensation of tragical events the remorse and grief of a nation. XXV. frivolous in prosperity. Thus died this queen. This man uttered a cry of pain." said she. and bequeathed to it her indignation and its own remorse. She took refuge in the court. " I go to rejoin your father. long cry of " Vive la République !" saluted the decapitated member and already senseless features. [B. She knelt down for an instant and uttered a afterwards rising. She mounted the steps of the ladder.. Public opinion affected an indifference to one of the most odious executions that disgraced the Republic. to justify herself before the people. This blood of a woman recoiled upon its glory. Paris. in place of throwing herself into the bosom of the people. executioner assisted her to descend. The people cast on her unjustly all the hatred . The head of the queen fell. amongst a people who had adopted her. the queen knew neither how to foresee. regarding the towers of the Temple. " Pardon me. the idol of a court mutilated by the people. She did not rush to heaven . Her features did not wear. and latterly the personal enemy of the Revolution. XL VI. This sacrifice of a queen and a foreigner. This Revolution. she knew only how to irritate and to fear it. and afterwards the blind counsellor of royalty. nor to accept . without cementing its liberty. A . intrepid upon the scaffold.160 HER EXECUTION. in a tone of voice as if she had spoken to one of her courtiers. like those of her husband. however. she inadvertently trod upon the executioner's foot. long the love. trembling more than she. sublime in misfortune. to comprehend. was seized with a tremour which checked his hand when disengaging the axe. like Louis XVI." she said to him. she fled from earth. The Revolution believed itself avenged it was only disgraced. On reaching the scaffold. " Adieu once again half-audible prayer my children." She did not attempt. but that of disdain for mankind and a proper impatience to depart from life. raising it in his right hand and showing it to the people. The executioner. the impression of the anticipated bliss of the just and the martyr. nor to move them by any appeal to his memory. sustaining her by the elbows. 25.

which we were unwilling to interrupt. the Girondists had been the constant objects of hatred to the people of Paris. and bounties of a woman who had pos"When Provisessed Versailles. over her husband. For we read upon the register of the general interments. and to die. — . and dragged him. The charming and dangerous favourite of an antiquated. to relate the I. and inscribes a vile cypher upon the register of a gravedigger ! BOOK XL VII. seven francs. From the 2d of June. to summon before their tribunal the twenty-three leaders of this party.B. by her beauty and by her wit. that people did not even grant her a tomb. by turns timid in defeat. compels us to retrace a period of some weeks. They attached all the scandal and treason of the court to her name. by her love. to mislead. and rash in success. 1. it speaks with a sign more powerful than the eloquent discourses of Seneca and Bossuet.] THE GIRONDISTS. Saint Cloud. " For the coffin of the widoio Capet. and Trianon. in La Madeleine. rather than the queen of a new. the date of their fall and captivity. Her vacillating policy. dour. The account of the trial and death of Marie Antoinette. fate of the Girondists. occupy a throne. M . monarchy. neither knew how to recede nor to advance at the proper moment and ended by converting itself into intrigues with the emigration party and with foreign powers. HI. 161 with which they persecuted the ancient regime. to his destruction. following the impressions of the moment. the pleasures. Omnipotent. The Committee of Public Safety charged Amar. VOL. she invested him with her unpopularity." Behold the total of the life of a queen. and of the enormous sums expended during a prodigal reign for the splen. XLVII. she had neither the prestige of ancient royalty respect nor the prestige of a new reign popularity she knew only how Called by a people to to fascinate. — . to the 3d of October. one of its most implacable members. dence desires to address men with the rude eloquence of royal vicissitudes.

and the gestures of the spectators betokened a feverish anxiety and A expectation. Sillery. Gamon. had at first opposed the Montagne. and which contained the life or death of so many proscribed men. A deputy of the Montagne mounted the tribune. Amar soon appeared himself. by bringing criminals to justice. Vergniaud. and who atone. would soon appear and read his report concerning the twenty-two Girondists arrested on the 8th of June. concluded First. to allay the impatience of the spectators. . Gensonné. Lachet. This deputy. By declaring guilty of conspiracy against the unity — and indivisibility of the Republic. pointed to the documents composing this report. They were struck by the unaccustomed display of armed men around the Tuileries. He was one of those men who profess moderate principles when the times are tranquil. and in the interior of the Salle the galleries were more thronged than usual. went to the Convention. like the council of ten at Venice. and announced that the rapporteur of the Committee of Public Safety. and Vergniaud. Grenoble. Amar. Gardien. one of those splendid mornings which seem to summon us to contemplate the last fine days of the expiring year. a long and calumnious summary of all the ca- lumnies spread abroad against the Girondists.162 amar' s report [b. Mollevault. for their past moderation. His report. FauDucos. Brissot. reassured by its dissimulation and silence the victims whose escape it apprehended. Carra. the movements. Duprat. and now endeavoured to curry favour. III. and moderation is unattended with danger. Boyer-Fonfrède. and to accuse the seventy-three deputies suspected of moral complicity with the Girondists. the remains of the party of Roland. which. by servility and violence. an ancient member of the parliament of excess. Condorcet. which lay on the president's table. in order to avert suspicion and punishment from himself. Vallée. whilst the features. Pontécoulant. in times of violence and Amar. the deputies Brissot. xlyti. who Lad been arrested on the 31st of May. shrouded this measure of the committee. On the 3d of September. Dufriche-Valazé. and who had publicly and courageously protested against the violence of the people and the mutilaprofound mystery tion of the national representation. Duperret. II. seventy-three deputies of the centre. 2.

Louvet.] AGAINST THE GIRONDISTS. Isnard. and the apprehension of being named. Rouyer. XLVII.B. Defermon. accomplices of the policy of the imprisoned and fugitive Girondists. Quéinnet. Salmon. Nothing had as yet led them to believe that the sword hung over their heads . Coustard. Dussaulx. Chasset." A long silence after each then read the names of the seventy-three deputies. Amar paused a moment after he had read these two articles . lest they should " Those give ground for accusation. 3. and no one permitted to leave the Salle. he demanded that the doors should be closed. Laplaigne. Amar continued. and Meillan. — . Valady. Andréi de la Corse. and they sorrowfully resigned themselves. made every heart beat with the hope of being omitted. Gorsas. Lanjuinais. The suspected members voted for this motion. Boileau. for they deemed themselves forgotten. to behold the proscription and death of the leaders of a party they could no longer save. and carried by a moment. and included in an amnesty. the fugitive Girondist deputies. subject will be drawn up by the Committee of General lastly. name. Lebreton. Rouault. Rabaut-St. Guadet. Bresson. Phillipe Egalité. Girault. Kervélégan. Pétion. Hardy. source. Lehardy. Duval. Saurine. who signed the protests of the 6th and 19th of June (against the 31st of May. and the deputies of the centre. Barbaroux. Lesterpt-Beauvais. The following were the names of those who heard the warrant for their death thus uttered by the mouth of Amar Lauze-Duperret. Noël. By declaring traitors to their country. conformably with the decree of the 8th July. the elder : He — M 2 . Chastelin. — A Safety. 163 rité. and cidevant Duc d'Orléans. Chambon. Mazujer. Lacaze. Savary. Vigée. Antiboul. Duchâtel. Cussy. Grangeneuve.-Etienne. Lesage. Bonnet. Second. Lidons. Delahaye. Cazeneuve. forgotten for named by Billaud-Varennes. Buzot. This illusion lasted but a few moments. Bergoing. Amar took up the documents composing the second part of his report but previous to reading them. general acclamation. Fermon. Dugué-d'Assé. the expulsion of the Girondists). who have not been brought before the revolutionary tribunal. Couppé. Salles. breathed again. DeveMainvielle. shall be report on this arrested and seals put on all their papers. Henri Larivière.

Obelin. Bresson des Vosges. and Gamon. Olivier Gerente. Lefebvre of la Seine inférieure. Ferroux. Duprat. like sheep going to the slaughter. Lacaze. and they were packed in silence. Mazuyer de Saône et Loire. Marboz. Not a scaffold was erected in Paris. Estadentz. Laurenceot. Massa. Their trial. Pache. Ribereau. Maisse. Fériés. but their voices were drowned. in the narrow space of the bar. Jarry. Amyon. from the Gironde. strove to cause them to be forgotten in vain. Daunou. Moysset. Deschamps. Babey. Hecquet. The fate of the deputies. Saint Prix. Fayolle. Some of the deputies included in it strove to obtain a hearing. Vernier. Blanqui. imprisoned since the 31st of May. employed. Vincent. Peyre. Lefebvre. At the end of the sitting. A — . satisfied with its victory. at the period when he sought to rule alone in the Convention. and Audouin. few members of the Montagne demanded that the names of their enemies should be added to the list of the proscribed. Guiter. Bailleul. Mercier. was loudly and their trial was their death. Devilleville. the accused deputies were confined in the different prisons of Paris. Saladin. Bohan. Blad. Ruault. with that of the other Girondists. The Montagne. Laurence. Vallée. Derazey. XLVII. Dubuse. Varlet. Garithe. The future shows that he reserved them as a counterpoise to the omnipotence of the Montagne. with more courage than he displayed for so many and he did not other victims. and Robespierre and Danton ashamed of so many odious and impolitic murders. but the people demanded why it was not for the Girondists : and the Committee of Public Safety feared to afford this ground for complaint to the more ardent Montagnards and the Commune. Savary. at the outset. Rabaut. The decree of accusation was unanimously carried. Blaviel. Faure. Corbel.164 IMPRISONMENT OF [b. . Aubry. Delamarre. The Jacobins had wrested the head of Louis XVI. was clearly pronounced by Amar. DebrayDoublet. Royer. colleagues. and Garat. and the demagogism of Hébert. Blaux. Rouzet. his influence to save them hesitate to resist the clamour of the people and to offend his colleagues. Serre. Grenot. called on the Jacobins to give the Republic the heads of their thirty-two Robespierre yielded with regret. and chiefly in La Force. Tournier. Robespierre demanded. 3. to rescue the seventy-three from the impatience of their enemies. Fleury.

B. XLVII. 5.]



the minister of the interior, came to entreat him to save them. " Do not speak of it again," said Robespierre ; " I cannot save them : there are periods in revolutions when to live is a crime, and when men must know how to surrender their heads when demanded. And mine also will, perhaps, be required of me," added he, seizing it in both hands, like a man who throws down a burden. " You shall see if I dis-

pute it." IV. Vergniaud, Gensonné, Ducos, Fonfrède, Valazé, Carra, Fauchet, Lasource, Sillery, Gorsas, and their colleagues, had remained voluntary prisoners at Paris. Condorcet had escaped, by timely flight, the pursuit of the Commune and the warrant issued for his arrest. Roland had fled, and concealed himself in the environs of Rouen after the imprisonment of his wife. Brissot, called the leader of the party since he had been its organ, and had given it its name, had also fled. On his arrival at Chartres, his native place, he found no friends, and left the town alone on foot, in disguise, and, furnished with a false passport, strove to gain, by circuitous and unfrequented routes, the Swiss frontiers or the departments of the south. Recognised and arrested at Moulins, he had been brought back to Paris and cast into prison, where he languished during five months. V. The captivity of the Girondists from the 31st of May had followed, as regards its rigour or indulgence, the oscillaAt first almost nominal, and as tions of public opinion. though ashamed of itself, it was merely confinement in their own house under the custody of a gen cFarme. The opportunities of escape were frequent. Surrounded by their families, visited by their friends, served by their own domestics, furnished with money and false passports, it seemed that these measures of tolerance were purposely adopted to favour The Montagne was rather embarrassed by, than their flight. jealous of its victims but after the disasters of the army of the north, the successes of La Vendée, the insurrection of Calvados, Marseilles, Lyons, and Toulon ; the proclamation of the Terror, the trial of Custine, the execution of the queen, and the law against suspected persons their captivity became more rigorous. They were first confined in the Abbaye, then the Luxembourg, and then the Carmes, united








by the same crime and the same

For a length of time,

confounded with those suspected of royalism and federalism, that the Girondists found themselves associated by chance with blind avenger of the conquered and the conquerors the victims of their policy, the vanquished of the 10th of August, the friends of La Fayette and Dumouriez, the servitors of royalty, the moderators of the Revolution, nobles, such men as Barnave, Bailly, and priests, magistrates Malesherbes.

— —

The Girondists, inflexible in their republicanism, retained a revolutionary attitude, and neither affected to lament their opinions nor the humiliation of their fall, and associated themselves with the Convention in all its acts of patriotic energy and severity against the royalists, and only separated themselves from what they termed its humiliation and its crimes. They formed in the prison a distinct group, which was not Their names, a rupture, but a schism in the republic. celebrity, youth, and eloquence, inspired their enemies with curiosity, their fellow-captives with respect, and their very gaolers with courtesy. Something of their character of representatives of the people, of their prestige, and their power had followed them even in their dungeon ; and, though prisoners, they yet reigned by the recollections or the admiration that enshrined
them. VI.


their trial

was decided

on, this captivity



They were imprisoned for a few days in the Carmelite convent, in the Rue de Vaugeraud, a monastery

converted into a prison, and rendered sinister by the recollections and the bloody traces of the massacres of September. The lower floors, crowded with prisoners, only left the Girondists a narrow space between the roofs, consisting of a dark passage, and three cells, opening one into another, and resembling the Piombi of Venice. small staircase, in a corner of the building, led to them several wickets had been formed on the stair, and a single massive door, studded with iron, gave access to these cells. This door, closed since 1793, and opened for us, presented the cells and displayed the images and thoughts of the captives as perfect and intact as the day they left to go to death. No step, no hand, has effaced these vestiges of them. The written traces of pro-



B. XXVII. 7.]



scribed members of all the other parties of the Republic are and the names of mingled with those of the Girondists friends and foes, executioners and victims, are inscribed on

the same wall.

VII. Above the principal door was inscribed, in large " Liberty, Equality, or Death ! " the usual inscripThis led into tion on all public monuments at that period. a large room, in which the prisoners took their meals on the left was a small chamber, in which the younger of the Girondists slept. These two apartments were lighted by two ungrated windows, which looked on the large gardens belonging to the convent. The eye first rested on the fountain, which seemed as though striving eternally to efface the blood of the priests massacred near its basin, then on an immense horizon on the north and west of Paris. Nothing broke the outline, save the spire of the clock tower of the Luxembourg, the dome of the Invalides opposite, and on the left, by the two towers of a half-destroyed church. The light, the silence, the serenity of this prospect gave the captives the image of the country, the illusions of liberty, and The walls and ceiling of the calmness of contemplation. this chamber, covered with plaster, offered the prisoners, in the place of paper, of which they had been deprived, a page on which to engrave their last thoughts with their knives or write them with their pencils. These ideas, generally expressed in short and proverbial maxims, or Latin verses, cover the walls to this day, and render them the depositories and revealers of the last thoughts and hopes of the Gironde. Almost all are written in blood, and retain its hues, and are a hymn to constancy, a defiance of death, or an appeal to immortality. In one place we read " Quand il n'a pu sauver la liberté de Rome, Caton est libre encore et sait mourir en homme." In another




" Justum ac tenacem propositi virum, Non civium ardor prava jubentium,

Non vultus

instantis tyranni

quatit solidà."

" Cui virtus non deest

Nunquam omnino






[b. XLVII. 8.




vraie liberté est celle de l'âme."


the side, a religious inscription, supposed to be in the

hand of Fauchet

" Souvenez-vous que vous êtes appelles non pour causer et pour être oisifs, mais pour souffrir et travailler." Imitation de Jésus Christ.

another part of the wall is a regret given to a beloved name, which was not revealed even in death


" Je meurs pour







spectaculum fortem virum


certe deo


calamitate colluc-





" Quels solides appuis dans


pour moi


vertu, l'équité,

malheur suprême Dieu lui-même."


n'est pas plus

Le jour

pur que


fond de

mon cœur."

In the recess of the



" Cui virtus non deest

Non omnino
" Rebus in arduis

facile est

contemnere vitam."

" Dulce et decorum pro patriâ mori."
" "

Non omnis



erede nefas


prœferre pudori."

In large

letters of blood, in the writing of
" Potius mori





multitude of inscriptions and initials, strophes and incompleted ideas, attest the stoical intrepidity of these men, fed from the purest sources of antiquity, and seeking consolation, not in the hope of life, but the contemplation of




their last

queen was

Girondists were removed during the night to place of detention, the Conciergerie, where the Thus the same roof covered the still confined.


XLVI1. 9.]



fallen queen and the men who had hurled her from her the victim of royalty and throne on the 10th of August Here they met Brissot, who the victims of the republic. had for a long time been confined at the Abbaye, and those of the colleagues who, like Duperret and Riouffe, had been brought back from the south or Bretagne. They were placed in a separate part of the prison. Their cells were contiguous, and one contained eighteen beds. The impossibility of escaping from these walls, defended by triple

and sentinels, had led their gaolers to soften, some measure, the severity of their imprisonment, and to allow them the use of paper and ink. They read the public journals, and conversed, through the wicket, with their wives, children, and friends. The brother-in-law of Vergniaud, M. Alluaud, came from Limoges to bring him some money for Vergniaud was in a state of literal destitution. M. Alluaud had brought his son, a child of ten years, whose features recalled to the prisoner
doors, iron bolts,



those of his beloved sister. The child, seeing his uncle imprisoned like a malefactor, his cheeks sunken, hair in disorder, unshaven, and his garments hanging in tatters, burst " My child," said into tears, and clung to his father's knees. the captive, taking him on his lap, " look well at me when you are a man, you can say that you saw Vergniaud, the founder of the republic, at the most glorious period and in the most splendid costume he ever wore that in which he suffered the persecution of wretches, and in which he prepared to die for liberty " The child remembered these words, and repeated them, fifty years afterwards, to the author of this work. IX. At the hours of exercise the other prisoners flocked around the Girondists, to contemplate and listen to them. Their conversations turned on the events of the day, the danger of the country, the difficulties in the way of liberty, and the blots on the republic. They conversed like men who have no longer any occasion to temporise, and who see their work dishonoured and stained with blood. Their eloquence, which had lost nothing of its patriotism, contracted within these walls something of a prophetic character their impartial voice seemed to make itself heard from the tomb. Brissot read to his colleagues the pages in which he be;





[b. XLVTI. 10.

Gensonné prequeathed their justification to posterity. served the bitterness of his sarcasm, and avenged himself on his enemies by his contempt for them. Lasource illuminated the abysses of anarchy by the fire of his ardent imagination,
for the fall of his party by the general Carra constantly formed new combinations and new divisions of territories between the powers of Europe. Fauchet accused himself, with sincere and manly repentance, with having abandoned his faith, and proved Sillery that religion alone could guide the steps of liberty. was silent, deeming silence more dignified than complaint in his last moments. He, like Fauchet, returned to his religious belief and observances. Both frequently conversed with a venerable priest, their fellow-prisoner in the Conciergerie. This was the Abbé Emery, ancient superior of the

and consoled himself
ruin of Europe.

of whom Fouquier-Tinville said, because he prevents more tumult and more complaint in the prison, by his gentleness and advice, than the gens d'armes and the guillotine put together." Ducos and Fonfrède, young men whose natural gaiety the gloom of a prison and the approach of death could not damp, wrote verses, affected the light-heartedness of happier times, and only recovered their gravity and regret in the confidences of their heroic friendship, and their mutual apprehension for each other's fall. Valazé looked upon the approach of death as the consummation of the sacrifice he had long since made of his life to his country. He felt that new doctrines must be watered with the blood of their earliest apostles, and he rejoiced at shedding his, for he possessed the fanaticism of devotion, and the impatience of

congregation of

St. Sulpice,

" We




martyrdom. few hours before the trial, he gave the young Riouffe a " There," said he, pair of scissors, which he had concealed. with an accent of irony, which Rioufie did not until afterwards comprehend, " it is said that this is a dangerous weapon, and they fear lest we should attempt self-destruction." He bore on his person a surer weapon, and this gift


was a Socratic raillery of his foes. X. Vergniaud appeared as careless of the judgment of
posterity as of his life. Calm, grave, natural, sometimes mirthful, he never wrote, and conversed but little. pilot,


B. XLVTI. 11.]



torn from the helm during a tempest, he reposed himself on the deep amidst the agitation of the vessel, which he no longer governed. His strong mind, whose very strength rendered it sometimes too inactive, and his prophetic yet idle genius, Alone and silent, on his left him but little care for himself. bed or on the spot allotted for exercise, he occasionally illuminated a difficult theme under discussion by one of those flashes of eloquence, no less majestic in the dungeon than the tribune of the senate. Eloquence with him was not an art, but a part of himself he was certain of always bearing it with him, and of employing it when requisite ; and he esteemed it as a weapon to be employed in the combat, and not to adorn him before time and posterity. He often conversed with Fauchet, and without sharing his faith yet enjoyed the truths of theories and hopes of Christianity, which he respected as the founder respects gold, though alloyed. He did not desire the destruction, but the gradual, entire, and prudent purgation of religion. " To disengage God from his image," said he, " is the last task of philosophy and the Revolution." Vergniaud thought much more highly of the talents of Fauchet, since his vague and declamatory style had become vivified and sanctified by the return of religious feelings to the heart of the bishop of Calvados, and the presentiment of martyrdom. Such was Vergniaud in captivity. He only appeared more unmoved than his companions, because he was the most reflective and the greatest. The evening before the day of the trial of the Girondists, he threw away the poison he had for five months constantly carried about him, in order to share the fate of his friends, and accompany them to the scaffold. On the 22d of October their acte d'accusation was read to them, and their trial commenced on the 26th. Never since the Knights Templars had a party appeared more numerous, more illustrious, or more eloquent. The renown of the accused, their long possession of power, their present danger, and that love of vengeance which arises in men's hearts at the spectacle of mighty reverses of fortune, had collected a crowd in the precincts of the revolutionary tribunal. The greater portion of the judges and jury had been the friends and clients of the Girondists, and were the







more resolved to condemn them in order to purge themselves from any suspicion of complicity. strong armed force surrounded the gates of the ConThe cannon, the uniciergerie and the Palais-de-Justice. forms, the sentinels, the gens d'armes, the naked sabres, all announced one of those political crises in which a trial is a battle, and justice an executioner. They At ten o'clock the accused were brought in. were twenty-two ; and this fatal number, inscribed in the earliest lists of the proscription, on the 31st of May, had been maintained in spite of the flight or death of several of the twenty-two deputies first marked by the Convention


The number was completed by adding to for destruction. the Gironde several members, strangers to their faction, as
Boileau, Mainvielle, Bonneville, Antiboul, in order that the
people, seeing the same number, might believe they beheld the same plot, detest the same crime, and punish the conspirators.

XII. At eleven o'clock they entered the salle d'audience, between two files of gens d'armes, and took their places in The crowd, who gazed on silence on the prisoners' bench. them as they passed, inquired their names, and sought in their faces the imaginary imprint of the crimes ascribed to them, but yet wondered that features youthful and so Ducos was the first serene should conceal so much perfidy.
scarcely twenty-eight years of age, his to take his seat black and piercing eyes, the flexibility of his features, and the elegance of his figure revealed one of those ardent temperaments in whom the vivacity of impressions prevents them from being profound, and in whom every thing is light, even heroism. Fonfrède, who was younger than his brotherin-law, followed him ; but a darker shade of melancholy covered his features. The eyes of these two young Girondists rested with more assurance on the crowd, and more conDucos and Fonfrède had not shared at fidence on the jury. the Convention and the Committee of Twelve either the prudence of Condorcet and Brissot, or the moderation of Vergniaud. Enthusiastic and fiery as the Montagne, they had repeatedly blamed the revolutionary inactivity of their They only hated in Danton the blood of September, party.

B. XLVII. 13.]



them away, and he would have been had not Vergniaud existed. XIII. They were followed by Boileau, juge-de-paix at Avalon, a man of weak mind, who had accidentally enrolled himself in the ranks of the Gironde and now perceived his error he now adopted with tardy repentance the triumphant opinions and pitiless patriotism of the Convention. Mainvielle followed him, the youthful deputy of Marseilles, of the same age as Ducos, and of an equally striking but more masculine beauty than Barbaroux. He had dyed his hands in the blood of Avignon, his native city, to sever it from the papal party, and cast it into the arms of France and the Revolution. Accused by Marat of moderatisme, this charge had confounded him with the Gironde. Duprat, his countryman and friend, accompanied him to the tribunal. After them came Antiboul, a native of Saint Guilty of courageous huTropez, and deputy of Var. manity at the trial of Louis XVI., Antiboul had consented to proscribe him as a king, not to condemn him as a man, and his conscience was his crime. He was followed by Duchâtel, deputy of Deux Sèvres, aged twenty-seven years, who had been carried to the tribunal almost in a dying state wrapped in blankets, to vote against the death of the Tyrant, and who was termed, from this act and this costume, the The martial expression of his feaSpectre of Tyranny. tures, and the grace of his figure, attracted all eyes. Carra, deputy of Sâone and Loire, at the Convention, sat next to Duchâtel. His vulgar physiognomy, the stoop of his shoulders, his large head and disordered attire, recalled Marat, and contrasted with the stature and beauty of DuLearned, confused, fanatic, declamatory, impetuous châtel. alike in attack or resistance, he had sided with the Gironde to combat the excesses of the people without disavowing the His journal had been the echo of their doctrines republic. and eloquence, and the echo was destined to perish with the
for his eloquence carried

their leader,



man of rustic appearance and garb, Duperret, the involuntary victim of Charlotte Corday, sat next to Carra. He was of noble birth, but cultivated with his own hands the small estate of his forefathers. Devoid of ambition and vanity, the Revolution had taken him, like Cincinnatus, from




[b. XLVII. 13.

the plough. He had been elected as the most honest man, and now paid the fine of his good name. He was in his forty-seventh year, and was followed by Gardien, deputy of La Vienne, a man of the same age and appearance. Gardien had voted against the king's death, belonged to the Committee of Twelve, and displayed the energy of a good citizen. Then came Lacaze, deputy of Libourne and Lesterpt-Beauvais, deputy of Haute Vienne, both friends of Gensonné, passionate admirers of his eloquence and courage, and proud of being accused of the same virtues as himself. Gensonné followed them. He was a man of five-andthirty, but the ripeness of his intellect, the importance of his part, and the resolution that dictated his opinions, gave his features that look of energy and decision that belongs to maturer age. His hair carefully powdered and brushed back, heightened his naturally lofty forehead. He raised his head with a look of pride approaching defiance, and a sarcastic smile played around his mouth. His elegant and carefully chosen costume, made in proscribed shape and stuff, added to the already unpopular character of the physiognomy of Gensonné. doctor of Dinan, Lehardy, deputy of Morbihan, a man devoid of any other ambition than that of the love of his fellow creatures, and any renown save that of his death, fol-


lowed Gensonné.

Next came Lasource, a man of high-flown language and
His unpowdered and closely cut hair, his black coat, his austere demeanour, and grave and ascetic features, recalled the minister of the Holy Gospel, and those
tragical imagination.

Puritans of the time of Cromwell,

who sought




and in their trial, martyrdom. Vigée, an unknown man, who had not long arrived at the Convention, and who had been ensnared by his earliest votes, followed Lasource unnoticed. After Lasource and Vigée came Sillery, the
ancient friend of the Duc d'Orléans, accused of inspiring him, through his wife, with ambitious desires and ideas of ascending the throne. Sillery had quitted his master, prior to the death of the king, for he felt his honest soul recoil from regicide, and he had stopped, not as a timid man who repents in silence and flies to obscurity, but as a resolute man who braves and faces the danger. great and







pure republic appeared to him a nobler ambition than a royalty raised from a sea of blood, and he joined the Girondists, still attached to the Duc d'Orléans, but advising him secretly to follow his example, and predicting his future fate. The military appearance of Sillery, his patrician costume and his haughty features, revealed in him the gentle-

man who

despises the populace.


expression of his face

was that of happiness: he seemed to rejoice at escaping from the difficulties of his situation, and the reproaches of the past, by a noble death amidst his friends and the élite of the

Valazé seemed like a soldier under fire his conscience him it was his duty to die, and he died. His costume preserved, from the manner in which he wore it, a semblance of uniform. The Abbé Fauchet came immediately after Valazé. He was in his fiftieth year but the beauty of his features, the



elevation of his stature,

him appear much younger.

make, befitted his as to show the tonsure of the Christian priest, so long covered by the bonnet rouge of the revolutionist. His features wore no other expression than that of his soul, enthusiasm. The tribunal was to Fauchet a sanctuary to which he came to confess his faults, and expiate them by the sacrifice of his

and the freshness of his colour, made His dress, from its colour and sacred profession, and his hair was so cut


XIV. Brissot was the last but one. He was a man of middle age, small stature, and wan features, lighted up by intelligence, and ennobled by an intrepid determination. Clad with the affected simplicity of the philosopher or man of nature, his threadbare black coat was but a piece of cloth cut mathematically to cover the limbs of a man. His hair, cut short in front, and floating on his neck behind, made him resemble the American Quaker, his model. Brissot held in his hand a pencil and paper, on which he every moment
made some

Last came Vergniaud, the greatest and most illustrious of them all. All Paris knew, and had beheld him in the tribune, and was now curious to gaze not only on the orator on a level with his enemies, but the man reduced to take his place on the bench of the accused. Men expected from him


Although Vergniaud entered the last. acte daccusation of Fouquier-Tinville. condemned them. and he was one of those men from whom every thing. which would render his trial worthy the times of Demosthenes or Cicero. Nought was Hate had no need to be convinced. was but a long and bitter reproduction of the pamphlet of Camille Desmoulins. streamed with perspiration. . conwith Robespierre and Saint Just. called History of the Faction of the Gironde. 16. and received as evidence by the executioner. burst and cracked at each movement. The certed. It was the history of calumny. elevating the defence to the height of their situation and their minds. even impossibilities. written by the calumniator. grown too small. and even Vergniaud seemed rather to excuse than glory in his Brissot. ously refuted Chabot. Léonard Bourdon. The gens darmes allowed them to be seated. like a borrowed garment. are expected. Pache. — . efforts and bursts of eloquence. Montaut. read. with large forehead. XL VU. for he was no longer Vergniaud of the Convention. Hébert. Chaumette. long invectives against the GironInstead of dists. The prestige of Vergniaud still followed him. His muscles. as a leader around whom they gloried in rallying. A murmur of interest and compassion burst from the populace as he advanced. they contented themselves with shielding themselves individually from the blows of their adversaries . Fabre d'Eglantine. [b. and his swollen and livid His brow cheeks had contracted the palor of a prison. victoriopinions. relaxed by confinement and mental suffering. and the Jacobin Deffieux. which he always wore at the Convention. which the latter debated in few words. it is said. instead of evidence. his eye dim. The judges called as witnesses the bitterest enemies of the accused. his companions made room for him on the centre of the bench. but the prisoner of the people. but which. no longer defined the somewhat massive outline of his limbs his step had become heavy. and confessing the glorious crime of wishing to moderate revolution in order to render it irreproachable and invincible. more resolute and more proud.176 THEIR TRIAL. Chabot. but had already added. skirts and collar. and contended to the last with his the vote against Sillery confessed his real crime accusers. which glued his long hair on his He was dressed in the same blue coat. XVI.

Auduin.B. and the demand of Gensonné. It was Valazé. began to lean towards clemency. wearied the judges and jury. " No." The sarcasms of the spectators were the sole reply. and especially Boileau. These first symptoms of a return of popular feeling to the Gironde alarmed the Commune. At this spectacle silence instantly prevailed. and appeared im- mersed in reflection. N . your courage?" said Brissot. exclaiming. Public opinion. the greater number. which had lasted a week.] THEIR CONDEMNATION. seated vol. were declared guilty of having conspired against the unity and indivisibility of the republic. he only met with contempt. and alarmed the Montagne. and the example of Valazé made the young Girondists blush for their momentary weakness. Brissot inclined his head on his breast. and condemned to death. XLVII. in. At this sentence a cry of astonishment and horror burst from the accused . Fonfrède. Mainvielle. instead of pity. and gloried in it. expected an acquittal. 17. Boileau alone protesting against the sentence which confounded him with the Gironde. I am a Montagnard. who had made a motion with his hand as though to tear his garments. striving to support him. who had formerly been a priest. slipped from his seat on to " What. cast his hat into the air. constrained by this declaration. in the name of all the accused. and they only became great again when all hope was gone. The fear of compromising a remnant of life sealed their lips. The jury. which is so soon softened and changed at the aspect of its victims." returned Valazé . One of the accused. I am dying. Vergniaud. closed the debate on the 30th All the accused of October. are you losing the floor. " I am innocent . The trial. Antiboul. Ducos. Valazé. 177 the death of the king. at eight o'clock in the evening. and was now one of the church's bitterest persecutors. to be heard in defence. called on the Committee of Safety to close the debate by allowing the president to declare that sufficient evidence had been heard. Pache's son-inlaw. and raised their eyes to heaven. XVII. Fauchet and Lasource clasped their hands. and he expired. his hand on the poignard with which he had pierced his heart. however. and. No speech worthy a record in history burst from the lips of these men. I am a Jacobin .

which had for a moment forsaken them. inconsiderate in his pity as his hatred. " Wretch that I am. It was eleven o'clock at night. XIX. to excite the people to revolt and disorder. on the highest bench. the sitting was closed amidst cries of Vive la Republique ! The Girondists as they quitted their places. we shall die together." Fonfrède threw his arms round Ducos. and burst into tears. his colleagues. " Mon ami." said he. After a moment's pause. I feel their blood fall on the hand that has denounced them." XVIII. to bequeath to them wealth no longer useful to The populace eagerly collected these legacies themselves. now returned with the conviction of their fate. like the Romans. assembled round the corpse of Valazé. In fulfilment of the promise they had made the other prisoners in the Conciergerie to inform them of their fate ' ' . covering his eyes with his hands. . " We die innocent. occasioned by the unexpectedness of the sentence. as it has been supposed. " This is the most glorious day of my life. and whom the crowd detained and silenced as though he had been a child. gazed on the tribunal. as though seized with an electric inspiration by contact with the republican who had perished by his own hand. to assure themselves that life was extinct.178 THEIR RETURN TO PRISON [b. and such ingratitude on the part of the people. with a look that seemed to scan the scene. It is my Brissot dévoilé which has killed them. and appeared touched with pity. extended on a bench . but. Vive la Republique !" Some of them threw amongst the crowd handfulls of assignats. XL VII. " I cause your death. Hermann of the dying. and to seek in the past an example of such a decision of destiny. " Let me fly from this spectacle. touched it respectfully. but console yourself. and the crowd. and then. and a young in vain strove to force his way through the crowd. they exclaimed simultaneously. and the emotion of the prisoners. Sillery cast away his crutch. ordered the gens d'armes to remove the prisoners and their presence of mind. 18. not. I cannot bear the sight of my work. it is I who have killed man them." This young man was Camille Desmoulins. At this moment a cry was heard." cried he. and exclaimed.

the daintiest meats. Bailleul. The Girondists took their places in silence. At these sounds the prisoners awoke and comprehended that the accused sang their own death song . acclamations. XX. the Abbé Lambert. on the day of their trial. The deputy Bailleul. and sobs replied to their strains. who had obtained admittance into the N 2 : . The Girondists came one by one to kiss the hand of their friend. The last luxury of an eternal farewell.] AFTER THEIR CONDEMNATION. a last repast. and was concealed in Paris. enfans de la patrie. they burst 179 by the echoes of tribunals. XLVII. It was near at hand. and then await the day. according to the sentence to rejoice at their freedom. the friend of Brissot and the other Girondists. or commemorate their death. who have no need to save aught for the following day. had promised to send them from without. proscribed like them. they and they recruited their strength for this morrow. bearing on a litter the bleeding corpse. They were all confined for this their last night on earth in the large dungeon. The funereal supper was set out in the large dungeon . prodigality of dying men. Four gens d'armes followed the column of the condemned. the waiting-room of death. the rarest flowers and numerous flambeaus decked the oaken table of the prison. and then covered his visage with his mantle. and laid it down in a corner of the dungeon. but who had escaped the proscription. for it was already midnight. the choicest wines.B." said adieus were rather respectful than sad. and interred with them? The only sentence perhaps that ever punished the dead. 20. conveyed in the same cart with his accomplices to the scaffold. They were so soon to rejoin him that their " To-morrow. priest. their voices. their colleague at the Assembly. to recruit their exhausted strength. Le jour de gloire est arrivé !" and sang the chorus with an energy that made the vaults ring again. The tribunal had just decreed that the yet warm corpse of Valaze " should be carried back to prison. triumphant or funereal. into the Marseillaise hymn : — on quitting the " Allons. kept his promise through the agency of a friend. and tears. though invisible. then a young man but destined to survive them more than half a century. — A .

deprived of her most virtuous and eloquent " How much blood will it require to wash out our citizens. faithful as conscience. and least regretted life. Towards the morning the conversation became more solemn. burst into gay and joyous sallies . Brissot spoke prophetically of the misfortunes of the republic. for he had gained sufficient glory. XXI. awaited in the corridor the conclusion of the supper the doors were open. and exact as the memory of a . Sillery. whose thoughts and tongues are freed by wine. The repast was prolonged till dawn. and more really intrepid in his gravity. contrasted with approaching death. — last friend. the sighs. mother. but when the table was cleared.180 LAST MOMENTS OF [b. 21. and he observed and noted down in his mind the gestures. Fauchet. and the words of those assembled there : and it is to him that posterity owes the greater portion of these details. Lehardy. Duchâtel. left neither father. nor children behind him. strove sometimes to reply to these noisy provocations. and threw a glacial expression over the false gaiety of these young men. wife. and nothing left except the fruit. Ducos. and ap- . The others formed groups. Antiboul. and all those young men who could not feel themselves sufficiently aged in an hour to die on the morrow. but their language. Vergniaud. but the misplaced gaiety of these young men found no echo in the hearts of their elder colleagues. but sobriety . own. with the same calm dignity he had presided at the Convention. and grave. Carra. who sat at the end of the table. noisy. the conversation became alternately animated. XLVII. They were silent for a moment. more grave. profaned the sanctity of their last hours. presided. as the conversation of careless men." cried he. and not — uttering a word. with the exception of Brissot. seated at the centre of the table. Fonfrède. Vergniaud. Mainvielle. and flowers. For a long time nothing in their features or conveiSRtion They indicated that this repast was the prelude to death. Conciergerie to console or bless the dying. ate and drank with appetite. Lasource. gazed on Ducos and Fonfrède with a smile in which indulgence was mingled with compassion. eating but little. wine. Brissot. on the night Vergniaud was of all the one who of the 10th of August.

" said the eyewitness whom we have before cited. and the conversation turned from earth to heaven. and we were at Paris. Vergniaud. 181 peared terrified at the phantom of the future evoked by " My friends. and only promised the destruction of the soul to those men who were about to The immortality die for the immortality of a human idea.B. Fauchet. according to his nature. their impression alone . Will he be more fortunate than ourselves ? No the it. and who had often admired him in the tribune. this soil is too weak to nourish the roots of civic liberty people is too childish to wield its laws without hurting itself. and the sublime conjectures of that future life to which they were so near." continued he. now appealed to by his friends. " we have killed Robespierre cuts It was too aged the tree by pruning it. Their voices sank. more profoundly affected his Brissot. 22. Carra. and Brissot. age corrupted even their last thoughts." replied some. of Vergniaud were H 3 lost. "never had his look. : . " We deemed ourselves at Rome. But revolutions are like those crises which blanch in a they soon bring nations to single night the hair of a man." replied Vergniaud. their accents became more solemn. and his voice. XLYII. who always mingled mirth with the most serious subjects. spoke in terms in which breathed all the divinity of human reason and all the certainty of conscience on the mysterious problems of the immaterial destiny of the human mind. and in which we die for the freedom of the world. "We were deceived as to the age in which we were born. joined in the debate. Gensonné." The words remained. in exchange for the death we shall receive at their hands. future and let us bequeath to the people hope. Our blood is sufficiently warm to fertilise the Let us not carry away with us the soil of the republic.] THE GIRONDISTS. Fonfrède. A hearers. " What shall we be doing to-morrow at this time ? " said Ducos. maturity. Each " We shall sleep after the replied. his gesture. offered a more fitting theme for their last moment." long silence followed this speech of Vergniaud's XXII. It will return to its kings as babes return to their toys. who had hitherto been silent. " Never. his language. of the soul. : — . The scepticism of the fatigues of the day.

which is not destroyed but metamor"But. . since there is in nature an instinct of a future existence. " are not we ourselves the We. like a peaceful assembly of philosophers." conourselves to suffer. more happy than Danton. What are we ourselves but atoms of this collective spirit of the human race ? Each of the men who compose our species. Our conscience is our guide in this mighty but certainty." added he.— 182 LAST MOMENTS OP [b. the certainty of a continuation of existence. exalted even to lyricism. from Socrates to Cicero. not with confidence. it is for the spirit of humanity and our fatherland that we die. to deduce his strongest proof from themselves. tinued he. the great Eternal. who will triumph. trial . suffer. on the light or darkness which shall succeed our last sigh . the consequence of the excellence of this Supreme Being. whose name is sought for by ages. so glorious. eveii as the instinct of a present life. Whence then arises this Robespierre. will live. whom he termed the Supreme Being. calm. as strong after having carried. our judge. — language. and this serenity in our souls ? Is it not in us the result of the feeling that we have performed a great duty towards humanity ? What is our country what is humanity? Is it this mass of animated dust which No. — — to enthusiasm. a proof above all others. unmoved in best proof of immortality ? of our own corpse the presence of the corpse of our friend discussing. calmness in our discourse. to-morrow a heap of clay ? for this living clod of earth. for which it is so sweet. but beings who obey their moral instinct and who. after having cited. to devote It is for this reason. After having united all the moral proofs of the existence of after having a being. has an immortal spirit. imperishable. 22. who will live. " that we are not sublime dupes. or enjoy in immortality the desLet us die then. when they have fulfilled this duty. XL VII. and from Cicero to all the just who have perished. after this present state. and the necessity of justice. than dying. a divine debt of the Creator. towards his creatures. and confounded with that soul of his country and mankind. in more eloquent phosed by death. demonstrated the necessity of a providence. serene. it is not is to-day man. tinies of humanity. the universal belief of all peoples and philosophers. and bringing the subject to the condition of his fellow-prisoners. and to whose designs we are subservient as — — — — . and to die.

" They rose from table. immolating himself uselessly and hopelessly for his country. where most of them threw themselves on their beds. XLV1I. some slept. which he breaks Death ! him in future ages. Brissot." added he. in a few words. The Abbé Lambert. us die certain of our life and the price of our death. Daylight began to stream in at the windows.] THE GIRONDISTS. who had passed the night at the door of their dungeon. "there would be something greater than God. sprang forward and clasped him in his arms. but Brissot gratefully but firmly refused. some conversed in whispers. This supposition is a folly of blasphemy.B. 23. to soften or sanctify death. " Let us go to bed. Let us each sacrifice what we possess. They were all much moved. since "Were it not it gives birth to a higher state of existence. When man offers himself as a victim to Heaven. comparing their death to Calvary." said he. It would be the just man. suffer him to ascend a scaffold. No Vergniaud is not greater than God. but God is more just than Vergniaud. all the different " Let us believe what we will." said Lasource to Sillery and Fauchet . to-morrow. and will not. thus. and many wept. others wept. the other his faith." said Ducos " life is so trifling a thing that it is not worth the hour of sleep we lose in regretting " Let us watch. At eight o'clock they were allowed to walk about in the corridors. was still awaiting permission to communicate with them. but to justify and avenge tools fall at his feet. the pious friend of Brissot. but is 183 whose fragments but the greatest act of life. more solemnly. all of us our blood for liberty." : " eternity is so certain and so terrible that a thousand lives would not suffice to prepare for it. what more can he give ?" XXIII. " Do you know any thing more holy than the death of an honest man. Vergniaud reconciled. who dies for having refused the blood of his fellow-creatures to wretches?" said he. it. perceiving him. and. N 4 . the one his doubt. " but let opinions. in the work." Fauchet made an eloquent discourse on the Passion. The priest offered him the assistance of his ministry. The abbé said nothing more. and re-entered their chambers. I repel it with contempt or horror. Thirteen remained in the larger dungeon.

and the younger prisoners. " in the immorBrissot. Gensonné." Vergniaud drew his watch from his pocket. all had some souvenir of themselves to send to those they left on earth. " there is but a step from thence to religion. approached " Do you believe. I. These mysterious legacies were all duly delivered. 24. others walked about arm in arm some knelt at the priest's feet. had obtained permission to see Fauchet at the grating that separated the court from the corridor. XXIV. the executioners and gens d'armes made the condemned march in a column to the . a regret. and the providence of God?" " and it is because I believe in them." returned Brissot " Well." Lasource." Brissot made no reply. although a nonjuring priest. and that my last thoughts in death were hers. absolved and penitent. the bishop of Calvados. The Abbé Emery. in the inside of the gold case. scratched with a pen some initials. as in these dungeons into which they bring the pardon of Heaven to the condemned. and received absolution after a brief confession of their faults. gave it to the Abbé Lambert. picking up a lock of his black hair. Lasource. the scaffold." replied believe in them that I am about to die. most of whom declined the aid of the priest." said he to him. and resembling by their attitude a halt previous to the battle. who had witnessed the interview. and gave it to one of the assistants to transmit it to a young girl to whom he was tenderly attached. Some sat on the stone parapet. whose residence he named.184 LAST MOMENTS AND [b. . . and begged him to give it to " Tell her it is all I his wife. but joined Vergniaud. XXVII. have never so much admired the ministers of yours. and the date of the 30th of October. and bestowed on his friend the divine pardon he had just received. The hope of a remembrance here is the last tie that binds the dying to life. listened to the confession of Sillery. In your place I should confess. can send her of my remains. the minister of another faith. and the last lock of hair had fallen on the stones of the dungeon. and there listened to and absolved Fauchet. All had a name. a friendship . At ten o'clock the executioners came to prepare them for Gensonné. All awaiting calmly the signal for their departure. " I do tality of your soul. When all was ready. and whom it is said he had intended to marry.

