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Research: An Introduction Ma.

Irma Bustamante, RN, PhD Sources of knowledge

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Tradition: accepted as given on the basis of inherited customs Authority: comes from people with expertise Experience Trial and error Intuition Sources of knowledge Logical reasoning: combines, intellectual faculties and formal system of thought Disciplined research: the most sophisticated method of acquiring knowledge. Definitions Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena. Kerlinger, 1973 Definitions Systematic – follows certain steps Controlled – every step of the investigation is planned Empirical – evidence is on hand, there is confidence in the results Definitions

Predict - Through prediction, one can estimate the probability of a specific outcome in a given situation. However, predicting an outcome does not necessarily enable one to modify or control the outcome. Control - If one can predict the outcome of a situation, the next step is to control or manipulate the situation to produce the desired outcome. Nurses do research because…

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Nursing is a profession

Nursing should contribute to the generation of new knowledge Through research, nurses could evaluate and document their contributions to their clients’ health and wellbeing and to the health care delivery system Cruz-Earnshaw, 2007 Nurses do research because…

RA 9173 Section 28 (e )states that: It shall be the duty of the nurse to: (e) Undertake nursing and health human resource development training and research which shall include, but not limited to the development of advance nursing practice; Classifications of Research

Research in its broadest sense is an attempt to gain solutions to problems. More precisely, it is the collection of data in a rigorously controlled situation for the purpose of prediction or explanation. Treece and Treece, 1974 Definitions

According to level of investigation 1. Exploratory 2. Descriptive 3. Experimental

Classifications of Research

According to approach 1. Experimental 2. Non-experimental

Nursing research is research for nursing. It includes the breadth and depth of the discipline of nursing: the rehabilitative, therapeutic, and preventive aspects of nursing, as well as the preparation of practitioners and personnel

Classifications of Research

According to measurement & data analysis 1. Quantitative 2. Qualitative

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Definitions

involved in the total nursing sphere.

Classifications of Research

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According to time frame 1. Longitudinal 2. Cross sectional Classifications of Research According to motive or objective 1. Basic research 2. Applied research

Nursing research is defined as a scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generates new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice. Burns and Grove, 2005 Purposes of Research 1. Describe 2. Explain 3. Predict 4. Control

Classifications of Research

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According to time line 1. Retrospective 2. Prospective Classifications of Research According to research environment 1. Field 2. Laboratory

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Describe - involves identifying and understanding the nature of phenomena and sometimes the relationship among them. Explain - It clarifies the relationships among phenomena and identifies the reasons why certain events occur. It could be the basis for conducting research for prediction and control

Quantitative Research

Quantitative research is the investigation of phenomena that lend themselves to precise measurement and quantification, often involving a rigorous and controlled design.

so as to converge on an accurate representation of reality Steps in the Research Process • Experimental – it is an objective.Quantitative Research Methods • Descriptive – provides an accurate portrayal or account of characteristics of a particular individual. Quantitative Research Methods • Ex post facto – the independent variable is not manipulated. typically through qualitative approaches. Qualitative Research Methods Major Steps: Quantitative Study Phase I: The Conceptual Phase Step 1: Formulating and delimiting the problem Step 2: Reviewing the related research literature Step 3: Undertaking clinical fieldwork Step 4: Defining the framework and conceptual definitions Step 5: Formulating the hypothesis • • Phenomenological – describes an experience as they are lived by people Qualitative Research Methods Grounded theory – discovers what problems exist in a social scene and the process persons use to handle them Qualitative Research Methods • • Ethnographic – it is associated with anthropology and focuses on the culture of a group of people. Characteristics include manipulation. or an institution or other social units. identify ethics. a group. with the goal of envisioning new possibilities and effecting social change Qualitative Research Methods Feminist research – seeks to understand. systematic. Qualitative Research Methods • • • sites Identifying a research problem Doing a literature review Selecting and gaining entrée into research Designing qualitative studies . control. Qualitative Research Methods Phase II: The Design and Planning Phase Step 6: Selecting a research design Step 7: Developing protocols for intervention Step 8: Identifying the population to be studied Step 9: Designing the sampling plan Step 10: Specifying methods to measure variables Step 11: Developing methods to protect human/animal rights Step 12: Finalizing and reviewing the research plan Phase III: The Empirical Phase Step 13: Collecting the data Step 14: Preparing data for analysis Phase IV: The Analytic Phase Step 15: Analyzing the data Step 16: Interpreting the results • • Historical – a narrative description or analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past. how gender and a gendered social order shape women’s lives and their consciousness. in-depth analysis of an individual. with an effort to understand the world view of those under study. situation or group. Quantitative Research Methods • • Critical theory – an approach to viewing the world that involves a critique of society. makes values manifest. Qualitative Research Methods Philosophical inquiry – involves using intellectual analysis to clarify meanings. Quantitative Research Methods • TRIANGULATION – the use of multiple methods to collect and interpret data about a phenomenon. either because it is inherently unmanipulable or because it occurred in the past Qualitative Research • • • • • • • • • • • Identification of problem Review of related literature Construction of a framework Formulate the hypothesis Select the research design Select the sample Collect the data Analyze and interpret the data Write the research report Communicate the research report • Qualitative research is the investigation of phenomena typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion. Mixed Methods Research • • • Correlational – involves the systematic investigation of relationships/association between two or more variables Quantitative Research Methods Comparative – used to describe the differences in variables in two or more groups in a natural setting Quantitative Research Methods Quasi-experimental – causal relationships between two selected variables are examined through manipulation of the independent variable but without control or randomization. through the collection of rich narrative materials using a flexible research design. and study the nature of knowledge Qualitative Research Methods • Phase V: The Dissemination Phase Step 17: Communicating the findings Step 18: Utilizing research evidence in practice Activities: Qualitative Study Conceptualizing and planning a qualitative study • Case study – involves a thorough. and randomization. controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena.