185 court of the palace. demanding and receiving his pay for having alternately buried all the monarchy and all the republic of a mighty nation. one voice still continued it. but passed away in enthusiasm. Like his companions. who were forced to close their eyes to avoid seeing his livid features. but who still joined in the strain. 147 francs. All died without Sillery. where five carts. and death. commenced by immortal orations. ended by a hymn to the eternity of the Revolution. The moment they emerged from the Conciergerie the Girondists burst into the Marseillaise. in token of community in liberty." From this moment they ceased to think of themselves. 63 francs . surrounded by an immense crowd. One cart bore away their bodies. XLV1I. On their arrival at the scaffold they all embraced. he did not die. executed the last. " Twenty-two deputies of the Gironde. saluting the people as though to thank them for his glory and death. that of Vergniaud. with the exof the next verse. with irony. he walked round. with the order of the president on the national treasury for its payment. shaken by the concussion over the stones. 24.] EXECUTION OF THE GIRONDISTS. 210 francs. His ception of the last. and his life. head.B. in which lay the body of Valazé.. life. the coffins. Some years afterwards. swayed to and fro before his friends. after ascending the platform. in searching the archives of the parish of La Madeleine. awaited them." tSuch was the price of the shovels full of earth that covered the founders of the republic. . expenses of interment. the bill of the gravedigger of the Commune was found. The hymn became feebler at each fall of the axe. and one grave. received them. laying stress on these verses. and then resumed their funereal chaunt. by the side of that of Louis XVI. Never did iEschylus or Shakspeare invent a more bitter derision of fate than this bill of a gravedigger. Their voices sank at the end of each verse. only to rise more sonorous at the first line Each cart contained four. in order to think of the example of the death of republicans they wished to leave the people. weakness. total. which contained a double meaning — " Contre nous de la tyrannie L'étendard sanglant est levé.

. and by this means forcing the national sovereignty to act as a faction. " The country has lost its flower liberty has lost its prestige . having sought to govern when they should have : given battle. They died because they would not permit liberty to sully herself. their voice. Youth. in having conspired against the constitution of 1791. and which ele. and on their memory will be engraved that inscription which Vergniaud. during their short life. genius. expiated in the subterranean cells of the fortress of — . 25. the second. It would be superfluous to judge them . instead of the lustre of their party. They adored — fœdari" Scarcely had their heads rolled on the scaffold than a gloomy and sanguinary hue spread itself. that martyrdom that rejoices in itself. all the illusions of hope they had in death the greatest happiness which Heaven reserves for great minds. they have been judged by their life and death. Buzot. all seemed to disappear with them. and forced the Revolution to employ cruel means . Paris might have said with Lacedœmon. and Guadet wandered. Dumouriez plotted in exile to escape his remorse. They committed three errors the first in not having boldly proclaimed the republic before the 10th of August. vates to the sanctity of a victim the man who perishes for his conscience and his country. hunted like wild beasts. XXV. the third was in the time of the Convention. they founded the republic.186 REFLECTIONS. . and they died for having refused blood to the people. taken part of the death of the king. and La Fayette. who had been faithful to liberty at least. after the loss of her youth in battle. in the forests and caves of the Gironde. They had three virtues which amply atoned for their de- liberty." " Potius mori qaam fects in the eyes of posterity. Such were the last moments of these men they had. Madame Roland awaited her fate in a dungeon of the prison of the Abbaye. eloquence. beauty. the republic has lost its spring." Whilst the twenty-two Girondists perished thus at Paris. [b. that precocious truth of future governments. Barbaroux. wrote with his own hand on the wall of his dungeon " Death rather than dishonour. Pétion. XL VII. Their age condemned them to death. illusion. and the future has glorified and pardoned them. over the Convention. at the opening of the Legislative Assembly .

so long their accomplice. and surround the republic with the corpses of her past. and Dumouriez. The public papers and a few letters were allowed to reach the prince. and of still BOOK I. his blood to He recounted what he had done. present. The publication. the Duc de Montpensier and the Due de Beaujolais. gave rise to a controversy in the Paris papers. and named his country. These young princes. for the first time. Buzot. XLVIII. he believed . by the presi- dent of the Revolutionary Tribunal of des Bouches die Rhône. The Convention.B.] THE DUC I>' ORLEANS. of his examination. almost children. but in separate apartments. on his connection with Mirabeau. XLVIII. after having punished treason in the person of Custine. rendered him a greater object of attention to the Jacobins. in the fortress Saint Jean. and Pétion. These proofs were equally striking and sinister. that the more equitable Montagne would recall him to their . For some weeks past the severity of his detention had relaxed he was allowed to see his sons. his enemies. with two of his sons. The Girondists. On learning the death of Marat. and future foes. and now their victim. on the 7th May. Barbarous. He replied in the language of a sincere republican. his rank to his duty. in a garbled form. who sacrifices his ambition to his opinions. whilst defending the prince. They remembered the Due d'Orléans. involved him in their fall. at Marseilles. royalty in the Queen. and guilty from their name. and to take his meals with them. the Duc d'Orléans refuted his accusers. were confined in the same fortress as their father. wished to strike at the eventuality of a future dynasty. Interrogated. its 187 Olmutz the crime of having been professing it even in his chains. which. his most inveterate foes. innocent from their age. and his plots of re-establishing and usurping the throne. This prince was imprisoned. 1. apostle. La Fayette. the proofs of his patriotism. and suffering in the dungeons of this state prison all the tortures of captivity. and federalism in the Gironde. and gave him new hope.

and quitted the room." The next day the commissioners arrived from Paris. and accompanied by the commissioners of the Convention. The 15th October. and ordered the postil: "lam . He travelled slowly. " So much the better.188 TRIAL AND CONDEMNATION [B." continued he. bathing the face of his son with his " I wished. alike irreproachable in his acts and his party. The prince. took the road to Paris." said he. The prince was at table with his sons. my child. But on the 23d of October the prince entered his son's the Duc de Montpensier's apartment. III. The two brothers passed the day in mutually strengthening each other against the anguish of a separation. to announce the hour of the arrival of the prince at Paris. " it has been solicited by great scoundrels . Montagnard. for this is always a painful moment. attended by a single valet-de-chambre. in Embrace me. I defy them to find any thing against me. and to ask in what prison he was to be confined. and flattered the prince that his approaching trial would prove his certain justification and freedom. " can they accuse me?" He opened the paper. which left them orphans in the power of tyrannical gaolers. the commissioners despatched a note to the Convention." He then again embraced his son. he could not deem that they would immolate the earliest and the most disinterested of the republicans." cried he . and slept at At Auxerre he stopped to dine. of what." continued he. escorted by a strong detachment of gens d'armes. " This accusation is founded on nothing. 3. this is a glorious day . and con- or another. and tenderly embraced him you farewell. my children my life." said he " this must finish one way . II. " to depart without bidtears. and think of the joy we shall both feel when we meet again. And tinue our repast. At the barrier of Paris a man got into the carriage. named Gamache. at five o'clock in the come to bid morning. could not resist my desire to see you for a moment. but no matter. let them do their worst. the Paris papers announced at Marseilles that the Convention had decreed the trial of the Duc d'Orléans. XXVIII. ding you farewell. and read the accusation. my children. and one of the large towns. console yourself and your brother. let us look on it as good news. Come. Security and joy filled the heart of the father and children. heart. but I Adieu.

the former confidant of his revolutionary actions.] OF THE DUC D'ORLÉANS. and repeatedly assured him of his acquittal." said he. During the four years that preceded his trial the prince displayed the utmost illusion or indifference as to his fate. " you who know me so well. too. with him . reproachfully. for you will never persuade any one that you believed me really guilty of the treason of which you have declared me ' guilty. Interrogated by Hermann. whether he had not voted the death of the tyrant with the ambitious premeditation of succeeding him. " I obeyed my heart and conscience. curious to behold him. Two priests. like a man to whom life is a burden and death a relief. " since my fate is decided. " you have followed me even in a dungeon. 4. the Abbé Lambert.' " Then looking steadily at the cidevant Marquis d'Antonelle." IV. the accusation was as vague and chimerical as that of the Girondists. The 6th of November the Duc d'Orléans appeared before the tribunal." Antonelle cast clown his eyes. " Since you were determined to condemn me.B. which was thronged with He was placed in a spectators. and the Abbé Lothringer. and the peremptory and concise answers of the prisoner afforded no pretext for condemnation. let us hope that we shall not always be in prison. 189 lions to drive to the Conciergerie. XL VIII. the same who had visited the Girondists the night previous to their execution. awaited in the large dungeon — — . " Well. Gamache ." He heard his sentence as he would have heard that of another. and only observed in a sarcastic tone to his judges." He wished to write to his children. but to be led to instant execution. The name of his sons and daughter were constantly on his lips. I thank you. you should have found more specious pretexts. and conferred with the members of the Committee of General Safety. chamber adjoining that in which Marie Antoinette passed her His faithful servant was allowed to remain last moments. The prince alighted in the court of the Palais de Justice. and now president of the jury that sentenced him to death." said the duke to Gamache. but feared his letters would be opened and read. had free access to him. Voidel." continued the prince. " And you. " Au reste. his defender. I demand not to be forced to languish there until to-morrow (pointing with his hand towards the Conciergerie). " No. and when the commissioners withdrew." replied he.

as you have lived ?" asked the priest. Lothringer. which every courageous man forces himself to wear before his enemies. rank. and addressing the prince with an air of respect and compassion ." said he. and the brutality of the soldiers. Republique!' that cry shall be heard from my dungeon. let him die as he has lived. given a sufficient time to regret you must now confess. you any service. fered at the coarseness of his fellow-priest. the future reputation of my house. honour." replied the Duc d'Orléans. " you have abruptly : . " I have given them all and bition. impatiently. blockhead. but I desire no other eye than my own should scrutinise my conscience. but in the disorder of a man indignant at the injustice of his fellow-men. the Duc d'Orléans approached the fire. If I had acted. " Egalité. gives vent to his feelings. amexclaimed he . as they accuse me. and who." "Who are you?" demanded the Due d'Orléans. and the German priest. and ate and member of the tribunal came to drank with appetite. The gens d'armes and gaolers suffered this outbreak of indignation to expend itself without interruption. " I thank you. or convey any message to your wife and family?" "No. sufléans. yes." V. fortune. as it until the condemned prisoners descended. desire my ministry as a priest. the d'Orléans enter. a man of feeling and delicacy. in a softened tone." returned the Duc d'Or" You are. Monseigneur. " Oh." interrupted the gens d'armes. 5. "I am the vicar-general of " If you do not the bishop of Paris. it was the ambition of the liberty of my ' Vive la country. or at least the commiseration of a minister of Heaven. " I come to offer you the assistance." He then sat down to breakfast. no longer with that external composure. how unhappy should I be at this moment . A . They beheld Duc — ! — was from my palace. in the solitude " The wretches " of his prison. " he has lived so well." " Leave me in peace. this is the recompence they reserve for me. but it was from a higher ambition than that of a throne. then. addressing him " Allons. and the felicity of my fellow-creatures. "When he became somewhat calmer." The Abbé Lambert. in a tone of cruel pleasantry. XLVIII." replied the abbé.1 90 LAST MOMENTS [b. and I only need my own assistance to die as a good citizen. can I at least as a man render. from ambition." said he.

crowded the passages to see him pass.B. Through some impediment in the street. their sabres drawn. The inscription of national property." The prince made no reply. practised the follies of his youth. and gazed calmly on the multitude. who seemed to become again a prince. 191 inquire if he had any thing to reveal that affected the " Had I known any thing that threatened the republic. or even against the Convention and the patriots: they did not desire my death . in the place of his arms. Every eye was fixed on the Duc d'Orléans. by the feeling that he died as a citizen he raised his head proudly. until they reached the leading to the Place de la Revolution. "Well then. think of your conscience and confess. which was guarded by squadrons of gens d'armes. almost all of them enemies to the name of the Duc d"Orléans and the share he had taken in the Revolution. Rue Royale continued silent and pensive. The priest continued to urge him to confess. made him raise his head lest his sorrow should be mistaken for weakness. or a refinement of cruelty. and confess your faults." VI." " How can I. and this roof would never shelter his : "Why children." replied he. the cart stopped for an instant on the Place du Palais Royal. amidst this noise and confusion ? Is this the place for repentance or courage ?" returned the prince. do we stop here?" he " That you may contemplate your palace. announcing his approach. His bearing. than a prisoner going to execution. escorted him. At three o'clock he was summoned to the scaffold : the prisoners of the Conciergerie. showed him that the republic had divided his spoils even before his death. The sight of the crowd and the roll of the drums. " You see the journey is well nigh at an end. XLV1H. look. "confess those He ." returned asked. " I should not have awaited this hour to reveal it. and firm step made him resemble rather a soldier marching to battle. I bear no resentment against the tribunal.] OF THE DUC D'ORLEANS. and cultivated all his family attachments. 6. Six gens d'armes." replied the priest. but silently contemplated the windows of that abode where he had fomented the germs of the Revolution. inscribed on the gates of the Palais Royal. The Abbé Lothringer and three other condemned prisoners mounted the same cart. "Humble yourself before God. the priest. it comes from a higher hand. safety of the country.

because he wished to imitate that doubtful glory of Brutus. all. As a republican. which weigh heaviest on your conscience. and I will pardon you in Heaven's name. or a tardy inspiration. in our opinion. this prince has. had bequeathed his to his enemies. ." Either through weariness. [b. . ambitious for his son. On mounting the. which is termed heroism. like the resentment of a theory hension of appearing servile or hostile. inaudible to all but the priest. calmly. according as he judges him. and murmured a few words. "you will do it more easily afterwill look at wards. the aristocrats. Heaven your intention. In the eyes of all im. because he had made himself one of the people the factions. the republicans. but to remain equitable. All parties had agreed in making his name an object of insult and execration the royalists. scaffold the executioner's assistants wished to pull off his boots. he must brave alike the suspicion of hostility and adulation. will equally threaten the historian . stoicism of character the conviction of the republican. . the people. no. . XLVTII. because he was a prince . His son reigns over France. and died with a firmness Was this that seemed like a revelation of the future. and indulgence for the memory of his father might seem like a flattery of success and thus the appreseverity. because his death was one of the most odious acts of ingratitude of the Revolution . The memory of this prince is a problem." He looked fearlessly at the knife. because he refused to lend his name to their plots against the country . and who foresees that a fickle nation will give him a throne in exchange for a few drops of blood ? VII. which gives the historian cause to fear lest he should be wanting injustice or reprobation.192 faults HIS EXECUTION. the prince inclined himself before the servant of God. 7. because he was one of the principal instigators of the Revolution . at a few paces from the spot where Louis XVI. and the impossibility of more ample confession. or the arrière pensée of a father. and received the pardon of Heaven. and the period at which we write is not favourable to this judgment. with that imitation of foreign costume he had always affected. " No. The prince was elegantly attired." said he. been calumniated. for the memory of the dead is not to be made a matter of traffic in the hands of the living.

He was the Œdipus of the family of the Bourbons. but devoted itself to an idea. or his gold in any of the decisive days. if he voted the death of the king from conviction and republicanism. and each party on its death-bed partial bequeaths its confidences to history. the Judas nor the Cromwell. it was the Duc d'Orléans. If any fidelity. XL VIII. to spare him calumny and rumour. The Revolution neither owes him so much gratitude. man followed blindly. but the insults of the courtiers and the antipathy of the court repulsed him. culpable as a relation. that conviction is repugnant to feeling. and only found the mistrust and hate of the popular chiefs. With the "exception of the first popular agitations in Paris. To see it solely in the Duc d'Orléans is to ennoble too much the man. in. In proportion as the Revolution frees itself from its obscurity. but with unswerving the progress of the Revolution without inquiring whither it led him. and the Montagnards . He then repented the misfortunes of Louis XVI. and resembles an outrage on nature. He sought an asylum in extreme opinion.] REMARKS. sent him to the scaffold. 193 men. we do not clearly perceive his name. He perhaps for a moment dreamed of a crown voted to him by popular acclamation. and all the surviving members of royalty. but a philosophy it did not sell itself to one man. But he soon saw that the Revolution would crown no one. and lower too much the event. and the importance ascribed to it. and he sincerely wished to reconcile himself with the king and the constitution. Danton abandoned him Robespierre affected to fear him Marat denounced him. and enjoyed with culpable satisfaction the abasement and alarm of" a queen and court who had humiliated him. irreproachable as a patriot.— B. . the euicide of his own reputation. o VIII. the memory of the Due d'Orléans is purged from the plots. touched him. who could not pardon him his name. and that it would involve in the ruin of the throne all pretenders to it. The Revolution was not a conspiracy. . the crimes. . . Weak as a man. alternately used and broken. and was neither the author nor the master. — — . He was but an instrument. the treasons. 8. Camille Desmoulins pointed him out to the Terrorists the Girondists accused. But hate had sufficiently cruel truths to heap on his name. his influence. nor so much hate. he realised the speech of vol.

or intrenched behind lines. terrible at home. XLIX. Never was the futility of coalitions more conspicuous than in the campaigns following that of 1792. scattered. Danton. he made this sacrifice to his popularity cruel. and the empire had formed their armed contingents in 1791. 1. if if the republic be saved. inspired Carnot and his colleagues. "We have seen how slowly Austria. He BOOK I. During its scaffolds these events the republic was alike occupied with and its battles . held his head-quarters at Carnot had been. taught them the art of modern (or rather popular) warfare. or imprisoned in the republic. began to reassume the solidity and disThe genius of the Revolution. their camps. and the northern frontiers inspired more patriotism than All the measures for a levy en masse were executed terror. the very necessities of the country. the death of Custine. Prussia. and with what hesitation nearer akin to treason. Carnot. than prudence the Duke of Brunswick had invaded the French territory. since the Committee of General Safety. rather by enthusiasm than discipline. who was well surnamed the Louvois of the Terror.— 194 THE ARMIES OF THE REPUBLIC. devoid of confidence in their leaders. attack on its — — — — — . and in this ignorance of his motives history herself may doubt. the real generalissimo of the armies of These armies. which consisted in leading an armed people in attacking the centre of the enemy. II. XLIX. bore with him the secret of his political conduct to the tribunal of God. and let [b. cipline that ensures victory. memory. to the frontiers. " Perish our A coward." . of marching in columns of one or two and disarmed. and in proportion as it became more it became more formidable abroad. in neglecting slight checks and the loss of a few towns to and in leading the armies to victory attain great results. it he made to his ambition. and attacked the army of Instead of surprising France whilst divided Dumouriez. with order and promptitude. without any other system of tactics than a passive resistance.

XXIX. the birth of the republic. by one of those numerous openings which nature has left in our frontiers. and Austria. but contented herself with despatching a fleet to the Baltic. 3. fought. in the valthe Duke leys of the Rhine. to afford France time for preparation. and stifling the revolution in Southern Poland. Poland. "Whence arose this difference between the coalition and France ? Because France was aroused by enthusiasm. had wasted eighteen months in councils of war. without any attempt to rally against the common danger. always opposing to our bat- — talions forces inferior. in empty armaments.] THE COALITION. and they contented themselves with preserving the decorum The of war .B. Prussia. whose sanctity she felt. or by the plains of the north. He o 2 . arose. son of a boatman of Lentz. was fast approaching the period of its dismemberment. had attracted the notice of Maria Theresa by his precocity . of Brunswick. Russia. threatening here and there some of our fortresses. Russia. and after him the Prince de Cobourg. constantly watched each other. The Baron de Thugut. Warsaw. to prevent neutral vessels from bringing provisions or iron into the French ports. suffering Dumouriez to hasten with his best troops from the deliverance of Champagne to the conquest of Belgium . Petersburg. and combating in isolated bodies . beholding the fall of the throne. and only advancing to retreat. with defending their own territories . rivalry that existed in the cabinets contributed no less than the inefficiency of the generals. sent no troops to join the coalition. 195 hundred thousand men on Paris. and fell for that liberty. the trial of the king. France and egotism fettered the limbs of the coalition. No real concert existed between them. under pretext of observing the Turks. had resided at Paris during the storms of the Revolution. and St. more attentive to Poland than France. and of whom she wished to be the apostle and martyr. the immolation of the queen. or at most. weakened by its last dissensions. and timid manœuvres. of equal strength. and after having been for many years employed in secret negotiations at Constantinople. as though the soil of France would consume their soldiers. lest any one of the three powers should seize on the prey whilst the others were engaged with France. and the outbreaks at Paris that convulsed their very thrones. III.

with the secret societies. he had passed from his service into that of Francis IL. and was acquainted with the actors in it. but only to moderate. and thus he controlled the war whilst he declared it." replied his father f! I know fall on the field of honour than beneath the axe of the Hardly had he uttered these words. who acted as his aidede-camp "you are exposing yourself to certain death. XLIX. to follow up Dampierre had succeeded their success against France. charged a redoubt. than a guillotine." exclaimed his son. and marched on an enemy protected by woods. like the Duke of Brunswick. stimulated in vain by Clairfayt and the duke of York. At the sixth attack. in sapping the empire. Thugut. 3. Acting in concordance with Joseph IL. an antirevolutionary prince. but had caused the chief command to be vested in the Prince de Cobourg. the most energetic of Cobourg's generals. and left him dead on the ground. barricades. . who commanded the Anglo-Hanoverian army. the fire of the French Revolution. did not desire to extinguish. the cabinet of Vienna and the Prince de Cobourg had been too much occupied in sti'engthening the Austrian power in Belgium. and appropriating Poland to itself. and had the reputation of having imbibed in this hot-bed the contagion of philosophy and freedom. that philosophic emperor. In twelve days the troops of the coalition might have encamped on the heights of Montmartre. though hopeless of success. father." cannon-ball carried away his thigh. going. pursued the same vacillating policy which had timidly led its . my child. The Prince de Cobourg. but suffered it to again take up the strong position of the camp of Caesar. . did not pursue the French army. at the head of a " "Where are you picked detachment. connected. to flatter the new emperor.196 DEATH OF DAMPIERRE. Having received orders from the Convention to attack the Austrian army. Dampierre. [b. posted between Maubeuge and Saint Amand. and trenches." " but I prefer to it. But the cabinet of Berlin. who was entirely under his secret influence. Dampierre obeyed. Dumouriez. Five times did the attacking columns recoil before the troops of Clairfayt. had counselled the war with France. occupied in humbling the Austrian influence in Germany. Since the victory of Nerwinde. had investigated its principles. Thugut.

since this revolution destroyed kings and queens. . Pitt obtained all he asked.] POLICY OF ENGLAND. 3. and as shamefully withdrawn them. established themselves between the reflecting portion of the two nations . but less solid opposition. Fox and his party. and French liberty declared itself daily more and more democratic. — . was in his Lord Beauchamp came from London. the destruction of the French fleet. in The Duke of Brunswick. formed a natural object of ambition. because he was believed to be desirous of saving every thing. 197 armies in Champagne. and his army. and proscribed its noblest citizens. although liberal theories had camp. and the war against France was no longer a war of ambition or policy. and promised too rich a spoil to be overlooked. by which the two powers secured their frontiers from France. and England alone persisted in maintaining the conquest with the rival of France France. and occupation of our ports in the Mediterranean. his eyes fixed on Poland. Mr. In vain did the more clamorous. who was the personification of the genius of aristocracy of his country. and to obtain his signature to a treaty with England.B. Mr. still at the the preceding year. contented himself with retaking Mayence . but became social. Robespierre ruined the popularity of Fox. as English liberty is entirely aristocratic. composed of Mr. severed from the family bond by the dethronement of the Bourbons in France . and the East Indies disputing with the French vessels the navigation and the commerce of the sea. The king of Prussia. in the colonies. She had two motives for this on the seas. who ensured him Sweden and Denmark o 3 . yet. imposing. Suddenly the king of Prussia left his camp for Poland. Pitt had for allies. Spain. to blame the indecision of this prince. head of the Prussian forces. was all powerful because he had been the first to perceive these perils. the British aristocracy was indignant and alarmed the example of a victorious democracy who sought to root out aristocracy as it had done royalty. Pitt. French Revolution. resembled an army of observation rather than one in actual campaign. at Mr. but almost stationary. numerous. persist in blaming war and contesting the subPopular opinion abandoned these partisans of the sidies. On the other hand. Russia and Holland. XLIX.

6. they resolved on a plan more in conformity with the dissension and uncerThe siege of Dunkirk tainty that prevailed in the cabinets. XLIX. Naples.000 strong. the greater number of the independent German princes . The Anglo-Hanoverian army advanced to Furnes. but instead of concentrating their forces. [b. and divided itself into two bodies. and Admiral Maxbridge had orders to prepare to bombard the place with his squadron. whilst the other. received orders from Carnot to raise the siege of Dunkirk at any sacrifice. Austria. Maret and Sémonville. and indignant at the murder of their unfortunate children on the 10th of August. England still maintained it rather in battle array than as a camp on the banks of the Rhine. to receive the French ambassador. The duke of York. a brave and skilful soldier. General Houchard. and. Envoys from Vienna and Berlin deliberated with Mr. attacked Dunkirk. of the coalition. This city. the empire . who had refused. commanded. particularly Berne. VI. was resolved upon. commander-in-chief of the French army of the north.198 Prussia. These two bodies of troops were at least 36. Pitt at London on the plan of the campaign . reinforced by some Austrian and Hessian troops. Jourdan. engaged SIEGE OF DUNKIRK. under the orders of the duke of York. Sémonville. consisting of 16. ia spite of the internal dissensions to the Austrians. performed prodigies of valour to avoid the humiliation of surrendering to the English. whilst the duke of York attacked by land. one of which. under Marshal Freytag. lastly. and were joined to the forces of the Prince de Cobourg by the corps d'armée of the Prince of Orange. occupied the little town of Hondschoote. The only army capable of defending the Convention was encamped before Arras . the king's son. although incapable of holding out any length of time. chef-de-battalion a few days before. and covered the besieging army. and marching on the Somme. and remunerated the efforts against us she extorted from them. excited by his agents. and . at the extremity of the prince of Cobourg's line. by the treaty of the 14th of July . Venice. and the passage of the Somme could alone oppose the two hundred thousand men the prince of Cobourg could march on Paris. Turkey. at his solicitation. the Anglo-Hanoverian army.000 men. and surrendered them Thus. seized the French envoys. The Swiss cantons themselves.

and sent them to Houchard's force. Pitt. whilst paved roads. which could be easily rendered impassable. which extends from Hondschoote to the sea. had advanced as far as this village. in the great hai'bour. where the duke of York and Marshal Freytag had Their left wing rested on Bergues. he united the corps of Jourdan with his own.] SIEGE OF DUNKIRK. and Walmoden felt the most perfect security in the strength of their position and the numThey constantly blamed Admiral Maxber of their troops.000 men against the English line. On the 6th of August the outposts of the two armies met at Rexpoëde. and marched on Hondschoote. whilst the French gun-boats. did not appear. superintended the preparations for defence. whose name was become illustrious. and the redoubts they had thrown up at Hondschoote. The English fleet. who officer. to drill and support the raw recruits. fortified themselves. Informed of the intended attack on the town. commanded a corps of 10. and halted there for the night. their centre was protected by walls. he hastened thither. leaving General now Souham to destined at a future day to Lazare Hoche. Houchard advanced at the head of 40. An command Dunkirk. and at their back was the immense marsh of Moers. and bringing his fleet before Dunkirk. encamped on the heights of Cassel. 7. bridge for his delay in executing the orders of Mr. poured perpetual volleys of shells and bombs into the English camp. and the cavalry occupied the fields and gardens. On his passage through Cassel. dispersing every thing before him. Freytag. five leagues from Dunkirk. of whom his troops were almost entirely composed. XLIX. hedges. Jourdan. The duke of York. assured their retreat and communication with the force before Dunkirk. o 4 . Carnot detached fifteen thousand of the best troops of the army of the Rhine. Three battalions occupied the village the main body of Jourdan's army encamped more in the real'. to co-operate with them. At nightfall General Freytag and Prince Adolphus.B.000 men. a large village between Cassel and Hondschoote. however. one of the king's sons. VII. their right on Fuîmes . aided General Souham in the defence of the town. and then returned to Cassel. . 199 created general by Carnot. who had already attracted the notice of Carnot by his ardour and intelligence.

after vainly attempting to carry the village. which. Jourdan. commanded the town and swept the roads of Bergues and Blenheim. Walmoden. if he did not obey him. but. whilst they compromised nothing. and were made prisoners by the French. threatening to deprive him of the command. and every approach flooded. who had been wounded at Rexpoëde. rescued Freytag and Prince Adolphus. An excess of prudence led him to weaken his array. could only The succeed in saving his general and the representatives. informed of the presence of the French at Rexpoëde. he attacked them at midnight. [b. returned to join Houchard and the representatives at Rembek. was unable mount his horse. whilst another redoubt was thrown upon the route de Warem. and the command devolved on Walmoden. and conspicuous by his tri-coloured scarf and floating plume. On horseback. after this affair. drove in the advanced guard. Houchard. and. a brave patriot.200 NIGHT ATTACK ON REXPOËDE. as he entered the town. and reconnoitred the advanced posts. securely posted behind the walls and hedges. although unskilled in military affairs. Delbrel and Levasseur. A redoubt. who hastened at the sound of the firing. Avho drew out his army in the fields before Hondschoote. and Vandamme the advanced guard. his horse fell dead under him. 7. On the 7th Houchard assembled his forces. who was bivouacing at Oost Capelle. XXIX. at the head of the troops. Jourdan. Walmoden occupied Worniouth. unceasingly demanded explanations of all his orders from the general. who carefully avoided exposing his troops. with eleven pieces of cannon. to to the fire of the artillery and sharpshooters. and were rallied by General Collaud. came suddenly on were a little in advance these bivouacs. On the French side Collaud commanded the right. Levasseur. of their troops. three battalions in the village broke. Houchard the centre. Freytag. Jourdan the left. To carry these redoubts it was necessary to march for ten minutes up to the waist in water. and on the 8th he attacked. lost time in a series of formal attacks. ruined every thing. and exposed . by detaching one of his divisions to observe the English at Dunkirk. The representative of the people. retreated with his division on Hondschoote. and narrowly missed capturing General Houchard and the representatives of the people.

remained inactive for two days. and who. This simple manœuvre would have placed the army of the duke of York between the ramparts of Dunkirk and the army of Houchard. The English fell back in good order. with the other to The Convention commanded victory. and Jourdan himself led on the attacking columns. whilst the duke of York. Not an Englishman would have escaped. who had been wounded. in-chief.] BATTLE OF HONDSCHOOTE. " Forward " cried he. He pointed with one hand to Hondschoote. by pursuing the Hanoverians on the road to Furnes." He met himself. and it shall be. gallopped to Dunkirk." said Levasseur. and in two hours : . Jourdan. country wished to save Dunkirk. and let the whole line charge with the bayonet. who had been present at Hondschoote. attacked and forced on every side except Belgium. commander- " What will become of us with such a leader?" exclaimed Jourdan " there are twice as many men to defend Hondschoote as we have to attack it. "VYalmoden. the the guillotine. to raise the siege. XXIX." replied Jourdan. which decimates us. and observing that the battalion had halted. around the redoubts. The old château of Hondschoote was set on fire by the shells. " and we may yet conquer cease the firing. who entreated him to follow up his victory." VIH. at the indecision of the like was indignant . 8. and buried beneath its ruins the body of General Cochenhausen.B. " I shall be at the redoubt ! before you. in spite of the observations of Jourdan and the representatives. for Hoche was in Dunkirk." " Jourdan. a cannon-ball broke his horse's back. Levasseur and Delbrel eagerly adopted the suggestion. the church. tell me what should be done. without weakening the enemy. ceased their fire only when the last artilleryman was bayoneted at his gun. defending the town. and the redoubts themselves. stormed at length. More than four thousand men fell.Ville. Levasseur mounted another. Houchard. At the moment when he was addressing a column that was exposed to the fire of the artillery in the hollow way at Kellern. 201 Levasseur made the soldiers blush and the generals tremble. " you are soldier. and the Hotel-de. dead or wounded. withdrew his shattered forces to Furnes." " One thing.

Eighty thousand men. " of having gained only republican. did not or would not see this. Peyssard. [b. and the commissioners of the army of the north. the army is met his fate with the intrepidity of a soldier and His death taught the other gethe calmness of innocence. who attacked them in five columns. Maubeuge. at ten o'clock in the A . Dagobert." said they to the Convention. to replace Houchard. Hentz." The unfortunate Houchard was condemned to a half victory . and Nice. and Duquesnoy. and . was decimated by famine and hundred and twenty thousand men besieged it. by Kellerman. nerals that victory would not always save them from the scaffold and that there was no safety but complete obedience to the orders of the representatives of the people. sent Houchard to the Revolutionary Tribunal. however. at the army of the north.000 men. disease. and will see with satisfaction that a traitor is surrendered to justice. IX. land. under the Prince de Cobourg. and suffered the duke of York to march quietly along a slip of sand which connects Dunkirk with Fumes. when Jourdan and Carnot announced their approach by the sound of their cannon. an unfortunate campaign in the Pyrenees. The news of the battle of Hondschoote filled Paris with joy. in his seventy-fifth year. but the Convention reproached the victorious general with his victory as a treason . General Ferrand commanded the camp. The nomination of Jourdan. defended by a strong garrison and an intrenched camp of 25. but in which the aged French general. were confined to the occupation of Savoy. and that the representatives of the people watch over the conduct of their generals. awaited the French. to whom the capture of Maubeuge would open the approaches death. covered himself with glory. 9. The military operations on our other frontiers. and his manœuvres to cover Maubeuge. and join Walmoden and the Prince of Orange in Belgium. against General Ricardos. intrenched in a position of which Wattignies was the centre.202 SIEGE OF MAUBEUGE. The patriotism of the soldiers and inhabitants could only have maintained the defence of this gate of France a few hours longer. XLIX. these sandhills would have been the Caudine forks of EngHouchard. General Chancel the town. until January 1794. to Paris. by Biron. " Houchard is guilty. threatened by the coalition.

and Carlen by Pichegru. Landremont by Carlen. The soldiers in the camp.] BATTLE OF WATTIGNIES. the oldest but the most daring of all the generals of the empire. his country. Duquesnoy. opening to admit of its playing. stung to madness. surprised these lines owing to the incapacity of This general. 203 morning.000 men into a compact body. and Wurmser. This army. but the representative. who commanded the town. and returned to the combat. defended the entrance Wurmser. and the only stipulation was. on the 15th of November. X. and he was well nigh Carnot. the zealous representatives of the people had replaced Custine by Beauharnais. which enclosed in its centre the flying artillery. after acknowledging his inthe only survivor. if the 25. had prevented the Prince de Cobourg and Clairfayt from repassing the Sombre. and thus carrying a moving citadel with it to the summit of the platform. under Ferrand. Beauharnais by Landremont. and Chancel. Jourdan formed 25. The battle of Wattignies would have been more decisive. . that of General Gratien. retired to the heights of Saverne and Strasbourg. was thrown into disorder. One alone. entered secret treaty for the in triumph Haguenau. victim was necessary to the Convention. . At the army of the Rhine. deprived Gratien of his command. and the imperial cavalry in vain endeavoured to break the other columns. Duke of Brunswick. and certain principal families. This formidable column swept all before it. rushed at the head of one of the divisions. left him at liberty to follow his own plan. A . justice. consisting of 45. closing to cover the guns.B. rallied the soldiers. who was born in Alsace. of Alsace by the fortified lines of Wissembourg. 13. wT ho but a month before was only a captain. XXIX. to the attack of an almost inaccessible platform.000 men. but want of orders and excessive prudence prevented Ferrand from consenting. and Chancel mounted . commanded by the batteries of Clairfayt his whole column was mowed down by their fire. The French were reand Carnot accused Jourdan of pulsed at several points cowardice. A the scaffold. desired it. threatened on the other side by the Carlen. Wattignies was carried and the cannon of Maubeuge replied with joyful salvos to the thunder of the guns of Carnot and Jourdan. surrender of Strasbourg was negotiated between Wurmser. who.000 men of the camp of Maubeuge.

destitute of a leader. handsome. cerned the warrior. [b. he was summoned before the Committee of Public Safety. lion of volunteers. Landau could not hold out much longer. passing through the A in 1791. and did his comrades' duty for half their pay. This plot. which he employed in the purchase of Sent to Paris. Hoche is youthful as the revolution. Pichegru. a hero of antibois. and in two years his energy. : gravity of genius . the reading. the meditation that gave moral strength. which was discovered in time. afterwards served as a common soldier during the American war. after the troops had been " Pichegru possesses the reviewed by the two generals Moselle. Saint Just and Lebas were sent to Alsace. in which the statesmen dishis language. that of the army of the " We shall be commanded as Frenchmen should be. returned to his country at the commencement of the battarevolution. who had been at first mathematical teacher to the monks of Arbois. after the flight of Dumouriez.204 the Austrian PICHEGRU. and the martial eloquence of This interview. the one ardice by death. (though only five-and-twenty). the other . his native town. and the defence of Dunkirk won him the notice of town — — . procured him the rank of Adjutantgeneral . and his glance is proud and aspiring as that of the eagle. and procured him the protection of Robespierre and Collot d'HerHoche young. took him for their commander. and ism. brought to the scaffold seventeen of the principal inhabitants of Strasbourg some convicted and others accused of royalThe fort Vauban was stormed by the Austrians. and courage. to inform them of the precise state of the army. and presided at the club of Besançon. quity by his look. and influence over men's minds. robust as the people. had raised him to the rank of general of division. as aide-detreatises on warfare and history. to assume the command of the army of the Rhine. figure. had enof an humble family. general should occupy it in the name of Louis XVII. XLIX. HOCHE. the greatness of his conceptions. and astonished the members of it by the clearness of his answers. yet born to a great destiny listed into the French guards." said the letters from the army. to intimidate treason or cowPichegru and Hoche also arrived. a modern hero by the study." These two new leaders fully j ustified the enthusiasm of the army. talents. 10. and martial. camp to General Leveneur.

the force. There the platform. Valence. and then stretches in a long low plain to the confluence of the waters. which sprang up beneath their feet and lost the campaign. and through the vallies of Burgundy.E. too much confined by the two rivers. it is impossible to say what Hoche might have attained had not death checked — his career. as it were. height. caused him to be at once appointed to command the army of the Moselle. and Meximieux on the other. overflowed the almost insulated tongue of land that borders the Saône. has. the faubourg of Lyons. they gained solitary battles.] LYONS. . which descends from the mountains. like all large manufacturing cities. seilles. and the dense population furnish the necessary elements and hands for vast factories and undertakings. and his skilful manœuvres before Furnes and Ypres. almost insulated. which flow through the valleys of Vienne. Lyons is situated. The city. an immense torrent. between the two great rivers. called La Croix Rousse. In la Vendée the different generals sent by the Committee of Public Safety wasted their troops in a civil war. and this narrow and extensive plain forms the body of the city. 11. at that precise spot where the soil. XLIX. fuel. andattractedtheattention. where every thing was accessible to ambition and genius. but less impetuous than the Rhône. The Rhône. suddenly descends in a rapid declivity. rolls on the left its waves. other insurrections also broke out at Lyons and Marthe veryheart of the republic. fire. and the rank of general of brigade . whilst on the right runs the Saône. penetrates the city of Lyons by a narrow gorge. In a revolution. The military position of Lyons is in conformity with its commercial situation. the feeling of his own superiority degenerated occasionally into contempt for his colleagues. passes beneath the hills of Fourvières and Sainte Foi. water. and called La Dombe. Its cathedral. This fertile tongue of land runs narrowing gradually to a lofty platform. a river equally large. to repair the faults of Houchard. XI. extends from Trévoux on one side. its public buildings. worn almost to a point by the two rivers. in Two A . the Rhône and the Saône. and Avignon into the Mediterranean. 205 Carnot. and joins the Rhône at the marshy point of Perrache. Hoche had but one defect. and the desperate energy of the Convention.

On the opposite side the city displays to the south the long and splendid façade of the quays Saint Clair. are crowded between the mountain and the river . the faubourgs. and who. and Italy. its public buildings. often overflowed by the Rhône. manufactories. and in front and on the left by the Alps. its streets. lies in the Place de Bellecour. and the houses appear to hang to the hills. rich and and wool workers of the commercial republic of Florence of whom Machiavel speaks. and castes in the democracy. glorying in their industry. its markets. and a democracy of manners. and its On every side are visible traces of population. Lyons forms two distinct cities. and adopting as their banner their implements as weavers and carders. activity. for their social constitution is but a republic of interest. and particularly The city is essentially plebeian recall those silk : numerous. the capitalists. Between the keys of the Rhône and those of the Saône extends the city. XIII. Ignorant of courtly usages. xbix. the tradesmen. and the wealthy merchants. and the river here runs almost on a level with the low grounds of Brotteaux. theati-es. the commercial part of the city extends from the heights of Croix Rousser to the Place de Bellecour and the Place de Terreaux. in the preparation of silk. on the other ease and wealth. streets rise so perpendicularly against the sides of the acclivity that they seem more like ladders. and the opulent quartiers of Perrache. stretch awav as far as the eye can reach. Savoy. [b. its most thickly populated quarters. Switzerland. the fall of the great dignitaries of the state rather flattered than humbled their plebeian pride. It is evident that such a people would be rather republican than monarchical. XII. such is the states. 12. and contains two different races of people . formed factions in Such was. and employed in the different branches of commerce. filled with contempt for the nobility. the . and the adjacent villages and hamlets. wealth. two hundred thousand workmen. XIV. until bounded on the left by the dark hills of Bugey. with its places. That portion inhabited by the nobles. its Hôtel-de-Ville. Lyons. To this class must be added a population of still. its hospitals.206 and LYONS. The States-general. The vast plains of Dauphiné. and labour. resident in the city. On the one hand is toil and poverty.

and they had by their writings. 207 resurrection of the National Assembly. the destruction of privileges. Like Bordeaux. but this flame. Marseilles. city began to mingle its complaints with those of the royalists. the reform introduced by Mirabeau. Lyons had enthusiastically adopted the doctrines of the Gironde. that Jacobinism. The revolution of Paris had been applauded. and. He was born in Piedmont. the equality of the orders of the state. finding neither advocates nor partisans amongst the bourgeoisie. and every thing to gain. XV. of an obof the impossible. and the majority shuddered at the name of Robespierre. had given the greatest satisfaction to the inhabitants of Lyons. the spoliators of their fortune. in the Convention. and their clubs which had the dormant fire of the Jacobins . and the Montagne. XVI. the creation of all the the national guard. and the 10th of August. who had nothing to lose. luxury was proscribed. The first agitations of Lyons had been fomented by Roland and his wife. the doctrines of the Constituent Assembly. XVII. This change of popular feeling irritated more the threatening but overawed Jacobins of Lyons. the fall of the Bastille. The result was. —a fanatic His name was Châlier. . XLIX. Danton. and nothing was fabricated but arms. the humiliation.] LYONS. by the feeling of the country. Lyons no longer recognised the republic. Commerce decreased. he had been attracted from a distant land by the blaze of the Revolution. was with difficulty lighted at Lyons. and the constitution of 1791. who flocked from all the adjacent provinces to take shelter — — within still its walls. had been forced to seek them amongst the dregs of the populace men of profligate life. awakened so rapidly spread through the rest of France. its factories. but moderated. The rich beheld in this party. and Toulon. who then resided in the vicinity. like Marat. or Savoy.B. There was at this time in the city a man of the class most dangerous during popular convulsions. when it was deemed so easy to fill up the place of the throne by a regular republican constitution. the people the destroyers of their religion. its markets. spoils by aristocracy and royal prerogative torn from the throne of the Girondists . From the day on which the republic assailed its banks. and The its priests. their journals. the popularity enjoyed by La Fayette and the Lameths. 17.

daughter of the governor of the fort. 18. Marat. but who possessed sufficient wealth to bestow on him a good education and a profession. and thus attracted the notice of Robespierre. entered a counting-house. his poverty. already so like that of Florence. and even receive herself the sabre and pikein vain did Vitet. and Fauchet. The mystery which enshrouded him. The morning after the massacres of September. and from that moment he was constantly composing sentences which imitated the brevity and " Heads have fallen. I love mighty projects. penetrated even the clc'ster. scure family. genius. to found under their auspices. XVIII. and He was driven travelled for some time for his employer. gave him great ascendency over the Jacobins of Lyons. and it seemed as though the fate of Lyons. whose courage equalled royalism. cause a new light and life to spring from this chaos. throw herself between the people and their victims. the whole human race is dead. a bold and conscithrusts aimed at them entious magistrate. but he is too inactive. The great Being has created noble works. church and whose top reaches the highest Châlier had been brought up by the monks at Lyons.— 208 CHALIER. Designed for the that ladder whose foot touches the lowest orders. and he had been elected president of the civil tribunal. his devotion to the popular cause." The destiny of Châlier was manifested in these early outUnder the influence of these breaks of his imagination. — Creating are turned to ice. out of Italy for propagating revolutionary doctrines. souls the inspiration of Holy Writ. reached the youthful priest amidst his studies. and his constant attendance at the public sittings of the central club. Desmoulins. who had been imprisoned the previous evening on suspicion of In vain did a young girl. Mademoiselle de Bellecice. xlix. audacious deeds. his incorruptibility. which narola and Marat. [b. the shocks and the conflicts of revolutions. Camille. hasten with a few grenadiers to the — . and he came to Lyons. whose ardour he kindled and incited by his wild and mystic discourses. a small band of assassins had murdered at the fortress of Pierre Encise eleven officers of the royal Pologne regiment. a club. was to become still more analogous by possessing an agitator between SavoThe sound of the Revolution. her beauty. feelings he quitted the church.

who had distinguished himself on the 20th of June.— B. 19. Roulot. to moderate this frenzy. and trampled on it. XXLX." " If the people want bread. the entrance to all the prisons of bodies. be it your part to strike." said they. vol. but the members of the club loaded him with insult and abuse. emissaries from the Cordeliers' club at Paris. and linked together by chains of human limbs. " let them profit by the right of their misery to seize on the possessions uf the wealthy. to At the same time the strike terror into the aristocrats. He harangued the clubs with the manly severity of a citizen who seeks to convince rather than control by force. and Cusset. The municipality. " The time is come. partly by persuasion. the Kolandists. and of plunder. and legalised the act by appointing commissioners to divide the spoil. these men sent for a guillotine from Paris. " when the prophecy shall " the wealthy shall be despoiled. spot." wrote Cusset. amongst whom was Huguenin. Then conducting the assembly to the Place des Terreaux. and permanently erected it in the Place de Bellecour. and the poor be fulfilled shall be enriched. 209 force. Châlier. p to save the prisoners Lyons were heaped with dead — — . whose wavering resolutions gave the victory alternately to the partisans of order or disorder." cried Tarpan. he made them swear on the tree of liberty to destroy the aristocrats. publicly professed the doctrines of the agrarian law. in. he dashed it to the earth.'" all you need at Lyons? XIX." exclaimed Châlier. whilst. Vitet.] CHÂLIER. to Lyons. and these corpses were suspended on the next day to the trees in the public walk of Bellecour. Laussel. the Girondists despatched their friend and colleague. whilst the populace plundered the shops. became more and more the sport of the central club." He proposed the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal then seizing a crucifix. To add to this excitement that of terror. a deputy of the Convention. " a word which furnishes ' Die or cause others to die. " The great day of vengeance has at length arrived. a member of the municipality. partly by . came and added fuel to the fire. ." " Do you seek. and endeavoured. "five hundred men amongst us deserve to share the fate of the tyrant I will give you the list.

on the Place de Bellecour. executioner: the guillotine falls of itself." exclaimed Châlier. The Jacobins. Nivière knew that Châlier and Laussel had assembled their agents during the night. were saved from popular fury by the very The central Nivière whom they had purposed to destroy. Rovère. who had succeeded Vitet." Some of those present at this hideous assembly. Bazire. [b. indignant at such wholesale butchery.Ville. and struck terror into the partisans of Châlier. The Convention ordered two Marseillais battalions should be sent to Lyons to restore and also despatched three commissioners public tranquillity chosen from the Montagnards. CHÂLIER EXCITES THE the speculators. But these detachments from Aix and Marseilles. awed for a time by the central club. and Legendre. appointed a secret revolutionary tribunal. and its members demanded assistance from their brethren in Paris. 20. priests. Nivière stationed several battalions. of artillery. XLIX. Laussel had said. were welcomed as liberators by the populace. Nivière. XX. we have lost the day. One man alone. isits request. " Every man must be an The sued orders. club was broken up. and the applause of the populace. at . encouraged by their numbers. and. for domiciliary visits. and the municipality. and eight pieces " must retreat.210 the modérés. at the sight of the bayonets and artillery. 7 . the monopolists. and intrusted to the agents of the club the duty of watching and arresting suspected persons. resolved to attempt a second 10th of August against the municipality . and infused a ray of hope into the minds of the peaceful and well-disposed inhabitants. they met at a patriotic banquet on the 9th of Ma) . made out lists of the proscribed and that. the mayor Nivière. chosen as the place of execution a bridge over the Rhône. deeply imbued with the Girondist feeling. in their turn. by the modérés. prepared the guillotine. deprived of their power. having given information to the mayor. in the absence of a sufficient number of executioners. round the Hôtel-de. went in a body to demand that the We . The adherents of Châlier. but was immediately re-elected by eight out of nine thousand votes. threatened. after this victory. whence the bodies could be thrown into the river . checked with the firmness of the antique magistrate the audacity of the factious. laid down his office.

as commandant. leaving Lyons at the mercy of the revolutionary tribunal. than 20. 211 revolutionary tribunal should be nominated by the municipality. sought to interpose. Gautier and Nioche entered Lyons at the head of two infantry battalions.Ville with cannon.IX. Dubois-Crancé. He carried the Arsenal.B. on hearing this decree. organised a committee of public safety. which they fortified. and Nioche lution were sent by the Convention and they began by exacting a compulsory loan of six millions of francs . Nioche. hastening through the streets. "the memharangued the club: bers of the department. " To arms. the secretaries of the sections. but they met with a firm refusal. extorted from the Convention a decree. the representative. named Madinier. hasten then to conquer or perish beneath the ruins of this city. While the sections were arranging. and chose. Châlier "Let us seize." said Châlier. to arms!" cried he. more devoted to the cause of the revoAlbite. a woollendraper. force. and then quitted the city for the army of the Alps. authorising the citizens of Lyons to repel force by " Do you think. to poignard twenty thousand citizens. and as many squadrons of cavalry. who insulted and attacked the armed citizens.] JACOBINS AT LTONS. a man of determined courage and unshrinking arm. Fresh commissaries. and prethroat. the presidents.Ville." cried he. and The sectionaries assembled to the number of more troops." XXI. ammunition. and I reserve for myself the task of plunging the knife in your He then hastened to arm his followers. and mark its enemies for prompt Châlier published this list under the title of " La Boussole des Patriotes " (the Patriots' Compass). preceded by the band of Châlier. who hastened to mulct the — — . but in vain.000 on the Place de Bellecour. and a revolutionary army . the municipality destruction. Gautier. and let us bathe our hands in their blood. "do you think this decree intimidates me ? No! sufficient men will join me. XI. : — p 2 . and advanced on the Hôtel-de. at the head of the Jacobins " Your foes have sworn to destroy even the babe at the breast." These ferocious cries. the Jacobin municipality seized on the Arsenal. let all their heads roll on the guillotine atone stroke. filling the Hôtel-de. citizens.Ville. 21. arm its partisans. Whilst the negotiation at the Arsenal was going on." pared to attack the Hôtel -de.

[b. one by the quays of the Saône.212 EXECUTION OF CHALIER. which swept the entire quay. The column on the quay of the Sâone was also checked . and many of the sons of the principal families of nobility and the commerce of Lyons. and then resigned himself to the executioner. adored and broken. and the Jacobins. The head of this. XJLIX. fired on the Hôtel-de. informed of these excesses. At the foot of the scaffold he embraced his confessor. and the guillotine. and amongst them several royalist officers. The carcases of the first sectionaries. and retreating on the Place du Carmes. in turns. and advanced the sections in two columns. mangled and mutilated by the people. Gautier. The crucifix he had. The representative. and walking to the scaffold with a firm tread. again pressed the crucifix to his lips.Ville. line. latter column was cut down by a battery placed at the extremity of the bridge Morand. looked right and left at the people as though to reproach them with his death. Châlier was condemned to death some days after by the Criminal Tribunal. who would have This triumph for the Gironde octorn them to pieces. decimated. no longer left his hands for a moment in his dungeon. which he had sent for from Paris to destroy his enemies. were vanquished in Paris. He signed. was first destined to sever his own head from his body. the suspension of the municipality. Hundreds of the sectionaries were cut down. the day before the Girondists. sought for refuge in the court-yards. Madinier. and the other by the quays of the Rhone. was surrounded by troops of the and multitudes of the townspeople in the Place des Terreaux. He made his adieux to the other prisoners. sent them to prison. Condemned to die at four o'clock in the morning. was taken also as a hostage. conquerors at Lyons. . curred on the 29th of May. was slightly shelFrom this vantage ground they tered by some buildings. and seizing on Châlier and his principal confederates. 21. he employed the remainder of the day in writing his will. under the fear of the sections. amidst the execrations of the indignant populace. were strewn on the steps of the Hôtel-de-Ville. presenting himself to the sectionaries to parley. retained Nioche as a hostage . who had been assassinated in the streets. Madinier made a triumphal entry on horseback.

Still the insurrection did not. sixth stroke completed the execution. drop by drop. Chasset and Biroteau. instead of depriving Châlier of his life at one blow. the royalism concentrated at Lyons. . The administrators and presidents of section." These delegates had been P 3 The A — ! XXH. with his head half-separated from his body.] CONDITION OF LTONS. their confidence in their own strength. kept up by their orations and recriminations the spirit of the Gironde.Ville. the life of every citizen menaced by the law of the suspected . the Convention decimated. but remained covered by the semblance of republicanism. The two deputies of this party. and was raised again five times without severing his head. Châlier. looking at the executioner with reproachful glance. and called itself " the popular republican commission. and confining their ambition to the hope of rousing and avenging the friends of Vergniaud and Roland.B. commerce destroyed . who came to triumph at the Hôtel-de. He tasted slowly of the death with which he had so often sought to inspire a thirst in the people he was glutted with blood. and the Lyonese took refuge from their resistance in revolt. hoist this colour. which shed. He was hacked to death. . finally. The elements of the insurrection were numerous and various in Lyons. the national representation in Paris mutilated by the 31st of May the anarchical oppression of Châlier and his mob long felt. and now broken . who had taken refuge at Lyons. devoted to the system of the Girondists. but it was his own Chalier's blood. The government of the city had assumed the form of a dictatorshfp. 213 ill-sharpened blade of the guillotine. and where it renewed its negotiations with foreign allies all concurred in making this city the counterrevolutionary capital of the republic. the blood of so many illustrious victims at Paris and. fell. as in an asylum where it summoned around it its partisans from all quarters. 22. The Girondists overthrown . supplicated him to abridge his agony. at once. not decapitated. rendered all reconciliation impossible. the rivalry of insurrection with Marseilles and Toulon . — . were men of the Revolution. the priests persecuted . the horror of terrorism. shed in defiance of the Convention. It was composed of administrators named and delegated by the sections. XLIX.

and to join its forces with those of the king of Sardinia. Com- merce. and again open to the emigrants and proscribed princes the road to France and the throne. in the Prussian territory. bins. to whom concession to the Convention left no perspective but death. Rambaud. credit. body of troops to Chamberry. [b. and to turn it in the direction of royalty. Baron des Etoiles and the Comte de Maistre. He immediately sent General the Marquis d'Autichamp to Savoy. threatened on their own soil by the revolutionary spirit which was rife amongst them. seconded the efforts of the emigrants in the Helvetic cantons. and security. and secretly regretted royalty as a pledge for labour. cabinet. and they re-appeared in order to avail themselves of the movement. who had compromised themselves. Lord Fitzgerald. 23. and to induce it to send a large . For a long time Lyons was the illusion of the emigrant royalists. XLIX. in order to deal a decisive blow against the republic. their emissaries believed tliat it had broken with the republic. Two envoys of the king of Sardinia. whose explosion would destroy the republic. whose monarchical principles and sentiments were openly avowed. nominated under the impression of horror against the JacoThey had selected even the most opposed to the Terrorists. Another officer of this prince was sent to Berne. to induce Switzerland to declare against France. were the closest united to the counter-revolutionists. with instructions to inspect as closely as possible the Lyonnese insurrection to inspire resolution to the court of Turin. or modérés. cast their resentments into this furnace. dared not make any movement which might perhaps be the signal of the downfal of their constitution. The Comte d'Artois was then at Ham. hoping to make of it an internal volcano. and who. This popular commission was headed by M. The refugee nobility and priests. reinforced by eight or ten thousand Austrians. XXIII. daily deplored the ruin of affairs. The court of Sardinia. But the was simi- aristocratic cantons of Switzerland. The other members were irritated Girondists. concealed in large numbers in Lyons. hastily threw its . sent by the Britannic larly employed in these cantons. consequently. whose opinions are ever guided by its interests.214 ATTEMPTS OF THE COMTE T>' ARTOIS. As soon as this city had broken with the Convention.

and victory in order to elevate loyalty at Lyons on the ruins of the Girondist party. XXIV. dence. 215 principal forces into the comté of Nice. He mingled in one and the same respect. He had served in Corsica. formerly colonel of the regiment of Vosges. but was eminently a warrior. whose name was until then unknown. but had not forsworn his country. monarchical from honour. made him capable of uniting in one body all vague opinions. the constitution of 1793. XLIX. foot by foot. He had bewailed the death of his master. to protect. The Marquis d'Autichamp and the officers of Condé soon acknowledged the impossibility of giving openly emigrants a leader. Independently of the portion of the population devoted to them by opinion. they counted in the city four thousand non-juring priests. The royalists of Lyons and the interior were obliged to renounce all hope of foreign inTheir only expectation now laid in time. the gorges of Savoy against the few battalions under Kellermann. after a formal deliberation. and that skill natural to men of his province. which preserved the patriotism of the citizen united to the fidelity of the gentleman . he silently submitted to His friends at Lyons the fate of the persecuted nobility. He had fought on the 10th of August with the devoted officers who endeavoured to shield the throne with their bodies. Every attempt at reconciliation was hereafter useless. pointed him out to the republican commission as the fittest chiefs to direct and control the mingled movement which Lyons was venturing to try against anarchy. Retiring to his estate of Semur in Brionnais. first. his practice in controlling soldiers. 24. all Piedmont. a Frenchman by blood. the city at last nominated a commandant general of its forces. and six thousand nobles. a patriot from the spirit of the age. was the Comte de Précy. Germany. and rejecting.] COMTE DE PRÉCY. Still the moderation of his character. belonging to that portion of the military nobility not yet denationalised by emigration. of p 4 . a gentleman of Charolais.B. determined to take arms against the forces of the Convention. the king and the constitution. pruterference. and in the constitutional guard of Louis XVI. to a movement which preserved the semblance of republicanism. This general. Précy was not the chief of a party. and then contented herself with defending. Lyons flew to arms .

made him a leader most agreeable in the eyes of the people. on horseback. not be concealed that the combats and distresses of a lengthened siege would destroy a vast many citizens. 25. at the commencement of the Revolution. They found him as the Romans had in bygone days found their dictator.216 COMTE DE PRÉCT [b. The battalions of paid troops and national guard saluted him with unanimous acclamations. directed against a single that it could town. and age that civil war was repugnant to his soul. causes than it served. "but we have weighed in our minds the scaffold against the oppressions of the Convention. XXV. returned to his house to take leave of his young wife. This latter gave the most royalist significance to the rising celebrated orator of the Constituent Assembly. without disclosing it to them beforehand." exclaimed Précy. united to persuasion. and we have chosen the scaffold. On his arrival. that it was an extreme remedy. preserving their confidence. which was hanging from the branches of a pear tree. ised forces of the Convention. and of leading them on to a particular end. mounted the tri-coloured cockade. "I accept it with such men!" He resumed his coat. and his unwearied frani^. and the scaf" "We know it. his firm but decided smile. must sooner or later destroy Lyons. The command of the artillery was conferred on Lieutenant-Colonel de Chenelette. been present at the Assembly of Vizille A . in his fields. that the Revolution had broken his sword." replied fold would decimate the survivors. the natural gift of command. cultivating his flowers and vegetables. he put on the civic uniform. abated his fire." " And I. claimed the rights of the nation. Précy was fifty-one years of age. de Précy. open countenance. and then followed the men of Lyons. and then. His martial bearing. reviewed the municipal army. and that of the cavalry on Comte de Virieu. The deputation of Lyons went to offer the command to M. he had. Précy modestly declared that he did not feel himself adequate to the part they had come to propose to him. with his spade in his hand. his blue and placid eye. and resume his arms. which had been concealed for eighteen months. XLIX. that the organthere was no refuge but victory or death. of Lyons. which destroyed more that in rushing headlong into it. — — — — — — the negotiators of Lyons.

and the Piedmontese. and gone over. the Allbroges. of a proscribed caste. a fluent orator. seemed to him the sole government of liberty. on its side. Lally-Tolendal. to leave his frontiers and concentrate his forces round Lyons. soldier. bore at this moment in the south the whole weight of the Austrians. and Cazalès. The combination of the aristocracy and democracy. civil war appeared to him thrice holy . with forty-seven members of the nobility.B. a persecuted worship. like Mounier. XLIX. It ordered Kellermann. Kellermann. the political man of Of high blood. a monarchist. but the in command. by each individual and not by order in the Etats Généraux. The moment the National Assembly had broken the circle in which the aristocracy desired to encompass the third estate. in imitation of Pmgland. moderated by the monarchy. but a principle. revealed at once concealed thought of its insurrection. after having shaken it. demanded representation. He desired. the exiled monarchy. 217 in Dauphiné. and cursing his error bitterly. 26. not its avowed aim. With a small body The small of troops Kellermann bore down all resistance. Clermont-Tonnerre. He had quitted it as a man excesses leaves a guilty confederacy. skilful politician. whose forces crossed the other side of the Alps. He was anxious to support the throne. accepted the struggle with the unbending determination of a power. which does not yield before the amputation of a member to save the body. general-in-chief of the army of the Alps. to reduce the Revolution to the acquirement of a right of representation divided between two chambers. his friends. and a christian. (on the 25th of June) to the side of the people.] HEADS THE LYONNESE. every step of the Revolution had seemed to him all its acts crimes. and at Lyons. then crossing — — . Subsequently the Comte de Virieu had appeared to repent of these popular acts. Its country was in its eyes not a city. corps d'armée which he had in Savoy showed itself like a moveable mound from one valley to the other. XXVI. his country. by making him second qualities of a party leader. An intrepid as an aristocrat. He had devoted himself to the restoration of the destroyed monarchy and religion. he had all the Lyons. who disputed with Dumouriez the glory of Valmy. The Convention. He He was in kept up a correspondence with the princes. shaking the dust from his feet. Dauphiné.

completed the blockade of the city. which now closely formed the blockade. Nioche. columns. All was in sent summons after summons to the Lyonnese. where this stream enters the city to Faubourg de Sainte Foi. Lyons only replied by conditions. named the Pont de la Mulatière. the Rhône. the disavowal of itself. — from the earth at the voice of the representatives. and choked the city. from the rock of Pierre-Encise. Bresse. 27 f over the heights. or in the spaces between the camps. whilst he was assembling his troops. but not the instrument of its severities. Jura. the reinstatement of the Girondist deputies. He knew the horror which attaches in the memories of men tc those who have mutilated their country the renown of the Marius of the south was repugnant to him. crossed the Saône at this point. defended by redoubts. and the populous vallies of the ancient Auvergne and Allier. The peasants had no need of discipline to form behind troops of the line. He dreaded to be styled in after days the destroyer of Lyons. XXVII. Burgundy. Javagnes. and the chain of hills that run parallel with the Saône. and Couthon. He temporised for some time.218 THE CONVENTION [b. the humiliation of the Mountain. which imposed on the Convention the retractation of the 31st of May. the departments of Auvergne. XL1X. and. vain. walls of bayonets. Kellerniann was one of those military men skilful and daring in combat. and DuboisCrancé. led by Reverchon. Between the city and . Lyons had no fortifications except on the height of Croix-Rousse. Ardèche. The Committee of Public Safety despatched Couthon and Maignet to rouse. Already from the borders of the Saône. whom the Terror caused to spring . and. the revocation of all the measures taken since that day. which rises at their extremity not far from the confluence of the Saône and Rhône. A bridge. offered a formidable obstacle to the besiegers. tried the medium of negotiation. Gautier. rather formed to lead soldiers than to mingle in the strife of parties desirous of being the head of the armies of the Republic. and to overwhelm Lyons beneath the battalions of patriotic volunteers. the mountains of the Ardèche. Kellerniann. en masse. every where checked the incursion which threatened from all sides. Maignet. pressed by the representatives of the people. advanced by every bye road towards Lyons.

the batteries. which command the course of the Saône before it enters Lyons. a short distance upon Mirabel. overgrown by willows and reeds. XLIX. and which offered excellent cover for skirmishers. with which to arm this immense extent but guns were perpetually being cast. and the road to Paris. extended in an immense line from the right bank of the Rhône to the heights of Limonest. and Bourgogne. from its depth and swiftness. Auvergne. and threatened the Faubourg de la Croix Rousse. and. and by the towns of Saint Etienne. and was divided into two that of La Guilotière. la Guilotière. The besieging army sat down before Lyons in the commencement of August. runs along the bank of the Rhône the remaining space. by the unwearied exertions of General Précy and his staff. the strongest position. 219 narrow causeway. intersected by numerous dykes and watercourses.B. and the camp of Mirabel. on the rocky bank of the Rhône. which. easily rendered impassable. 28. and commanded by General Vaubois . Forez. and secured Lyons for communication with the mountains of Vivarais. this camp bordered the Rhône. and Savoy . Dauphiné. — . On the east. the troops of the Convention. redoubts. The battalions of the Ardèche. But this line of troops was broken in many places by the advanced guard of the Lyonnese. totally precludes any passage at this spot . and Montbrison. was a low swampy spot. whilst a bridge of boats served as a means of communication between the two republican armies.] BESIEGES LYONS. and fortified bridges presented a formidable show of resistance to this bridge a . Saint Chamond. and on the side of the vast plains of Dauphiné. and all that was required was the erection of two redoubts. XXVIII. thrown up at the bridges Guilotière and Morand the only means of communication between the city and the Quartier des Brotteaux and the Faubourg de Lyons possessed only forty pieces of cannon. well supplied with artillery. and cut off all retreat to the Alps. Kellermann had fixed his head-quarters at the Château de la Pape. composed of ten thousand camps men. which extended from the north of the Rhône to the Saône. which forms the point Perrache. through the Bourbonanis : thus the — . who sided with the besieged. Lyons possessed no other defence than the Rhône.

were set on fire three hundred times by the projectiles.220 field SIEGE OP LYONS. and furnished numerous detachments of volunteers to defend the most exposed posts. and their altars. Précy. The national guard. carried ammunition and food to the troops. Virieu. the Quai de Saint Clair. an incendiary fire. by means of nocturnal signals. and thence to the combat . It was with them that Précy performed prodigies of valour and constancy. : The Madinier. hesitated neither before responsibility nor death. an incessant fire of balls and shells on the city . 29. these troops fell back. an ardent and courageous Girondist. one of whom defended the ramparts . burying beneath their ruins thousands of citizens. It armed the Jacobins. wbo constituted the nucleus of his internal defences. of battle extended over a space of nearly sixty square leagues. In proportion as the attacking forces took up their position. commanded by bitants. during the bombardment of the Place de Bellecour. whilst the muauthorities. during eighteen days. and arrested for two whole months all France before a handful of men. after having sacrificed their wealth. wrapped nicipal . and the batteries of Kellermann and Vaubois maintained. bore the wounded to the hospital. and the general thus formed a force of about ten thousand men. the quarters and the houses for destruction. xlix. disarmed the clubists. and the Rue Mercière. and hastening from the camp to the council chamber. and buried the slain. and the ruins of a burning city. kindled by the hand of a female. August. and the whole population flew to arms for. numbered thirty-six thousand men. whilst the partisans of Châlier indicated. and the Port du Temple. The whole of the inhabitants were divided into two bodies. and strengthened the army of Précy . XXIX. and Chelenette were continually riding about all parts of the city. The bombardment commenced on the 10th of August. in the eyes of its inhathe sacrilege of the republic . During these fatal nights. [b. the sacrifice of their life appeared but small. with their president. destruction of Lyons appeared. The disarmed Jacobins still continued to plot On the night of the 24th of against the safety of the city. whilst the other checked the progress of the flames. XXX. the Place de Bellecour. Doctor Gilibert. their homes.

XLIX. The capture of these redoubts exposed the whole of the western side of Lyons. Kellermann availed himself of this circumstance. demanded his recall . Dubois-Crancé. seized a soldier's musket. As a soldier he wished to destroy Lyons but still more so as a republican . and the Gironde his own energy to his troops. which they did. the temporary command was transferred to Dubois-Crancé. whilst it weakened their means of resistance. effort to recover them. at the head of the battalions of the Ardèche. by the light of the flames. forced them to fly. in flames. alleging the necessity of his presence at the army of the Alps. The next night he advanced in person. and carried them with the bayonet. did not weaken the arms or the hearts of the Lyonnese . and commanded the Faubourg de Vaise. and they made. and the Convention and the representatives of the people loudly blamed the inactivity of Kellermann. .B. 30. which was defended by four thousand Lyonnese. and when his horse was shot under him. whilst the Sardinians profited by his absence to reconquer Savoy. an immense building on the banks of the Saône. though wounded in two places. 221 the Arsenal.] SIEGE OF LYONS. The bombardment produced no effect . and the redoubts demolished. and destroyed an enormous quantity of arms and ammunition . and Précy resolved upon a desperate He led on his troops to the attack . for he beheld within its walls the two great objects of his hatred and he communicated a share of royalism. whilst. before the three hundred Lyonnese who defended them could blow up the bridge the Peninsula of Perrache was thus left open to the enemy. he rose. that drove back the republicans from the heights of Sainte Foi. and the Committee of Public Safety named Doppet as his substitute . was of noble birth but had forsaken the royal for the popular cause. whilst the heights of Santé Foi were surrendered through treason. rushed on the enemy. and. — . a sortie. against the redoubts that covered the ponts d'Oullins and De la Mulatière. until his arrival at the camp. leaving the guns spiked. the representative of the people. : . under cover of a terrific fire from all his batteries. and lieutenant of Kellermann. . but this calamity. and. He ordered the troops of Reverchon to attack the Château of la Duchère.

the battle. reduced the defenders of a vast extent of ground to three thousand fighting men. at double quick time. and the advanced less of death. death. and the shells bursting in the wards. The victory was for those most regardIt was a hail of grape-shot. companies were mown down by this storm of fire. covered the head of his column with four pieces of cannon. and balls were already sweeping the quai du Rhône.' of Sainte Foi. Précy. Lyons breathed again for some days but Précy had lost in this victory the Fatigue. rallied on his way all of his men whom he met. buried the . SIEGE OF LYONS. with a tremendous column of men. crossed the Sâone and the city. This completed the capture. Lyons had hoisted a black flag over its hospital. refused all quarter. The republicans had not even time to cut down the bridge after they had crossed it. and the artillerymen of the Convention riddled with balls and bomb-shells the walls and domes of the hospital. and they retreated to Oullins. sent out a large body of skirmishers to the lower grounds of Perrache. XXXI. that bayonets snapped short in the bodies of the combatants. and advanced. had elite of the Lyonnese youth. did not. to the heart of the city. and their rage so stood. 31. and cut them down by their guns as they The shock was so tremendous. returning with the fragments of his battalions from the height. when Précy. to protect his right flank. and they did not utter a cry . profiting by the opening given to his troops by the capture of the bridge of La Mulatière. and then advanced on the republican army. informed of this result to the republicans. following up his victory. and died to a man. But. desperate. springing over the dead bodies with the most daring of his volunteers. resolved to repulse them or die. . as is usual to besieged cities. drove back Doppet's disordered lines to the bridge of La Mulatière. carried the two redoubts of Perrache. whilst the republicans.222 at Sainte Irénée. [b. formed them into line on the Place de la Charité. rushed against the foremost ranks of the republican soldiers. : Doppet's soldiers were awaiting the attack no manoeuvring was possible. Précy. spare the asylums consecrated to humanity. whilst Précy was thus triumphant at Sainte Foi and General Doppet. driven back into the ditches at the sides. Vaubois. XL1X. the general of the Convention.

and that on reaching the height of Montmerle he should cross the river. strewed with the ruins of its edifices and the fragments of its There was only two days' nourishment of dispopulation. The fire which Lyons had hoped to kindle throughout the heart of France by its example. He added. . and not as a victim that he should leave Lyons that night with the last and bravest of the citizens that he should deceive the watchfulness of the republican camp by crossing on the side where he was least expected. and Maignet addressed plausible and moderate terms of surrender to the town. 223 wounded under the roofs where they had sought for safety. and thus reach the Swiss " Let those. He announced to them that Lyons' last hour was come that in spite of the promises of Couthon. terror and vengeance would enter the city in the morning with the republican army. and the popular commission commuThey named depunicated them to the assembled sections.B. Succours were cut off by Kellermann. and Avounds would mark out as the principal defenders of the city would escape the resentment of the Convention and the informations of the Jacobins. frontier by the passes of the Jura. Précy assembled his companions in glory and misfortune. on its walls alone. ceased. that not one of those whose functions. XXIX. Marseilles was pacified by Carteaux." added he. uniform. murmured as they died at dying a useless death. and they accorded fifteen hours to the city to afford time to those of its defenders who were most com: promised to provide for their safety. . On that the scaffold would replace for them the field of battle . puted horseflesh left for the population the distribution of Couthon half a pound of oats. XXXII. pass it. the night of the 8th of October. and they were casting the last bullets with the lead from the roofs of the houses. soaked in water. and by going up the left bank of the Saône by the least frequented route to Macon .] SIEGE OF LYONS. he had decided to die as a soldier. and the roads which brought provisions to Lyons were stopped up in every direction. The horses were all eaten. that as for himself. ties to go to Couthon's camp to confer with the generals and representatives . 32. and preyed The whole city was one battle-field. The people Provisions and ammunition were exhausted. . was everywhere quenched. The course of the two rivers. arms. throw himself into La Dombe. .

put himself at their head. pointing to the enemy . opened a tremendous fire on them. Burtin de la Rivière. and fathers. who will try this last chance of safety assemble with their arms and their most valuable possessions before daybreak in I will pass or the Faubourg de Vaise. Précy had divided this corps d'armée into two columns. and attached to the royalist cause. grenadiers. XXXIII. our only hope of I safety is in discipline. sustained by rocks posted behind the walls and Précy ordered bridges. forward at the head of two companies. brothers. " You have done. number who received the sacrament. and implicit obedience to orders." cried he. Précy mounted one of the cannon. several hundred more were assisting at a funeral service in honour of their dead comrades. almost all of them young. one composed of fifteen hundred men and four pieces of cannon.224 " SIEGE OF LYONS. need say no more to you. as a last farewell to their hearths and homes. rushing the ground. It did not depend on me to render it free and triumphant. under his own command the other of five hundred men. the time passes and the day is dawning." continued Précy. and follow me . which was celebrated in a General Virieu was amongst the neighbouring cavern. and determined to share their fate. perish with them. women and the The instant . met at the Three or four hundred women spot appointed by Précy. 33. of noble birth. Rely on your general." exclaimed the column. who. and one of his best officers. that to again behold it happy and prosperous in desperate situations like the present." " Vive Lyons. " Forward. Whilst this assemblage was slowly forming beneath the thick trees of a wood called Le Bois de la Claire. When they were all assembled. and addressed are you satisfied with them. XLIX. and stretched him lifeless on The column hesitated but Précy. five batteries. drove back the . at this moment a ball struck him in the chest. the grenadiers to dislodge them . under the orders of Count de Virieu. they quitted the Faubourg de Vaise. old men. [B. but it depends on you Remember." Only three thousand men. " all that it was in human power to do for your unhappy city. " I am satisfied with you me ? " Loud cries of Vive notre général interrupted him. and children accompanied their husbands. escorted the — — ! .

carried it. Envoys were sent from the republicans. after defending himself like a hero against several republican troopers. The column at last quitted the defile. portion of the army abandoned their leader. beneath the shelter of the rocks that overhang the Saône. XXXV. abandoned his guns and horses. believe for many years that he would yet were about A . and marched for three whole days. A . and fell on the opposite bank. return. pursued by the inhabitants and the light cavalry of Reverchon. Virieu and his column to enter them. under the guidance of one of his soldiers. were ever found. presented himself at the outposts. now only a hundred and ten in number.] SIEGE OF LYONS. The left bank of the Saône swarmed with troops. Q . reached the summit of Mount Saint Romain. and the peasants surrounded the forest. a lofty point. with only three hundred men. took off his uniform. plunge with his horse into the river but neither his body. XXXIV. and he rejoined it when beyond the range of the batteries. XLIX. and where a few hamlets still furnished them provisions. Soon after an officer of hussars " Surrender your general. and the only hope left the army was to disperse among Précy held a council of war. who escaped in the disguise of a peasant girl. Reverchon. dragoon asserted he had beheld him. nor his arms. These circumstances made the Countess de Virieu. quitted the Bois dAlix. . During the debate the tocsin sounded. until his little troop.B. The massacre was so complete that no one knew the fate of Virieu. to the gorges of Saint-Cyr. from the camp of Limonest who hung on attacked a republican battery. commanded by the repi'esentative of the people. Précy. During this diversion the column passed. Précy embraced them all. and entered the forest of Alix. when eight thousand men from the camp of Limonest. and advanced. alternately defending himself by means of and the his flank. Précy. III. who offered all their lives except the general's but his brave companions refused to separate their fate from his. attacked and cut it to pieces. VOL. crossed the Saône. defended by deep ravines. tirailleurs his artillery against the cavalry that pursued him. set his horse at liberty. his horse. and the mountains of Forez. and disappeared amidst the thickets. 225 republicans. informed them of his resolution but the majority were for continuing their flight across the Alps. 35.

that having described the battle-field. who learnt from a fugitive soldier of the slaughter of his comrades. When at last the report of the death of Précy caused the ardour of pursuit to be somewhat slackened. on the banks of the Saône. "you are the general. and died under their reign unhonoured and unrewarded. that his horse. Précy. a peasant of Violay. was treated in exile with the greatest respect: he returned to France with the Bourbons. XXXVI. entering Switzerland. calculated to give to their occupation of it rather the air of a reconciliation than a con- executions." replied Reyssié. the general succeeded in passing the gorges of the Jura. the historian is compelled to recount the horrors of the scaffold and public after The most army entered Lyons with an appearance of moderation and kind feeling. and I arrest you. XLIX. Lyons gave her general a magnificent funeral in the plain of Brotteaux. with the exception of a few who escaped amongst the thickets. BOOK I. where he concealed and fed him until he procured him the disguise of a peasant. and one of the heroes of the siege. 36.226 and you are CAPTURE OF LYONS. in arms. where he sleeps with the remains of his companions Civil wars leave nought save tombs. wandered during three days amongst the ravines of the mountains. saved." returned the officer. fell dead by his side. Précy's " He is no aide-de-camp. painful part in the recital of civil wars is.'' said [b. The republican . It is the nature of princes and men to prefer those who have shared their faults to those who have served their interests. he to the young Reyssié." At these words Reyssié shot the officer through the head. " and the proof is. One of his soldiers. and." "It is false. and then placing the muzzle of the second At the sound pistol to his own mouth. L. longer amongst us. of the report the republicans fell on the remnant of the Lyonnese and massacred them. at length guided him to a wood adjoining his father's farm. which he has abandoned. is now feeding there.

and words. and opposed with all the earnestness his position q 2 . Thus then were all the crimes committed by the republic of Lyons laid to the charge of Couthon. both by the Royalists and Girondists of Lyons. No longer satisfied with punishing individuals. Terror desired to make the punishment of an entire city at once an example. The confusion of the moment. as in all the acts of the Reign of Terror.] couthon's moderation. II. mules. Not the slightest tumult or violence was permitted and peasants from Auvergne. and absolves or sacrifices many. contenting themselves by reducing it to order by the institution of revolutionary tribunals. History has its chances. the severity of the republic. L. 227 quest. and not unfrequently handed down for the execration of posterity the names of the most innocent. the despair of the dying. friends of Châlier.B. For some time the representatives sought to restrain this fury. and decrees of extermination. and in the victory of the united republicans over civil anarchy but a careful examination of dates. The Jacobins. . made it difficult to judge who was guilty of the deed. and sent back murmuring and discontented Lyons was selected as an example of to their mountains. and the resentment of the survivors. were dismissed empty-handed. 2. as well. as well as the battle-field. and a warning to all others. will effectually do away with so unfair a charge. Couthon entered Lyons rather as a peacemaker than an executioner. who hurried to the scene of hopedfor plunder. but finally they were compelled to yield to it. the odium of all the blood that was shed has been thrown upon one individual. and sacks to carry off the spoils found in the richest city of France. . came forth from their hiding-places calling loudly for vengeance on the representatives. and demanding of the Convention that their enemies should at last be given up to them. merely because he chanced to be the friend and confidant of Robespierre in the suppression of federalism. In this matter. long compromised. whose character it is the work of after ages to place aright before the world. facts. indeed. bringing carts. Couthon's first care was to command that the persons and property of the inhabitants should be scrupulously regarded. impartially considered.

presented himself at the palace in the course of the same evening. offended with the temporising measures of Couthon. and repaired to the Hôtel-de -Ville. but earnestly recommending the preservation of order. l. r . and the heads of the federalists. since they had been compelled to abide beneath smoking ruins and dismantled buildings. and a noisy mass of people. compelled to pass the night upon a wretched flock bed. and took up his abode in one of the hotels of the city . III. Couthon. who invariably formed part of his military retinue. escorted by all the Jacobins. •permitted the excess to which the Jacohins carried their vengeance. with his other colleagues. The conqueror of Lyons. and Dorfeuille. 2. clamouring loudly for the spoils of the rich. in order to escape being either a witness or accomplice of the blood shed by the representatives of the implacable party of the Convention. second in command of the ancient ruins. and indignant at the contempt and who thus consigned him to the miserable lodging he occupied. Couthon addressed these turbulent persons. He strove against Dubois-Crancé. Finally he withdrew ere the first sentence of death was passed. and also a member of the Convention. [b. at the head of their troops. promising all they asked. besieging army. beaten in during the bombardment of the. He had been unable to shelter himself. Maignet. triumphantly entered Lyons. departed from the archiépiscopal palace on the following morning. and dilapidated roof. who indifference of his colleagues. accompanied by his mistress. gave to their abode the appearance of an encampment among some Dubois-Crancé.228 couthon's moderation. and was by them denounced to La Montagne and the Jacobins as one who prevaricated and showed an undue indulgence to their enemies. to moderate the wild fury of these fierce spirits. Collot d'Herbois. and punishing them according to their offences. ranged themselves around Dubois-Crancé. and Châteauneuf Randon. while he claimed for the republic the sole right of selecting her enemies. tottering walls. Laporte. w hile the Jacobins. city. loudly complaining at the marked insolence of Couthon's behaviour towards him. whose naked apartments. From the Hotel-de-Ville the representatives went to take up their abode in the empty palace of the archbishopric.

was on the point of gaining over the soldiery. denounce them in conjunction with the Jacobins. in order to throw all the odium of their crimes upon you. and clemency. while DuboisCrancé. L. ! have them arrested we will see prompt and fitting justice " done Couthon next commanded that the manufactories should be opened to all matters of trade. the conclusion of his address the people uttered loud Long live Dubois-Crancé. Some unworthy individuals. "What. while petitions to the Convention to continue the command of the army to this general were to be seen in the vilest spots. 229 that evening convened a meeting of the malcontents in the public theatre. trembled before Couthon. and harangued the Jacobins less in the tone of a commander than a confederate. the army obeyed their general's advice. brave republicans .] DUBOIS-CRANCE. earnestly recommending a strict observance of discipline. Couthon and his colleagues. and humbled himself before Robespierre. may indeed be found willing to commit any excesses under the name of vengeance. nor will you lightly regard a vow dictated by your own sense of honour. and commerce continued as usual. " At them. whose scorched walls and half-burnt interior abundantly testified the resistance it had made. " before entering Lyons you swore to see the lives and property of its citizens respected. and the pu- nishment that had followed such resistance.B. perceiving that Dubois-Crancé. exclaiming. and addressed a series of proclamations to the troops and people." and perambulated the streets singing the most ferocious and sanguinary songs. checked in his career and recalled by the Convention. 3. " Brave soldiers " said Couthon. unconnected with the army." wrote Couthon to the Committee of Public ! — — Q 3 . so imprudently thrown open by Dubois-Crancé. order. The Jacobins were alarmed at these measures. The next act of Couthon was to close the clubs. Dubois-Crancé reformed the Central Club. awaiting the signatures of all who should approach shouts. while the Clubists were equally active with the officers. and the desire of preserving your wellearned glory from tarnish. wrote to the Committee of Public Safety to request the immediate recall of the Jacobin general. but should you know such.

by order of the Committee of Public Safety. during the siege time. if not a protection for such as were innocent. IV. at all times ready to side with the most influential party. The . perfectly satisfied with the victory achieved. finding their efforts to restrain the impetuosity of La Montagne utterly powerless. when they see the deputies themselves urging them on to violate the laws ?" He confined himself.230 SEVERE MEASURES [b. kindly forewarned by his intervention of the danger that threatened them.000 of the citizens of Lyons. Safety. in conformity with the exist- ing laws. urged the Committee of Public Safety to strike a blow against the second city of the republic. Robespierre and Saint." exclaimed Barrère. to escape . had. or buildings set apart for public instruction. order he had received for the formation of this tribunal during a period of ten days. at what they considered the dilatorinessof Couthon." bunal was to examine into the conduct of all such citizens who. either by word or deed. in the name of the Committee of Public Safety. nevertheless. he. be buried beneath her own ruins. at least the opportunity for calm reflection on the Indeed. by means of the accusations of Dubois-Crancé. and. instituted a second court under This trithe title of " Commission of Popular Justice. which should serve as a warning to future revolutionists. in sending before a military tribunal every Lyonnese taken with ai'ms in his hand after the capitulation of the city . on the 12th of November ascended the rostrum. with a view to furnish such individuals as might have criminated themselves. " Let Lyons a decree. In the mean while La Montagne and the Jacobins of Paris. or rather a Plébeide. quitted that city and took refuge amid the mountains of Switzerland or du Forez. taken part in the armed resistance made by Lyons to the republic. " what can you expect from the citizens. and a few days subsequently. Barrère. and read to the Convention. moreovei". against Lyons. save those workshops. although the intimate friends of Couthon. devoted to the reception of the poor and needy — hospitals. not belonging to the military force of the town.Just. incensed. L. 4. " and let the plough pass over the site of her edifices. were compelled to affect a corresponding violence. Couthon kept back the part of such as were guilty. The slow and judicial proceedings of this assembly afforded. and no less than 20.