It draws in summary form. It helps the other researchers refer to the work. Significance of the study • • The problem is specifically stated in the form of a research question. PhD What is a research problem? It should include variables. takes on different values. RN. The scope sets the delimitations and establishes the boundaries of the study. it should have a maximum of 20 substantive words.Addressing ethical issues Activities: Qualitative Study Conducting a qualitative study The title 4.stress. Promotion of theory development – Is it able to test or develop a new theory? 4. target population. motivation Organismic – those that can not be changed through manipulation. and stated in measurable terms specifically in quantitative research. 3. Sources of research problems Example The Effects of Home Visits of Public Health Nurses on the Dietary Compliance of Adult Diabetic Patients in Two Barangays in Quezon City The Variable • • • • Personal experiences and observations Readings Conversations with peers. Extension of knowledge base – Is it able to produce new knowledge which is useful? Significance of the study 3. – age. The research question • • Example What is the level of creativity among senior student nurses of a center of excellence college in Manila in terms of originality and flexibility? The title • Issues relevant in considering the significance of the study: 1. Implications for nursing practice – Is it able to produce evidence for nursing practice? 2. lectures Everyday occurrences Social and political issues affecting health Characteristics of a researchable problem Variable – an attribute of a person or object that varies. . Irma Bustamante. 2. Ex. In research. the content of the entire investigation. profession. Ex. The title • • • A problem is a condition requiring a solution. superstitious beliefs RANDOMIZATION is the best control over unknown variables. a problem statement is an expression of a dilemma or a disturbing situation that needs investigation. Independent variable – cause Dependent variable – effect Extraneous variables – not studied but affects results The Variable • • • • • Interest Usefulness Intervening – comes between the dependent and independent variables..poor health. experts. and setting. sex. • • Obtaining and analyzing qualitative data • • Titles should be clear and specific. with function words not included in in the counting. Correspondence to research priorities – Is it in line with research priorities of the country. Ex. or funding institutions? Scope and Limitations Functions of a title 1. anxiety. concise. relationships. The research question should be clear. It is anything that is liable to change or likely to vary. – social support The Variable Novelty Feasibility of time and resources Ethical Availability of data Ability of the researcher Situations manifesting a problem • • • Absence of information Incomplete information • Conflicting information A fact exists and you intend your study to explain it. There is a gap in knowledge The research question Antecedent – occurs earlier than the independent variable and bears a relationship both to it and to the dependent variable. It serves as a frame of reference for the whole thesis. • Scope defines where and when the study was conducted and who the participants (subjects) were. that is. Disseminating qualitative findings Writing qualitative research Thank you for your attention The Problem Ma. It enables the researcher to claim the title as his own. Ex. clients Attendance in conferences. Ideally. race Confounding or interfering – interfere with the study design and the data gathering process by influencing the subjects or the dependent variable. Limitations – are the weaknesses and shortcomings .