This delay enabled the citizens to fly in great numbers. . forgot nor forgave and the resentment of the disappointed q 4 by the Jacobins . L. and again allowed a lapse of twelve days ere he attempted to carry it into execution. desired the utter annihilation of Lyons from the moment in which Barrère pronounced its doom. should inflict military punishment on all the anti-revolutionists of Lyons that all the inhabitants should be disarmed. against the supineness of those representatives of the people intrusted with the special commission to that city. : — ! ' ! . by way of indemnity for their ' — . and it shall henceforward be known only by the appellation of the ' Free City ! On the mouldering remains of this once-famed place shall be erected a monument to the eternal honour of the Convention. and to serve as an attesting memorial of both the crime and punishment of the enemies of the republic This simple inscription shall tell the whole history ' Lyons took Lyons has ceased to up arms against liberty " be A city The decree exacted that a special commission. more particularly the dwellings of the wealthy. The representative with one hand held open the door for the victims to escape. The while with the other he dealt at random the blows intended La Montagne. Collot d'Herbois. It might have been thought that some personal and deadly hatred to Lyons and its inhabitants instigated the implacable animosity with which he sought its destruction. a man fatal to the city of Lyons.C. services ! severity of this decree cast terror throughout Lyons. composed of five members. from whence he had been driven by the hisses and other unequivocal marks This he never of disapprobation on the part of the audience. he had chosen to make his début on the boards of the Lyons theatre. 4. and the weapons found among the rich be distributed to the poor that the city should be destroyed. trary. on the conto prove mortal. both in the Committee of Public Safety and at the Jacobinical meetings in Paris. believed it impracticable. inveighed. and its name effaced from the map of republican towns while the possessions of the richer part of its inhabitants should be divided among the patriots. 231 very name of the city shall perish amid its ruins.] AGAINST LYONS. Couthon himself. . while affecting to approve of it. Report gave out that having neither talent nor any other requisite for the stage.

exclaimed. while affecting to avenge the republic. These men applauded beforehand the downfal of these residences. pioneers. and the placing of seals upon the houses and papers of suspected persons. L. I demolish thee. from the opinions of its inhabitants and the beauty of its construction. one by one. Couthon struck with a silver hammer one of the houses of the place. [b. The demolition was delayed until the time when the inhabitants of the place should have conveyed away their furniture and valuables. the five wounds inflicted by the guillotine ere the work of decapitation was accomplished. and the brothers of Châlier. of surveillance. though only in their effect. carrying on their shoulders pickaxes. formed the cortege of representatives. ! : A . 5. with a right of search. so that. I demand " atonement for the crimes of Lyons V. appearance. "In the name of my country. the decree of the Convention which ordered the He went in state. revenging his own wounded pride. He one day. his colleagues and the municipality. pronouncing these words." few beggars in tatters. satisfied with having given this sign of obedience to the Convention. in the tribune of the Jacobins. " In the name of the law. Couthon and his colleagues at length determined to yield to the injunctions of La Montagne. Guillard. actor glowed with undying fierceness in the breast of the representative . and reorganised the Couthon even invested them revolutionary committees. as on a throne. commanded silence and then dismissed them. but Couthon. in fact. on the place de Bellecour. Dubois-Crancé gave his fullest support to the eloquence of Collot d'Herbois.232 DEMOLITION OF LYONS. pointing out. and the axe had deprived the idol of the Lyonnese republicans of his life. Carried in an arm-chair. and axes. levers. whose ruin was gratifying to their envy. above the ruins by four working men. he was. and of the power of denouncing royalists and federalists he ordained domiciliary visits. Couthon carried out. accompanied by demolition of buildings. more particularly devoted to the destruction. raising his hands to heaven at the sight of so horrible a spectacle. but he encumbered all these measures with conditions and regulations which partly neutralised Lastly. displayed the severed head of Châlier. and masons. the friend of Châlier.

the woman whom he loved. L. tumbrils. Women. dead!" exclaimed Dorfeuille. amidst the sobs and imprecations of the crowd. at the instant he was ascending the scaffold. necessary for the removal of the rubbish. and to send him to the South. The blood he had spared. Robespierre recalled Couthon. VI. children. to his friends and brethren. at the cost of the despoiled owners but yet the work of demolition was not done. and the people received it as the legacy of a patriot. and also in the little city of Feurs. hammers. wrote to Robespierre and Saint-Just. Both within and without the walls. the fugi- . The representatives Dorfeuille. 6. another centre of national vengeance in the heart of the insurgent mountains. Albitte and his colleagues. old men. and to punish his assassins !" Dorfeuille then read. charged with expediting the desired vengeance. Couthon. democracy. to demolish the buildings. Dorfeuille presided for the first time on the morrow. and wheel-barrows. the president of Albitte and Javogues arrived the commission of popular justice. His adieux to his friends. whose departure was the signal of the calamities of Lyons. Pay Avas given to them. at the tribunal. "he died for his country! Let us swear to imitate him.B. the Jacobins. and religion mingled in a confused invocation of Châlier's. His death gave solemnity to his language. to God. and to immortality. were full of tears . and guilty in the eyes of the Jacobins of the blood he would not shed. now flowed. at a " He is funereal fête consecrated to the manes of Châlier.] COUTHON RECALLED. had the guillotine erected in the Place des Terreaux. warned besides of the near arrival of other representatives. — . — . summoned the army of Ronsin to Lyons. Dorfeuille presided at the head of a central club. the representatives passed a decree ordering the sections to enrol each twenty men. to the people. again reprimanded by the Committee of Public Safety for his dilatoriness in carrying out his appointed work. his parents. a letter written by Châlier. 233 After the ceremony. He entreated his friends to relieve him of the weight of a mission which weighed upon his mind. and to supply them with crowbars. and formed a similar corps in each of the six adjoining departments. who had just succeeded Couthon. were allowed to work in proportion to their strength. full of enthusiasm. Liberty.

Fouché.234 tives found fouché. who had supplied the place of her mother. and the sums extorted from the wealthy. the new proconsuls apCollot d'Herbois was filled with pointed by the Montagne. . who had lost her She came daily to the mother. It is to her pen that we owe some of the most touching and dramatic episodes of the siege. fortunes. he played the part of Brutus with the soul of Sejanus. and had sent Fouché there to propagate the Terror. and he devoted himself to the tyranny of the people. by Collot d'Herbois and Fouché. More of an actor by nature than Collot by profession. and whose father had fled. he was only a skilful dissimulator. Brought up in a cloister. [b. farmers. like Couthon. Thousands of priests. to surrender them to the scaffold. and whose fury was tempered by no moderation. and who had She saw her been confined there on suspicion of royalism. the suspected nought the accused nought save executioners. 6. until he could become the instrument of a new Caesar. and in a few months he effaced the work of ages in the manners. Amongst the number of the victims whose body or mind was thus early doomed to death. and laws of the province. The plunder of the churches. save betrayers . a ferocious vanity which saw no glory save in excess. he imprisoned more than he immolated threatened more than he destroyed. where five spacious prisons received them for a few days. More greedy than sanguinary. l. Albitte. deemed too lenient. merchants. Chaumette was a native of Ne vers. attested the energy of his measures. led to execution. Fouché had learnt that monkish humility that stoops only to rise the higher . Fouché was believed to be a fanatic . Im. crowded the prisons of the departments. He sought to ingratiate himself with Robespierre. . which he sent to Paris. had become intimately connected with Chau mette and Hébert. nought save treachery . nobles. and would have wed the sister of the deputy of Arras but Robespierre repulsed Fouché from his heart and his family. gate of the prison. was a young girl named Mademoiselle Alexandrine des Echerolles. affecting exaggeration in his principles. and followed her to the foot of the scaffold. and were despatched in carts to Lyons. entreating permission to see her aunt. was superseded. and caused the tolerance of his opinions to be overlooked. the châteaus.

" and ordered a figure religious emblems. A . and ceremonies." he wrote." VIII. the people shall be avenged. and on arriving at the altar they had erected to his memory." they wrote: "the tribunal will judge three days in one." wrote Collot. The heads often members of the municipality fell next day. inhabited by the friends of equality. signed by buildings in the city. and Fouché brought another from Nièvre. paraded through the streets an urn containing the ashes of Châlier.] PROGRESS OF DEMOLITION. the ruins of this superb and rebellious city nought save a few huts. they knelt before it. destroyed some of the finest patriotic proclamation. with the inscription.'''' VII. firmly refused to accept the office. to them Montaut. and the exe" The public accusers are about cution of the condemned." Collot had brought with him from Paris a band of Jacobins. and which seemed to mourn over his image. or a natural feeling of compassion for fellow-citizens.B. Such were the two men sent by the Montagne to Lyons wished to add preside at the punishment of Lyons. " Death is an eternal slumber. selected from the most fanatic of this party. " recognise no other dogmata than those of He proscribed all their sovereignty and omnipotence. 8. even on the tombs of Sleep to be engraved on the gates of the cemeteries. ven" We have sworn that geance. " Châlier !" exclaimed Fouché. was the unanimous demand. by the example of Couthon. fearing lest old associations. 235 " The French peopiety passed. of the city. " We have yesterday founded the religion Tears fell from every eye at of patriotism. and the churches profaned by impious and indecent songs. and a mine exploding. a stern yet virtuous republican . " the blood of aristocrats shall be the incense we will oifer you. L. dances. The two representatives commenced by accusing Couthon of unnecessarily adjourning the destruction of the city. the sight of the dove that consoled Châlier in his prison. ple. on learning what was required of him. might They corrupt the inflexibility of the gaolers of Lyons. but he. to proceed. and all that vice and crime have The traveller shall behold in erected shall be destroyed." The sacred symbols of religion were destroyed. and the use of powder will accelerate the demolition . Vengeance. in his eyes. for patriotism.

to stimulate their energy. Citizens. Fouche and Collot. sex. pillage.236 PROGRESS OF VENGEANCE [b. cold. All the communes of the republic will hasten to imitate that of Paris. on the ruins of a Gothic form of worship. have hazarded their heads to the block. and shoes : claim all this. By what right should any man keep in his wardrobes valuables or Let gold. were so many indirect reproaches to Couthon." These proclamations of vengeance. or we shall ourselves strike you. Take by force all that a neither age. silver. atheism. monks. treason delivered them. who had held such different language a few days previously. shirts. and who delivered the suspected person over to the tribunal. directly or indirectly. disguises of every kind. you Let no consideration stop you will sequestrate all others. domiciliary visits. "Whilst proprietors this upon . They actually awarded a sum of thirty francs on each denunciation. The cells were choked with prisoners. 8. priests. after some days. sickness. and all precious superfluous garments? — — Extirpate all forms metals flow into the national treasury of worship the republican has no God but his country. The desire of a legitimate vengeance is an imperative necessity. Cellars. lofts. over to the satellites of the temporary commission. to the clubbists of Lyons and the departments of the Loire and the Rhône. is about to elevate the Temple of Reason. "Every thing thus summed up their rights and their duties: — permissible to those who act in the spirit of the Revolution. Conformably to the spirit of this proclamation. all those who have favoured rebellion. in vain were resorted to by compromised men and trembling women to conceal themselves from the incessant searches of the greedy informer. Fouché and Collot created commissaries of confiscation and delation. multitude of wretches lived ! : A infamous traffic in the lives of citizens. Aid us in striking these great blows. the woods. fatigue. the sum being doubled for certain heads. If you is are patriots you will be able to distinguish your friends. nocturnal emigrations into the neighbouring mountains. There are persons who have heaps of linen. and nuns. They only gave the price of blood to him who in person directed the searches of the revolutionary army. such as those of nobles. Hunger. nor relationship. for any man to have more citizen has that is superfluous than he requires is an abuse. L. which. sewers.

and children. having been recklessly undermined. which from the five prisons of the city conveyed the accused to the tribunal. to other residences. the sound of cannon fired.000. the houses were destroyed beneath the hammer. without employ or bread. the arsenals.) worth of edifices ! Hundreds of workmen perished buried beneath the walls that fell in.000 of francs (600. The day after the arrival of this body of soldiers these lictors of the republic the execu: — — . The Commission of Popular Justice instituted by Couthon was transformed. to carry off the old. the rolling of carts. which mowed down the inhabitants. the streets inhabited by the commercial aristocracy. seemed. on the arrival of Ronsin and his army. the acclamations of a people in rags. L. The pay of the demolishers amounted to 400.000 francs (16.000. the two façades of the Place de Bellecour. The noise of walls falling. Whilst the alarmed inhabitants were throwing their furniture out of the windows. was silent in the midst of its ruins. to revel over the carcase of the city which had nourished them. and the demolitions cost 15. were the only signs of life amongst the population the scaffold was its sole spectacle. Workmen. the dust of destroyed houses which hung over the city. almost uninhabited. had scarcely time to leave their houses. fortifications. Every day the pickaxe was seen attacking staircases. the quais of the Saône. Lyons. presented bu£ the appearance of a city riddled by cannon-balls after a protracted siepe. enrolled and subsidised by the representatives at the cost of the rich.000 (12. IX.000.). churches. families expelled from the proscribed houses.000/.000/. 9-] AND DEMOLITION. lodgers. the infirm.— B. monasteries. The quai Saint Clair. or tilers unroofing houses.000/. into a revolutionary tribunal. was the only fete.) for each decade. pleasure-houses on the sides of the hills on each bank of the river. to destroy a capital of more than 300. 237 and merchants were perishing. axe in hand. and the discharges of the musketry. hospitals. The cellars and foundations were blown up with gunpowder. and mothers carried the cradles of their children over the ruined rafters. twenty thousand pioneers of Auvergne and the Lower Alps were employed in razing the abodes to the ground. at every head which fell at their feet. Shopkeepers. and the condemned to the guillotine.

The — : . the instrument of death was placed in the centre They swept away the of the Pont Morand. blood. BLOODSHED. the most fertile in homicides. the shade of the city.238 tions began. as if they were marching to battle. they had but a handful of straw each man on which to lay their limbs on their dungeon's stones. together with the filth of the neighbourhood. mud. Eight or ten condemned died every day. as it evaporated Dorfeuille. of the islets and lower grounds which intersect the course of the river between Lyons and the sea found perpetualty the heads and bodies of men stranded on those islets. did not suffice to cleanse the earth. immolated on the previous evening. Decemblood. and cast the heads and bodies over the parapets into The sailors and peasants the swiftest current of the Rhône. as it made them suspected of having fought. Water and sand. flowed into a ditch ten feet deep. These victims were nearly all the flower of the youth of Lyons and the neighbouring countries. in the sunshine. and January. and caught in the bulrushes and osier beds which surrounded them. over the river. the inhabitit ants of the vicinity saw rising from the soil a moisture was the blood of their fellow-countrymen. and even forty a day. covered the square and reeked in the air. In the prisons. thirty. as in bivouacs the night before a battle. which increased like the pulsations of an inflamed body. went to death with all the daring of youth. on the scaffold erected permanently in front of the steps leading to the town-hall. that they might not wash their linen and bathe their arms in blood-stained water and when at last the executions. Pierre and the façade of the town-hall were smeared with On the mornings of the days of November. Around these actual shambles of human flesh there was a A The exterior walls of the Palais Saint scent of death. . reached an amount of twenty. spread every evening after the executions ai-ound this sewer of human red and fetid blood. which carried it to the Rhône. on the requisition of the quarter. Their age was their They crime. trickling through the it over an open sewer. constantly trampled by a people thirsting to see their fellow creatures die. planks. was compelled to remove the scaffold to a distance he placed The blood. ber. for ninety days. The washerwomen were compelled to change the spot of their washing places. [B- L * 9- and lasted. on leaving the tribunal. without interruption.

manufactories. were shut up within the circumference of twenty leagues round Lyons. A — — — — — of properties were sequestrated. Doors and windows were sealed up. No citizen against whom an informel-. and obtained for them interviews. Castles. La Dombe. did not intimidate parents. but penetrated into these subterranean retreats to aid the sick and suffering. mothers. fortune. conversations. and sisters wanGold and tears. escaped from captivity. and dying with them. citizens. The city and the town seemed decimated. were all mingled there together. had embraced the opposite side. were here united in the same crime and the same death. More than six thousand prisoners were at a time locked up in these depots of the guillotine. Escapes Religion and charity. Le Dauphiné passed through these prisons and these scaffolds. Le Forez. a manufactory. nourish the hungry. tradesmen. . and last farewells. L. opened the hearts of gaolers. and executed. friends. accused. or servants in their tenderness. Night and day large numbers of wives. which flowed dered round the prisons. On the roads from Lyons to the neighboui'ing villages and towns nothing was met but detachments of the revolutionary army. a house. and who. The plagues of the middle ages did not throw more gloom over the appearance of a province. and but few captives from death. Clergy. by anticipation in the minds of the proconsuls and their purveyors. Le Vivarais.] DESTRUCTION. even the residences of the country people. an enemy appeared. people. abundantly. condemned. Thousands were frequent. and console the dying. nobility. was arrested. Nature herself seemed affected by the terror of man. Le Beaujolais. since the Revolution. and various opinions. There were assembled all the men of condition. 239 danger of compromising themselves by appearing to take an interest in their fate. so active and courageous in Lyons. The anger of the Revolution had attained the power of a divine scourge. The elite of a capital and several provinces La Bresse. All who had name. 10. in town or country any one who was suspected of any inclination to the cause of the rich. in common rising against oppression. first-class houses. birth. did not recede in presence of suspicion or disgust. X. whole generation was there swallowed up. fortune. an envious neighbour. who.B. profession.

wives. and of having breathed the air of insurrec- — surgeons. Daily the principal turnkey of the gaol read with a loud names of the prisoners summoned before the Every breath was suspended whilst the summons was being read. and followed by their weeping families. whom Couthon trates. each of fear of responsibility hereafter. searching cellars. [b. administrators. architects. Thus were brought back illustrious citizens sheriffs. To these they added the relations. whom separately had a human heart. friends. quilts. They assembled in long files of sixties or eighties in the court. they themselves trembled under the terror with which Still their activity did they smote others. 10. Those thus called upon embraced for the voice the tribunal. These representatives had promised to the Jacobins of Paris prodigies of rigorous administration. and then threaded the crowd on their way to the tribunal. L. magisdoctors. accused of governors of hospitals. amongst the survivors. brothers. and servants. not satisfy clothes. sons. fugitives discovered in their retreats. or masters born on the spot. fathers. or having given food to the insurgent people. of a nature to astound future To give to this act the majesty which should characages. lofts. sculptors. daughters. judges. terise it that it may be as grand as history it is requisite : — "A — — . or made secret vows for the triumph of the defenders of Lyons. — tion. and distributed their beds. chained two and two. assumed to be accomplices of their guilty of being husbands.— 240 LYONS DECIMATED. even the litter of the cattle. or leading. forcing doors in the name of the law. last time their friends. and in no way intimidated by any These five judges. striking the walls with the butts of their muskets. aldermen. benevolent societies having fought with or succoured the combatants or the wounded. Dorfeuille thus wrote to the representatives of the people great act of justice is in preparation. The days of September rose as an example before them. and money. advocates. to Lyons all the notable and had allowed to escape mayors. The judges were nearly all strangers. Fouché and Collot d'Herbois. judged together like a mechanical instrument of murder. yet the slowness of these trials and sentences caused them to be accused of half-measures. Watched by a suspicious mob.

at least by deputations. as if on the steps of an amphitheatre . tlie threo cannon exploded vol. and it is the festival of virtue. whilst from the top of a balcony of one of the confiscated hotels in the Quai du Rhône. and punishment en masse supplied the place of individual executions. They seemed to seek in the words of this. military authorities. and public functionaries should be present. . that is the right word. where they made them cross the bridge. were placed in a line in this Three pieces of cannon." XI. like a worn-out weapon. seemed to preside over this ceremonious extermination. mony to the Hôtel-de-Ville. alley. with lighted match in hand. then raising his hand as a signal. seemed waiting the signal to charge.L. the most eminent members presidents and orators of clubs. leaving the guillotine behind them.E. funcof the municipality tionaries. to these dying men singing their own death-song. humanity breathes again. between two rows of willows. at once. Right and left.I]. the army. The smoke r concealed the guns. in the lower plain of the Brotteaux. in a few minutes. 241 that the administrators. Dorfeuille allowed the voices to finish slowly the grave modulations of the last verse. in. The accused were conducted with unusual cere. I say a festival and When crime descends to the tomb. I wish this day of justice to be a festival. Dorfeuille. Is the happiest and most enviable fate !" The artillerymen listened. detachments of dragoons. The representatives ratified Dorfeuille's propositions. On the mounds of earth extracted from this ditch. their last song. and his judges were grouped. The victims sang in chorus the hymn which had led them into battle. were placed at the extremity of the avenue. The sixty-four condemned persons. where a summary interrogatory. with telescope in hand. sword in hand.] WHOLESALE MASSACRE. magistracy. the staff of the revolutionary army. — — " To die for one's country. On the other side of the bridge. loaded with ball. united all in one common condemnation and thence they marched in procession towards the banks of the Rhône. handcuffed two and two. beside their open sepulchre. they had dug a double ditch in the marshy soil. the forgetfulness of the blow which was about to strike them. Collot d'Herbois and Fouché.

" The troopers. and surThe artillerymen then loaded with grape. protracted for more than two hours sullen murmur of indignation hailed the recital of XII. The guillotine instrument of punishment became for some weeks a civic decoration and an ornament The taste of the day. stifled this murmur by a proclamation which commanded that all should approve. . put spurs to their horses. fearful gestures. vivors. were still extended towards the spectators. : [b. Citizens. some bands this field of agony. and inundated with Shrieks. and compared itself to the most cruel tyrants of Rome. and mistresses wore small guillotines iu ! A — — gold. or as buckles. rose from Some limbs still palpitated. Collot d'Herbois. Two hundred and nine Lyonnese prisoners were awaiting their sentence in the gloomy prison of Roanne. L. effect moment hovered over the ground drums beat to The mob pressed forward to contemplate the The artillerymen had been deceived of the carnage. and Dorfeuille sought to stifle ! remorse beneath the most unblushing contempt for public feeling. dragging down with them their living companions. at this com- mand. or as earrings Fouché. Their wives. and declared pity to be conspiracy. cry.242 and for a FEELING OF THE CITY. came from their blood. then affected revolutionary rigour. and concealed their horror beneath the mask of adulation. 12. carcases. even the most elegant females. presentatives. who dashed forward at a gallop. stifle all cries. who were thus associated in their dying throes. dragoons. daughters. or the The representatives executioners of Saint Bartholomew. " Forward. in the bosom. even into the city." final blow. " now charge. imploring the The soldiers shuddered. in compliment to the reat festivals. moans. heard across the Rhône. and with the point of the sabre and pistol shots they This scene of horror and agony was killed the last victim. and fired. . and twenty prisoners had fallen beneath the fire. the undulations of the line of victims had allowed the balls to deviate. The sound of the cannon which had slaughtered their fellowcountrymen had penetrated the dungeons of these captives. this horrid scene in the city. this confused heap of mutilated members. A cried Dorfeuille. heartrending but even then the massacre was incomplete. The people felt dishonoured . made of this machine in miniature a hideous ornament of the furniture and dress of the Jacobins.

protestations of patriotism. Collot d'Herbois came to the prison that night. The last farewells. pretended to deliberate. Who number of victims. a brother. : — . were addressed to them from windows and doors. in libations and songs that braved death. the youngest. pressed forward by the soldiers. like a herd of cattle being marked for the day's consumption. there There were more than the due are two hundred and ten. 243 night. 12. The column. : — — — . They were fastened two and two. no one bewails martyrs. and overwhelmed them with outrages. deploring looks. L. and they were sentenced in the open air. mute adieus. The five judges. extended hands. Some Jacobins and a crowd of degraded women apostrophised the victims. a parent. for death. appeared in the balcony. then pronounced a general verdict: a formality of sentence to death which gave to assassination en masse the hypocritical appearance of Vainly from these two hundred voices were a legal verdict. the officer in command counted the prisoners. exclaimed " What is the temper of that youth which thus sings its " death-song At ten o'clock in the morning a battalion drew up before the gate of the prison. allowed two hundred and nine citizens to pass out. made out a list of names. advanced towards the Pont Morand on reaching the bridge. made to the judges and the people. advanced with a firm step towards the Hôtel-de-Ville. through the hedge of bristling bayonets. and said to those whose countenances were saddened or eyes filled with tears Weep not for us. Inflexible judges and the sullen people only replied by contemptuous silence. to assure himself that no one had escaped on the way instead of two hundred and nine.B. in last adieus to their youth and life. individual appeals." The Hall of Law was too small to receive them. and hearing these voices.] WHOLESALE MASSACRE. in which each recognised a son. The gaoler counted them with his finger as they issued forth. under the windows of the Hôtel-de-Ville. a friend or neighbour. Who was the innocent man? Who would be legally put to death ? Who the guilty ? R 2 : ! '. The long file. in the costume and paraphernalia of their functions. to which they only replied with looks of disdain. They prepared and passed the some in prayers and confessing themselves to disguised priests. whose iron jaws opening.

in order to wash his hands of this murder. others. The solution of this scruple would have required a fresh examination the examination would have adjourned the death of two hundred and nine. and protested in vain against this fearful The error. and sent word of this awt'id doubt to Collot d'Herbois. and the cavalry placed in small bodies behind. and were long rope was extended from one awaiting other carcases. "he who Let it be all conshall die to-day will not die to-morrow. besides the corpses strewn on the ground. who presided this day at the execution. until still A A half dead. Besides. iled staggering towards the willows. The people were there . willow to another. Grandmaison. The cuttings become shallower. " is one One too many is better than one too few. turned away their eyes in order to allow them to flee. Name. and then lifting. One only. death was waiting. gave orders to the cavalry to follow the fugitives." answered Collot d'Herbois. [fe. more than one hundred young men still erect. officer felt : ! The cluded " ! extra victim was an avowed Jacobin.244 TWO HUNDRED AND TEN SHOT." To die for one's country Is the happiest and most enviable it halted between the willows in the narrow causeway. who filled the air with his cries. L. moistened with the blood of the previous evenings. At the wove. XIII. smoke covered the scene for a moment. the soldiers affected . was to be assassinated without judgment ? the horror of such a situation. They fastened each prisoner to this rope by the end of the cord which confined his hands behind his Three soldiers were placed four paces off in face of back. halted the column. entreated their executioners to finish them others. and covered with fresh and soft earth. and they were hewed down by the dragoons beneath their horses' feet. freed from the rope by the balls." more he added. or . " What consequence. each victim. The terror-struck spec- by the scene. singing. seemed petrified with horror. 13. or hanging to the cord. fire! the nine hundred and thirty soldiers at cloud of once directed three bullets against every breast. tators. crawled on the ground. there were seen. fate. with wild look. named Merle. The file resumed " its march. showed that the ditches were but half filled up.

Next day." wrote Collot d'Herbois to the Convention. like that at Lyons. " the progress of republican justice it is prompt and terrible as the people's will : it should strike like thunder. affecting of the marsh. Young girls and children begged to fall beside their fathers and kinsfolk thus shot down. and threw him headlong dead at the same moment and and living into the Rhône the same hour by the twofold death of fire and water. when a group of merciless Jacobins recognised him by the blood that flowed from his wounded hand. Every day they granted or : R 3 . and daily the judges had to refuse the supplications of despair. finished with the bayonet and the butt-end of their muskets. not to see him as he made his way to the river. The river provinces of the HauteLoire were purged of all aristocratic. was deemed too slow. had set up a guillotine at Feurs. contrived to drag himself. Saint diamond. with great reluctance. L. gave to the instrument of punishment the same activity as at Lyons. and leave but ashes.] FURTHER MASSACRES. and the pioneers killed them outright with blows of the pickaxe before they " covered them over with the blood-stained mould. a patriot. Montbrison. and gunpowder was used instead of steel. A magnificent alley of limes was converted into a place of execution. and federalist blood. when the gravediggers came to bury the dead. imploring the penalty of death. but devoted to the Gironde. in order to reach the city unperceived. which flowed like water under the axe. which. several bodies still palpitated. and twenty^two persons per diem were shot there. to the reeds The troopers in pity turned aside. established by him. the representative of the people. and falling night extinguished their dying groans. like the funereal willows of Brot- teaux. He was just entering a boat.B. 245 the mayor of Mâcon. Javogues. all were the theatres of the same atrocities. The soldiers. 14. the victims expiring in the causeway. royalist. less fearful than the punishment of surviving. Saint Lyonnese colonies. the other the enthusiasm of death. The same impatience for death seemed to possess executioners and victims the one had the phrensy of murder. Etienne. and a revolutionary tribunal. or supplied victims." — We — The Revolution had found XIV. its Attilas. The horror of living had removed the horror of death. have revived. bleeding as he was.

mercy for the pity of the men. Nature was requisite to repudiate distorted into an accusation. made a sign to the turnkey to put a wreath in her hair. They struck in anticipation of future crimes. admiring this courage. embracing " I wish for death I am a his father bleeding to death. -executioner . snatched it thence." he said to the the axe. L. trampled it under foot. They anticipated years. rejoiced at the foot of the scaffold that he was not separated from his father. conducted to death with his family. Parrein. wear . The president. no . The soldiers fired. as under Tiberius. false patriotism had overthrown humanity. Touching and sublime traits shone in this saturnalia of vengeance. " He is only sixteen. The barbarity of these proconsuls refused these requests." answered the young girl. Heroism burst forth . had a sorrowful countenance. " do not let us keep him waiting !" son of M. All virtues were reversed in the human heart. did not await crime. was accused of refusing to wear the republican cockade. Love braved the executioners the heart revealed mines of tenderness and magnanimity. The human mind rose to the in all tragic height of these dramas. only fifteen years of age. and to be pure it had become it. The Jacobinism of the proconsuls of Lyons had overthrown the instincts of men . de Eochefort was conducted. and may become a good citizen. a very lovely girl. but prejudged it in name. Young Dutaillon. him!" exclaimed the softened spectators. ages. and then went to death. royalist Vive le roi!" The daughter of a mechanic. the three condemned fell . the boy. with his father and three relatives. and blushing to send so much youth to death. [b. to be shot there. women for the crimes of tenderness and tears. saved by " Mercy. was not touched. or a mourning garb. however. education. and rank. " Why are you so obstinate?" inquired the president. none of hesitated : Javogues promised his life. your mercy none of your life!" cried the youth. old age for its past opinions." The executioners " No.246 TRAITS OF HEROISM. She. XV. in all sexes. to the avenue. Mourning was forbidMany were punished for having den. 15. "that you refuse to wear the redeeming emblem of the people ? " " Because you A — ! — ! it. but by a stroke of " He is keeping me a place above. observing this. They immolated infancy for its Opinions to come.

" No. named Couchoux. : A — — ! A r 4 . condemned to die next day with his aged father of eighty." was heard from the people. and thus bearing his burden along undiscovered in the darkness.J B. do you put me to death!" : ! A young prisoner. 15. even when conveying her to the scaffold. my brothers. The old man made every eifort to support himself. During the night he found means to escape." she added. and abandon him to his fate. cry of " mercy. " to sacrifice a woman who did her duty in fighting to defend you It is not life that I deplore. TRAITS OF HEROISM. which cut short two lives. followed her in silence. Monsters. Innocent. and. and deprived of the use of his legs." she said. and kneeling full of despair at the foot of the tribunal. L. female. On finding the opening out. by a sewer communicating with the bed of the river. or destiny in this world I desire death My religion forbids me to kill myself. "I have no longer family. conjuring his son to save his life. moved by the approaching maternity of this heroine. prayed the judges to sentence him also. but the child from oppression I bear in my bosom." replied the young man. as in the boxes of a theatre. To counterbalance day in the tumbril of the executioner. he returned to seek his father. they feared that I should produce an avenger of liberty!" The people. advanced crawling along the subterranean passage. 247 Another. interrupted Forty-five heads were carried off on this the tardy appeal. and who had fought named Madame Cochet with the intrepidity of a soldier harangued the people from the cart. to insult the doomed. her youth and beauty. it will suffer my punishment. made his Avay through the crowd. all whose relatives had been massacred on the previous evenings. love. " You have slain my father. hired partisans were retained by the proconsuls. twenty-seven years of age. but the sound of the falling knife. these movements of pity in the multitude. whom love had exalted to heroism during the siege. entering it with him. " You are cowards. he found a boat on the banks of the Rhone. my bride!" he exclaimed. but in vain he fell down exhausted. " they will not wait for a few days . and applaud the punishments. and placed at the windows of the square. was cast into the cells of the Hotel-de-Ville. " we will live or die together!" He then took his father on his shoulders. both escaped.

the executioner found amongst her garments a note written with blood it was the farewell letter of her lover. " Do you need a more active executioner?" wrote the Jacobin Achard to Collot d'Herbois. 16. drank to the rapidity of " Republicans. and the adjoining towns and villages complained of the infected state of the air and the water.248 TRAITS OF HEROISM. L. "What is your name?" demanded the judge. but not to pardon. The Jacobins rekindled their enthusiasm by patriotic banquets. hour I shall have ceased to live. whose features bore a marked likeness to those of Charlotte Corday. at your age. what would you do if we granted you your life ?" "I would poignard you as the murderers of my country." " How." "Citoyenne. Achard. I shall await thee. The executions en masse only ceased in consequence of the indignant refusal of the soldiers to be converted into executioners. and were they to offer me my pardon on condition I would I have no ink." said one of the jury. struck by her youth and beauty. at which Dorfeuille. how well I love thee . exclaimed Dorfeuille. and say the contrary. " this banquet is worthy the sovereign I am . . I would not accept it. I write to thee with my blood. XVI. dear Marie weep not. the age of Charlotte Corday. and the principal judges and assistants. in order that the angels in heaven may deem thee as beautiful as I do. Grandmaison." she replied . " Marie. more alarmed by the gaze of the crowd than the near approach of death refused the assistance of the executioner. for the last time. : : — : . in the Plaine des Brotteaux. Adieu. who had been shot some days " To-morrow at this before. " the name of the mother of that God for whom about to die." The two lovers were only separated by four-and-twenty hours the people knew how to admire. [l$. could you combat against your country?" "I fought to défendit. " Vive le roi!" After her death." She ascended the scaffold in silence. "we admire your courage." death. which I would fain mingle with thine for all eternity. had fought by the side of her brother and lover in one of the batteries. A young girl of seventeen. Her name was Marie Adrian." he wrote " I cannot die without telling thee. " I offer my services. and the activity of the headsman." " Your age ?" " Seventeen." The corpses that covered the banks of the Rhone threatened to cause a pestilence. tarry not. and twice exclaimed.

a few men dared to breathe sentiments of humanity. ." himself to the Jacobins. and spread abroad the report that they do not perish The Jacobin Châlier did not die at the at the first stroke. to condemn crime. of the thunderbolt. and yet this is imputed to us as a crime. Adieu. however. I have no pity for conspirators we have shot two hundred at a time. They carefully inquire into the death of the anti-revolutionists. recalled to Paris upon the first expressions of indignation called forth by these massacres. Let the republic be a vast volcano. who had remained at Lyons. that Robespierre was indignant at the proscriptions of Fouché and Collot d'Herbois. L. exercise justice after the example of nature. the least drop of patriotic blood that flows seems wrung from my heart. and inundate my soul. and the destruction of the second city of France." The Jacobins loudly applauded him. administrators." said he to Duplay. public functionaries. hundred and thirteen rebels to meet their doom beneath the fire of our cannon. and accuse the executioners and some of the citizens ventured to address Robespierre as the moderator of the republic. alluding to the former profession of the proconsul. for it was known from the correspondence of Couthon with some •of the principal patriots of Lyons. my friend . in our wrath. said he "they are aristocrats who give us this appellation. 16.B. justified " are called Anthropophagi. all the conspirators. " will soon reign over my We . " And we also combat the enemies of the republic at Toulon by offering them the spectacle of the corpses of thousands of their accomplices. and avenge Let us strike with the force ourselves like a great nation. Let us crush at once. wrote to Collot d'Herbois. Fouché. first blow . and let the very ashes of our foes disappear for ever from the soil of freedom." Even at Lyons. This evening we shall send two of celebrating our victory. We : : — have but one manner eyes. " These Marius's of the theatre. members of the tribunals. 249 Let us. And yet is not this a fresh proof of sensithe thunder of the people strikes them and reduces bility. Let us all the rebels. all the traitors. tears of joy gush from people.] BLOODTHIRSTY JACOBINS. them to ashes. to congratulate him on their mutual triumph. meet daily to quaff ovit of the same goblet the blood of tyrants !" Collot d'Herbois.

awaiting a turn in the tide of popular opinion and one of them. These . who affect to act in the name of the law. The evil is great. XVII. or almost all. ventured to " Citoyen représentant. Robespierre. The crisis is such. curse the day when they became mothers. and Saint-Just. strove to circumvent Robespierre. [b. Collot. and moan the reign of tyranny. The dying man summons his pastor. who did not as yet venture to attack at Paris. affix my name. that he may hear from his lips words of consolation and hope. citoyen. named Gillet. which. stifling the instincts of nature. which. nought save ruins. all curse it. 17. and dare not furnish the indigent with the means of procuring a subsistence. but who really obey the order of greater wretches than themselves. and women. blessed the Revolution and now. Chaumette. during the siege of my native place. to which I dare . and it must be cut out by a bold and determined hand. the ulcer deep. ! . and the priest is threatened with the guillotine if he consoles his brother. I have suffered hunger and thirst. in my eyes is the rallying point of all good citizens. The churches are pillaged. on these truths. and Collot d'Herbois. the altars destroyed by brigands. even though I perish for having written them. and represented Lyons as a perpetual scene of counter-revolution. Some few republicans met in secret at Lyons. . that we are on the eve of still greater misfortunes . began. may purge the land of liberty. Hasten. and in a few days more I shonkl have fallen a victim to my attachment to the Convention." stifled appeals from the purer republicans were by the mad clamours of the partisans of Hébert. and the fragments of the bombs fired against this city may perchance destroy the whole Convention if you do not hasten to quench it. and those who assail the freedom of religious opinions are now the really guilty persons.250 gillet's letter. Our country is panic-struck the labourer sows with the conviction that he shall not reap the wealthy hide their riches. Robespierre." the letter address Robespierre. I have then a right to speak of j ustice and moderation towards my enemies. l. at what a period have we arrived All good citizens. " I have inhabited caves and vaults. ." Fouché in his letters to Duplay. by condemning them to death. Good God. All commerce is suspended . to obtain a decree. Meditate.

and his soul imThe presence of bibes the independence of the element. ready to protect the insurrec- — — — .> B. which was cruizing in the Mediterranean. but as a deposit which he would hand over to Louis XVI. L. and Jacobins wished to found. Toulon. from Jacobinism to federalism. These ancient Grecian and Phoenicians have imbibed something of the perpetual agitation and insubordinaThe spectacle of the ocean always renders tion of the sea. The English fleet under Admiral Hood. the torch of civil war was kindled at Toulon. and the fleet. to disgust and abhorrence of the Révolution. mised to guard the city. had passed rapidly from the excess of Jacobinism. remained until public indignation it was suffi- against the terrorists. the combined English and Spanish fleets. the outrages and insults offered by the Jacobins to religion. from federalism to royalism. the harbour. remained incapable of long supporting a central and uniform republic like that which Robespierre.] TOULON. the most important port of the republic. man more free and impatient of restraint. from royalism to defection. rather than as an enemy. He proas an ally and liberator.'s successor. the rapidity of the wind. the indignation caused by the excesses the army of Carteaux had committed at Marseilles. learnt all these particulars by secret correspondence with the royalists of Toulon. almost all of whom were royalists. to direct Marseilles previous to the 10th of August. XVIII. the influence of the priests. This fleet consisted of six vessels of the line and twenty-five Admiral Hood presented himself to the Toulonese frigates. Toulon had sent the elite of her youth and the dregs of her population to Paris. Ten thousand fugitives of Marseilles driven into Toulon by the shelter the terrors of the vengeance of the republic. Danton. as soon as France should have repressed her The opinion of the Toulonese passed with interior tyrants. the naval officers. of the walls. but the same ardour that rendered it so terrible to the throne of Louis XVI. not as a conquest.. But whilst the smoking ruins of Lyons were quenched in rivers of blood. the batteries of the vessels. 251 them. Imitating the movements of ciently aroused. Provence had despatched a portion of its flame to Paris . 18. and every thing urged Toulon on to an insurrection. silent. the Cordeliers. for he constantly beholds the image of liberty in its waves.

by being itself toi*n by contrary factions. At the sight of the enemy's squadrons Beauvais committed suicide in his prison. It could only follow. armed the forts and approaches to the city. the fleet was neutralised by opposite tendencies. or by both fires at once. Admiral Trogoff. TOULON. General Lapoype. 18. with the exception of a few vessels which the Admiral Saint Julien still kept The for some days to their duty. when so many opposing elements combined at once. the other. at the head of 4000 men. and fought at the same time. in feeling. gave to the Toulonese the idea of this [b. sent within their walls. The small number of republicans. hoisted the white flag. Carnot hastened to direct them against Toulon. and the inexperience of the generals. sending thither General Doppet the conqueror. the movement given to it by the conquering party. Admiral Saint Julien. Carteaux. the immense space they had to occupy to invest the mountains which back Toulon. The representatives of the people. to the number of 15. for a long time made the attacks unavailing. Salicetti. and Neapolitans. As soon as Lyons allowed the troops at the disposal of the Committee of Public Safety to be at liberty. one. the guns of the English. Spanish. directed. The population of Toulon. Of the two admirals who commanded the French fleet in the port of Toulon.000 men.252 tion. endeavoured Thus divided to maintain the republicanism of his crews. Fréron. destroyed their of remorse. the site and fire of the forts which protect the heights of this amphitheatre. it must be inevitably crushed either bj» the cannon of the fortress. and called in the English. and Neapolitans united. Placed between an insurgent city and a blockaded sea. rose at the arrival of the advanced guard of Carteaux. conspired with the royalists . with an unanimity which shut out every idea They closed the Jacobin clubs. against the troops of the republic. Toulonese. watched. imprisoned the representatives of the people Bayle and Beauvais. detached from the army of Nice with 7000 men. invested Toulon on the opposite side. drove back the enemy's advanced guard from the gorges of Ollioules. and Fouché . English. Barras. l. crime against their country. The French fleet. advancing from Marseilles. and made the Convention tremble at this example of unpunished treason. president. Albitte.

and was the soul of all operaPredestined to make force surmount opinion. sent by Carnot to the army of the Alps. he was first seen in the smoke of a battery. at which Bonaparte Avas present. fell into a snare laid for him by Bonaparte. His Toulon. quench the Revolution. 19. A fortune awaited him there. " go and sleep. stifle the utterance of opinion. breach said Bonaparte to Dugommier. to seize on the soldier. 253 Fouché. and His future was in this posihis enemies in the roadstead. was wounded and taken prisoner. which commands the roadstead. discovered the heart of the position. Bonaparte and Dugommier were the first who entered the " General. Donmartin. illustrate the sword. to replace the commandant of artillery. Fort Malbosquet. vast but deliberty to retrograde for a century plorable. the all betokened that the coming storms of sky was lowering XIX. His fellow-countryman Salicetti presented him to Carteaux. captain of artillery. and the tions. the sea ran high. and neglecting all else. leaving Fort Malbosquet with six thousand men. broken down by fatigue and Admiral age. leagues Fréron and Barras. reorganised the artillery. moved the batteries nearer to the city. went right forward. He called a council of war. army superior to the people. The English general O'Hara. In a few words and in a few days he displayed his genius. winds of autumn were blowing a gale. at the army of This young man was Napoleon Bonaparte. instantly promoted to the rank of a chef de bataillon. This young captain." their victory was their justification. was attacked by two columns in spite of the orders of the representatives. was stopped on his way. we have just taken Toulon.] NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. Dugommier had — — . L. directed all his blows thither. and compel Glory. striking with the same blow anarchy in Toulon. had resolved on the destruction of Toulon.B." Hood saw at daybreak the French batteries bristling over The the embrasures and ready to sweep the roadstead. as well as his colthe exterminator of Lyons. tion : a military genius bursting forth in the fire of a civil war. even if in doing so they annihilated the French marine and arsenals. who had been wounded. which posterity will not judge like his contempo! raries ! replaced Carteaux.

[b. men. The report of the departure of the combined squadrons. 19. flax. a rocket was let off from the centre port struck ten o'clock. wounded. The silence which the horror of fire cast over the two camps was only interrupted by the explosion of the powder maga- — vessels. This was the signal. and the decks of the English vessels. Immense quantities of combustibles were piled up in the magazines. the camps of the representatives. At the close of day the enemy's boats towed the fire-ship Vulcan into the centre of the French fleet. abandon- A . were all destroyed in a few hours. and the match was applied to the train of powder. children. of the fleet and this naval depot. Touching and terrible dramas were buried beneath the horrors of that night. dockSome English. abandoned for some hours to the vengeance of the republicans. daughters their mothers. Spanish. The burning fragments of the arsenal and the fleet rained down upon this multitude. The arsenal. Wives lost their husbands. The raging sea and the fire swept between the waves rendered the conveyance of fugitives more dangerous and slow. and Neapolitan vessels. L.254 DESTRUCTION OF TOULON. had Fifteen thousand already spread among the populace. wandered about the quais. for a whole night lighted up the waves of the Mediterranean. with a lighted match in yards. The clock of the their hands. and the dead bodies flung ashore. Toulonese and Marseillais refugees. Every instant the cries from a boat that sunk. disheartened the sailors. and the surrender of the city. This blaze. battery of the republican army was firing shot and shell at the port and quay. ship timber. the ships' stores. and struck numzines. which engulphed half the marine of France. the storehouses. in the confusion. winter would prevent the English from getting away from the roadstead. whose decks and guns were projected into the air before they were swallowed up by the waves. awaited the signal for firing. and twenty frigates. infirm. had left their abodes. pitch and tar. mothers their children. of sixteen bers to the earth. and hastened to the beach. The inhabitants of Toulon. old people. where they struggled for places in the boats which would take them on board the English. which rose and then fell in sparks. women. the sides of the mountains. and arsenals. It recalled the ancient generations of Asia Minor or Greece. of the city.

lighted up by the flames which consumed their roofs and olive trees." — . At this awful moment the explosion of two frigates. carrying off the vessels they had not destroyed by fire. exclusive of the officers and seamen. The refugees of Toulon wr ere nearly all conveyed to Leghorn. The crime of having delivered over the stores and arms of France to the foe. . a fearful farewell of civil war. found shelter on board the English and Spanish vessels. and thus spare The representatives despised the magnanimity of the rest." said Barrère. 1793. and established themselves at Tuscany. Fouché urged on the punishments. and put to sea. " Let the shell and mine. which rained down its fiery fragments alike on the conquerors and the conquered. by a decree. 20. L. The English weighed anchor. by the fiâmes of a city in conflagration. entreated the conventionalists to content themselves with this vengeance. The Convention. and the houses nearly empty of inhabitants. and bearing away upon the seas their riches and their gods. containing several thousand barrels of gunpowder. They uttered from the crests of the waves a last adieu to the hills of Provence. Dugommier. the aged general. but to terrify. burst like a volcano over the city and sea. and to suppose generously that all the guilty had gone into exile. XX. and blood flowed as it had at Lyons. 255 ing en masse the land of their birth. " crush every roof and merchant in Toulon let there remain only in their place a military post. The guillotine entered Toulon with the artillery of the army. which the Spaniards had neglected to throw ovei'board. Their families still dwell there. pointing to the city in ashes. and Pisa. the representatives entered Toulon at the head of the republican army. struck out the name of the city of traitors. was not to be forgiven.B. Next day. Florence. and of having hoisted the flag of royalty. their office was not only to vanquish. 20th December.] BLOODSHED AT TOULOX. peopled by the defenders of the Republic. and we hear French names of that period amongst the foreign appellations on the hills of Leghorn. About seven thousand inhabitants of Toulon.

Such were the motives which induced the Commune and Jacobins to demand that Madame Roland should be brought to trial. by destroying their idol while the memory of the dead was degraded by its association with the popular execration excited by a female odious to the people. magogues of the Commune. Among such of the Girondists as survived. 1. the guillotine should be considered as a public national building. appeared to have risen in public estimation. lost not a moment in sending all those to perish on a scaffold trial was but a mockery whose names were given to them. that the surveillance of the people was as lasting as its vengeance was unceasing. — A of justice. The Revolutionary Tribunal. It was impossible that the name of Madame Roland should That name alone long escape the resentment of the people. The soul of the Gironde. contests between the republic and her enemies. LI. II. it was deemed necessary to strike terror. this woman might one day prove a very Nemesis. alternating between the battle-field and the scaffold. capable of explaining to all and for ever. if permitted to survive those illustrious individuals who had preceded her to the grave. and a supposed foe to liberty. attentive to the slightest hint from the Committee of Public Safety. the ever-ready. had in no manner interrupted the sacrifice of human life either in Paris or the pro- Since the death if the Girondists the guillotine vinces. inscribed the name of Madame Roland on a list — . opposite the Tuileries. in conjunction with la Montagne. comprised an entire party. demanded that the instrument of death should be constructed of hewn stone. [b. It unceasingly devoured victims taken indiscriminately from all those difthe parties the Revolution had encountered ferent parties Some sanguinary deeither in its past or onward course. sometimes heroic and sometimes brutal.256 MADAME ROLAND. The Committee of Public Safety. According to their ideas. and erected in the Place de la Concorde. BOOK L The LI. (though sometimes pained) executor of the wishes of the populace. a mere farce.

Madame Roland was committed to the prison of l'Abbaye. the deputy of Arras. as he signed an order for appearing before a tribunal. Her enthusiasm and passion. 257 presented every evening to Fouquier-Tinville. for such persons have united in their situation and feelings their alternate rise and fall all the vicissitudes.] MADAME ROLAND. On the 31st May. He had in fact arrived at that excess of sophistry and false sentiment that makes a man mistrust every virtuous impulse of his heart. LT. her illusions. and which Robespierre signed with visible disquietude. m. while the other had been precipitated into the very depths of adversity. and disdained the words of Robespierre. and the more he endured from the struggle the more persuaded was he of its justice. her unextinguishable hope for the vol. And when the Constituent Assembly wounded the pride. who mistook inflexibility for strength of character. Any other man than Robespierre would have felt the influence of these reminiscences. catastrophes. Madame Roland and Robespierre had commenced their revolutionary career together. The recollection of this glanced across the mind of Robespierre. 2. Madame Roland discerned his genius. that Robespierre owed the elevated position he now occupied. then but little known. s . — — . her martyrdom. which he well knew Avas the same thing as signing a death-warrant. and it was in all probability. glories. Calculation had superseded all natural feelings in his mind. During the early part of his abode in Paris. and misfortunes of the time in which they lived. and the more he stifled every sentiment of humanity the nearer did he in his own imagination approach superhuman greatness.B. Madame Roland was one of this class. and encouraged his despised eloquence. the one had attained unlimited power. had been a constant visitor at Madame Roland's house. from the encouragement bestowed on his abilities by Madame Roland. It is the lot of some individuals to attract a greater degree of interest and curiosity on the part of posterity than the records of an empire. honoured his pertinacity. and a feeling of generous pity steal over hismind. and obstinacy for firmness he would have plucked out his own heart had he believed it capable of counselling the slightest weakness. and the power it gave him of decreeing life or death to his early friend. but Robespierre was a mere stoic. and by the workings of that same revolution.

Books were supplied. future. from the knowledge of her having been consigned by her friend Bosc. The certainty of having arrived at the worst that can happen to us. in order that by concealing the thick grating the prisoner might dream she was free. iron bars of her window. a soft calm steal over her. She was even indulged with flowers. the unwillingness to believe that man will carry his vengeance any further. fully satisfied as to her daughter's safety. placed at the bottom of an abyss. though smouldering. administrator of the Jardin des Plantes.258 MADAME ROLAND. a living personification of the whole Revolution. she bathed in floods of inward tears the ardours of an imagination. rendered her. might be supposed to diminish the suffering of such as were unlucky to fall into it. Avhose extinct. added to the inward consciousness of courage to bear all. Madame Roland was placed in a chamber into which a ray of light could find entrance. 3. few of her particular friends were allowed to visit and converse with her. torn from her father. in the same manner as a soft couch. amid the actual discouragement of the present. Unknown to the commissioners. of which she was so passionately fond . even amid the horrors of a dungeon. to the care of Madame Creuzé de la Touche. and hold converse with the illustrious characters of antiquity. Separated from the world. LI.— raises the prisoner far for liberty. were not III. Nature has ordained that every excess of misfortune shall be followed by a sort of lull. Tranquil respecting the fate of her husband. and she had ever esteemed them among her choicest Climbing and leafy plants were twined around the delights. her adopted mother . in the days of her happiness it had been her delight to surround herself with these lovely productions of nature. whom she was aware had found refuge with faithful friends at Rouen . fires. [b. to happy Madame Roland felt — . proud to suffer — A undergo any suffering for her friends. The gaolers of the Abbaye sought by every means a prison afforded. to soften ihe captivity of Madame Roland. even in the very depths of her dungeon. and child. Some beings can only be persecuted from a distance beauty subdues and disarms all who approach it. and thus she was enabled to pursue her favourite studies. hushand.

consolation. she concentrated her powers of thought. and the gloomiest picture of her imprisonment. The union of these three sentiments sustained the energy of Madame Roland. Deprived of the power of acting.B. dreaming of love. Through the indulgence of her gaolers. heathen in the midst of a Christian country. her heaven in that of posterity. or piety. itself its own judge and reward. and desired to anticipate her place in posterity. pens. the most feminine thoughts and feelings of her childhood. her virtue partook of the same chai'acter as her opinions . without proof or recompence. 2Ô9 above his executioner. No modern feelings or Christian sentiments taught her to bow with resignation to her lot. and kept them as a sacred deposit against better days. 3. sufficed to support her in all her adversity. then.] 3IADAME ROLAND. time. the heroine. by a rapid A — . and ink. supplied the place. with a disorder and haste that seems to count only upon the present chance of communicating them. and enabled her to face death without shrinking. and the audience. and with these she commenced writing portions of both her public and private life. or a sure immortality. But such was the strength as well as purity of her mind. In the same book might be read the description of the young and ardent girl seated in her chamber on the Quai des Oriévres. These detached pages she confided to her friend Bosc. she procured some sheets of paper. her Providence consisted in the opinion of men. The only God she invoked was the future : a species of abstract and stoical duty. that this virtue. and that she might hope to preserve from oblivion that which she esteemed by far the most valuable part of herself In these her memory. her intense abhorrence of superstition had destroyed in her the belief of a present Deity. who carried them away concealed beneath his clothes. and aspiring after glory . with her. LI. while it rejoiced Madame Roland to believe that she had thus preserved the records of at least one year of her life from perishing. contriving each day to conceal one of these pages from the surveillance of her gaolers. She separated herself in thought from the world. of hope. and to look to Heaven for help . creating a drama of which she was at once the subject. papers are mingled. and made the contemplation of her sufferings glorious in her sight. and herself.

although addressed to posterity. to whom Madame Roland might. though unknown friend. 4. bears evident marks of having been intended for some confidential. and reference in fact. conveyed. [b. once so blest. lest the entrance of the executioner should arrest the progress of these outpourings of a wounded spirit . when they are viewed as having as the breathbeen written at the very threshold of death ings of a noble mind ready to exhale its last sigh. to press her child to her heart. They waited for her on the steps of her dwelling barring her approach. nor suffering her to cross its threshold. At every word the reader trembles. This work. that only a part is generally heard or understood . to embrace prison. and. the receptacle for all the lost and abandoned females — — — : — — . There were times when the captive ventured to listen to the whispers of hope she was even indulged with a few hours liberty from her Frantic with joy she flew to her house. and parting by degrees from every tender tie or hopeful illusion. through the medium of these pages. sees nothing before lier but the scaffold. ready to make her pen and her life cease together. after her death. be enabled. and dashed the cup of happiness away ere it had reached her lips. and it is almost possible to imagine the axe suspended over the writer's head. feeling. and the indignation that can relieve itself by their means. and by affording a vent for her feelings. her child. LI. revenge. is lightened of part of its load. but the interest they excite becomes so much the greater. the scene lays in the gloomy dungenn. spite of her tears and supplications. These occupations softened the captivity of Madame Roland . that of St. Pélagie. ere she had scarcely quitted one prison. and behold. these memoirs resemble a converto her past life sation carried on in such an under tone.260 flight of the pen. into another . MADAME ROLAND. IV. and the satellites of the Commune watched lier steps. once more. where a poor captive sighs in the bitterness of heart over a separation from all she holds dear. alleviated Words may be made a means of the sorrow she endured. or to witness the grief and devotion of her attached servants she was seized by these emissaries. that home. more perfectly to relate every thought. and always so loved but this temporary freedom was merely a cruel snare on the part of her oppressors .

5. " I am about to put you to the proof. she addressed him as follows. removed from this degrading companionship was placed in a chamber by herself. yielding to the impulse. — . Danton willingly turned his eyes from beholding her miseries. Once more she set about her memoirs. '• I knew him well." replied she friend of liberty. and to have forgotten that such a person as herself existed. the one as leader of the Commune. she at length. and furnished with a flock bed and a table. " Robespierre. by compelling their victim to associate with beings from Avhom she shrunk in abhorrence and while her mo. and almost of weakness. She had resigned herself to die. and say whether he entertains a bad opinion ^of me. styling himself the friend of He mentioned Robespierre's Robespierre. and to repeat to you what I said respecting your cha. name to her. — desty revolted at their gross conduct. Still the recollection of the old friendship that had once existed between him and Madame Roland. 261 thus offering a fresh humiswept from the streets of Paris liation. the assiduous frequenter of her family circle. and again enjoyed the pleasure of seeing her friends. V. who owed his present exalted position to herself and husband. during her days of power. Bosc and Champagneux. and esteemed him " I believed him an ardent and sincere greatly. She was lying ill in the infirmary of the prison. or moved to passion reluctant to reconsider his decisions. By the compassionate sympathy of her gaolers she was. feigned to look down from their summit of greatness. LI." This conversation suggested to her the idea of writing to Robespierre .] MADAME ROLAND. and but too prone to judge all guilty who do not entertain the same opinions as himself. I saw much of him." wrote Madame Roland.B. and a physician. . the other of La Montagne. The cowardly Lanthenas. but infamy and disgrace had been adjudged her instead. . I considered him easily prejudiced. she was constrained to see and hear actions and language that shocked alike her eyes and ears. attended her. but I now fear that he cares for nothing but revenge and power . with the ungrateful Pache. inspired in the breast of the poor captive a momentary glimmer of hope. while Robespierre would not venture to deprive the people of a single victim. in a letter at once pathetic and provoking. . Ask him to lay his hand on his heart.

the mark for the invectives of a mistaken — — . and I defy you to say you ever thought him other than an honourable man he had all the roughness of virtue. but to which I infinitely preferred the peaceful obscurity in which I had passed racter to the friend letter. a mere woman. attributing them to the envy felt by the ignorant and low-minded. prayers and entreaties belong to the guilty or to slaves. and cannot iind it in my heart to wish evil even to those who injure and oppress me? Brought up in solitude. You may be very sure — — . my mind directed to serious studies. Whence then arises that degree of animosity manifested towards me who never injured a creature in my life. yet taking delight in conversing of them. and to conceal himself there to save the age he lived in from the commission of a crime. Disgusted with business . of simple tastes. were well acquainted with my husband. at what they were pleased to style my elevated position. restore me to liberty. as it becomes the task of the historian to avenge their memories still I am at a loss to imagine how I. Robespierre. Neither would murmurs or complaints accord with my nature. whose innocent head may never more be pillowed on a mother's breast. and it is not from the depths of a prison I would supplicate him who could. an enthusiastic admirer of the Revolution excluded by my sex from any participation* in public affairs. li. — — so many happy days. weary of the world. torn from my beloved child. I know how to bear all . and worn out with years and exertions. even as Cato possessed its asperity. My pretended confederacy would be amusing were it not too serious a matter for a jest.262 madame Roland's who [b. " Yet I have now been for five months the inhabitant of a prison. far from all I hold dear . if he pleased. I despised the first calumnies circulated respecting me. 5. I never asked a favour yet of any human being. should be exposed to the fury of a storm. No . I also well know that at the beginning of every republic. irritated by persecution . You. the revolutions which effected them have invariably selected the principal actors in the change as their victims it is their fate to experience this. he desired only to bury himself and his troubles in some unknown spot. has undertaken to deliver this it is no suppliant who addresses you. ordinarily suffered to expend itself upon the great leaders of a revolution.

and under this impression she tore her letter in pieces. I feel proudly equal to battle alone with my ill people . as it deFortune is fickle serves. It Speak to expect the still greater one of martyrdom ? is something to know your fate. and Whatever may be did they themselves enjoy happiness? the fate awarded me.] LETTKR TO ROBESPIERRE. No . it will neither be useless to you nor my country. 263 constrained to hear the very sentinels as they keep my windows discussing the subject of my approaching execution. Sylla and Marins proscribed thousands of knights and senators. and it may be to trample it under my feet. watch beneath fortune. and you under any circumstances. I write for your edification. or to anticipate it. Madame Roland had at least by writing it opened the door for a reconciliation. I have wearied no one with requests. She felt it would be sweeter to — — — — ! — — owe her life to Robespierre. besides a vast number of other unfortunate beings ." VI. die than to s 4 . LI. or demands . such sentiment expressed by you would not only offend me. nevertheless. Robespierre cannot deny the truth of my assertion none who have ever known me can persecute me without a feeling of remorse. and outraged by reading the violent and disgusting diatribes poured forth against me by hirelings of the press. I shall know how to submit to it in a manner worthy of myself. on the contrary. the orator of Syracuse. " Should you bestow a fair and impartial perusal of my But. letter. and a favourable reply on the part of Robespierre would have demanded her gratitude towards a man who persecuted and condemned to death the dearest objects of her life. but be rejected. should I deem it After receiving the honours of persecution. or from Hippo. am I advisable. Beneath the apparent stoicism of this letter there might. but were they able to prevent history from handing down their names to the just execration of posterity. be traced a half-smotheivl appeal to mercy. 6. and a spirit such as mine can boldly face it be it what it may. " Robespierre I send not this softened picture of ! my condition to excite your pity. down to our Parisian speakers. this I say. petitions.B. led on the revolutions of former ages and afterwards their governors from Vitellius to Cœsar. who have never once beheld me. popular favour equally so. Look at the fate of those who the idols of the people.

in music. from her books she drew strength to support her situation. where so If I could be assured that when before that tribunal many just persons are sent I should be permitted .264 MADAME ROLAND. she says. Her favourite author was Tacitus. . to excuse herself for having died before him. " And you." wrote she. t [b. as one is apt to do at the close of a day's employment. and shows the various pulsations of grief and heroism. and severe trials." Then reverting to the recollection of her child. my cherished friends. " for taking upon myself to dispose of a life I had consecrated to you believe me. Grieve not at a resolution which ends my many : . The fragments of this epistle were. I could have loved it and you the better for your misfortunes had I but been permitted to have shared them with you. and be enabled to imitate them worthily at her own last closing scene. Alas! alas! the cruel hearts that tore me from you cared little for innocence like yours. she adds. a mother. and her duty and affection as a wife. whose gentle image dwells within my heart. She went over his descriptions of public execution again and again. and a friend. At first she resolved to anticipate her fate. At present you are merely freed from a useless object of unavailing anguish to you." Then apostrophising her friends. conwith the former she calmed the sadversation. " Pardon me. transfer to my motherless child the affection you have ever manifested for me. 6. . You know me too well to believe that weakness or terror have instigated the step I am about to take. that she might know them by heart. LI. my esteemed and justly honoured husband. my sweet daughter. . could she but have remained to guide and guard you. Robespierre was spared all struggle between compunction and popularity the prisoner resigned herself to her fate she amused her leisure hours. and obtained some poison before swallowing it. "Forgive me. that sublime anatomist. collected and preserved by Madame Roland. however. and whose very remembrance shakes my sternest resolution. Never would your fond mother have left you helpless in the world. and reading ness of her feelings. in remembrance of her having sacrificed all desire of personal safety to her dignity as female leader of a party. she sat down to write to her husband. my beloved child. who points to the bodies of so many victims.

LI. would 265 to point out the tyrants. and to await till summoned to die. beloved less your fate will be less severe than hers. rose before her. poor. "farewell. execution of the Girondists covered life with a in the estimation of Madame Roland. for her daughter's sake. — tion to command my passions. I am about to re-unite myself to — thy essence. Adieu those peaceful chambers. She threw away the poison. and earnestly desired to imbue with every feeling and opinion I myself enter. and to despise my vanity. whose existence I believe in.' B. my child remember your mother. of the country. that never failed to gild my windows with thy golden rays ere thou hiddest thy brightness in the heavens. " Farewell!" wrote she. where I learned to love virtue and truth. her friends. in all its smiling innocence. and a few articles of furniture she had been permitted to place in her dungeon. because I must have emanated from something superior to that by which I am surrounded." She next made her will. her piano. the image of her child. and where I learnt in silence and medita. seemed desirous of exhaling itself in a higher and purer air than could be found in the dark future of an "Divinity! Supreme Being! Spirit of the atheist's life. and farewell also and whose sick beds I tended. child. or immortal within myself. farewell." fain be standing there this A vague lips : and solitary prayer at this moment escaped her where it it was religion's last sigh that. and determined. VIL The funeral pall. DoubtAdieu. 7. distributing between her daughter. her harp. to endure her sufferings to the end. I instant. her books. tained. or good." This last reflection overcame the stern resolution of the unfortunate mother . whom I nourished at my breast. whose labours I lightened. Again. universe! great principle of all that I feel great. and servants. two favourite rings she still possessed. ye lonely banks of the Saône.] MADAME EOLAND. but honest people of Thizy. Adieu. the sky. where my imagination found in books and study the food to delight it. ignorant would be breathed out. whose distress I relieved. Vergniaud . glorious sun. She recalled her early love of nature. whose wild beauty could fill my heart with such deep delight and you too. and made her still cling to life.

and names capable of bearing a comparison with the tyrants of her day. During the few days she passed in the Conciergerie. Standing on a stone bench. shouting enthusiastically. she spread. her mind. tremulous with the emotion she forbade to vent itself in tears gave to her words that thrilling interest that finds its way to every heart. She spoke long and eloquently of Vergniaud . guage. she found her tribune in her prison. and when compelled to return to their cells. and her audience in her companions to the scaffold. to find likenesses. loud cries of admiration burst from those who heard her. her lanincreased. and Brissot were dead. She took her revenge while living. orLouvet ? they. instead of losing strength or courage. had also ceased She was removed to the Conciergerie. She conversed at the grate with the numerous members of her party. merely a few feet above where she stood. . and her features seemed to take the impress of one appointed to fulfil some great and lofty destiny. The approach to the scaffold seems to give a more divine character to her beauty the length of her captivity. which elevated a little above the ground. could tell [b. and clasping her lingers round the iron bars that separated the opening between the cloister and the court. the fate of Buzot. like herself. it appeared as though both were As she approached her end. While her enemies were preparing the formalities of her accusation. The prisoners would listen to her for hours. reproached them from the very dungeons of the Conciergerie. like that of posterity. probability. had found their way to the Conciergerie. who. Who Barbaroux. and dying bequeathed her eternal hatred. in all to exist.266 MADAME ROLAND. analogies. LL 7. " Vive la republique /" No slander was uttered against liberty on — : — — : . but her discourse was mixed with that angry and bitter spirit a woman is prone to introduce into her arguments. the calm consciousness with which she recogher voice nised the entire hopelessness of her situation. Her eloquence drew no tears from her audience she would have been displeased at such a manifestation of weakness . would depart. but at each pause she made. Her vindictive memory plunged into the remotest records of antiquity. There. an enthusiasm and contempt of death that elevated even the most abject and depressed. her voice. by her presence among the numerous prisoners there.

gazing upon the small speck of the heavens visible to her. and shedding floods of tears over the flowers with which the concierge had decorated the place. gave way. or to follow them to the grave if they had preceded her there. and her woman's heart quailed with deep anguish as the veil of enthusiasm faded away. for whose sake she would have wished to live did they still survive. To handed justice. so magnanimous and superior to her fate in public. her forehead pressed against the iron gi'ating. fallen into years. was worshipped even in the dungeons hollowed in its name. it 267 the contrary. by a singular coincidence. But this woman. dark.B. and great was the dischild — daily tress it occasioned her. Providence seemed to have permitted these two remarkable personages to be thus brought by different routes to the same dungeon. She thought too of those dear friends whose image was ever present to her mind. and stern reality assumed its place. was hurled from her pinnacle to lie prostrate by the side of her own victim. Her heroic spirit seemed to leave her. the other miseries of her captivity she appeared quite The damp. he who. when left to the silence and solitude of her dungeon.] MADAME ROLAND. and thence to the same scaffold : the one had fallen from her high estate by the instrumentality of the other. like all of human kind. On this subject she was wholly ignorant. showing her all the horrors of her situation . and to throw herself into the very vortex of political ambition. who in her turn. but they bear a strong resemblance to an eveninsensible. She passed whole mornings at her window. and the greater had been the excitement of her feelings and imagination. With what were her thoughts occupied ? The last broken sentences of her letter plainly show that every idea was centred in her and her husband. next to that in which the queen had been lodged. . unwholesome cell assigned to Madame Roland was. She meditated probably upon the perverseness of her destiny. yet condemned her to forego their indulgence. must and hourly miss that tender care and watchfulness she had ever exercised towards him. LI. after having been elevated to the first honours of the republic. that gave her a heart so formed for love and tenderness. 7. These retaliations may be ascribed to accident. so was her mental and bodily prostration proportionately severe.

spoke with tenderness of her husband. The examination and trial of but a repetition of those charges against the Gironde with which every harangue of the Jacobin party was filled. On that day a greater number than usual of carts laden with victims rolled onwards towards the scaffold. once director of the manufactory of Assignats. beside a weak and infirm old man. of her friends with respect. . with a bitter and ironical smile. her complexion. fell in thick masses almost to her knees . Madame Roland was placed in the last. she looked at them smilingly. LI. This was her only farewell it was tragic as her destiny. and drawing her right hand across her throat. She was reproached with being the wife of Roland. She wore a white robe. and now glowing under the influence of a sharp frosty November day. Madame Roland heard herself sentenced to death with the air of one who saw in her condemnation merely her title to immortality. that period permitted to take a fearful and leading part in the dialogue between the judges and accused. She rose. black and glossy as a raven's wing. named Lamarche. As she passed along the corridor. With a proud look of triumph Madame Roland admitted her guilt in both instances. VIII. ! Madame Roland was : . where all the prisoners had assembled to greet her return.268 MADAME ROLAND. and the friend of his accomplices. Many who were incapable of weeping for their own fate shed tears of unfeigned sorrow for hers. of which she was anxious to convince the people her magnificent hair. as a symbol of her innocence. [b. joyous as her deliverance and well was it understood by those who saw it. or compelled their silence the very verdict rested with them. 8. they even permitted to persons tried to address the court. she ceased speaking amid the The people were at threats and invectives of her auditors. " I thank you for considering me worthy to shai*e the fate of the good and great men you have murdered " She flew down the steps of the Conciergerie with the rapid swiftness of a child about to attain some long-desired object the end and aim of her desires was death. purified by her long captivity. said. and slightly bowing to her judges. and of herself with dignified modesty but borne down by the clamours of the court whenever she gave vent to her indignation against her persecutors. bloomed with all the fresh. . . — . made a sign expressive of cutting off a head.

but they will come stained with blood. then stood in the middle of the Place de la Concorde. LI. I go innocent. she said. an unknown and how clearly does this one little trait attest old man ! . and that is not for myself I beseech you grant it me. on the spot now occupied by the Obelisk the was erected beside this statue. while a movement between pity and contempt agitated her lips. She even tried to enliven the dreary journey they were performing together by little attempts at cheerfulness. to think only of saving one pang to an aged. she displayed one of those noble and tender considerations for others only a woman's heart could conceive." Then turning to the old man. The poor old man wept bitterly. . and she kindly and cheeringly encouraged him to bear up with firmness. " I have one only favour to ask. and at length succeeded in winning a smile from her A : fellow-sufferer. "Stay!" said sh». a proof this of a mind imbued with a sensibility to my so exquisite and delicate as to forget its own sufferings. and lean with almost filial tenderness over the aged partner of her execution. A colossal statue of Liberty." replied Madame Roland and I shall be there ." Sometimes she would turn away her head that she might not appear to hear the insults with which she was assailed. like the liberty of the time. momentarily resisting the man's grasp. her whole countenance seemed radiant with glory. or put into practice at such a moment. I must spare you the pain of . " I am going to " a few moments the guillotine. witnessing arrangement What punishment. " Do you precede me to the scaffold to see my blood flow would be making you suffer the bitterness of death twice over. composed of clay. and you who applaud our execution will then applaud theirs with equal zeal. scaffold . crowd followed them. uttering the coarsest threats and most revolting expressions. Upon arriving there Madame Roland descended from the cart in which she had rode." The executioner allowed this be made.B. of expression . and to suffer with resignation.] MADAME ROLAND. Just as the executioner had seized her arm to enable her to be the first to mount to the guillotine. Her eyes were full 269 ness of early youth. 8. " To the guillotine! to the guillotine!" exclaimed the female part of the rabble. but those who send me thither will not be long ere they follow me.

from preserving the same bond of union when they were spell-bound by her talents. attached to antique theories. and who found in the lips and eyes of their goddess The pure and involuntary a species of endless adoration. the idol of so many hearts. but her footsteps were marked with the blood of her friends. calmness with which this celebrated woman this one closing act of her life should be sufficient to vindicate her character before both God and . was the magic circle that retained around her so many superior men. which she heard without changing colour. [b. by various differences of opinion. who thus became their ! ! . Madame Roland stepped lightly up to the scaffold. and bowing before the statue of Liberty.Roland. and her head fell beneath the — that. Thus perished a woman. was thrown into the common fosse at Clamart. . beyond her influence and. when apprised of his wife's exe- same sword cution. and in a few seconds her head fell into the basket placed to receive it.270 the heroic madame roland's execution. placed their whole confidence in the imagination of their idol. The grief of M. who had created in the mind of her aged partner a hatred for royalty resembling her own who had communicated her feelings to a set of young. She led them on till one after the other perished on the scaffold. " committed in thy name !" She then resigned herself to the hands of the executioner. affection with which her beauty and genius inspired them. highly imaginative themselves.had immolated so many others in the sight of a people who no longer acknowledged her. where she followed them. After the execution of Lamarche. li. eloquent to listen to. knew no bounds —to live without her was impossible . IX. Avhose earliest and fondest dream had been the Revolution. who were prevented. . who bore then the same resemblance to the republic she will ever preserve in the eyes of posterity like it she was premature and ideal : beautiful to view. exclaimed. as thougli to do homage to a power for whom she was about to Liberty Liberty how many crimes are die. Her body. oracle as well. X. with the last breath exhaled from the lips of Madame Roland. 9. and the spirit of the Gironde departed for ever. met her death man. eloquent. and enthusiastic men.

B. and to prevent his kind proWhen tectors from incurring any danger on his account. his love for virtue. discovered his inanimate body lying beside a ditch a paper pinned to the . — . and if his death be the greatest act he ever committed. that findest these remains. Roland could scarcely be said to have lived in vain. invests the death of M. since his career was terminated in a manner worthy of antiquity. like Cato he died for the liberty of his country like Seneca he forfeited his life for the love of a woman. only the basis of it. Some shepherds. 271 and without saying a word of his intention." Thus did M. . LI. I would not remain another day upon this earth so stained with crimes. Roland with a mixture of romance and pathos . threw himself upon the point of the weapon. respect them as those of a virtuous man. and a drop of tender affection appears to have bedewed the republican dagger with which he pierced his heart . and leaning the head of it against the trunk of an apple-tree growing by the side of the high road. supRaised too high by the agitation of a civil tempest ported by the borrowed genius of a woman in a position and intoxicated with the part he far above his natural level. After my wife's death. this excess of love. save that of removing to the greatest possible distance from his late asylum. the courage of ancient days to preserve the republic from anarchy. he mistook probity for virtue. so as to destroy all trace of himself. becomes a hero by that death .] SUICIDE OF HER HUSBAND. which pierced his heart. combined with so much patriotism. and victims from perishing on the scaffold. and M. in reality. " Whoever thou art breast of his coat bore these words. and his reward was such a death as resembles a page torn from the his end resembled that of both Cato records of antiquity and Seneca . was called upon to play. either for glory or — — — — liberty. even in the epitaph he wrote for himself. passing with their flocks. he quitted the hospitable roof that had sheltered him for the last six months through the greater part of the night he continued his flight. when Still he strove with all it is. 10. and his ardent affection for his wife. the individual who has hitherto appeared as an ordinary character. morning dawned he beheld both heaven and earth with horror he drew a long stiletto from the inside-of his walking stick. Roland mix up the confession of his own — republicanism. but with no fixed design.

LII. LH. had in a few days annihilated federalism. its denunciators. but not to defend. Each hamlet of La Gironde had its committee of public safety. and turned their The submission of against the Girondists. recruited the clubs. were their dearest friends Buzot. aroused the faubourgs of Bordeaux against the town. Lyons. Night covered their flight. — . Emilion : not as to a place of safety. whom we left quitting as fugitives in The commissaries of La Montagne. The satellites of Tallien. incarcerated the merchants. was complicity with the proscribed representatives more In no part was there more danger of being susdreaded. his native country. They went towards St. and own country its executioners. Guadet had gone to prepare for them one more safe in the little town of St. Valady. Gironde. Louvet. G-uadet. But even in St. The messenger who brought them this sorrowful news to Bec-dAmbès found the fugitives already surrounded by the battalions sent from Bordeaux. where. What. who forced open their house at Bec-dAmbès some moments after their flight. Emilion. Barbaroux. There were seven of them. but as to one of similar destruction. inaugurated the guillotine. Pétion. its revolutionary army. doing? Ysabeau and Tallien. [ii.272 THE GIRONDISTS. In no quarter side was a more vehement patriotism affected. barricaded in their dwellings. Terror was more vigilant in Bordeaux than elsepected. These representatives. and Salles. was precarious. had preceded them to Bordeaux. and spreading terror. curbing Jacobinism with energy. when Roland and his wife thus died. 1. and to appearance On no converted La Gironde to the unity of the republic. II. Guadet had left his colleagues This asylum concealed in the house of his father-in-law. themselves. and the punishment of Vergniaud and his friends had appalled. and armed with a few braces of pistols and a blunderbuss arms only sufficient to avenge. Emilion he could only find a safe retreat for two. bestowed power on the people. wrote to the Convention that they had found their beds still warm. the extermination of Toulon. BOOK I. Arrived at Bec-d'Ambès.


LU. 2.]



Guadet's father, an old man, seventy-two years of age, generously opened his house to them. The friends of his son appeared as other sons to him, for whose sake he would have blushed to spare the remnant of his days. Hardly were they sheltered for some hours in this suspected house, when the approach of fifty troopers, who had followed their march across the country, was announced. Tallien himself hunted them with the most disciplined blood-hounds of the Bordeaux police. The Girondist deputies had twice to disperse. Tallien placed Guadet's father under the surveillance of two armed men, charged to watch his movements, his speech, and his very looks. He confiscated the property of the son. He organised a club of terrorists in the very town where the Girondists had sheltered themselves from terror. One woman alone devoted herself to save them she was the sister-in-law of Guadet, Madame Bouquey. Informed of her brother-in-law's danger, and that of his friends, she had journeyed from Paris, where she resided without alarm, to console men of whom the greater part were unknown, though some were very dear, to her. Pity, that weakness of woman, becomes strength in great events, and consoles revolutions by the heroism of devotion. Guadet, Barbaroux, Buzot, Potion, Valady, Louvet, and Salles entered secretly in the night into a subterraneous refuge which Madame Bouquey had prepared for them. The depth of the ground was alone deep and silent enough to bury the Girondists alive. This retreat was a catacomb. It opened on one side upon a cavern thirty feet in depth ; on the other upon a cellar of the house. ]S o domiciliary visit could discover its entrance. One dread alone occupied the generous hostess of the Girondists, it was that of being imprisoned herself. What would become of her guests buried in this sepulchre, the veil of which she alone could open She dreaded also to betray them by the purchase of the provision necessary for so many mouths. Dearth pervaded the markets. Bread was distributed only in proportion to the number of the inhabitants of a house, and under the orders of the municipality. Madame Bouquey could only claim a pound of bread per day. She deprived herself to divide this morsel amongst the proscribed eight. Vegetables, dried fruit, some VOL. III. T





[b. LII. 2.

poultry stealthily purchased, composed the nourishment of Gaiety, however, these men, who dissembled their hunger.
that bitter salt of misfortune, reigned in these repasts of the



the search was relaxed,

Madame Bouquey


She made them sit at her table, breathe the fresh air, and see the heavens at night. Barbarous wrote She. had procured them paper and books. Buzot his defence. Louvet marked his rehis memoirs citals with the light pen with which he had written his romances himself the hero of his own adventure. Pétion The mysteries of also wrote, but with a more severe hand. his popularity, so unworthily acquired and so courageously This confidence, abdicated, were revealed under his pen. doubtless, explained this man, small in power, great in adher friends from the cavern.

November, the day on which Madame Roland died in Paris, a low, vague rumour of the presence of the Girondists at Madame Bouquey was spread through St. Emilion. They were obliged to disperse themselves by groups into other asylums. The separation resembled a last adieu. None knew where he was going. Valady alone took Death awaited him there. He the route of the Pyrenees. marched blindly on to his fate. Barbaroux, Pétion, and Buzot, linking their life and death in an indissoluble friendship, bent their steps across the fields on the coast of the lands of Bordeaux, hoping that their track might in this desert be concealed. Guadet, Salles, and Louvet passed this first day in a quarry. A friend of Guadet's was to come, to take them at the close of day, and conduct them six leagues thence to the house of a rich lady whose cause Guadet had once pleaded, and whose fortune he had saved. The friend wanted courage and came not. Guadet and his friends set out alone, and depending on chance. The cold, the snow, and the rain, froze their badly covered limbs. Arrived at length, at four in the morning, at his client's gate, Guadet knocked, named himself, and was repulsed. He returned in despair to his friends. He found Louvet had fainted from hunger and cold at the foot of a tree. Guadet returned to the house, and in vain implored, first, a bed, then fire, and afterwards a glass of wine, for an expiring friend. In-

versity On the 12th of


LU. 3.]



gratitude allowed him to lament and die without an answer. Guadet again returned. His care, and that of Salles, restored Louvet, who then took the desperate resolution which saved


Followed by the image of his mistress, whom he had left in Paris, he decided to see her again, or to perish in the attempt. He embraced Salles and Guadet, divided with them some assignats which he had left, and departed alone, upon the route to Paris. HI. Guadet, Salles, Pétion, Barbaroux, and Buzot found themselves on the following night at St. Emilion, again united by the care of their benefactress, in the house of a poor but honest mechanic. It was there they heard the tragical end of Vergniaud and their friends. They calculated stoically how many blows remained still to be struck by the guillotine in order that all the Girondists should fall. Their soul was elevated to the scaffold. But when it was announced to them some days afterwards that Madame Poland had suffered, their souls melted, and they wept. Buzot drew forth his knife to strike himself. He was seized with a long attack of delirium, during which he allowed cries to escape him which revealed all the secret and suffering of his heart. His friends wrested the weapon from his hands, allayed his fever, and made him swear to support existence for her sake, who had so nobly borne death. Buzot fell from that day into a state of melancholy and silence, which was only interrupted by sighs and inarticulate invocations. The recoil of the axe which had decapitated Madame Roland bruised no soul so deeply as that of Buzot. Death had not altogether broken, but it had opened the seal of, his heart. The proscribed five breathed yet for some weeks in this new asylum. The oscillations of the Committee of Public Safety made the Convention lean sometimes to the side of indulgence, at others to that of terror, at Bordeaux. Executions were constant. Grangeneuve and Biroteau had just fallen ; but victims were less sought for. The faithful Troquart, the host of the refugees at St. Emilion, flattered them with some hope of mitigation. This calm was transient. Commissioners, still more implacable, sent from Paris, revived the thirst of vengeance which had drawn breath in



[b. LII. 3.

La Gironde. The majority of these commissioners were young Cordeliers and Jacobins of Paris, still beardless, whom Hubert's party let loose upon Nantes, Troyes, and Bordeaux, Their youth excused their names. to excite them to blood. They revived punishments, and sent to the Convention bulletins of the guillotine, comparable to those of Collot d'Herbois at Lyons, of Fouché at Toulon, and Maignet at The arrival of these proconsuls suppressed all Marseilles. pity in the soul, and deprived the proscribed of all asylum. They sent from Bordeaux to Saint Emilion detachments of the revolutionary army, directed by a police spy named Marion, who had trained dogs to track the Federalists. The republic thus imitated those men-hunts which the Spaniards had practised in the forests of America. Marion believed that the Girondists were hidden in the quarries of Saint Emilion. He arrived at night, without being expected, with his troops. He silently surrounded the house of the father, the friends, and relations of Guadet, and let loose his dogs in the caverns, as upon the track of wild beasts. He smoked the entrance of some grottoes. The dogs returned without
their prey.

Another hunter, however, of Tallien's, named Favereau, penetrated with his satellites the dwelling of Guadet's father. These men had vainly searched the house through, and were already retracing the empty corridors, when one of the gens d'armes, who had remained behind, thought he perceived that the inner garret was smaller than the exterior Avails of the house. He recalled his companions. They sounded the walls with the butt-end of their muskets. They applied their ears to them. The noise of the cocking of a pistol was heard. It was Guadet, who, finding himself discovered., loaded his pistol, to kill or to avenge himself. At this sound the yens d'armes summoned the proscribed to surrender themselves. The wall crumbled to pieces. Guadet and
Salles broke it in



They were drawn


chained, and conducted in triumph to Bordeaux. They were both beyond the law. Judgment was superfluous. Their names constituted their crime and their arrest. Salles, condemned to die on that very day, requested the means of writing to his wife and children. His soul poured itself forth
in adieus so touching that history has preserved them.

b. lu. 3.]

salles' letter to his wife.




you receive

this letter," wrote Salles to his wife,

" I shall only live in the memory of those who love me. Three children, and nothing "What a charge I leave to you However, console yourself, I shall to bring them up upon. not have died without having bewailed you, without having hoped in your courage and it forms one of my consolations to think that you will gladly live on account of your innocent family. My love, I know your sensibility, and I love to believe that you shed bitter tears to the memory of the man who desired to render you happy, and whose principal pleasure consisted in the education of his two sons and beloved daughter. But will you neglect to dream that your second They are deprived of a consideration belongs to them ? father and they can, at least, by their innocent caresses, fill up the void of those which I can no more lavish on you. I Charlotte I have done every thing to preserve my life. thought to devote myself to you, and, above all, to my country. It appeared to me that the eyes of the people were fascinated by the sentiments of your unhappy husband, that they would one day open them, and would learn from me how dear their interests are to me. I thought I ought also to live to collect, on account of my friends, all the monuments I thought useful to their memory. Lastly, I ought to live for




Heaven disposes you, for my family, and for my children. otherwise. I die calmly. I promised in my declaration, after the events of the 31st of May, that I should know how to die at the foot of the scaffold I believe I can affirm that I shall love, bewail me not. Death, as it apkeep my promise. pears to me, will not have any bitter agony in store for me. I have already made a trial of it. I have been for an entire year in troubles of every kind. I have never murmured at them. At the moment when I was seized, I had twice presented a pistol at my forehead, which missed fire. I desired not to be taken alive. At any rate I have this advantage, that of having drunk beforehand all the bitterness of the chalice; and it appears to me that this moment is not so painful. Charlotte, bury your grief, and only inspire our children with modest virtues. It is so difficult to do well for one's Cato, in piercing country. Brutus, in poignarding a tyrant, did not prevent Home irom his bosom to escape from him, being oppressed. I believe myself to be devoted for the


T 3



[b. LIE 4.