alternatives. sponsorship. to refuse to give information. Basic Rights Placebo is a medically harmless. The subjects remain unknown. Definition of terms • Operational definition – description of how variables or concepts will be measured or manipulated in the study Conceptual definition – provides a variable with connotative meaning. They review proposals for its adherence to ethical standards. and contact information. terminal illness. subject selection. . type of information to be obtained. potential risks. are capable of comprehending the information. Basic Rights • An assumption is any fact presumed to be true but not actually verified. A related principle is nonmaleficence (avoid. Deception can involve either withholding information about the study or providing subjects with false information. the researcher’s responsibilities. and benefits. PRINCIPLE: Justice Basic Rights • Right to privacy means that researchers need to ensure that their research is not more intrusive than it needs to be and that the subject’s privacy is maintained throughout the study PRINCIPLE: Justice Basic Rights Anonymity occurs when even the researcher can not link a subject with the information for that subject.of the study as acknowledged by the researcher. Basic Rights • Right to fair treatment means that the subjects receive equitable treatment before. nature of the commitment. or to ask for clarification about the purpose of the study or specific study procedures PRINCIPLE: Respect for human dignity Basic Rights Vulnerable subjects or persons with diminished autonomy are those who are less advantaged because of legal or mental incompetence. It tells what the concept means. It is done to rule out any possible biases of subjects and investigators. costs. enabling them to voluntarily consent to participate or decline participation in the research study. Irma C. The IRB IRB stands for Institutional Review Board. ineffective substance that is usually used in testing a new drug when it is given to a control group. Assumptions Basic Rights It includes the right to decide at any point to terminate their participation. PRINCIPLE: Respect for human dignity Basic Rights Debriefing is communication with subjects. confidentiality pledge. during. the subject’s right to refuse participation. prevent or minimize harm) • Right to full disclosure – means that the researcher has fully described the nature of the study. Unlike the hypothesis it does not need testing or confirmation. Bustamante. and have the power of free choice. PhD Basic Rights • The right to protection from harm and discomfort. The study must be explained within the child’s level of comprehension. and after their participation in the study. or confinement to an institution. without the risk of imposing any penalties or prejudicial treatment. Basis for Ethical Standards • Single blind test design: it is one in which the evaluations of the results of a treatment are kept from the subjects who have received it. Basic Rights 2. Most assent are accompanied by parental consent. and the likely risks and benefits that would be incurred. voluntary consent. they are not suppose to know who are receiving the treatment and who are not Basic Rights Right to self determination means that the prospective subjects have the right to voluntarily decide whether or not to participate in a study. right to withdraw. PRINCIPLE: Beneficence – imposes a duty on researchers to minimize harm and to maximize benefits. study purpose. Basic Rights A promise of confidentiality to the subjects is a guarantee that any information that the subjects provide will not be publicly reported or made accessible to parties other than those involved in the research. Basic Rights Covert data collection or concealment is the collection of data without the subject’s knowledge. generally after their participation has been completed regarding various aspects of the study. Double blind test design: it is one in which the investigators and the subjects involved in the study are kept ignorant about the process – that is. Basic Rights Informed consent involves the disclosure of the following information: subject status. Basic Rights The right to full disclosure and the right to self determination are the two major elements on which informed consent is based Basic Rights Informed consent means that the subjects have adequate information regarding the research. Basic Rights There are two variations in the use of placebo • Informed consent for children is called assent. RN. This is a formal committee in most universities and hospitals where researches are conducted. Ethics in Research Ma. It pertains to events or situations that seem so true that they are taken for granted. procedures.

standards for external review. Give a new interpretation of old materials 2. Sources for literature review • (i) the boundaries between biomedical and behavioral research and the accepted and routine practice of medicine. PhD What is a literature review? CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Research) Belmont Report Professional Code of Ethics for Nurses Nuremberg Code This ethical code of conduct contains rules that were developed to guide investigators in conducting research ethically w/c are: 1. injury. is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation. voluntary consent 2. and more. withdrawal of subjects from studies 3. Functions • On July 12.• • • • • • Nuremberg Code Déclaration of Helsinki Literature Review Ma. Belmont Report considerations • • • • • • Source for research ideas Orientation to what is already known Provides the conceptual or theoretical framework of the planned research Provides information on research approaches and techniques. Results of the study might benefit future patients but will probably not benefit those acting as research subjects. Combine new with old interpretations 3. disability. these 21 guidelines (15 in the original report) address issues including informed consent. 1974. responds to the realities of nursing and health care in a changing society. One of the charges to the Commission was to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and to develop guidelines which should be followed to assure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles. Purpose • • The CIOMS Guidelines. The new version. Summary Differentiated therapeutic from nontherapeutic research Therapeutic research gives the patient the opportunity to receive an experimental treatment that might have beneficial results Nontherapeutic research is conducted to generate knowledge for a discipline. It discusses published information in a particular subject area sometimes within a certain time period. (ii) the role of assessment of riskbenefit criteria in the determination of the appropriateness of research involving human subjects. theories. Kinds of literature Research literature: refers to published reports of actual research studies done previously Conceptual literature consists of articles or books written by authorities giving their opinions. or a reshuffling of information to: 1. protection of subjects from physical and mental suffering. 93-348) was signed into law. recruitment of participants. revised for the first time in 27 years. Synthesis A synthesis is a re-organization. or ideas. is a guide for action based on social values and needs. What is a literature review? • • • • It can be a simple summary of sources but has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. RN. revised in 2000. The Guidelines are general instructions and principles of ethical biomedical research Belmont Report • It is conducted to generate a picture of what is known about a particular situation and the knowledge gaps that exist in it. L. balance of benefits and risk Declaration of Helsinki • • It is a collection of materials on a topic. the National Research Act (Pub. • Journal articles . Created in 1993 by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and updated in 2002. Code of Ethics for Nurses • • A primary source: is the description of an investigation written by the person who conducted it A secondary source: is a description of a study or studies prepared by someone other than the original researcher Where can literature be found? • The Code of Ethics for Nurses. Trace the intellectual progression of the field including major debates. Irma Bustamante. there-by creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. CIOMS • • A summary is a recap of the important information found in the literature. experiences. formally known as International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects. death 4. The Code has served as the standard for nurses worldwide since it was first adopted in 1953. (iii) appropriate guidelines for the selection of human subjects for participation in such research and (iv) the nature and definition of informed consent in various research settings.

the relationship between variables. RN. declarative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Terminologies A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object. Read for depth Allow enough time Do not put writing off until you have finished reading Keep bibliographic information. It is a tentative explanation for certain behaviors. It is an educated guess which needs to be tested. The review should be organized into sections that present themes or identified trends. The use of a framework In quantitative research. A conceptual map Hypothesis Ma. Revise…revise…revise • A conceptual map is a strategy for expressing a framework. PhD Definitions Definitions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A framework is the abstract. a phenomenon. A theory consistent with the philosophy is developed as the outcome of the study. RN. thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. Writing the literature review The review is not just a list describing one published study after another but rather requires that the author critically analyze the available literature on the topic. The hypothesis is a tentative.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Books Conference proceedings Government and corporate reports Newspapers The use of a framework • • • • • • • Worldviews are mental lenses or cognitive and perceptual maps that we continually use to find our way through the social landscape surrounding us. logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing's body of knowledge. Terminologies Construct Emotional Responses Concept Variable Terminologies Anxiety Palmar Sweating Concrete Abstract Where can literature be found? Theses and dissertations Internet – electronic journals CD – ROM Magazines Reading the literatures Read the easier articles first Scan the article – Read the abstract first. Constructs are concepts at very high level of abstraction and have general meaning Variables are more concrete and are narrow in their definition. It should be testable. They are extremely encompassing in content and pervasive in adherence. Literature review Results of previous researches . Conceptual framework is rooted on specific concepts or conceptual model Both provides the structure for examining a problem and serves as a guide to examine relationships between variables. Definitions Theoretical framework is based on theories. belief systems and social values associated with them. It should state in definite terms. Characteristics It should be reasonable. Irma Bustamante. the initial framework is a philosophy or a worldview. the framework is a testable theory that may emerge from a conceptual model or may be developed inductively from published research or clinical observations In qualitative research. phenomena or events which have occurred or will occur. It diagrams the interrelationships of the concepts and statements. Sources Observations of phenomena Real life experiences May be generated from relationships expressed in theories. It is the conceptual underpinnings of a study. Irma Bustamante. or an idea. They are composed of beliefs. PhD Framework Ma.