If, as a recompence, I receive death, I have the conscience of ray good intentions. It is sweet to think that I bear to the tomb my own esteem, and that one day that of the public will be rendered to me. My love I leave you in And if they should give you misery what grief for me all I possessed, you will not have even bread, for you know, whatever people may have said, that I possessed nothing. However, Charlotte, let not this consideration plunge you in despair. Work, my lov^ you can do so. Teach your Oh my bechildren to work when they are old enough. loved ; if you could in this way avoid having recourse to strangers! Be, if it be possible, as proud as I. Hope still ; hope in Him who is all powerful ; He is my consolation in this last moment. The human race has long since recognised his existence ; and I have too much reason to think that order must reign in some part, not to believe in the immortality of my soul. He is great, just, and good, that God before whose tribunal I am about to appear. I bear to him a heart, if not exempt from weakness, at least devoid of crime, and pure in intention and as Rousseau so well expresses it, ' who slumbers in the bosom of a father is not anxious about





" Kiss



children, love them, educate


and console

my mother


my family.

comfort ; Adieu, adieu

for ever

Your own
" Salles."

IV. " And you, who are you ? " they asked Guadet. " I Guadet." " Executioner," replied the Eschines of La Gironde, " do your office." " Go with my head in your hand, and demand your wages from the tyrants of my country ; they never saw it without blenching in beholding it, they will again turn pale." On proceeding to death, Guadet said to the people " Look at me well behold the last of your





Guadet desired to " People," cried he, the drums drowned his voice. indignantly, " behold the eloquence of tyrants they stifle the voice of the free man, that silence may cover their crimes." Barbaroux, Pétion, and Buzot learned at Saint Emilion of the arrest and death of their colleagues. The ground,







B. LU. 5.]





everywhere undermined around them, could not delay to engulf them. They departed by night from their refuge, carrying as their only provision a hollow loaf, into which the foresight of their host had inserted a piece of cold meat and they had, besides, some handsful of green peas in the pockets They walked as chance directed a part of their garments.

The long immobility of their limbs in the reof the night. fuges wherein they had languished for eight months, had enervated their strength above all that of Barbaroux his weight, his stature, aud a precocious obesity, rendered him ill adapted for walking. At break of day the three friends found, near Chatillon, a village, of the name and site of which they were ignorant. The fife and drum It was the day of the village festival. resounding through the lanes, convoked, before Aurora dawned, the inhabitants to the banquet and the dance. Volunteers, with the musket upon their shoulders, passed, The fugitives, their minds absinging upon their march. sorbed in their situation, tormented by sleeplessness and fever, thought that the roll-call was beaten, and that every one was roaming the fields to approach them. They halted, huddled themselves under the shelter of a hedge, and apSuddenly some shepherds, peared to deliberate a moment. who observed them from afar, saw the light of the priming, and heard the report of fire-arms. One of the three suspected men fell with his face to the earth, the other two fled with all speed, and disappeared in the confines of a wood. The volunteers ran towards the report. They found a young man of elevated stature, of noble form, with a glance not yet extinguished, weltering in his blood. He had shivered his jaw by a pistol-shot. His mutilated tongue refused him any other language than signs. They bore him off to Castillon. His linen was marked with an îi. and a B. They asked him if he were Buzot he raised his head if he were Barbaroux, he lowered it affirmatively. Conducted to Bordeaux upon a tumbril, and bedewing the streets with his blood, he was recognised from the beauty of his form; and the blade of the guillotine ended his misery, by separating his head from his body. V. No one knows what the forests and darkness conceal relative to the fate, during the many days and nights of



T 4



[b. LII. 6.

Pétion and Buzot. Was the suicide of their young companion a weakness or an example in their eyes ? Did they fire a pistol at themselves upon the approach of some savage beast, whose steps they mistook for those of men who followed them? Did they open their veins at the foot of some Did they die of hunger, of fatigue, or of cold ? Did tree ? the one survive the ether? And who last remained and In fine, did expired upon the corpse of his comrade ? they die in a nocturnal and deadly combat, against the carnivorous animals who pursued them as approaching prey ? Mystery that most terrible of all fates, involves in obThe gleaners scurity the last moments of Buzot and Pétion only, some days after the death of Barbaroux, found, here and there, in a corn field, at the confines of a wood, torn hats, shoes, and some tatters of human remains, rent in These garments, these remains, were pieces by the wolves. all that were left of Potion and Buzot The soil of the republic could not even find sepulture for the men who had All La Gironde had vanished with these established it. two last tribunes. They left it to time to resolve the enigma of popularity. The one who had been called King Pétion, and the other, who was still derisively styled le Roi Buzot, had come from Paris and from Caen to seek their destiny in a furrow in the fields of La Gironde. The land of federalism itself devoured these men, these men guilty of a dream against unity of the country Is any other decision necessary ? Can Ave decide from the devoured and dislocated remains left by the wild beasts upon the field of death. No! let us bewail them, let us bury them and pass on VI. The Revolution in these last months of 1793, and in the first months of 1794, seemed to retrace its steps, as a conqueror after a victory, to strike, one by one, the men who had endeavoured to modify and arrest it, commencing with those the nearest allied to it, and ending with those who held themselves most apart from it: the Girondists first, and their partisans, the constitutionalists afterwards, and the pure royalists last. The great names of the Constituent Assembly seemed to be lively protestations against the theories of the republic. Constitutional royalty, which the monarchists had defended,
! ! !




LU. 7.]



accused the tyranny of the Committee of Public Safety. The legal liberty which they had shown in perspective, contrasted with the dictatorship of La Montagne. They could not permit these witnesses and accusers to live even though mute. Mirabeau was no more. The Pantheon had rescued him from the scaffold. La Fayette expiated, in the mines of Olmutz, the crime of moderation. Clermont-Tonnere was Cazalès and dead, murdered on the 2d of September. Maury were in exile. The Lameths wandered in the land Siéyès was silent or affected to slumber, of the stranger. The right side groaned in the at the foot of La Montagne. They Barnave, Duport, and Bailly still lived. prisons. remembrance of the Jacobins was were thought of. Misfortune to the name which was pronounced too death. loud. That of Barnave still echoed in the memory of the


reformers of the monarch. VII. Since the 18th of August, Barnave, useless from that period in the councils of the queen, had retired to Grenoble, his native city. He was there received as a man who had adorned his country by the brilliancy of his talent and the probity of his life. They reproached him little for withdrawing himself aside from the republican movements which exceeded his opinions. He was considered as one of those instruments which the people reject, when they have done their work, but which they do not break. Barnave, without applauding the republic, but without protesting against it, limited himself to the fulfilment of his duties as a citizen. He refused emigration, the road to which was open to him, at some steps from the house of his father. He continued to enjoy this popularity of esteem which sometimes He had been implicated in Paris, in survives lost position. the suspicions which were current in 1794, upon a pretended Austrian Committee. Fauchet had given him to understand this, as well as the Lameths, Duport, and Montmorin, in an act of accusation which sent these secret counsellors of Louis XVI. before the high national court of Orleans. Barnave learnt his crime by this act of accusation. He was arrested, during the night, in his country house of Saint Robert, in the environs of Grenoble. Conducted to the prison of this town, his mother came to see him, under the From the depth of his cell, Barnave disguise of a servant.



[B. LU. 8.

followed with his eye the phases of the Revolution, and the misfortunes of the king. He only regretted his liberty, as he could not defend, by his voice, before the Convention, the head of this prince. The republic tarried not to listen to this repentance. Barnave languished ten months in the fort Barreaux, in an alpine and frozen region of the mountains which bound France and Savoy. The frontier was beneath his eyes. His windows were not barred. .Surveillance slumbered. He could fly he would not do so. " Obscure, I would save myself," said he; "but celebrated and responsible for the great acts of the Revolution, I must remain to answer for my opinions with my head, and for my honour with my


VIII. He employed this long suspense of his destiny in extending his ideas, and completing his political studies. He sounded the spirit of human revolutions, by the report of those of his own country. He wrote social and historical meditations which have survived. One finds therein rather wisdom than genius. One admires the honesty of his spirit. One does not feel its greatness. One feels astonished that such a voice should have been able to balance, during an hour, the virile voice of Mirabeau. The pretended rivalship, between these two orators, is only explained, by that optical error of all ages and of all nations, which levels to the eye of the moment men who cannot be on a par in the eyes of
the future.

Barnave merited neither the glory nor the outrage of this comparison. Limited in intelligence, fluent of speech, he was one of those men at the bar, with whom eloquence is an art of the mind, and not an explosion of the soul. His true honour laid in having been worthy of being crushed by Mirabeau. The desire of surpassing, in popularity, him


he was so far from equalling in genius, drew from

him, during some months, those words of complaisance fatal to monarchy and to his own glory. An honest man, he compensated, by the purity of his public life, and by a generous return to his unfortunate king, for the ill-obtained applause of the multitude. He abdicated his popularity as soon as it became the reward of crime. IX. Barnave having arrived at Paris, the Committee of

B. LII. 10.]




Public Safety were embarrassed by him. Danton, on his return from Arcis-sur-Aube, sought to save him. He promised this to Barnave's mother and sister. They had followed their son and their brother, as two suppliants attached to the wheels of the carriage which conducted him to Paris. Danton dared not abide by his promise. The only favour which Barnave obtained was that of embracing his mother and sister, for the last time. He defended himself with great presence of mind, and remarkable eloquence of disBut there where the voice of cussion, before the tribunal. Vergniaud had withered, what could the cold argument of Barnave avail He returned to his cell condemned. The courageous Baillot, his colleague in the Constituent Assembly, came there to console his last hours. Duport-Dutertre, the ancient minister of justice, was associated with Barnave in judgment and punishment. After the arrest, Duport contented himself with saying disdainfully to his judges, "In a revolution the people kill men, posterity judges them." Duport exhibited more firmness upon the tumbril than his companion. He was perceived to lean often towards him, and animate his courage. The attitude of Barnave betrayed an enfeebled body, and a mind framed rather for the tribune than the scaffold. His great name, running from mouth to mouth, silenced the crowd. The people seemed themselves

to reflect

upon these vast vicissitudes of popularity. They they left him to die. did not insult the orator X. Badly remained. It seems that the people were desirous of avenging themselves by their outrages, for the esteem with which they had a short time previously lavished on this mayor of Paris. The people have their revenge. It is almost as dangerous to please them too much as to offend them ; they punish their idols for the crime of having seduced them. Bailly, a man of wealth, a philosopher, a scholar, and illustrious astronomer, impassioned for liberty, because liberty was a truth of the greatest acquirement on His earth, cherished in his soul the religion of mankind. worship, illumined by a matured reason, elevated itself to faith, but not to fanaticism. As president of the National Assembly, having taken first the oath of the Jeu de Paume (the Tennis Court), his whole conduct had since been conformable to these two thoughts : to deprive the court of

His name condemned him. and sent to the revolutionary tribunal. The name of Bailly was an inscription upon the frontispiece of the Revolution. marched at the head of the armed citizens against sedition.284 MISERABLE EXD [b. his hair cut. The executioners themselves. Blood was shed Bailly felt the bitterness of it. His head bare. 10. he slowly traversed the quarters of the capital. The weariness of repose. He marched to death amidst the throng of the multitude. That was the day when the Girondists. in the neighbourhood of Nantes. and to restore a part of the power to the king. . "When bloody agitations — to stain the victories of the people. indignant at this ferocity. thrown into the Conciergerie. in concordance with La Fayette. that punishment of men long accustomed to the bustle of business. despotic power . and acted as a magistrate. If Bailly were not on a par with this destiny by his genius. He was a civil La Fayette. and crushed the tumult around the altar of the country. soon attacked him. his hands tied behind his back with an enormous cord his body covered only by a shirt. one of those men whom new ideas place in advance. Bailly. One single day lost the popularity of this worthy life. in order to preserve gradation in conquest. beneath a freezing sky. and withdrew himself for two years. The populace was only the more implacable. appeared to rise and precipitate themselves like a torrent around the Avheels. His administration had been a series of triumphs of the people ove. Recognised by the people. The horde had insisted that the guillotine. His name signified in their mouths the assassin of the people. generally placed . unfurled the red flag. reproached the people with their outrages. to hear. He desired again to approach Paris. His punishment was no less than a protracted assassination. He abdicated in favour of Potion. and crown with esteem and honours under their name. The refuse and scum of Paris.' the court. LIT. at a less distance. and order in movement. he was so by his character. whom he had long restrained as a magistrate. fomented the Insurrection of the Champ-de-Mars. united to the Jacobins. he was rescued with difficulty from the fury of a meeting. Bailly spoke as a wise man. to retirement. He became the execration of the Jacobins. began . He could no longer govern the city where the blood spilled called out against him. the movements of the republic.

or avengers of the victims of the Champ-de-Mars. and to reconstruct it close to the bank of the Seine. nity. The machine was dismantled. Men who called themselves relations. upon a dung heap accumulated from the sowers of Paris. His grave and placid countenance preserved its sereHis impassable reason passed above this populace. lacerated." replied the old man to tremble. said to him. The guillotine had been erected in the enclosure itself of The earth of the federation appeared the Champ-de-Mars. by the end of a pole. 10. LU. they ordered him to lick the ground on which the blood of the people had flowed. my friend. They dipped it.B. His body trembled with cold. them seeing him paralyzed with cold. The march. three hours. They made him look on. at the from time to time. at the tardy reconstrucof his own scaffold. The to the people too sacred to be stained by an execution. and soiled with dust and blood. and violently whipped Others spat in his face. lasted these horrors. Their blows compelled the condemned to drag himself* along under this weight. these refined men of wrath made Bailly descend from the tumbril. friends. interrupted at stations. and looked beyond them. He fainted under coming to himself. executioners were ordered to take down the scaffold piece by piece. As if to parody the punishment of Christ bearing his Cross. and shouts of his burden laughter rallied him upon his age and infirmities. and did side of the tumbril. 285 at the Place-de-la-Concorde. Bailly. upon the ground where it had been shed.'' it more He . should be that day transported to the Champ-de-Mars. " You t. bitter than the hope for which he submitted One of discoursed calmly with the assistants. Arrived at the place of execution. the monsters loaded the shoulders of the old man with the heavy beams which supported the platform of the scaffold. Rain mingled with snow inundated his head. not find to it. He tasted martyrdom. in . carried a red flag in derision. Yes.] OP BAILLY. that blood might wash out the blood. and froze his limbs. no longer presented Roars of laughter and applause encouraged a human form. The executioners were constrained to obey. the gutter. and forced him to make on foot the tour of the Champ-de-Mars . His features Eailly's face with it. Even this expiation did not satisfy them. he arose. His soul was firm. during an hour.

Madame du ." exclaimed he Robespierre lamented Bailly at supper with Duplay. Bailly pitied the people. Mademoiselle Lange Vaubernier. The more ferocious man is. as a token of mourning. A virtue. and pity every where. under the name of Madame du Barry. on the recital of this execution. Robespierre ordered his door to be closed that evening. Few victims ever met with viler executioners. people.286 MADAME DU BARRY. he yet He believed in the people. [b. "but it is with cold. Bailly was one of these most holy martyrs. had succeeded to Madame de Pompadour. thanked the executioner." nations and executions. " Do not speak of it." At last the axe terminated this scene of protracted cruelty. In the evening. 11. " It is thus. they must have martyrs to compensate them. LH. and confided himself to immortality. Louis XV. He reproached them with their injustice. mistress of Louis XV. few executioners with so exalted a victim. The lessons of a people are only a degradation. the judge of the revolutionary tribunal. of sages do not suffice to instruct them. . for. XI. It had lasted five hours. One gloried in this title in contemplating Bailly." said Robespierre to him " I do not ask you for an account of your judgments. Shame at the foot of the scaffold. died at a short This woman had as a child commenced the traffic of her charms. in dying by the hand of liberty. not with The crimes his blood. having desired to explain to Robespierre why he had absolved this great accused. in spite of the died for her.. It had lost all discernment of vice or ! . " that they will martyrize ourselves." Duplay. Barry. Was this Was it a presentiment? But the axe already no grief? longer selected all ranks wei'e mingled upon the scaffold. courtesan died bj* the side of a sage. interval from Bailly. One blushed to be a man on beholding these people. his host. The people applauded equally. glory above. Her marvellous beauty had attracted the notice of the purveyors to the king's pleasures. had formed of the rank of his mistresses a kind of institution of his court. but the republic demands of you an account of your conDuplay spoke no more to Robespierre of condemscience. him. the more one should love him. They had raised her from obscure vice to offer her to the scandal of crowned infamy. Louis XV.

Therein consisted his majesty. After the 10th of August she made a journey to England. She had confided in her absence the care and administration of Luciennes to a young negro. and who spoke of virtue. that reign of the people who despised Although repulsed courtesans. it must be owned. rendered her exile almost as brilliant as her reign. But the greater part of her riches had been secretly buried by her and the Duke de Brissac at the foot of a tree in her park at Luciennes. .. and had devoted herself to the cause of the throne and of emigration. for the sake of decency a characteristic of the new reign. the gifts of Louis XV. He loved her still for her beauty. diamonds. 287 required the of scandal to season Lis palled appetite. Still young at the death of Louis XV.. Madame du Barry had been sequestered for some months in a convent. The old Duke de Brissac remained attached to — — — the favourite. the ministry. named Zamore. as one rears a domestic animal.. She had brought up this child. After the death of the Duke de Brissac. the Venetian courtesans She had conceived for this negro the tenderness of Titian. massacred at Versailles. XII. to disinter her treasure. through a womanish caprice. Madame du Barry had reigned under his name. she had lamented their misfortunes. to resemble in her portraits. minds to this servitude by causing his courtiers to adore the despotism of his amours. had prepared their lated the idol of the king. the clergy. The only respect which he imposed upon his court was the respect of his vices. deplored their fate. Germain. all had aduLouis XIV. Soon freed from this confinement.B. Madame du Barry abhorred the Revolution. She caused herself to be painted by the side of this black. at the time when others loved her for her rank. and by Marie Antoinette. LU. the secret of her She resolved to return to France. Madame du Barry did not desire to confide to any one.. and consecrated her immense fortune to relieve the miseries of the emigrants in exile. by the contrast of countenance and colour. The nation. she had lived in a splendid the Pavillon de Luciennes on the retreat near Paris borders of the forest of St.] salt MADAME DU BARRY. had most shamefully submitted to this yoke. In London she wore mourning for Louis XVI. and carry them to London. from the court of Louis XVI. Immense riches. philosophers. 12. The nobility.

" life for my repentance life for all my devotion cried life for all my riches to the nation!" The to the republic! people laughed and shrugged their shoulders. Her piercing cries prevailed over the noise of the wheels and the clamour of the multitude. in order that her counShe did not cease to invoke tenance might move the people. honoured the throne. in his His valour and his wit youth carried levity even threw a halo over his . yielded to the execuof hardly-matured age. nor for love. He had caught the intoxicated with revolutionary liberty. Zamore was ungrateful and cruel. She dishonoured the scaffold as she had disbut for vice. floated and covered her eyes and her cheeks she lifted her head and threw them back. he delivered her to the revolutionary committee of Luciennes. [_B. shown to the people as one of the stains of the throne of which it was necessary to purify the air of the republic. Madame du Barry. because she died neither for opinion. elevated and enriched by favouritism. cut behind the head by dressed in white. Judged and condemned without discussion. of a mother. was her crime in the sight of the crowd. XIII. of which he was a member. amongst all the women executed. It seemed as if the knife struck this woman beforehand. He betrayed his benefactress. but as a : He was . LH. 13. She was tioner. — ! — soldier. She was still in the brilliancy Her beauty. Under The court had enervated her soul. and "Life! life!" she deprived her a thousand times of life.288 HER EXECUTION. pity. Tears flowed incessantly from her eyes upon her bosom. which the executioner had Dot shortened. left her neck exposed. nounced her treasures . perished by a favourite. died a coward. Her the scissors of the executioner. so famous at court under the name of the Duke de Lauzun. They showed her. General Biron. The Duke de Lauzun had to defiance. upon which her charming head was about to sleep. she went to death amidst the yells of the populace and the contempt of the indifferent. died at the same time. by signs. The passage of the courtesan to the scaffold was but one lamentation. locks in front of the head. Ingratitude appeared to him the virtue fever of the people. She alone. he deof the oppressed. in the most humiliating terms. the knife she still wept. for virtue. Her black hair. the pillow of the guillotine.

LU. he followed that prince in all his changes. — follow you must require strength drink with me!" This death. deeply. Biron precipitated himself from the favour of courts to the favour of the people. friend of the Duc d'Orléans. To stop at any stage "was impossible the current was too rapid. The Duc de Parties forgive all those who serve them. in that of the Alps. He gaily gave his name. and. at the last hour. La Vendée between Rossignol. The plebeian generals were jealous of his ascendency they did not brook Quarrels broke out in ancient aristocrats Avith impunity. because in braving reflection he also braved punishment. Ruined at an early period by his prodigality. Others were to die on the ruor- — — yol.] BIRON. dignity. He died as he had It was the gallant. imprisoned in the Conciergerie. The soldiers adored him. his arm. lastly. up to the last moment. and his blood to the republic. He drank oysters to be brought him. in La Vendée. Brought to Paris. His memoirs are only notes of his amours. He followed La Fayette to America. the the only pleasures which remained to the prisoners sensualities of the table. but from fashion. he felt that there was no safety but in following it to the end. the Jacobin general. desired to live last day of the year 1793. He had his gaolers and guards as He caused guests in lieu of other companions of pleasure. not for virtue. Indifference. and made himself an enthusiast of liberty. Inconsiderateness was his star. proud. faults. He served with bravery in the army of the North. which imitates the unreflecting bravery of a young epicurean. he sought other glory in war. nnd condemned to death. He only changed the theatre. in the army of the Rhine.B. m. by indifference . " Permit me to " In the line you finish my oysters. in a man of mature age. The people clapped their hands at the last moments of Biron." said Biron to them. u . is not the attitude of true heroes . 13. has more display than The smile is misplaced upon the verge of eternity. he desired to taste. and applauded. and white wine. and Biron was sacrificed. Once launched into the Revolution. 289 Scandal became for him renown. The executioner's men arrived. he entered his prison as he would enter He shrouded death his tent on the evening of a skirmish. it is the sophistry of death. He desh*ed to pass as having been beloved by the queen. A : . and Biron.

the prodigious number of executions which had been required of him. One life spared. One amongst them. Almost all the ancient members of parliament in the kingdom died in turn upon the scaffold. row. in the magistracy. respected by all. and bowed down by years. in the prisons of Fouquier-Tinville was Paris alone. M. whom it was necessary to imprison. He forgot that it was the zeal of extermination. of which here is an example attested by one of the judges himself. Sometimes the austere virtue of these victims rejected the life which was offered to them at the expense of a lie. Blood was no longer stanched. He opened from time to time a gate of safety to the accused. repast precipitately upon the table where he signed the senHe slept in the tribunal upon a mattrass. but joined them en Loaded by the number of masse. He thus saved. some men whom he had once known and respected. grieved him. one guilty person forgotten. XV. [b. The religion of truth made voluntary martyrs. Fouquier-Tinville no longer quitted the cabinet of the hall of He took his justice. or to judge. an honest old man. one accused acquitted.290 NUMBER OF ACCUSED. the 1st of January. not able to draw up all the accusations. The zeal of the republic consumed him. and worthy of bequest to futurity. accused. Strange perversion of Fouquier received every the human heart by fanaticism evening from the Committee of Public Safety the list of suspected. XIV. and of having ! . Four thousand six hundred détenus. by suggesting answers to them which might vindicate them. Tears confounded themselves in executions. He complained of not having time to see his wife and children. wherein he drew out his accusations. He believed himself the arm of the people. both of them. of having carried on a correspondence with their emigrant son. Fouquier-Tinville was blinded by the blood which he caused But he returned sometimes consternated himself at to flow. and almost by chance. and the thunder of the Revolution. He allowed himself no leisure. LU. and pressed by the impatience of the people. Legrand d'AUeray. Death knew the calendar no longer. tences of death. was conducted with his wife to the revolutionary tribunal. He called it his duty. the axe of the republic. and the names which he had condemned. 14. awaited their judgment. accused.

" answered said he to him. but I know your handwriting I have often had documents of yours under my inspection. would be necessary to purchase our lives by a lie. : . the response which might save '* There is. But I know another.— B. claimed. This letter is not yours the characters are visibly " Pass the letter to me. "I thank you. " for the efforts you make to save me but it . by eye and gesture. The year 1794 inaugurated itself thus in blood. aloud. He made which forbids the parents of emigrants and to send them any this law you doubtless were assistance. — " I knew this law. d'Alleray eluded them all by his refusal to change. he offered another " There is a law. was not discouraged by this second answer. Danton and Saint-Just had caused the suspension of the constitution and the revolutionary government to be proThe law was the Committee of Public Safety." Fouquier.] M. did not fear . He again offered five or six excuses of the same kind to the accused. a sign of intelligence to the accused. or even to turn aside from the truth." The accuser. we will not do so now to save a remnant of life." virtuous suicide to the scaffold. My wife and myself prefer rather to die. confounded by this sincerity. will not accuse you of our death. Do your duty." pretext of acquittal to the accused. We have grown old together without ever having lied . Ultimately perceiving the intention of Fouquier-Tinville. determined in his design." to Fouquier-Tinville. but they sent the only. The guillotine appeared to be the only institution in France. engraven by nature in the heart of all fathers and mothers. we will accuse the law The juries wept from emotion. . : " M. to dictate to him. M. which defeated his indulgence. Fouquier-Tinville was moved. LEGRAND d' ALLER AY. " the letter which accuses him. under pain of death not aware of ? " " You still deceive yourself. you. LU. " You deceive yourself. after having considered it with scrupulous attention. 16." said he to the public accuser " this letter is in my handwriting. Then. it is that which commands them to sacrifice their lives in order to succour their children." said he." said he. to correspond with their relatives. XVI." said the old man counterfeited. while you sat in parliament. the administration was the arbitrary will of the commisu 2 We . d'Alleray. 291 assisted him in his exile. we will do ours.

Justice was suspicion or vensioners of the Convention. The fury of ideas is more implacable than the fury of men . for men have heart. Thus did it incarnadine the purest causes. and terrified resembled a nation conquered and ravaged by throughout. Systems are brutal forces which and opinion has none. It was the invasion of a new idea. or to be struck itself. The Revo- lution belied its doctrine by by its tyranny it stained its right dishonoured its struggles by its execudo tions. The Convention was compelled to strike shot at Toulon. They permitted the vengeance of the people. but to mourn for them. sequestered. guillotined at Paris. denounced. so horrible as to see it martyrise its enemies. but a massacre of conquered men upon a field of carnage. not say it to excuse the people. cusits violence. [b. without justice. but a camp. of Chaumette. other masters. and the cruelties of the proconsuls to proceed. and which was assigned to them. Ronsin. the liberator into the oppressor. other laws. but their selfish motives carried them away. the guarantee was denunciation. drowned at Nantes. The party of the Commune. — — — field of battle. theoretically among others the part of the members of La Montagne. even to the spoliation and assassination of degenerate Rome. The republic was no longer a society. and other more unbridled demagogues. bringing with them other gods. mowed France. Their theories protested. As the bullets on a bewail not even that which they crush. Vincent. The Convention was no longer a government. and other manners to Europe. of Momoro. went in advance. one of those great invasions of people who swept away the ancient civilisation on the fall of the Roman empire . and dragged the Convention after them. down with grape at Lyons. and the vicious institutions which resist it. imprisoned. — : it We Nothing is toms.292 REIGN OP THE GUILLOTINE. LII. The encounter then changes to executions. composed of Hébert. Such was involuntarily among some. frustrate the end they strike without choice. The government geance. and the apostle into the executioner. . the fury of anarchy. to which resistance had handed fire and the sword. 16. Nothing is more beautiful than to behold a new idea shine upon the horizon of human intelligence . and of the Committee of — — Public Safety. nothing is so legitimate as to cause it to combat and conquer prejudice. was the scaffold.

" " Interior dangers arise from the citizens." " What means will they employ? Hypocrisy and calumny. To triumph over the citizens. During publican powex\" " Foreign war is a mortal scoui'ge. the people must be rallied." says one of these posthumous " This will must be either republican or royalist. But all diplomacy is impossible. or written." " What will be our enemies ? Riches and the vicious. The people must ally themselves with the Convention. lu. " There must be one will." " Lastly. done. republican journals. But what are the obstacles to their instruction ? The mercenary scribblers." " What are the means of terminating a civil war? Punish the conspirators. alliance with petty powers. as the most dangerous enemies of the country. as long as we have not unity of power." " In foreign affairs." " What must be done ? Enlighten the people. since revealed. and good ai'ticles must be liberally paid for. 17. and punish the traitors. . and let the Convention avail itself of the people." : — . there must be republican ministers. the party of legislators essaj'ed from time to time to embody great principles and great innovations.s.] Robespierre's notes. and liberty." notes. republican deputies." After the means. equality. u 3 . the commissariat and the popular laws. the vague lineaments of a government of justice." " What are the means of terminating a foreign war ? Place republican generals at the head of our armies. to which he hoped at last to attain. above all the deputies and guilty administrators make send patriotic troops under patriotic chiefs terrible examples of all the wretches who have outraged liberty and spilt the blood of patriots. and a re- XVII. Robespierre." " What to conclude from that ? That these writers must be proscribed. here is the result " What is the result ? The execution of the constitution in favour of the people. one finds therein more philosophy than policy. threw into notes. who bewilder them by false and imprudent articles. 293 these executions. "Provided it be republican. as oracles to the noise of thunder. now dominant in the Committee of Public Safety. As in every thing he has said.

One felt that. Illicit maternity was rescued from shame. series of philanthropic and popular measures instituted political charity in action. 18. We A . of discourses. this word wished to say. The taxes were proportioned to riches. Children without parents were adopted by the republic. in a mind determined to hope. Social power was equally dispersed nmongst all citizens. who possessed nothing but the country itself." " When will their interest be amalgamated with that of the people ? Never /" At this terrible word. " What other obstacle to the instruction of the people ? Misery. The liberty of conscience was proclaimed. The infirm were alleviated. In all the meetings of the Convention and of the Jacobins of November and December. distributed its light amongst the depths of the population. one finds a great number of discussions. had nothing to bestow upon it but their blood. the pen had ceased to write. or of decrees. in which breathes the soul of a popular government. It was full of blood. The indigent were sacred. which kills the infant by dishonouring the mother. The love of the people seemed to expand itself in every jurisdiction of the administration. when the interest of wealth and that of the government shall be amalgamated with that of the people. XVIII." The logic of terror emanated from this word. Elementary and transcendant instruction. " must bend by force under the level of justice and equality all those who refuse to combine their interest with the interest of the people. and when wealth and governments cease to hire the pen and the perfidious tongue to deceive them ." " When will the people become enlightened ? When they have bread. [b. fallen at the conclusion of this interior dialogue of Eobespierre with himself. Egotism appears to efface itself before the principle of devotion to the country. until 1794. Doubt or discouragement had dictated this last word. The conscience of the human race was invoked as a supreme law. Universal morality was taken as a type of the laws. The Convention appeared in these legislative assemblies to write a chapter of the evangelical constitution of the future. LII. The poorer classes. as a treaty of alliance between the rich and the poor. like a divine debt. Slavery and negro commerce were abolished.294 REPUBLICAN PRINCIPLES.

It determined to rescue time itself from the Christian priesthood. and wellbeing upon the masses. octidi. and no longer into weeks. morality. as if to remind men for ever that they were not truly men but from the day Proud of the new era which when they proclaimed themselves free. LU. It did not desire that the church should continue to point out to the people the instants of their labour or repose. primidi. Images alone coloured and impressed names on the imaginations of the people. or the period of days. It also effaced from the denomination of the months and days of which time is composed. duodi. quartidi. desired that the French republic should become one of the dates of history amongst mankind. The divinity of the spirit of the Revolution was this. decadi. on the contrary. 295 One felt that the Revolution had not been made to usurp. it inaugurated for the world. but they had the inconvenience of not presenting images to the mind. These were.] THE REPUBLICAN CALENDAR. They explained their order in the arrangement of days by names derived from the Latin. quintidi. with the day of prayer and of repose exclusively consecrated to Catholicism. equality. septidi. an exterminating spirit in its political acts. nonidi. which had stamped every thing with its sign since it had gained possession of the empire. the traces of religion imprinted on the Gregorian calendar. should not henceforward confound the initial day. 18. and that its political acts emanated from its wrath. It further ordained that the division of the days into tenths. sextidi. but to lavish power. In this system the names of days were significant of their place in the numerical order of the republican decade. the — — other it its passions. The denominations of the months. These purely numerical significations possessed the advan- tage of presenting cyphers to the memory. It instituted the republican calendar {calendrier républicain). justice. Men ask themselves involuntarily wherefore this social contrast between the social laws of the Convention and its political measures between this philosophy and this blood ? It was because the social laws of the Convention emanated from its dogmas. borrowed from the characters of the seasons and the labours of u 4 . the spirit of light and charity in the deliberations of the Convention. The one were its principles.B. tridi.

the first and Thus every thing was relevant to agriculture. (January) (February) JVivose. when the meadows are Lastly. which makes the plants flourish . . Thibaudeau. the civil code. of which afterwards the organising despotism of Napoleon availed itself. The fruits of philosophy and liberty will never appertain to despotism. stifled civil war. (April) Germinal. of science. [b. . had all been conceived. tions of nations were no more the type of time that measure of life. Delirium and fury seemed to have seized upon the people. (March) Ventose. Merlin. which warms the furrows . History must not sanction these larcenies. the finance. 19. criminal justice. It was the same with the administration. or the superstithe last of arts. which whitens the earth with snow Pluviôse. which ripens the fruits. which unchains the tempests. and meditated humane and moral resolutions. . and the rural code. démiaire. there to prepare his frame-works Cambacerès. which waters it with rain . which harvests the grapes (December) Frimaire. agriculture. elaborated. For the spring. however. While. Napoleon unjustly robbed it of its glory. the Committee of Public Safety protected the frontiers. The men whom Napoleon called into his councils. Paris and the departments presented the spectacle of saturnalia of liberty. Like unfaithful workmen. For winter. (July) Messidor. LII. and of equality. and sonorous as echoes of rural life. &c. for autumn (October) Ven(November) Brumaire. They were. Special men of the Convention prepared the plans of these legislations upon the bases of philosophy. which causes the seeds togiow (May) Floréal. bases laid down by the Constituent Assembly. for summer. These ideas. She must restore them to the republic. harvest month (August) Thermidor. and (September) Fructidor. — — — — — ! . The phases of empires. Siéyès. they bore off into these workshops of servitude the instruments and chefs d 'œuvre of liberty XIX. or promulgated by the Convention. were significant as pictures. and to which he only gave his name. Everything lifted itself up to nature alone.296 NATURE PARAMOUNT. . Carnot. sprung from the committees. which is the mowed. which covers the sky with mists which covers the mountains with hail. The intoxication of truth is more terrible than that of error amongst . (June) Prairial.

of the Jacobins. Ln.] RELIGION OBNOXIOUS. because it lasts longer. that oath declared schism by the court of Rome . The constitutional worship a palpable inconsequence of sworn priests. the persecution against these rebel ecclesiastics to the law. which survived. for remaining obedient to the faith. was nothing more than a sacred toy which the Convention had left to the country people in order not to destroy their customs too suddenly. it was impossible for its The civil constitution of the persecutors to follow it so far. and all these martyrdoms of Catholic priests. the oath imposed upon the priests . and the religion there remained standing only the religion of of the state the state. because. en masse.B. without dogma. and denied that eternal justice which can alone avenge innocence and punish oppression. all these executions. felt indignant at this resemblance to religion. in the eyes of the people. their imprisonment. 19. three institutions which the Revolution desired to the throne. the installation of a national and republican clergy in the place of these faithful ministers to Rome . They spoke of virtue. and amalgamating itself with the very idea. But the impatient philosophers of the Convention. The greater part Of the modify or destroy — — — — . clergy . their proscription. all these exiles. had swept away in appearance the ancient worship from the face of the republic. all on board the vessels of the republic at Rochefort. who exercised a pretended Catholicism in spite of the spiritual chief of Catholicism. and denied that God whose existence can only bestow a sense to the word Virtue. the expulsion of these refractory priests from their presbyteries and their churches . all this violence. these quarrels. taking refuge in conscience. religion itself. the altars. 297 men. The greater number even openly proclaimed atheism as the only doctrine worthy of intrepid spirits in the material logic of the period. and profanes the most holy This intoxication carried the masses to the most causes. and of the Commune. the images of ancient adoration. the retractations which the mass of the priests had made of this oath to remain attached to the Catholic centre . They burned to inaugurate in its place the abstracted adoration of a God without form. hideous excesses against the temples. and even against the sepulchres of kings. and without worship. They spoke of liberty. the nobility.

whence the power of the state and the richness of benefits withdraw themselves. They wrote upon the gate of the place of sepulchre. they drank wine from the chalice. intoxicated themselves with these theories of atheism.298 PAGANISM ESTABLISHED. demanded brilliant apostacies from the priests. Acclamations awaited these renegades from the altar. without ever being enabled to arrest itself in the true balance of reason and virtue. and shut the church. monasteries. said they. they would not so soon unaccustom themselves to the spectacles and ceremonies which amuse the eye. and thought themselves delivered from every duty in feeling themselves freed from God. ascended the chair to declare that they had been until then impostors. belfries. whose adoration was but a ceremonial. sommeil éternel (eternal rest). churches. cathedrals. and above all Chaumette and Hébert. Thus go the deplorable oscillations of the human mind. and adoring itself in its attributes. presbyteries. to accelerate this movement in Paris. they paraded these abominations through the streets . In a few months the immense matériel of Catholic worship. opposed themselves to this violent invasion of this philosophical religion of Chaumette in the cathedral and in the churches of Paris. They dressed an ox or an ass in pontifical ornaments . to ofier them a new worship. quickly destroyed in the mind. ministers. are. The representatives in mission were themselves astonished at the facility with which all this apparel of ancient institutions had vanished. The philosophers of the Commune resolved. towers. encouraged in the people these accesses They of impiety. They desired to possess themselves of the temples. LU. in the middle of November. from superstition to the annihilation of creeds. and these seditions. Religions. whose dogmas where but images. and whose divinity supreme. Some ecclesiastics. 20. [b. many under the empire of fear. and ceremonies had disappeared. against all worship. XX. others from real incredulity. a kind of renewed paganism. The laws of the Convention which continued to salary the national Catholic worship. They knew that if the people so easily disavowed the spirit of their worship. It was incumbent to cause these ancient buildings to be evacuated — — . and often obtained them. The once sacred ceremonies were derisively parodied. The leaders of the Commune. was but reason become in its own person its own God.

Called to the National Assembly. and replace these fêtes by beian. I renounce the exercise of my functions as minister ot Catholic worship. The destruction of public fêtes will. meditated and agreed upon with the Commune. The tribunes made him " Citizens. and the ready guillotine. a man weak in character but sincere in alone resisted. Each citizen ought to regard himself as the priest of his family. " The morality which I have preached.B. The cause of God must not be an occasion of war amongst men. I — ." The vicars of Gobel signed the same declaration. because the sovereign wills it also. Many written or verbal declarations of this kind followed that of the clergy of Paris. Measure this void. and morality. Unanimous acclamation saluted this triumph. the insults of the people to their costume. I recognised one of the first the sovereignty of the people. had early in my soul the principles of equality. To-day. however. public and national.] # WEAKNESS OF THE HIERARCHY. than that of holy equality." said he. The principal motive which still retained a part of these priests. was the salary attached to their altars. 20. create an immense void in the customs of your population. Their will called me to the episcopal chair of Paris. The cries of death which everywhere followed the priests. faith. Robert Lindet. 299 by a voluntary renunciation of the constitutional bishop and bis clergy. Bishop of Evreux. their blood which flowed in torrents upon all the scaffolds of the republic. LU. An equivalent salary was assured to the principals amongst them." said he. Hope and threats wrung from them : their resignation. I have only employed the ascendency which my title and place might confer upon me. on reading a declaration pretremble. " is that of every time. equality. the necessary bases of every constitution truly republican. abdicated in other terms. the full prisons. They intimidated him on one side : they reassured him on the other. urged the republican priesthood to this renunciation they trembled daily lest they might be immolated in the exercise of their functions. or more lucrative functions in the civil and military administrations of the republic. " born a ple- The Bishop Gobel. in augmenting their attachment to the eternal principles of liberty. Avhen the will of the people does not admit of other worship.

" Citizens. They pressed Gregory to imitate the example of his colleagues. however. avenged him for this disdain. LU. I have endeavoured to do good in my diocese. Siéyès broke silence to abdicate. It drew every worship into the prolifted pierre scription of Catholicism. » [b. They were secretly indignant at the violence of Hébert's party against conscience. Robesand Danton bestowed upon him marks of approbation. The Assembly applauded. I have been tormented to accept the burden of episcopacy I am now tormented to obtain from me an abdication which none shall wring from me. I invoke the liberty of worship." Murmurs and smiles of pity received this courageous act of conscience. and Lalande. But the current was too strong to stem at this moment. Is religion discussed ? That article is not in your domain : you have no right to attack it. but his character of priest. constitutional Bishop of Blois. Vernon. Do they speak to me of sacrifices to the country? lam accustomed to them. Acting according to the sacred principles which are dear to me. and of which I defy you to deprive me. They brought him to the tribune. Of revenue attached to the functions of bishop ? I abandon it without regret. In the midst of this applause Gregory. named bishop by the people. made declarations of the same nature. it was permitted to him to confess his philosophy in his triumph as he had confessed it before A his victory over Catholicism. which may serve as a transition between the reign of superstition and that of reason. philosopher of every time. Of attachment to the Revolution ? My proofs are established. which he had never exercised. as they had done on the night of the 4th of August. Catholic by conviction and sentiment." The Bishops Gay. . them to God. The esteem." said he: "I arrive. not his functions.300 NOBLE CONDUCT OF GREGORY. and I have but very vague ideas of what is passing at this moment. when the nobility abdicated their rights of caste. He informed himself of the cause of this acclamation. The hisses of the tribunes accompanied him to his bench. I remain bishop still to do so. it is not from them or from you that I hold my mission. Gregory was accused of desiring to christianize liberty. 20. fêtes purely national. of men whose philosophy A . and many curates. entered the hall.

The priests of his cortege. In the crucifix to disappear. covered with red bonnets. issued in triumph from the hall and dispersed themselves. you have raised yourselves to the Do not dissemble it. height where philosophy awaits you. " I arrest the priests of the north. That will be : henceforth the national religion. Hébert. amidst the noisy acclamations This abdication of exterior of the crowd in the Tuileries. and the imprisonment and martyrdom of priests who preferred death to apostacy. were cast into money or cannon. . 21. He demanded that the Committee of Puhlic Instruction should bestow in the new calendar a place to the " Day of Reason. LU. those sonorous voices of christian The coffers. reliquaries. these popular apotheoses of the apostles and saints of Catholicism. Catholicism by the priests of a nation surrounded for so many ages by the power of this worship.B. which we owe to you. I am in ecstasy every direction the churches are shut the confessionals and saints burned ." At these words the president embraced the Bishop of Paris. is one of the most characChaumette.] CATHOLICISM ABOLISHED. 301 Chaumette exclaimed that the clay when Reason resumed her empire merited a place to itself in the epochs of the Révolution. the temples. after the separation of this day." XXI. in mission in the departments the people. Avere despoiled of their precious ornaments and cast into the sewer. which an ancient legend pretended was brought from heaven to anoint the kings with celestial oil. I cause the cross and intoxicated. the dispersion of the faithful. wrote to the Convention who permit fetes and the Sabbath. The representative Ruhl broke the sainte ampoule upon the public place at Rheims. and wadding for cannon is made of the sacred : — . the profanation and the devastation of the temples. the symbol of enfranchisement. The directors of the departments forbid the institutors to pronounce the name of God in their tuition to the children of André Dumont." said the president of the Convention. " amongst the natural rights of man we have placed the Under this guarantee liberty of the exercise of worship. " Citizens. sires These sacerdotal toys insulted the Supreme Being He deno other worship than that of Reason. The bells. and their faction. encouraged more and more. teristic acts of the spirit of the Revolution.

there was now a sweeping out of these dark vaults. reliquaries of mitres. followed. and sacred Deputations of patriots came at each sitting of the books. The inauguration of this worship took place at the ConChaumette. Chaumette. companions. The towns and neighbouring villages of Paris ran occasionally to bring also to the Convention. pyx. No more " equality and reason. images. Banners planted in this heap of spoils piled up in Destruction offanaticism ! irregular masses were inscribed The people were avenged by their power to insult what they had so long adored confounding the Deity himself in their resentments against his worship. and that a flood of light. LH. Religions do not spring up in the market-place The religion of at the voice of legislators or demagogues. liberty. advancing towards him. by the members of the Commune. and chandeliers of their gold.' In La Vendée. entered the apartment to the sounds of music and He conducted by the hand the chorus of patriotic hymns.— 302 WORSHIP OF REASON. escorted by a group of seditious citiThis foul assemblage entered the hall confusedly. At Nantes large piles lighted upon the public place. patera. to which the people flocked as they do to priests — — : all novel sights. 21. and reason was entering. her covered with a long blue veil. The Commune desired to replace the ceremonies of religion by other spectacles. The were the the éclat of pagan rites parody of mysteries It was believed that after many attractions to these pomps. the idol being half band of prostitutes. — profanation of sacred places — — the — A presided. Chaumette and the Commune was merely a popular opera transferred from the theatre to the tabernacle. the representatives Lequinio and Laigrelot persecuted even the wax merchants who furnished the candles for the ceremonies of worship. All the citizens cry out. chalices. accompanied vention on the 9th of November. ' books of the liturgy. and zens. upon chariots. burned the statues. ages. But sincerity of purpose was utterly wanting at these fêtes. churches. no soul at these There was no adoration at these meetings ceremonies. one of the handsomest courtesans of Paris. Convention to bear as tribute the spoils of the altar. raised the veil which . [b. and escorted by a vast crowd. Lequinio seated themselves on the benches of the deputies.

Some memArmonville. however. the Convenand the authorities of Paris. and he was already meditating its repression. The president raised the sitting. " Mortals recognise no other divinity than Reason. singers. her frame scarcely covered with a white tunic. andLecarpentier bers of the Convention joined in these dances. and restored decency within the temple of the laws. Popular societies." made A — — A then conversed with some one sitting next to him. and her beauty striking the multitude. fête in honour of Reason was decreed in the cathedral of Paris. He would not by his presence sanction such profanations. went in a body to the cathedral. and personification. Drouet. Satisfied with having voted for these saturnalia. in the full bloom of youth and talent. 303 covered the courtesan. large portion of the Assembly. At the moment when the popular orgy was at its height. a Phrygian cap on her head. the Commune. XXII. Robespierre. new worship. and wearing tri-coloured girdles. the seat of which was formed of oak branches. they abandoned them to the people. had been compelled by Chaumette's threats to play the part of the divinity of the people.~] WORSHIP OF KEASON. sections. Robespierre's departure disconcerted Chaumette. The 20th of December. an actor at the opera. and retired with Saint-Just. She entered borne on a palanquin. seconded by La'is. revolutionary committees. preceded her. and high in popular admiration. he rose. had arranged the plan of the fête. of which I present to you the loveliest and purest ! At these words Chaumette bowed and The president. Songs and dances hailed this decree. he exclaimed. seated beside Saint-Just. The degradation of the Revolution appeared to him its crime of greatest magnitude. the day fixed for the installation of the tion. With the theatrical cothurni on her feet. formerly a favourite of the queen. Mademoiselle Maillard. 22. the Convena semblance of adoration. groups of choristers. made notes. fraternal female societies. and opera dancers encircled the throne. He gave a glance at the disorder in the Chamber. Chaumette. Women dressed in white.B. LU. His stern countenance did not give way for a moment. and the people affected to pay similar worship. over which a . and blushed at participating in them. tion. with ill-repressed indignation. appeared cold and careless. an actress. affected inattention and indifference.

whither they had already pursued the memories. the destruction of the tombs of the kings of St. LH. history. at the sound of instruments. A . interior of these temples. the remains of Sainte Geneviève. Death itself was not an inviolable asylum for the relics of kings. The devastation of sanctuai-ies. and mutilated statue of the Virgin was waved it in the air. Chaumette. 23. receiving the encensoir. the popular patroness of Paris. Chaumette apostrophised the marble. destined henceforward to be the sole flame of the The actress lighted this flambeau. decree of the Convention had commanded. XXIII. a place consecrated to punishment. the representatives in mission compelled modest wives and innocent young maidens. Bishop Gobel was there. had changed this decree into an attack against the dead. in a tribune. and threw her ashes to the wind. The light surface of France bent Only instead of divinities before every wind from Paris. in which the perfume was burning. and lying at his feet. in hatred of royalty. Dances and hymns attracted the eyes and ears of the spectators. emblematical of the light of philosophy. [b. and superstition of the country. No profanation was wanting in the old temple whose foundations were confounded with the foundations of religion and the monarchy. to the foot of the altar. from the hands of the two acolytes. Motionless from fear tears of shame rolled down the bishop's cheeks. and humanity. Forced by terror to be present at this fête. flowing cloak of sky-blue was'thrown. borrowed from the theatres. DenisThe Commune. the priestess was borne. and the disper- sion of relics followed the inauguration of the allegorical They burnt on the Place de Grève. They pursued the traditions of religion even to their sepulchres. respect. and placed on the spot where the adoration of the faithful so lately sought the mystic bread transformed into a divinity. defied it to resume its place in the respect of the people. exaggerating political power. at this parody of the mysteries which three days before he had celebrated at the same altar.304 DESTKUCTION AT ST. knelt. Behind her was a vast torch. to display themselves to the adoration of the public in these spec- A : A tacles. It had ordered the exhumation of worship of Chaumette. DENIS. similar worship was imitated in all the churches throughout the departments.

sought the departed. The mutilated heads of Turenne. A deep which quick lime was thrown to consume the dead Perfumes bodies. calcined bones. There were heard. Louis XII. LH. and threw croziers. was made in the cemetery of the Valois. The axe broke the gates of bronze presented by Charlemagne. crowns. The people. were burnt in the caverns to purify the air. pastoral and historical and religious attributes. with all the circumstances and all the derision befitting the horror of such an act. m. princes. and some of the third. were rolled on to the pavement. savage over these tombs. protected him for the moment from profanation.] DESECRATION OF THE DEAD. the spoliation of the grave. proved the care which this voluptuous king took of his face. His uncovered breast displayed the two wounds whence his life had flowed away. This sacrilegious order was executed by the commissioners of the Commune. and threw them on a bed of quick lime. to the Basilica of Saint Denis. for two days. seemed to exhume their own history. They raised the stones. bishops. which was in a moment scattered by the wind. in about his bones. the founder of the in the past history of France. revered by the people. They rent away their rags of silk. 23. Carlovingian dynasty. Philip the Bold. ransacked the vaults. Duguesclin. roofing.. fosse. Francois I. His beard. Placed in the choir. Henry IV. after each blow of the axe. His memory. dead. as in his portraits. blending with mockery. all were broken and ground to atoms under the hammer. The multitude. empty skulls of kings. Hugues Capet. embalmed with skill by Italians. queens. beneath the swathings and shrouds. Philip the Handsome. They trampled on heaps of sceptres. out. Beneath the choir were buried the princes and princesses of the first race. embalmed corpses. ministers. crumbled flesh. the vol. silently marched round this still popular corpse. who uncovered the remains of a king. Gratings. whose names had been famous Pépin. was now but a pinch of grey ash. and scatter it to the winds. and father of Charlemagne. preserved still his historic physiognomy. he received.. statues. the shouts of the gravediggers. perfumed and spread out like a fan. violated the resting places of Curiosity. at the foot of the altar. 305 bones.B. x . the carrying away of the lead of the coffins to cast into balls.

were carried away in armsful by the workmen. like the skeletons of several other queens. " He deceived. a justice and a golden crown. that this king. Turenne's body. Matilde's skeleton wanted the head. The vault of the Bourbons rendered up its dead queens. and his wife Matilde. The military tomb of the Invalids was rendered to this hero by the hands of a fellow-soldier. 23. even to aid in his crimes. was venerated by the people . brave and amorous. a black inThe man disappeared. Duguesclin. Javogues. whose scandalous life had degraded last "out : came to issue from royalty. was indignant at this posthumous superstition. dauphinesses. princesses. King . beside Charles V. as. in his pride. followed. and XIV. and it was secretly removed. ministers of the monarchy. Louis XIV. They were obliged to burn a mass of gunpowder to dissipate the mephitic odour of the corpse of this prince. Louis XIII. Suger. during his life. they found. In the vault of Charles. He endeavoured to prove to the people. and the just hate of the people sought Louis XI. Louis XIII. after his death. and cast into the trench. which confounded their recollections of glory with the recollections of hand of — servitude. Vendôme. whom he had so often invoked.. in a few words. amongst the stuffed remains of animals. " God.. into the common His sons and grandsons. Louis XV. was but a mummy." said Javogues. had reposed in the same sepulchre for twelve centuries. abbés. and spindles and marriage-rings in the coffin of Jeanne de Bourbon his wife. in his perfumes. in vain. homage of the mutilators of royalty. [b.. his mistresses. a representative of the people. He had been buried in one of the sanctuaries of the Virgin.— 306 respectful DESECRATION OF THE DEAD. of the tomb the infection of his reign seemed his sepulchre. LII. distinguishable mass of aromatics. The vault of the Valois was empty. Dagobert L. were ca^t headlong into the earth. heroes. him not deceive posterity and your justice !" flung the carcase of Henry IV. and his people: let They fosse. mutilated by a ball. and for nine years preserved in the lofts of the Cabinet of Natural History in the Jardin des Plantes. had rather been the seducer than the friend of his people.

Murder was his philosophy. whither she had escaped from the grandeurs of life. even in the tomb John of the cloister. at Nantes. daughter of Louis XV. The Convention turned away their eyes. The A . x 2 Paris was not alone a prey rage. Her coffin was brought to St. Carrier sought in the mythology of the primitive Christians and in the depravation of the Roman empire. where every thing was permitted. as in the fury of combat. blood all his sensuality. Nothing that had been Brutal instinct revealed in the royal was judged innocent. the pretended complicity of the inhabitants of Nantes. population isolated by hardy. It was that of a young princess. to these devastations and this representatives of the Convention and the agents of the Commune traversed the whole surface of France. but of depraved in stincts. executions to renew and refinements of death to surpass. The vengeance of the Revolution went to seek this virgin's body. This man was not one of opinion. Nantes was a field of carnage. and to date all from the Republic.. LIII. No relic was spared. Lin. L] CARRIER. Revolution the desire to repudiate all the past of France. He had no idea but that of fury. and wild as their climate.B. It sought to tear out every page in history. BOOK I. The passage of the Loire by the Vendeans. had given to Carrier an entire people to execute. Denis. They found one spoil was wanting. Carrier was born in those mountains of Auvergne where the men are strong. and had died there under the Carmelite's habit. Carrier. in order that it might be made to undergo the penalty of exhumation and exposure. who had fled into a nunnery to avoid the scandals of the throne. 307 closed up the file of this mournful procession of the dead. endeavoured to surpass in executions the number and ferocity of those of Collot d'Herbois at Lyons. the insurrection of the nobles. and the peasants. the priests. He invented tortures and obscenities to season to his imagination the blood with which he was satiated.

After the rout of the royalist army. He had been cowardly in combat. . and amongst others the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal. person named Lambertye. and demanded five hundred citizens. They chose him. sent of its mines and volcanoes. in a country villa in the faubourg of Nantes. in the centre of France. paid at ten francs per day. sick. LIH. consisting of prisoners. hardened by the practice of that subaltern chicanery. and of the military commission. He selected. amongst the most abject and half-starved men of the refuse of Nantes. to animate the republican army by his patriotism. to send him to the Convention. to be the guards of his person and the executors of his orders. extreme measures. They sent him to terror into the disturbed provinces. to the popular society of Nantes he harangued the club . He formed. he had never spoken but vociferously. had wrung from him some phrases of approbation. and made himself inaccessible to increase fright by mystery. whom This was little for the fugitive army left upon their march. had become a declaimer and agitator of his country. like Tiberius at Caprea. which closes the heart and sours the speech of litigious men. race and its manners. the members of the Revolutionary Committees. terrible in vengeance. La Montagne had thought proper to carry . Nantes. that the intention of the Convention was to depopulate and burn the country. created by him adjutant. He wrote to General Haxo. by an appearance of judgment. [b. 1. he had established at Nantes. charged to legalise his atrocities. to Aurillac to study as a lawyer. which seems to have in its fibres some portion of the fire and iron Carrier. More than eight thousand victims had already been shot in the depots. He allowed no one to approach him but his satellites. and women and children. They thought they discerned in him an invincible soldier of He was then the Revolution he was but an executioner. from his energy of purpose and ferocity of ~oul. Carrier. under the name of the Company of Marat. a band of stipendiaries. born in a village. he abused its sloth he pointed out to it the merchants and rich people as the worst kind of aristocracy. but his butchery.308 its CRUELTY OF CARRIER. He presented himself with naked sabre in hand. He shut himself up. A . not his tribunal. Without talent in the ConThe most vention. upwards*of forty years of age.

flight a crime. property sequestrated. republicans or royalists. to execute therein his nocturnal slaughter. brought the suspected in flocks from the towns and neighbouring counties into the depots of Nanfes. The Company of Marat and the detachments of troops in garrison at Nantes.I. All the principal citizens. Those who refused these infamous compliances were sent. Murder absolved theft . plunged into their infection. Lambertye carried his orders to the military commission. was his instrument. and demanded from them x 3 . enrolled the executioners. children. and the satellites of Lambertye. others for their opinion. Carrier called the suspected members to him. Carrier gave an order to the president of the military commission to deliver up the prisons and the depots to Lambertye. Residence was a sin. and sometimes abandoned for two days without nourishment. who had followed their husbands from beyond the Loire. loaded them with invectives. The tribunal commenced murmuring at its own servility. The blood-hounds of Carrier. and even blows. women by their prostitution. Every movement of life was at a stand still. 2. The phantoms of judgments were too tardy and too multiplied in the eyes of Carrier. brandished his sabre before their eyes. The citizens redeemed their life only by their fortunes. for their all for their dress. even when pregnant. without straw. 309 general. — martyrdom some . the merchants imprisoned. without beds.— B.] CRUELTY OF CARRIER. directed by Lambertye. executed murders en masse. LD. while civil agents of the proconsul filled them by their denunciations. to execution. were shot with the infants which they were about to bring into the world. Not content with having caused eighty victims to be shot at one time without judgment. II. A The executioners called this striking royalism in the priests suffered germ ! Seven hundred faith. and partitioned the spoils. single one of these depots contained fifteen hundred A women and fire. Pillage served as incitement to murder. commerce was suppressed. commanded the troops. were crammed into the dungeons. wealth a denunciation. These human shambles were only emptied by fusillades. without and without covering. great number of Vendean women. thus emptied the prisons. and who were gathered together in the fields. The town and the department were no longer peopled but by murderers and by victims.

and their accomplices re- . Whilst he yielded himself up to the joys of wine and love on deck. of which he made a present to his accomplice Lambert)7 e." III. They continued — "Am A their orgies upon this floating sepulchre. in parts of the river which he should order. The silent water of the Loire was dumb. furnished to one of the seids of Carrier an idea which he adopted. of which the waves of the Loire bore witness even to its mouth. 3. vented a new one. His execuHe tioners trembled. Pie ordered them. so as to sink them. The bottom of the Carrier sea alone would know the number of victims. to make trips upon the water. I not a representative?" answered Carrier. He furnished a galley of pleasure. stifled groaning announced to the crew that hundreds of lives had just breathed their last under their feet. he infelt that his instrument of murder was worn out. One of these mariners asking him for a written order. under pretext of transporting the prisoners from one depot to another. The parricide Nero. his victims. "you must throw these fifty priests into the water when you are in the middle of the current. to pierce plug-holes in a certain number of decked vessels. to impute his crime to the sea. at a given signal.310 HIS INSANE CRUELTY [b. Sometimes Carrier. Death by fire and sword made a noise. without much mystery. and for his courtiers." added he. scattered blood. Carrier embarked therein. and would render no account. " Ought you not to have confidence in me for the labours I command you ? Not so much mystery. under pretext of watching the banks of the river. Lambertye. with their living cargoes. and were secretly indignant at him. became a spectacle for Carrier. drowning Agrippina in a sunken galley. and the waves of the Loire swallow them up. provided with all the wines and all the necessaries of feasting. saw. as pitiless as himself. LIII. These orders were at first executed secretly and under the colour of accidents of navigation. This vessel. the valves open. and left bodies to be buried and be counted. adorned with all the delicacies of furniture. the heads which were marked out. or their own. caused mariners to be brought. But soon these naval executions. enclosed in the hold. became the most general theatre of these executions. sometimes himself with his executioners and his courtesans.

Carrier. This was one of those wrongs most justly imputed as a reproach to Robespierre. was sent to Nantes by Robespierre to investigate the crimes He informed Robespierre of the excesses by of Carrier. having slightest murmur was imputed to crime. Carrier was reBut La Montagne dared not disavow him or defame called. which Carrier dishonoured terror itself. or — — — "We A proscriber sufficient to accept them. allowing Carrier to escape with impunity.] TO THE PEOPLE OF NANTES. IV. learned that some secret denunciations had been sent to the Committee of Public Safety. to Paris. at Arras and at Cambray. The people of Nantes. Stripped of their garments. rip up the bellies of the pregnant women. seeing the Convention mute. with horrible sarcasms on this parody of marriage in death. burn the houses. his words. they hound them. 311 joiced in the cruel pleasure of this spectacle of agony. This cannibal sport was termed " republican marriages. was to declare himself either too weak to punish them. dared not accuse as madness those acts which The the satellites of this proconsul called patriotism. buried them in dungeons. son of a representative named Juvon. and burn children These murders did not yet satisfy of fourteen years old.B. but his madness was still sanguinary. conformably to the slaughter: orders of their chiefs. They caused victims of either sex in couples to mount upon the deck." Carrier. 4. caused two hundred of the principal merchants in Nantes to be arrested. the departments of the North and of the Pas de Calais. Joseph Lebon decimated. young commissioner of public instruction. one to the other. they suspended them thus naked and interlaced by a cord passed under the shoulders through a block of the vessel ." These drownings of Nantes lasted many months. him. and then flung the victims into the river. witnesses and victims of this fury. Not to avenge humanity of these illegal acts. the authors and executors of which themselves thus recounted the saw the volunteers. make them fly from bayonet to bayonet. with a young girl. This x 4 . and his actions . throw children from hand to hand. Entire villages perished en masse in military executions. LUI. and afterwards caused them to be slowly dragged attached in couples. face to a priest with a nun. Madness bewildered his reason. a young man face. they sported.

Lm. and fever of revolutions has its delirium. Lebon repudiated it in his turn. so similar to the religion of . man Christ. Lebon had entered into the order of the Oratory. the model of priests. at Arras. Rejected from the rule of this order. In a period of quiet. regular piety. Lebon became curate of Vernois. and just. his manners. He married. He believed he perceived the torch of political truth to be enlightened by the age at the torch of divine faith. near His Beaune. He slackened his hand to put down. is an example of the phrenzy which seized some weak heads in the great oscillations of opinion. 4. during the short phases of a life of thirty years. manifested it in all its accesses. showed himself indulgent. without striking. and wrought upon by the conspiracies of Dumouriez. he left the renown of a pitiless proscriber. patient. Denounced by the Jacobins on account of his moderation. at first. When philosophy repudiated this schismatic church. The pledge he had given to the Revolution caused it to elevate him to public employ. Lebon there. Times have their The crimes as well as men. at this period.312 JOSEPH lebon. the nursery for men who were destined to public tuition. The Committee of Public Safety did not think they could confide to a more trustworthy man the mission of watching over and quelling the contra-revolutionary plots of those departments in the neighbourhood of the frontiers. a compatriot of Robespierre. the Committee of Public Safety recalled him to Paris to reprimand him for his weakness. submissive to the priests. he had acquired the name of a man of worth in darker days. Whether it were that the tone of this reprimand had . He separated himself from Rome to unite himself to the constitutional church. The philanthropic doctrines of the Revolution mingled themselves in his mind with the spirit of liberty. He returned to his country. Born at Arras. and his feeling for human misery made Lebon. Blood is as contagious as air. [b. at the commencement of the Revolution. of equality. brought him to the Convention. the enemies of the Revolution and the suspected. His faith itself incited him against his faith. The ascendency of Robespierre and of Saint-Just. and of the charity of Christianity. Lehon proved it. He was impassioned with zeal and hope for this religion of the people.

" He stripped the suspected of their wealth. and threatened to make her expiate her refusal in the dungeon. and confiscated these legacies of the scaffold to the He drove from popular society those profit of the republic. for judges and juries. dine publicly at his table. his cousin. He seemed to repent of his ancient humanity as of a weakness. He had thus raised upon this footstool of infamy a young girl of seventeen. another man to penetrate into his into the north. 4. Nobles. citizens. He insulted and He replaced them with denunciadismissed the authorities. women whose modesty prevented them from taking part in the patriotic dances ordered. 313 caused the terror which he was ordered to carry to Arras own soul. and accompanied contra-revolutionists. a raised balcony. He caused him to tioner as the chief magistrate of liberty. at the execution of the condemned. He searched for. The empty prisons at his voice were filled. and the condemned women of their jewels. who had refused to dance in these civic choirs. became as water in his eyes. or whether the fire of civic fury had ignited him. servants. from horror. preceded by the instrument of execution. in his eyes. old men. shall not issue forth |but to take their place. He named. on a level with the guillotine. at any rate. denunciators.B. LHI. young girls and women who read aristo- . tors. and children who had not even attained the age of crime. the most ferocious repubHe dictated the sentences. parents of emigrants. He paraded licans of the clubs. He endeavoured to cause his wife to view with less horror the death of the enemies of the people. He insulted her with his own tongue. to the interrogations and yells of the populace. and strangers who knew not even how to read he mingled all in the arrests which the laws of the country he commanded his assassins to execute. farmers. upon a platform. and for the He made by judges. as if to reinstate death. and executioners. The only crime. was pity for the his prior faith. priests. he returned. under pain of imprisonment. Blood. and which execution he himself watched over.] HIS EXCESSES. priests. He honoured the executhe guillotine from town to town. women. of which he had had a — He was present. He caused to be inscribed over his door " Those — who shall enter here to solicit the liberty of the detenus. the companions of triumphal entries into the cities. and struck with his own hand. He had them exposed.

He condemned and guillotined whole families. like Carrier. the little town of Bedouin. yielded to the sanguinary example of the assassins of Avignon. The triumvirate of Isabeau. by order of the Committee of Public Safety. the deputy of Saône-et-Loire. and by the revolutionary commission of Orange. and his daughters. and of Tallien pacified La Gironde. and laid low twenty heads at once. Baudot. chained his servants. — TALLIEN. into the country-house of one of the principal republicans of Avignon. personal hatreds and assassinations. Ten thousand victims fell much less under the axe of the republic. V. seven hundred and ralists fifty heads of the fede- had already rolled under the iron of the guillotine. proud of the friendship of Danton. to purge the south. young. crimes called reaction into the departments. The south. and not of carriage . He pursued vengeance beyond the scaffold. for all. VI. after having expelled the inhabitants. In the south the proconsul. Blood appeared more crimson when contrasted with this feeling for family and these domestic details. and shot him under the eyes of his own son. an ancient orator. sometimes and sometimes indulgent. urging republican zeal to a fever. Maignet. dragged him into his cellar. than under the vengeance of their own personal enemies. of fire. pressed by a colony of Montagnards. Isabeau. dared no longer act under the hand of the Conpassibility. like Fouché. of Baudot. — vention. Tallien. signalised as a focus of royalty. and all women suspected of attachment to the proscribed. and intoxicated with his reputation. He burned. born. patriots same weapons. handsome. at night. Opinions became. Men in masks having been introduced. [B. 5. whom they forced to hold a lamp to light their aim. all ideas are passions — all passions crimes. his wife. causing some to expect vengeance and others pity Tallien thought he felt himself destined to great things. LUI. In this climate cratic books. Maignet seized this occasion to arrest all the relations of emigrants. He governed Bordeaux as a sove-terrible — . At Bordeaux. in the mountains of Auvergne. but not to cruelty . modérés. all used the Royalists.3 H LEBON. a man of vigour. — ISABEAU BAUDOT. He instigated the creation of a popular commission at Orange. The system which these men adopted had degraded them to im- As for the rest.

French by origin. The son of a father nourished in the domesticity of an illustrious family. and by her applause. as of Cleopatra or of Theodora. in fêtes. the languor of the north. Born at Madrid. the fire of the south. and in public ceremonies the people of Bordeaux saw her enthusiasm by her presence. At the moment when Tallien arrived at Bordeaux. in order to turn it to the advantage of mercy. to enslave those who enslave the world. a young Spanish woman. her hair covered with a hat and tri-coloured plume. from patriotism. But Madame de Fontenay had a horror of blood. She could not resist a tear. The republic appeared to her as the Nemesis of kings. She believed generosity to be the excuse of power. of striking beauty. The necessity of conquering a greater popularity. and the restoration of nature and of truth. and the grace of France united in her person. She was the daughter of the Count de Cabarrus. rather than as a delegate of a popular democracy. The count of Cabarrus. for the price of his services. Tallien brought into the republic the tastes. of tender feelings. the elegances. of a Valencian mother. She was one of those women whose charms are power. Clothed in a riding habit. at the reviews. in her route towards Spain. by her costume. and to tyrannise over the soul of tyrants. she made many republican discourses. by the arrest of her husband. French by origin. and of whom nature avails herself. and to speak. The persecutions to which her father had submitted at Madrid. the pride. she had become so. 315 reign of a conquered province. They thought they beheld in her the female genius of the republic. The intoxication of the people resembled love. in heart. by his genius for finance. VII. Y. At the theatres. and established in Spain. LUI. whom Cabarrus had elevated.B.] MADAME DE FONTENAY. had risen. to the highest employs in the monarchy under the reign of Charles III. educated himself by the patronage of this family. made her a living statue of the beauty of all these climates. and also the corruptions of aristocracy. induced her to appear sometimes in the clubs. She called herself then Madame de Fontenay. and of passionate imagination was detained there. in the popular societies. . the providence of nations. had taught the young Spaniard from her infancy to detest despotism and adore liberty. He desired to make himself feared and adored at the same time.

but did not insist upon his recall to Paris." said he. with whom passion amounts to delirium. females who had subjected proscribers. The fame of ancient seducing enough to soften him. intoxicated her. The judges were milder from the example of the representative. to wrest victims from them. intoxicated with his passion for Dona Theresa. he gloried in his He weakness. Tallien. paraded her in splendid equipages. which displayed transparently the beauty of her form. but to raise her to it . As all men do. He rejoiced in the publicity of his amour. " are fit only to lien with contempt. This woman held in her hand the heart of him who controlled life and death . . She felt herself courageous enough to brave him. The executions were soon confined to only those men pointed out by the Committee of Public Safety as dangerous to the republic. and blood flowed in torrents upon the scaffold. Clothed in the light drapery of the Greek statues. at this moment ruled the republic. The love of a woman transformed terror Bordeaux forgot its seven hundred victims. But she rejoiced more in being secretly the divinity of pardon. under whom all bent. The enthusiastic temper of the . 7. Dona Theresa affected the attitude of the goddess of liberty. . They spoke of the representative of the people as of an implacable man. LUI. the place of the republic. Tallien. but to cover her with it. to the delight of Bordeaux. with insolence before his colleagues whilst the prisons were gorged with captives. She usurped. The name of Tallien then made Bordeaux tremhle. induced her the ambition of ruling over one of the men who. [b. Robespierre was provoked at it. He loved him better as a satrap at Bordeaux than as a conspirator in the Convention. : Bordelais smiled at this Oriental proconsulship of Tallien. glory. displayed it with pride before the people. while the emissaries of the representatives tracked the suspected in the fields. bowed at her feet. They inoculate the people with the bad manners of the aristocracy. But patience we will deliver the — . and the other gracefully leant upon the shoulder of the proconsul. in his soul. He no longer desired power but to allow her to partake it greatness.316 MADAME DE FONTENAT. she was supplicated and adored as the providence of the persecuted. She conquered the representative by her first look. a spear in her hand. revive vice. He spoke of Tal" These men.

" we have delivered them from VIII. I have nothing to claim for myself. a discourse of clemency pronounced in the popular society of Vesoul." replied the younger Robespierre." Surrounded by the relatives of the détenus. cold. with the respect of a son. Lni. turn here with the olive-branch in my hand. pursued his mission of clemency. the oracles and confidence of his brother. weak. and to open the prisons. " Does he believe then. or I will die for you. Robespierre kept his eye on these proconsuls. but powerless beyond the limits of the Haute Saône. he broke out in reproaches against the cruelty of the Conventionalist. " for I go to defend my head and that of your relatives at the same time. he restored liberty to eight hundred détentes.B. as their tyrants. " The services which my brother has rendered to the Revolution. It was evident that he drew his inspirations from a system rather than from his sentiments. Robespierre sent his brother on a mission to Vesoul and to Besançon. and without imagination. and that it will not Fouché made vain endearecoil upon those who hold it ?" vours to become reconciled to Robespierre. 317 people from their corrupters. This young man only availed himself of the high power which his name bestowed upon him to moderate his colAfter leagues." This exalted young man received. " are The love of the people has been the reward of all personal. having spoken to him one day in the assembly of the illustriousness of his family called to high destiny". Nvho represented to him the injustice and tyranny of his colleagues.] ROBESPIERRE AND HIS BROTHER. The president of the club of Besançon. This indulgence was not slow in bringing down scandal on his The young representative colleague Bernard de Saintes. His eloquence was monotonous. them. On the return of Fouché from his mission in the south. " that the blade of the republic is a sceptre. speaking of Fouché. and to bring back justice. the younger Robespierre promised them to bear their complaints " I shall reto the Convention. noble by birth. repress executions. ." said he to them ." said he. 8.

his oratorical talents. both the intimate confidants of Robespierre. He only rested from the intoxication of war to condemn himself to watchings and to the assiduous toil of an He did not permit himself any of those relaxorganiser. the country of Robespierre. which breathed the purest attachment. BOOK I. who had imitated and equalled the ferocity of Lebon in Alsace. at others separated. he sent to the guillotine the president of the revolutionary tribunal of Strasburg. The young representative had several horses killed under him. pitiless in council. in the environs of Arras. . Born at Frévent. and of the fortune of as many families. Equally implacable towards those who stained the republic as towards those who betrayed it. as a dogma of which he was not permitted to sacrifice any thing to humane sentiments. but displayed on the field of battle the impetuosity of his youth.318 SAINT-JUST. II. and to stimulate and moderate the public mind in the threatened departments. master of the life of thousands of citizens. 1. and the example of an intrepidity which astonished the very soldiery. LIV. [b. displayed the austerity of a Scipio. He had devoted himself. to his principles as a revolutionist. ations of which his youth might have rendered him desirous. He seemed to recognise no other luxury than the triumph of his cause. LIV. he respected in himself the Revolution. This proconsul of twenty-four years. He was no more sparing of his blood than of his renown. Saint-Just carried not only the nerve of an inflexible will into the tribunals. and from Lille to Strasburg.Just and Lebas. He wrote from the midst of the camp letters to the sister of Lebas. ran from the army of the North to the army of the Rhine. displayed in the popular cause. by a double worship. had carried Lebas During sometimes in unison. his friend. and to his person as a friend. the early months of 1794. who beheld at his feet the wives and daughters of the detenus. Terrible in combat. — LEBAS. and almost every where his colleague. The mission of Saint-Just to Strasburg saved thousands of heads. watch the generals. Saint. Lebas. had been the schoolfellow of Robespierre. to reorganise the armies.

He had remitted his conscience and his votes to his hands . when I can tear my thoughts from public matters. 319 He there followed the thought of Rointo the Convention. he believed in virtue as in the infallibility of Robespierre. and my colleague. I am oppressed with is now one o'clock in the morning. introduced by Robespierre into the house of Duplay. Every other idea. Honest. and which signed the imprisonment or liberty of so many proscribed. Duquesnoy. He was betrothed The hand which drew to the youngest daughter of Duplay. when our carriage takes us up. 2. In rendering to Paris all the services of which I am capable. had become the table companion of this family. It life I lead here. never cease. wrote to this female. I go to sleep dreaming of you . might not Couthon have some deference for his young Might not Robespierre consider that I have colleague ? already done enough to shorten the term of my sacrifice? Occupy yourself. I dream of you. bespierre.] LEBAS' LETTER. that deputies Yesterday I caused two truly patriotic are required here. Lebas. or falls asleep. troubles me. ! ! ! We We We . modest. without other ambition than that of serving the ideas of his master.B. Saint-Just and myself. Now that my presence is not so necessary. augmented still more the unity of opinion. generals to be arrested. fatigue. to take the necessary measures for the triumph travel night and day. and exercise the of our armies. dreaming of domestic happiness under the same roof where Robespierre dreamt of his blood-stained theories. my dear Elizabeth. overpowered by fatigue. ceases talking. " When shall I be able to place the seal to a union to which I attach the happiness of my life?" said Lebas to his affianced " Oh how sweet will be that moment when I again bride. with the arrangement of our future dwelling. He possesses talent and excellent qualities. I am satisfied with Saint-Just. and Robespierre is of the number. the sabre at the head of our battalions. I wrote yesterday in haste to Robespierre. as the fixed star of his opinions. and almost of relationship. I shall rejoice in the happishall be united now ! ness of being near to you Tell Robespierre that my health cannot long submit to the rude Pardon me the brevity of my letters. connexions of familiarity. LIV. What cruel sacrifices the country demands of me see you by these absences! But matters go on so badly. Embrace all the family. and silent.

was some months afterwards the motive of the absence of Saint-Just from the Committee of an absence which weakened the party of Public Safety disapRobespierre. having hesitated afterwards to give him her hand. They professed atheism. his colleague. ter of the republic. and caused his fall and his death. some poor and honest artisans. who at the commencement returned Saint-Just the sentiment he experienced for her. Couthon. This circumstance. and some sectarians. liv. He beSaint-Just attributed this estrangement to Lebas. But this young girl. nevertheless. pointment in love thus went some way towards the catastrophe which dragged down Robespierre and the republic. it was said. fanaticised by democratic doctrines. composed all the court of Robespierre. both attached to Robespierre.Just. This was not the reign. He is an excellent man : I love him and esteem him every day more. Robespierre's court. I have promised him a repast from your hand. Hébert and Chaumette daily excited this excess more and in his pages of Père Duchesne." Henriette was the sister of Lebas. these two vilest passions of the human heart. but the saturnalia of the republic. I am glad that you have no prejudice against Saint. These interior details attest the simplicity of passions and interests which were in agitation around the masRobespierre the younger. Liberty was a scandal of the republicans themselves. The perpetual dialogue which they held his discourses. the other in stirred Philosophers of Diderot's schools. At the moment when he such a general sees us arrive. It was the school of a philosopher in lieu of the circle of a dictator. The attachment which Saint-Just evidenced towards Lebas was a reflection of that which he entertained for the sister of most indefatigable surveillance. beloved by Saint-Just. the Italian Buonarotti. These two Conventionalists remained. cool towards his colleague. The republic has not a more ardent or more intelligent defender. came — A more the one . The house of a workman continued to be his palace. The populace of Paris. 3. But this philosopher had an intractable people for his disciples.320 least expects us. and the scum spread. III. Lebas. intimidated the true body of them. Saint-Just. and demand from him an account of his conduct. and that people had the sword in their hands. once unchained. [b. men up the .

Y IV. they had assassinated the vanquished. LIV. It displayed itself like a prostitute. and its executions had become for these furies a spectacle as necessary as the combats of the gladiators were to the corrupted female patricians of Rome. The women of Paris. the people had been the first to applaud the shamelessness of Hébert.] THE PARISIAN WOMEN. 321 with the people. clubs of their own sex. Avhich are to the tongue of men what ordure is to the sight and smell. These societies of women had their orators. cruel after victory. Ashamed of being excluded from the clubs of men. had decreed that these heroines of the great days of the Revolution should have an honourable 2>lace in the civic ceremonies. its sentences. even clubs of children from twelve to fourteen years of aye. afterwards under that of societies of republican and revolutionary women. Ferocity is the cynicism of the heart. was seasoned by oaths and obscene expressions. There were. The Revolution.B. Their native tongue had lost all modesty. Mirabeau had incited them by one word pronounced at Versailles. This parody made them laugh as if at a masquerade of words. its agitations. Théroigne de Mericourt and her bands had marched to the assault of the Tuileries on the 20th of June and the 10th of August. Terrible during the combat." he said in a whisper to the emissaries of the Parisian insurrection. under the name of fraternal societies. Its licence no longer made it blush. these women had founded at first. once inflamed. " there will be nothing done. on the evening of the days of the 5th and 6th of October. The Commune of Paris. running at the head of the republican bands of the capital. and to profanations which surpass the audacity of men. and mutilated their bodies. The vulgar horde were proud to see their folly raised to the dignity of political language. by the place of their meeting. They infected the vocabulary of the republic. and carried to Paris on the end of their pikes the heads of the massacred body guards. had in effect first violated the palace of the king. 4. its days. rises to excess. Cynicism and ferocity are allied." He knew that the fury of women. The women of — — . on the report of Chaumette. brandished the poignard over the bed of the queen. " If the women do not mix in it. spilt their blood. III. called "Red Children" the baptism of blood upon the heads of these precocious republicans. and that they should be preceded by a VOL.

They were the advanced guard of a new 31st of May. since the eclipse of Danton. more adapted to dream of the social happiness than to form the mechanism of societies.) " They shall assist in the national fetes. . they founded their agrarian doctrines upon the club of Enrages. and to glut Antiquity had paid mourners." From thence originated the name of Tricoteuses (Knitters) of Robespierre. It was composed of abandoned women. LIV. The Revolutionary Society sat at Saint Eustache. detachments of these mercenaries. 5. its bridle. either in the depths of misery. the tumult of their motions. and upon the steps of the guillotine to greet death. such as marriage.322 SOCIETIES OF THE WOMEN OF : PAIÎIS. distributed themselves aoout the entrances of the tribunal. who discussed with more decency the social questions analogous to their sex. the their eyes with blood. adventurers of their sex. and the assistance of humanity. day. The fraternal society of women held its sittings in a This union was composed of educated women. These three clubs were to the Commune what the Jacobins were to the Convention. the education of children. at another and sometimes its sword. a name which defamed Every that sign of handiwork and of the domestic hearth. The scandal of their meetor in the hovels of debauchery. banner bearing this inscription " Elles ont balayé les tyrans devant elles. [b. the institutions of relief. to the most unbridled demagogues." (They have swept the tyrants before them. These women had dictated laws under pretext of bestowing their counsel upon the Convention. Chaumette was their Danton. hall adjacent to that of the Jacobins." said the decree of the Commune. paid by the Commune. Particularly affiliated to the club of the Cordeliers. Robespierre was their oracle and their idol. — maternity. " with their husbands and their children. to insult the victims. recruited for vice. V. The Utopian and vague character of its institutions was conformable to the genius of women. It was evident that their acts were dictated to them by the agitators of the Commune and of the Cordeliers. — Commune had stipendiary furies. one while its — whip. Hébert was their Robespierre. and the audacity of their petitions annoyed the Committee of Public Safety. ings. upon the route of the tumbrils. the caprice of their eloquence. and they shall knit there. abandoned. They were the philosophers of their sex.

who am accused of allowing myself to be persuaded by women. born by chance in the coulisses of a provincial theatre. L1V. magistrate." said " She has confessed to me that it was not this Chabot. Struck by the beauty of a young prisoner. Some wished leave to speak. speech but perpetual declamation. and. all imprisonments and pardons. More alive to noise than truth. The people like these declamatory natures the gigantic appears to them sublime. and eloquent woman. Robespierre alone. if I did not set the mayor of Toulouse at liberty. she had passed with one step from the theatre to the tribune. whatever counterfeits nature seems to them to surpass it. 6. like him.] ROSE LACOMBE. Rose Lacombe had a powerful ascendency over A A — the Commune. this grand scene of Like the people had disgusted her with every thing else. Rose Lacombe had tried everything to save her protégé. She was named Rose Lacombe. Life for her had been but a sorry part. Of an excitable and turbulent nature. beautiful. She caused procured denounced or pardoned the prisons to open Easily subdued by tears. Collot d'Herbois. " She has threatened eloquent and handsome. have resisted her. She liberally abused the Convention. She scolded the deputies. if one can bestow this epithet on such disordered inspiration of the soul. who sought " She is dangerous because she is to corrupt patriotism. presided over this last club. amongst the leaders of public opinion.B. and applauded in the first agitations of Paris. I. Noticed. me. 323 VI. the revolutionary enthusiasm had easily borne her off in its whirlwind." said Bazire. nephew of the mayor of Toulouse. young. y 2 . she interceded frequently for the accused. she conveyed into the real tragedies of the republic the accents and gestures of her first profession. and imprisoned with his uncle. admired. Chabot bent before her . Love had surprised her in the dungeons she visited. but his nephew who had interested her heart. and demanded The club was in a ferment. she had grown up on the minor boards. It is because I love the women that I will not allow them to corrupt and calumniate virtue They have even dared to attack Robespierre. closed his door against her. Bazire. daughter without a mother." At these — — ! words Rose Lacombe rose in the tribune. Bazire and Chabot denounced her to the Cordeliers as an intriguante.

" At these words the women took off their bonnets rouges. enter." exclaimed Chaumette. the ranks of our armies. "the law permits women to " The " Let the law be read." " No." said another member. abandon their household duties and the cradle of their children to come into . in which. the bar of the senate. then. Chaumette He dreaded Robespierre's anger. Towards the end of excesses he had himself provoked. [g. solve them." sit law commands respect to public decency. in the tribune of orators. wearing the bonnet rouge. in which he should affect the austerity of the tribune of public conduct against the very. have you not already all you should have ? You control all our senses . " those perverse women who have so greatly excited — ! — ! . and others demanded that she should be The president put on his hat. How long shall women be allowed to abjure their sex. and displaying their persons. under pretext of giving an impulse to patriotism. " Citizens. nature was perverted. The club deturned out. cided that an address should be sent to the Committee of General Safety. forced an entrance into the council of the Commune. and be the divinity of the sanctuary of home Imprudent women. demanding the purification of the society of The Convention did not dare to disrevolutionary women. " you are doing a great act of reason by these murmurs. public places. 7. The entrance to the chamber where the magistrates of the people should be interdicted to those who outrage the nation. be man $ to woman. usurping those rights which nature has reserved for men ? To whom. VIL Robespierre expressed his open and loud indignation at these orgies of opinion." replied Chaumette. " Recollect. and consequently that of nature. she should be heard. heard in the Assembly. your despotism is that of love. has nature assigned domestic duties ? Has she made us nurses ? Has she softened our muscles to render us fitted for the occupations of the house and the household ? No she has said to man." continued Chaumette.324 CHAUMETTE HARANGUES THE WOMEN. prepared a theatrical display. who seek to become men. be woman. and causes it to be respected but here I see it despised. January a column of revolutionary women. and interrupted the sitting by their petitions and Murmurs of indignation (arranged beforehand) were cries. rallied and led by Rose Lacombe. and sought to appease it. L1V.

B. modest young females whom they surprised without the exterior signs of patriotism. addressed the Convention on "I denounce to you. cease (instigated by Hébert) to stir up the very dregs of her sex. and then imperious. however. VIII. Groups of women. by her differof a pretended revolutionary society. 8. and to weary Robespierre and Danton. attacked Robespierre cautiously — ! . which forbids their publicity. master of the revolutionary army through Ronsin . insulted and assaulted. secretary general of the minister of war . were disarmed Avith these bands. of sedition. down as law that they shall remain in the bosoms of their The Convention adopted these principles. master of the club of Cordeliers by its new orators. towards the Convention. in fine. LIV. and families. and Chaumette . amongst whom were young Vincent. Hébert's party in the Commune openly aspired to He began to discontinue and surpass the party of Marat.] AMATl's APPEAL." he said. and hastened on to her own ruin that manwoman. in public places. Amar. apparently convinced by Chaumette's appeal. of more than 6000 women. — These two popular men undermined.' and went to death for her crimes! Women are not anything but when men are Look at Jeanne-d'Arc. " Charles VII. master of the most tumultuous risings of the multitude through his journal. and members Nature. master of the Commune through Pache. "an assemblage this subject. set on by Robespierre. has assigned to them Modesty. who believed herself capable of governing the nation. which they had incited to meetings. who founded the first of the ' societies of women." and Rose Lacombe returned to the closed the female clubs obscurity and the dregs of society whence the revolutionary Hébert and his party furor had for the moment drawn her. was less than a man The women retired. the Père Duchesne. Payan. ence of strength and conformation. dressed in red trowsers. who was great only because nothing. 325 the republic — that haughty wife of a perfidious husband. the citizeness Roland. turb the Committee of Public Safety. the impudent Olympe de Gouges. in which he kept up the perpetual fire Danton openly. at first supplicatory. Hébert. Rose Lacombe did not. soi-disant Jacobins. lays other duties. with cockades in their hair. Hébert T 3 relied on im- . master of the people through the subaltern leaders of the riots .

demoexhumations. not. This impolitic set against Danton by Hébert's party. in his own mind. — Cordeliers to his enemies. Each of the principal members of this faction. the establishment for all government of a dictatorship. and mute omnipotence which he sought to personify in himself. intelligence. Chaumette. which was incessantly growling against him. and his popularity to itself. Danton. It was the total subversion of all ideas. rich.326 PÈRE -DUCHESNE. — taciturn character. incessant riots against the rich and the merchants. the honours rendered to immorality. the apostacies enforced on Gobel and his clergy under pain of death. The insatiable thirst of blood. whose exterior had a terrible analogy with the avenging. the chief magistracy. He rarely appeared at the Jacobins. the proscription of one hundred thousand priests. but to justify himself and to complain. the clamours against monopolists. an abstracted. arrogated to himself. [c. and then the obscene and sanguinary catechism which Père Duchesne each day cast in his pages to the people. mystefacility. the rious. posing his demagoguism on the Convention with the utmost The ideal of this party was neither liberty nor country. Danton confined himself to his defence against the bitings of Hébert and his pack. absolute as the people and irresponsible as destiny. it had devolved on Pache the mayor. Hébert. the profanation of churches. of a maximum ordered by the Convention. moral classes. persecuted. to crush and carry all before him. . the suppression of national representation. at the . lettered. or prejudices . this faction was enabled to brave all. implacable. protected by the Commune. imprisoned. proclamations of atheism. . were symptoms which revealed to Robespierre and Danton the plans or deliriums of this faction. the parodies of religious worship. 8. martyrised for their faith. Ronsin. all decencies. abandoned the tribune of the follies litions. as in former clays. LIV. violations of sepulchres. which had predominated by their rank. Momoro. In the meanwhile. all religions. Vincent. all institutions on which social order had been hitherto based the absolute and sanguinary tyranny of the people of Paris alone over all the rest of the nation the decapitation en masse of all the noble. which had not been glutted by five months of punishments. nearly always retired in his country-house near Sèvres. and iinally. But.

allows the secrets of the soul to escape. What can I do ? " added Souberbielle. " I am but an obscure patriot. . they say I have scruples of conscience. . and published some numbers (worthy of Tacitus and Aristophanes conjoined) against the excess of the Terror and Hebert's docbut death trines. was. who had been mute since the death of the Girondists. and never ceased splashing Desmoulins. and now clouds they only seek for complaisant executioners. Blood shed by generals on the held of battle does not spare them from spilling the rest on the scaffold. had its origin in a rivalry between the journals of Hébert and Camille Desmoulins. " the sky flow with blood " is red . and there are many showers of blood behind those Those meij had demanded inflexible judges. These three men. who replied to Hébert in his pamphlets. there will speedily be no safety for any person ? The best patriots are confounded heedlessly with traitors. I am weary of living. and Camille Desmoulins came away from the Palais de Justice together. and the heart deeply affected by the sinister impressions of the sight they had just witnessed." replied Souberbielle. On reaching the Pont Neuf. One of the last evenings in the month of January. LIV. The Père Duchesne went deeper into the mud than his rival. and said. with dejected mien. walked on The night (which gives force to reflections. This was the origin. Camille Desmoulins. Danton turned suddenly towards Souberbielle. in which insult was branded with a red-hot iron on the brows of his enemies. " Do you know that at the pace we are now going. Ah.) was gloomy and dull. He endeavoured to make crime ridiculous The publication of these detached leaves does not laugh. with dejec" tion. and in silence. The day had been one of blood. Souberbielle one of the jury of the revolutionary tribunal. like all that Camille did. 9. if I were Danton Y 4 ! ! ! ! ! . Danton.B. Look See there the river seems to " True. now resumed his pen.] CAMILLE DESMOULINS. . a burst of anger and a secret caress of two great popular individuals. IX. this party desired to render Robespierre 327 un- moment when popular. When I refuse an innocent head to their knife. Fifteen heads had that morning fallen on the Place delà Revolution twenty-seven had been sentenced to death at the sitting and amongst the number were the heads of some of the highest of the ancient magistracy of Paris.

" my hand weighs heavily. He guarded in his words the liberty he desired to guard in his acts. he did not hesitate to combat alone. and the latter. down which the Commune and the Cordeliers sought to drag all headlong. Camille " rejoined Danton. and I have sometimes the impulse to sharpen my pen into a danger and stab these scoundrels. 10. LIV. Be assured. More constant than ever at the Jacobins. and understood that if his daring were not encouraged. worship into atheism. "he All this begins to excite horror in me. and desired to convert. " this hand shall aid you. Let them beware ink is more indelible than their blood it stains for immortality " "Bravo." The three friends separated at Danton's at the right . sleeps [lî. was not long in offering this opportunity to Robespierre. "begin from to-morrow. But if Robespierre hesitated to attack the Terror from fear of injuring or disarming the Committee of Public Safety. still undecided as to the plans of the Jacobins and the Montagne." he added. He marched in procession through the Con- . and not a man of slaughter but you. My : ! ! . "why do you keep silence?" "I am weary of silence. emboldened by the feeling of a portion of the Mountain. for a long time. You know whether or not it be strong. with those who depraved the Revolution. who secretly abhorred Hébert. I am a man of the Revolution. at least it would be pardoned. and body to body. door." he continued in his deepest tones. You began the Revolution be it you who shall now most strongly urge it. ! awake moment. But the writer discerned the thought of Robespierre beneath his reserve. Next day Camille Desmoulins had written the first number of the Vieux Cordelier. he alone restrained them in that declivity. Camille took it to Robespierre. addressing Camille Desmoulins.328 LE VIEUX CORDELIER. "Danton Avili — be silent!" replied Robespierre's rival. Robespierre. He wished. He knew that an attack against the Enrages would not displease the master of the Jacobins. in spite of the slow fever that consumed him. After having read it to Danton. X." was Camille's reply. an occasion to wash his hands of the immoralities and impieties of Chaumette and Hébert. There was a prudence concealed in the temerity of Camille Desmoulins. neither approved nor blamed Camille Desmoulins. and adulation even in his courage.

and even presidents of popular societies. In his discourse he ventured to " The policy address plain allusions against their leader. we should judge his accomplices. might be delayed by this kind of call to concert on the part of this leader of the Commune. to seek out the real causes of the to set us against each We ! ills which affect our country. hastened to avail " I had thought. which. in order to crush tyrants. LIV. I reply. must follow up rigorously the trials of the accomplices of Brissot. of all tyrants. 10. in my heart. in force. then. Momoro would discuss the question presented by Hébert to the attention of the Assembly. and the question is daily asked why I am not arrested. Every patriot owes it to himself to refute injurious reports against him. who had watched his opportunity lor calling Hébert to an account. he thought. I have already warned you that certain intriguers have sought Expressions of Robespierre other. we should judge his " whole race Momoro then demanded the extermination of all the priests." he said. No. It is for us. if not dead You say you fear the priests yet they are abdicating their titles as rapidly as possible. against myself are quoted. Next day he presented himself. to renew the same scenes. it is not fanaticism which should now be the main object of our dis! ! . as he rose.B. administrators. those captives whose names still serve for rebels and foreign powers ? I vote. that the race of tyrants may disappear from the earth. but he lias not even alluded to it. When we have judged Capet. but can I be blind to the situation of my country. exchanging them for those of municipals. at the Jacobins. in order to reign. " is to divide. and impel them forward. clad in the spoils of the churches. " that himself of it. Is it true that our most dangerous enemies are the impure remains of the race of our tyrants . are we again to have the Committee of Twelve? Yet I do not altogether despise these rumours. even to the extent of believing that the death of Capet's sister will suffice to extinguish the various conspiracies that rend our country ? Is it true that the principal cause of our evils is in fanaticism ? Fanaticism which is expiring.] ROBESPIERRE ATTACKS HEBERT. That of patriots is to rally. On this motion Robespierre. 329 vention one of these assemblages of men and women. When we have judged the greatest criminal." said Hébert.

It is not in vain that it has proclaimed the Declaration of the Bights of Man in presence of the Supreme Being Atheism is aristocratic. and it will return to us. The Convention is not a bookmaker. the suffering classes. I have not for one day ceased to be attached from my infancy to the moral and political ideas I have just laid before you. If I found censors here. and punishes triumphant crime. under pretence of destroying superstition." Applause followed from amongst the humble Jacobins. and to attack fanaticism by fresh fanaticism ? By what. applaud me. Five years of a revolution which has struck the priests proves their impotency. I see but one mode of reviving it amongst us. seek to make a kind of religion of atheism itself. of the French people respected. it would have been necessary to invent him. The National Convention abhors such a system. If God had not existed. the means of usurping a false popularity. "There are men who would go much farther.330 ROBESPIERRE ACKNOWLEDGES GOD. The idea of a great Being which watches over oppressed innocence. I speak. it would be amongst the rich and the guilty. and who. for some time. quietudes. who seeks to preclude mass is more fanatic than he who says it. : classes of the Robespierre resumed " The people. Fanaticism is a ferocious and capricious animal. right do they seek to degrade the solemn homage rendered to pure truth into ridiculous farces? Priests have been denounced for saying mass. and fling amongst us trouble and discord? By what right do they come to disturb the freedom of worship in the name of freedom. [b. but the character. seek. it has been assailed? By what right do men. It fled before reason run after it with loud clamour. an author of metaphysical systems : it is a body politic and popular. and that is by affecting to believe in its force. charged with making not only the rights. LIV." he continued. to bring on false measures. 10. in these persecutions. unknown until now in the career of the Revolution. They will He continue to say it much longer if they ai-e forbidden. " in a tribune in which an insolent Girondist dared to impute . is — ! every where acknowledged. " And what other effect can be produced by that exaggerated and officious zeal with which.

B. Do you not see the snare laid for you by the concealed enemies of the republic and the emissaries of foreign tyrants ? The wretches would thus justify the gross calumnies whose impudence is recognised by all Europe. and estrange from you by prejudices — ! : and irreligious opinions those interest would draw to the whom morality and a common sublime and holy cause which we defend. to had uttered the word Providence and at what period ? Why. overcome on this occasion at the Jacobins. instead of rekindling it amongst them. He had exhausted his strength in his daring. . Hébert's party. and not like a philosopher who is the first to adore the loftiest idea of the human mind. This was acceded to. and his thunders and Pereyra. This is the sentiment of Europe and the universe it is that of the French people. This accordance. Danton spoke in the Convention against these persecutions but he spoke like a politician who argues for a sacred custom of a people. eternally oppressed. listened to at first with astonishment. had overwhelmed Hébert and Chaumette in denouncing atheism. how- in that . 10. I sought to elevate myself above the scum of conspirators by whom I was environed. By asserting the Deity. In this harangue he staked his popularity against the profession of his faith." Robespierre demanded the expulsion of Proly. Dubuisson. ulcerated by all crimes of which we were witnesses and victims. eternal instinct of the human soul which gives evidence of a God. Ah so long as tyrannies shall exist. revenged itself in the Commune by acts of persecution still more intolerant against the liberty of worship. when shedas a crime that I me — ding bitter tears over a people eternally betrayed.] HÉBERT DEFEATED. Robespierre created for himself and the Revolution a conscience and a judge. invoking against them heavenly vengeance in default of popular punishment. Had he been a Ioav scoundrel he would have sought to blind the people to this divine light. 331 . when the heart. L1V. Robespierre. then with coldness. where is the energetic and virtuous soul which would not appeal in secret from their sacrilegious triumph to that eternal justice which seems to have written in all hearts the sentence of death against all tyrants ? It seems to me that the last martyr of liberty would breathe out his soul with a sweeter feeling reposing on this consoling idea.

and made himself a pedestal of his revolutionary acts. [b." After this exordium. I shall not tear out one page more of my history than you shall tear out of yours. XL The purifications continued in the Jacobins. ton was for a moment disturbed. The echo of Danhis blighted renown reached him even in the tribune. for I deI experienced a kind of illsire to answer them publicly. He passed his life in review. as it had been decided in the preceding meeting. had to submit to a public examination of his opinions and of his life. Danton abandoned himself to an improvisation so full and so rapid that the pen of the auditors was incompetent to follow and note it down. to see that the colossal fortune which my enemies attribute to me. afterwards regaining the assurance of despair. cited in turns befoi'e the tribune. I summon all those who have conceived suspipeople. when I let you know my private conduct. which ought to immortalise the registers of liberty. features which characterise the countenance of a free man ? I no longer that same Danton who was side to side with I no longer he whom you in ever}r moment of crisis ? you have so often embraced as your friend. cions against me to determine their accusations. and who ought I have been one of the most intrepid to die with you ? defenders of Marat. for a in DANTOX'S DEFENCE. from which he defied his calumniators to shake him. He Am Am ! . 1 desire to remain of and amongst the people. I demand to justify myself before the culated against me.. Have I then lost those favour on appearing in the tribune. efforts will be unable to shake me. I invoke the shade of the friend of the people You will be astonished. to- moment brought Robespierre and Danton again gether. LIV. At the moment Danton appeared to render an account of his actions. Every member. a murmur of animadversion ran through the hall. You shall judge me in their presence. 332 ever." said he. reduces itself to the small portion of wealth which I have always possessed. I defy the malevolent All their to furnish the proof of any crime against me. 1 1 an inculpation against Hébert and Chaumette. and arming himself with the imperturbability of virtue which he had not. which broke the so long closed seal of his soul. " I have heard mur" Already grave denunciations have cirmurs.

I reproached him then for not having been sufficiently irritated against that monster. It is said I. " that the more courage and patriotism a man possesses. then. praise. that it was necessary to slay you. LIV. in an almost subdued tone. apostrophising him in a severe tone. I am about to do it. He desired. . " knows that . mined. and that in the time of the treasons of Dumouriez my suspicions had . . No one speaks. but with the precipitation of a man who is " Danton." continued Robespierre. moved by his eloquence." continued the orator. that you passed into Switzerland. It has been said that your ambition was to be regent under Louis XVII. that La Montagne was full of your accomplices in one word. 11. nor Cobourg. . you are accused of having emigrated. Silence accorded this request.preceded his. . Do they believe that under this eulogy I do not discern the knife with which they desired to assassinate their country ? The cause of patriots is reciprocal. in saving him. '' The Convention. that at a certain period all was prepared to proclaim your dictatorship that you were the chief of the conthat neither Pitt. I blamed him for not having pursued Brissot with sufficient vehemence. to show that he could destroy him. Danton. He felt that he required this man to counterbalance the popularity of Hébert. and that your malady was — feigned to conceal your flight from the people. nor Prussia. "you demand that the accusations brought against you should be deterWell. but that it was you. I was divided in opinion with Danton. his only meed is I have watched him and his political conduct. I deceive myself. It was evident that the people. the more do the enemies of the public weal strive for his destruction ? The enemies of the country appear to overwhelm me with praise but I repudiate them. as regards Danton but seen in his family. perhaps. do not you know. A . 333 by demanding the nomination of twelve commissioners to examine his conduct." about to parry a blow already levelled at him. I swear that these are the only reproaches I now cast upon him. were spiracy our most dangerous enemies. Robesfinished pierre could with one word precipitate or raise Danton. you alone .B. trusted more to his genius than to his conscience. . said he. Danton. not with that studied manner which he ordinarily adopted when he desired to speak.] EOBESEJEKHe's REPLY. He ascended the tribune.

This saved Danton. one while at the foot of the tyrant and his court/ at another. the enemies of France? Klootz. not as an equal. you are a traitor like them you must be watched. He desired that France should attack He published a pamphlet. difference of opinion between him with anxiety. Dumouthe knees of the people. but it did not restore to him his This was what Robespierre desired. [b. " for the death of the country is at hand " ! The unfortunate Klootz." said he. LIV. a man who has a hundred thousand livres income ? as a republican. feigning to go beyond La Montagne. at He has courted Brissot. Robespierre did not adopt the same treatment nor the same artifices towards the other false or corrupted members of the Convention. The Commune subdued. riez. Danton was necessary to him as a protégé. Dubuisson.— 334 ROBESPIERRE ATTACKS KLOOTZ. Pereyra). Citizens you have beheld him. his obstinacy in speaking of a universal republic. Our foes. and La Gironde. being come " Can we. take us in the rear. to thunder against the Commune. sometimes him and me made me watch even with anger. human race. subalternised in the Jacobins. you pass your life with the agents and spies of foreign powers (Proly. would be forced to serve or to fear. He required that voice in La Montagne. we " ! XII." exclaimed he. " Let : ' ! us watch. beneath the gestures of Robespierre. His extravagant ! ! ! opinions. in inspiring us with the rage of conquest. were so many traps held out to the republic. who governed in the Jacobins and the CorThe turn of Anarcharsis Klootz. entitled ' Neither the universe Marat nor Roland? He therein gave a blow to Roland. 12. but a more outrageous one to La Montagne. and parodying the words of Christ in his agony. Let me be tried also! Let those men present themselves who pretend to be greater patriots than lost credit. Danton. Danton wishes to be judged: he is right. to cast upon it every nation and and all elements as enemies. dared not essay to rise beneath the weight of reprobation that crushed . to strike us with still more mortal blows Then softening himself even to tears. " regard a German baron as a patriot ? as a democrat. the orator of the deliers. a man Avho only frequents the houses of foreign bankers and counter-revolutionists. bending his head at the foot of the tribune.

Robespierre rose to quiet them. stood also in need of an excuse for the pity he had demonstrated in the Revolutionary Tribunal. who desired to strike at Camille Desmoulins. The political indulgence which had shielded Danton was extended to Fabre d'Eglantine. I cherished the Republic but I was deceived in many men. A ! inspired. but I engage also that he will be no longer so versatile." said Camille Desmoulins. . I have been always the first to denounce my own friends whenever I have seen that they acted ill. only guilty of connexions with corrupted men of the Convention. with his virtues and his failings." This excuse. Sometimes timid and confiding. of Lameth. Robespierre and Danton Of this number were seven of the fled. LIV. weak as a woman. and of Dillon. often courageous. I engage him to follow his career. In the mean time Vincent. twenty-two. but will endeavour not to be deceived in men who play a great part upon the political stage. another client of Danton. whom I believed were true defenders of the people. " consider Camille Desmoulins. and with the materialist demagogues of Hébert's party. however. XIII. I have stifled the voice of friendship. such as Fabre and Chabot. marked fatality has ordained. whose sudden fortune caused his probity to be suspected. at the moment of the condemnation A " It is true. always republican. which great talents had . did not explain the rumours of the Jacobins. " must.B. or are guillotined. the poet and courtier of the people. timidly uttered by Camille Desmoulins. 13. we have seen him by turns the friend of Mirabeau. such as Mirabeau and Lameth. " that I experienced a sensation of pity on the judgment of the twenty-two but those who reproached me with it were far from being in the same position as I." This amnesty of Robespierre silenced Hébert's friends. and We . Héron. Ronsin. and who ended by betraying them. that of sixty persons who signed my marriage-contract. He loved and he despised this young man. No one dared proscribe him whom Robespierre excused. sincere and devoted fanatic of liberty.] CAMILLE DESMOULINS. 335 him. there should remain now to me only two All the others have living friends. Camille Desmoulins. but we have also seen him break the idols which he worshipped. Klootz was. of the Girondists." said Robespierre. and changeable as a child.

by Republic We judging their accomplices. in appearance with assuring the predominance of government over all parties. ment. were arrested by order of the Committee of Public Safety.336 Robespierre's report. and afterwards restored to Solely occupied liberty on the explanation of Robespierre. in lieu of binding them Let us sacrifice our self-love to this object. misfortune to us if we break the fasces. [b. and the Girondists. evidently directed against . " Its power ought to be immense. after having conquered Hannibal and Carthage." is " Revolution The " constitution is the war of liberty against its enemies. lev." This double-edged harangue. The every national protection. who had in good faith committed some errors in zeal. the principal chiefs of the Cordeliers. " Hardly had we repressed the falsely philosophical excesses against adoration. The day when it shall — impure or periidious hands. committee. If amongst us the functions of a revolutionary government are fall into " The — ! objects of ambition. the is already lost. Scipio. the rule of victorious and peaceable liberty." said he. Their hope is to place in arrest one with the This deadly struggle would avenge the aristocrats other. Robespierre read to the Convention a report upon the principles of a revolutionary government. than the partisans of royalty desired to apply it to ardent patriots. 13. They sought lor chiefs amongst you. " is as new as the Revolution which engendered it . the aim of a constitutional government is to preserve the Republic. This report threw a light upon his plans and upon those of " The theory of a revolutionary governthe. foundation of the French Republic is no child's play." " It ought to steer between two dangers. hardly had we here pronounced the name of ultra revolutionist. Maillard. weakness and temerity. that of a revolutionary government is to found it. must confound their hopes. in place of being painful duties. revolutionary government owes to good citizens It owes death to the enemies of the people. moderation and excess. gloried in serving under the orders of his enemy. liberty will be lost. upon a denunciation of Fabre d'Eglantine.

profit by the resentments they might have roused. the mayor of Strasburg. the inexplicable blood flowed from every vein. The abdication and silence of this orator disquieted the Committee of Public Safety. m. z vol. But this sacrifice appeased none. if he did not feel himself backed up by a Colossus. in his affected likely to exist in Danton's soul. life at Sevres. and when in short. upon Danton. : — . casting them to the vengeance of the These suspicions of Robespierre and of the compeople. which still stained his hands. by directing the Vieux Cordelier against Hébert and his party. to appease it. and against the Dantonists. LIV. by his situation. in their journals. Camille Desmoulins had desired to flatter Robespierre.Aubes. and of a certain number of generals. Danton. fomented discord. Tacit symptoms revealed to the eyes of Robespierre and of the committee the sullen murmurs of Danton. accused of complicity with the stranger. compared with the indigence of Robespierre. reproach them with the victims . 337 the Hébertists. and by his profound policy. his repose was unnatural. XIV. appeared to watch the hour of a return of public opinion. to impute the blood to them . His humanity was suspected. rather a calculation than a feeling. ordering the prompt trial of Dietrich. who accused the Committee of Public Safety of weakness. fortune which people attributed to him. gave the finishing blow to suspiThe rashness of Camille Desmoulins here recoiled cion. to turn this arm against them . The blood of September. The crimes and virtues of Danton thus blended themselves at this moment to The ostentation of his idle and voluptuous destroy him. of Custine. The quarrels of Camille Desmoulins and of Hébert. and possess himself of the Revolution.E. These were almost all innocent victims. mittee against Danton were justified by his nature. mercy. They did not believe that this young and volatile pamphleteer was capable of daring every thing. who accused it of excess of rigour. 14. sacrificed to restore peace between three parties it was blood shed to the anarchy in the Convention. This calculation was a threat against those who wielded the arm of punishment. son of the general. His audacious style passed for the vituperations of his patron.] QUARRELS OF DESMOUL1NS AND HÉBERT. when the republic was on fire. their work . Since his return from Arcis-sur. had not rendered so much pity They saw. in affecting to separate himself from them. terminated in a decree.

LIV. what he could not effect by moderation. Afterwards. which the Convention decreed should be sent to all Europe. a public receipt for the guineas of Pitt. in order to shield himself. XV. under this posthumous fame. and that there were men. adoration for Marat. but to another extreme equally fatal to liberty. And I attested it to sixty of my colleagues how often I have lamented in their bosoms the fatal success of this act At last Robespierre. the public mind. have conquered. in two discourses. by exaggeration. hung their heads." He affected. hissed. Robespierre delivered himself pity." wrote he.338 CAMILLE DESMOULINS. because after the thundering eloquence of Robespierre. His inconsiderate pen. and smiled with man condemned by universal approbation. about to reveal itself. against those who reproached him with weakness. was contained in the misunderstanding of a pamphleteer. it is the only step which the enemies of the republic gained. 15. It appertained to his courage and popularity to slide adroitly under it. and to falsify opinion in a contrary sense. like Roland. who wrought hard to form. [b. gained during the illness and absence of Danton. Strange error of an adulation. in relating the acquittal of Danton. politically counter-revolutionists. not less eloquent in the Jacobins. the great word the salutary word that Pitt has changed his batteries . as he has done. The whole knot of the drama. nevertheless . amidst the most touching and convincing parts of his justification. the party of his accusers. it was impossible to dare to raise a voice against Danton without giving. in desiring to kill his enemies. Camille Desmoulins commenced his first number of the Vieux Cordelier by flattering Robespierre. " Since the death of that enlightened patriot whom I dared three years since to style the divine Marat. as it were. as at the discourse of a We — ! — — . that lie has undertaken to effect. and which wounds when desirous to caress. hastened the hour of his friends and his own. and the deep impression he has left on all minds. raised the veil. "Victory has rested with the Jacobins. moreover. whose talent appears to increase with the perils of the republic. which deceives itself as to the hour. in an opening speech. but he found he bad tbus offended tbis distrustful rival of Danton. that of RobesAlready powerful from the ground pierre is still standing. "because in the midst of the many ruins of colossal reputations of civism.

These crimes of lèse majesté under the republic were reduced to four kinds. under his pen. the answer of Augustus was 'You must all perish!' Three hundred of the principal citizens were conducted to the hotel of Julius Cœsar. Drusus having asked the soothsayers if he should not one day possess great wealth." say the historians. Soon it was a crime of lèse majesté. the descendants of Cassius having in his house a portrait of his grand-uncle. The emperors only required some additional articles to this law to comprise both citizens and entire cities in the proscription. fighting under Augustus but because Augustus then combated with Brutus. or the public money or if the majesty of the Roman people had been abased. a law which specified crimes of state and lèse majesté. in the town of Murcia. after which the remainder of the inhabitants were put indiscriminately to the sword and the town. or counter-revolution. merly at Rome. became reflect on modern crimes concise and monumental as the Latin. Mamercus Scaurus having composed a tragedy which con- — . The journalist Cremutius Cordus having called Brutus and Cassius the last One of of the Romans. and there slaughtered on the day of the 16th of March. one of the most beautiful in Italy. was a crime of counter-revolution. compassion. 339 with more vehemence against the intriguers who. . 15. or silence itself. .B. Since conversations had become state crimes. byperfidious and exclusive eulogy. If an army had been abandoned in an enemy's country. z 2 . Murcia shared the fate of Perousa. Avas a crime of counter-revolution. was reduced to ashes. To the shame of priests. and as effectually effaced from There was forthe surface of the earth as Herculaneum. " After the siege of Perousa. LIV. if one had excited sedition if the members of constituted bodies had ill administered affairs. only a step was requisite to convert into crimes the simple glance of sorrow. for having raised a monument to its inhabitants who had perished at the siege of Modena. flattered themselves they could wean him from all his old companions in arms and still from the holy battalion of Cordeliers. and bore capital punishment. a sigh. . " notwithstanding the capitulation. with whom he had so often vanquished the qpyal army. was a crime of counter-revolution. says Tacitus. he has defended the God whom they so cowardly abandoned!" There Camille Desmoulins caused the genius of Tacitus to French.] CAMILLE DESMOULIX '. .

or negligently dressed your affliction was caused by the good state of public affairs suspected. The mother of Fabius Geminus having wept over the terrible death of her son. Under Nero. "It was necessary to show joy at the death of one's friend. by his pallor. . The wife of Appius Silanus having of counter-revolution. condemned to the mines or wild beasts. — . he was the rival of the prince. was a crime of counter-revolution. or of one's parent. % — — . 15. had one acquired reputation in war. for having failed therein. One was afraid that fear itself might render Every thing gave umbrage to the tyrant. [d. because that was an attack upon the government. " Were a man poor it was necessary to watch him more No one is so enterprising as he who has nought closely. . suspected. and illuminated. more renown must necessarily appertain to him than to those who governed. Did any one shun. it was a crime of counterTo complain of the misfortune of the times was revolution. to censure an amiable and well-curled court suspected. an open and quiet mien. a great number of citizens were lacerated with blows. if men would not expose themselves to relations he had went to thank God for it. melancholy character. was a crime tion. Could it be permitted that an orator should have more attention paid to him than to the emperor in his private suspected. LIT. box ? In short. whose caused to die. — — — — — . was a crime of counter-revolution. an orator. "Were that man a philosopher. "Were a citizen popular who might incite a civil war suspected. and hold himself apart this retired life had given time for consideration suspected. tained a verse to which one might attach a douhle meanTorquatus Silenus ing. was a crime of counter-revolution. on the contrary. many. a man guilty. and some of them sawed through the middle of the body. a counter-revolution. having been improvident. or a poet. who pretended. was a crime of counter-revoluPétréius having dreamt about Claudius. At least it was requisite to wear an air of contentment. too another Brutus. was a crime of counter-revolution . Because a friend of Sejanus had sought an asylum in one of the country-houses of Pomponius. popularity. that talent destruction. Were you of a sombre. " Were he virtuous and austere in his manners good.340 THE SUSPECTED. Not to have invoked the genius of Caligula. dreamt the same.

there was a pontiff. If he were a traitor. and transmitted by the historian to the memory of ages. or that of another on account of his beautiful house at his ancestors Alba. whose clemency has been so much vaunted. was but theft and assassination. "Aman was annihilated on account of his name. the protectors of life and property. it was necessary to leave the army promptly at a distance. Piso. Italicus. hé could not so entirely deliver up an army to the enemy. 341 rendered one's situation the more dangerous. the old friend of Augustus. In one word. if it were not that he was a man of probity and loved his country. unless one had made it an instrument of tyranny. There is some resource with an incompetent general. But the greatest of all crimes was the being incorruptible. if he betrayed. because his countenance displeased her and a multitude without being able to divine Toranius. " One may imagine that it would have been much worse had one been grandson or ally of Augustus . But an officer of merit. It was a crime to hold a place of consequence. it was impossible to possess any quality. L1V. says our annalist. which had pleased the empress. of Corbulonus or Agricola. or only in place. that some one returned not. and if they had not enemies. Neither the magistracy nor bis innocence could guarantee Quintus Gelius from the bloody hands of the executioner . If there were no method of sending a man to the tribunal. which appeared to be considered a prodigy. or to tender your resignation of it. was proscribed by his pupil without knowing wherefore. recourse was had — . or a son. z 3 . Valerius Asiaticus by reason of his gardens. the tutor. was so rare. People were poignarded and betrayed by his slaves or their enemies . without awakening the despot and exposing one's self to certain perdition. this Augustus. " Such were the accusers. had become the shambles. plucked his eyes out with his own hands. Thus. natural death of a man celebrated. an assassin was found in their host. under these reigns the a friend.B. where what bore the name of execution and confiscation. that it was put into the gazettes. the cause. 16. J ROME UNDER THE EMPERORS. Suspected. such the judges. who died in his bed. The tribunals. he could not save one single man. Under this consulate. At the least. . one might then have pretensions to the throne suspected. The best was to destroy one's self.

— . and When these a description of grand officers of the crown. It is thus that Caraealla. and the paid assassins of Caesar for cruelty caused by hunger ceases with hunger. who kill themselves for the enjoyment of a paradise in which they will never revel. [b. must necessarily pass through the vale of tears and cries to the age of maturity. when one reflects that Rome suffered the government of a monster. declared all his friends and partisans enemies of the republic. the poisoners. the freedmen. liv. that one blow might his . Then he " Certain persons think apparently that liberty. on the contrary. Liberty has neither A old age nor infancy it has but one age. Locusta. or earthquake. and the physician Anicetus. were poisoners hy profession. Geta with own . end them !" raised himself to the philosophy of Fenélon. 16. travelling in the suite of the court. famine. To what degree of degradation and baseness cannot the human race descend. . Celer JEliua. killed all the friends and partisans of Sejanus. on account of the disasters of the amphitheatre of Fi denes. it suffices to desire it. that to enjoy it. the nature of liberty. who regretted that his reign was not marked by some calamity. the cupidity. after having killed hand. that of force and vigour otherwise those who sacrifice themselves for the republic would be as stupid as these fanatics of La Vendée. in one day interdicted fire and water to seventy thousand Romans. to the number of twenty thousand and Tiberius. . half measures did not suffice. the tyrant resorted to a general to assassination proscription.342 di:smoul:ns' eloquent waitings. whereas that caused by the fear. has no limits. the famous or to poison. and the suspicion of tyrants. to give to the Revolution the colouring of a political religion. like infancy. he could not have rent more persons in piecesxthan the denunciators. and the reign of Tiberius. When we have perished in the . where fifty thousand persons had perished and. If an emperor had had a praetorian guard of tigers and panthers. It is thus that Sylla. the enemy of the republic. who wished that the Roman people had but one head. It is. XVI. to the number of thirty thousand. patented. people are free the instant they desire to be so. plague. who envied Augustus for having had in his reign an army cut to pieces. to say all in one word.

that I should fall at her feet.B. fight. your sublime constitution. All the remainder merit not your wrath. and of shopkeepers whom you incarcerate in the duel between monarchy and the republic. these egotists. and these sluggards of the Revolution. There are no suspected people . 17. should we be degraded to such a i^oint as to prostrate ourselves before such divinities ? No Liberty. fight to defend the weal of which she immediately possesses those who invoke her. This multitude of pamphleteers. that liberty descended from heaven. fraternity. equality. is We ! ! ! r z 4 . that is not an opera nymph. for in the declaration of rights there are no houses of suspicion.citizens. or rags. nor a red bonnet. has only resembled that people of Rome whose indifference Tacitus depicts in the combat between Vitellius and Vespasian. And do not believe that this measure will be fatal to the republic. these old men. liberty is reason. they have perished at Lyons or in La Vendée. there are but those accused of crimes foreseen by the law. these evil doers." XVII. the mildness of republican maxims. These benefits are the declaration of rights. LIV. whom you imprison. a dirty shirt. justice. Do you desire that I should recognise her. that are dangerous ? Of your enemies there remain amongst you only cowards and invalids . like No! this liberty. that I should shed all my blood for her ? Open the prisons to those two hundred thousand citizens whom you call suspected . public accuser. " committee of clemency" which he had thrown out amongst opinion. shall peasants? we also rise again in three days. but was there ever a greater folly? Can you cause one single soul to perish upon the scaffold without making enemies to yourselves of his family and friends ? Do you imagine that it is these women. in consoling the misery and weakness of the vanquished. reason. which I adore. enemies by the guillotine. 343 these stupid not the unknown God. of householders. the brave and the strong have emigrated. holy equality. The expression. flattered likewise the generosity of the conquerors.] HIS IDEAS OF CLEMENCY. and inviolability of prinBehold the traces of the goddess's steps ciples. " Oh my dear co. it •would be the most revolutionary measure that you would You desire to exterminate all your ever have adopted. there Suspicion has no prison but the are onlj houses of arrest. happiness.

all What benedictions would avise then from quarters ! I think very differently from those who tell you that terror must be left to the order of the day.' what patriot does not feel his heart moved ? for patriotism consists in the plenitude of every virtue. my dear Cicero. reverting to the committee of clemency: "At this expression. Shall we say that Thrasybulus and Brutus were Feuillants or Brissotins? I consent to pass for a modéré like these great men. Robespierre you.' We know that Thrasybulus. I am certain. LIV. exercised extreme indulgence as regarded the remainder of the citizens.344 " HIS IDEAS OF CLEMENCY. as Tertullian has told us. my dear Robespierre. the republic have entered into chaos. it is to you that I here address the word for I have seen the moment when Pitt had only you to conquer . whose eloquent discourses posterity will read. : — ' . than to exercise your wrath and pursue your resentments against the vanquished. — and may they never ascend there upon bloody steps Already you have approached closely to this idea in the measure you caused to be decreed yesterday in the meeting of ! . that admiration and religion attract benefactions. and cannot consequently exist where there is neither humanity nor philanthropy. by which the members of the Committee of Public Safety are raised up to heaven . to vise every exertion to curtail the civil wars. . that love is stronger and more durable than fear. and the most efficacious of all when it is distributed with wisdom. that liberty would be consolidated. committee of clemency. for clemency is a revolutionary measure. and the society of Jacobins and La Montagne have become a Tower of Babel. and even caused a general amnesty to be proclaimed. at the head of the exiles. 17. [b." Afterwards. and having condemned to death those of the thirty tyrants who had not perished sword in hand. committee which would wind up the Revolution. Let fools and fops call me modéré if they will. I do not blush at not being more furious than Marcus Brutus and behold what Brutus wrote ' You would do better. and Europe It is this conquered if you had a committee of mercy. but a soul arid and dried up by egotism. when without you the ship Argo would have perished. on the contrary. ! remember these lessons of philosophy. after taking possession of Athens. Oh. that acts of clemency are the ladder of falsehood.

18. thirtieth Frimaire. and the aristocrats.' Nimium timemus mortem et exilium et paupertatem. and to denounce him to the Cordeliers as a stipendiary of superstition and aristocracy. which runs between two dangers of which I have spoken. O my colleagues I will tell you. I was a revolutionist before all of you . you shall see if I am a modéré. as Brutus did Cicero.' " XVIII. Barrère. " But. This descent will not open to us any passage. on his side. and that the most happy is he who has never been born. fulminated against Camille Desmoulins in the Committee of Public Safety. even for the most obscure man. to arm the Then I possessed the audafirst battalion of sans culottes. in the midst of his seven hundred wives and all his happiness. when on the night of the 12th to 13th July. stigmatised in these pamphlets." said Barrère. Does this life merit that a representative should prolong it at the expense of honour ? There is not one of us who has not attained the summit of the hill of life. as deputy of the National city of the Revolution. still why . uttered exclamations of grief and rage under the stiletto of Camille Desmoulins. approach too closely that of moderation. ' I have found that the dead are happier than the living. that of stating my opinions with frankness. 345 It is true that it decadi. lit. the audacity which becomes me is that of reason.] iikdert's rage. ' fear death too much. and exile. the secre" The modérés tary of the Committee of Public Safety. " never meet now without asking each other. I have been a brigand.should clemency have become a crime iu the republic ?" is Lastly. He accused him of discouraging patriotism. He did not cease to provoke his expulsion from the Jacobins. you shall see if I will aid the manoeuvre. Assembly. and poverty.b. rather a committee of justice which has heen proposed. and of — — ! We — — . he dared to address himself to Barrère. 'Have you read the Vieux Cordelier?' Let the vessel of modérés! I the patron of aristocrats of the republic. 1789. no site which was not offered a thousand times more deliciously to that Solomon who said. To-day. I and General Danican made the gunmakers open their shops. the tenth day. it remains to us only to descend it over a thousand inevitable precipices. and in the tribune of the Convention. Hébert. and I take glory to myself for it.

He demanded the arrest and execution of seventythree deputies. The Convention was menaced by a new 31st of May. endeato Robespierre The wife of Hébert. and himself. Momoro. Robespierre regarded him with distrust. and Chaumette. render disinterested. 18. insinuated that the concentration of power in a triumvirate composed of Danton. who were about to crush him in their shock. which encouraged these first appeals of clemency. The applause of the populace. Vincent. accomplices of the Girondists. on withdrawing to her husband. " Reassure yourself. was a mortal danger for him. Hébert did not speak with less distrust of Danton in his pamphlet. reassured Hébert. and in the tribune of the Cordeliers. and the ill-ordered bands of Maillard. " I fear Robespierre no more than Danton. comparing the painful energy of the founders of liberty to the cruelty of tyrants. or of being annihilated by him. Hébert. was intimate at the house of Du play. the audacity of Vincent. a nun freed from the cloister by the Revolution. He openly decried the Committee of Public Safety. she tried to dissipate the suspicions which Robespierre cherished against the faction of the Cordeliers. . The wife of Hébert said. but worthy of a different husband. or to move him by adulation. Hébert. the arms of Ronsin. he aggravated his crime in the new pamphlets. In the evening. The government had but the choice of annihilating this factious man. [d. Robespierre. received and repulsed. She endeavoured to reconcile him to her husband. Ronsin. disowned also by Danton and scolded by Robespierre. which at the time redoubled his eloquence and invectives against the Jacobins. Robespierre experienced for this female the esteem and respect which he refused to Hébert. Vincent stuck voured. to seek me in the middle of my commune. like Camille Desmoulins. Hébert replied that he felt himself incapable of any other part than that of the Aristophanes of the people. liv. if they dare. failing in resolution at the moment of the struggle. But blushing to recede before public opinion." said Hébert. Let them come. began to fear that he had placed his hand between two colossus. unbending himself to Hébert. Camille." By turns trembling or rash.346 Hubert's dakixg. that such an insinuation. Invited to a dinner at Duplays. might perchance bind fast the fasces of the republic which was ready to break asunder.

in The secret of this order the more easily to crush the other. but revealed some days afterwards " to die the dupe of Robespierre XIX. He took the patience it was a snare. Vincent. 347 up placards in the Cordeliers. moment when these same conspirators threatened Danton. This tribune became the only sonorous point of the republic. he exhausted all his strength to occupy the tribune constantly. Sovereignty has no need of eloquence it acts. the exclamation of his humbled pride "To die is nothing. . He multiplied himself. by its It was time secret agents. It became necessary to profit by the to destroy them. and charge the Rhone with Chaumette caused petitioners the burial of the bodies. Its dignity and strength were in its silence. and he fell of Robespierre for an alliance into it and this. all his foresight. : — — ! — — Cordeliers. and to exercise over them the fascination of his name. "Let those. Danton. Resolved to destroy the two factions. It was necessary to leave hope to the one. 19. was himself deceived. The Convention further feared to divide itself by discussions before its enemies.] DANTON DUl'KD HY EOBESPIERRE. the anarchical plots of Ronsin. The Committee of Public Safety knew. behold here the presage of their ruin let them understand the oracle of their certain death they will ! ! — be exterminated " ! . The Convention affected to speak little. Robespierre lost not there a single opportunity of discouraging or menacing the Hébertists. The Jacobins were for the Committee of Public Safety the instrument of defeat or of victory. the Committee of Public Safety took care to attack them on that very day. since she exercised supreme power. amounting to fifty thousand.C. to pour into the Commune from the sections." he exclaimed one day. Such was the motive of the manœuvres and indulgences of in the Jacobins. wherein he said he would reduce to fifteen hundred souls the population of Lyons. in respect to Danton and Camille Desmoulins. Opinion neither grumbled nor broke out but amongst the Jacobins. and the Robespierre. regarding the group formed by Ronsin. with policy of the Committee did not transpire. Robespierre charged himself with rallying them in the Convention. demanding openly the expulsion of the disaffected party of the Convention. " let those who would desire that the Convention were degraded. LIV.

Friendship adduced to me some extenuating reflections upon his character. Inflated by the prodigious sale of his pamphlet. He is an admirer of the ancients." exclaimed the imprudent pamphleteer. Collot-d'Herbois has assured me that these accusations were a farce." " You condemn me in this place." replied Camille. " that I severe eye. citizens. His writings are dangerous." said he. " but in your own house your sentiments were differently expressed did I not read all I had written to you. He is a child led away by bad companions." said he. They court public malignity. and to guide me by your superior judgment ? " " You showed me but portions of what you had written.348 ROBESPIERRE ABANDONS DESMOULINS. beseeching you. We : . Robespierre regarded him witli a " It is now some time since. " Stay. The immortal writings of Cicero and of Demosthenes constitute his delight. I have long believed in the accusations against the Committee of Public Safety. But to-day I am compelled to hold a very different language. were you other than you are. presume to justify writings that form the favourite reading of the aristocracy?" inquired Robespierre : " Learn. must be severe against his writings. in the name of friendship. LIV." " To burn is not to answer. and prese