Types • Correlational designs help one determine the extent to which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest. PhD Definitions • • • • • • • • Research design is the plan. These designs examine sequences and patterns of change. Irma C. procedures. Interrelationship: Design. event or group in real life situations for the purpose of discovering new meaning. Literature Review. Quantitative Descriptive • • • • • Hypothesis should specify the independent and dependent variables and the relationship between them. If results are replicated in numerous investigations. Non-directional – only specifies that there is a relationship. Wording the hypothesis • Comparative designs examine and describe differences in variables in two or more groups that occur naturally in the setting. • A descriptive design is used to identify a phenomenon of interest. Findings are always tentative. sample. It includes the design. Quantitative Descriptive • • Simple hypothesis has one independent and one dependent variable. structure. and data analysis. setting. greater confidence can be placed in the conclusions. Quantitative Descriptive • Types Survey designs are employed to measure the existing phenomenon without inquiring into why it exists. describing what exists. Types Examples Directional The higher the nursing admission test results. and strategy of an investigation. instruments. It is tested with statistics. Types Research Designs Ma. RN. Hypothesis should be worded in the present tense Hypothesis should be stated declaratively. This could either be: Directional – specifies the direction of the relationship. and categorizing information. Example There is no relationship between nursing admission test results and board examination ratings among the graduates of nursing schools in Manila. Bustamante. Cross sectional designs are used to examine groups of subjects in various stages of development simultaneously with the intent to describe changes in the phenomenon across stages. Non-directional There is a relationship between nursing admission test results and board examination ratings among the graduates of nursing schools in Manila. The dimension of time becomes an important factor. Research method is the totality of how the study is carried out. Quantitative Descriptive • • Complex hypothesis has two or more independent and dependent variables Example There is no relationship between nursing admission test results and grade point average to board examination ratings and CGFNS results among the graduates of nursing schools in Manila. The main intention is to use the data for problem solving rather than for hypothesis testing. Example There is no relationship between nursing admission test results and board examination ratings among the graduates of nursing schools in Manila. determining the frequency with which something occurs.Types • • Null hypothesis (Ho) is a statement of a no relationship. . interventions. Framework. no difference. Remember Hypotheses are never proved through hypothesis testing rather they are accepted or supported or rejected. Quantitative Descriptive • • Longitudinal designs examine changes in the same subjects over an extended period. the higher is the board examination ratings. Problem. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses are used to examine differences between or among groups. The critical distinguishing characteristic is the effort to estimate a relationship as distinguished from simple description. Hypotheses come to be supported with mounting evidences. and Hypothesis Quantitative Designs Alternative or research hypothesis (H1) is the expectation based on theory. identify variables within the phenomenon. Time dimensional designs were developed within the discipline of epidemiology where the occurrence and distribution of disease among populations are studied. no effect or no interaction. growth or change over time.

Quantitative Experimental Where: R – Random assignment O1 – Experimental pretest O2 . Cohort studies: focus on the same specific population each time data are collected. Quasi-experimental Designs Designs: Pre-experimental • • • • Time series experiment O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Non-equivalent control group design Posttest only design with comparison group Notation . Quantitative Descriptive 2. True Experimental Designs Pretest Posttest Control Group Design or Classical Experimental Design Notation: RS O1 X O2 ____________________ RC O3 O4 True Experimental Designs • Ways of control: 1. Done as a preliminary study.Treatment/Intervention O2 . provides intervention or treatment in the experimental group.Quantitative Descriptive • 3 Primary longitudinal designs 1.Treatment/Intervention S – Study group C – Control group True Experimental Designs • • Solomon Four Group Design Notation: RS O1 RC O3 RS RC X X O2 O4 O5 O6 • Pre-experimental design is a research design that does not include mechanisms to compensate for the absence of either randomization or a control group. 3. Panel studies: use the same respondents for each progressive time period that the data are collected. Matching: it is used when a subject in the experimental group is randomly selected and then a subject similar in relation to important extraneous variables is randomly selected for the control group. Characteristics of a True Experiment • Control: imposing of rules by the researcher to decrease the possibility of error and increase the probability that the study’s findings are an accurate reflection of reality. Characteristics of a True Experiment • • Randomization: each individual in the population should have a greater than zero opportunity to be selected for the sample. The independent variable is manipulated to assess its effect on the dependent variable.e. Blocking: including the extraneous variable as part of the design 3.Experimental posttest O3 – Control pretest O4 – Control posttest X . Characteristics of a True Experiment Notation: X O1 -----------------O2 Where: X – Treatment/Intervention O1 – Experimental posttest O2 – Control posttest ---. Random assignment is the assignment of subjects to treatment conditions in a manner determined by chance. Trend studies: the general population is studied at different points over a long period of time. Homogenecity: the researcher limits the subjects to only one level of extraneous variable to reduce the impact on study findings Characteristics of a True Experiment 2. Participants are not the same at each period but they are representative of the population at that time. Characteristics of a True Experiment Experimental group Control group Designs: Pre-experimental X O1 O2 • • • One-Group Pretest Posttest Design Notation: O1 X O2 Where: O1 – Pretest X . samples may be composed of different subjects but with similar characteristics..Posttest Designs: Pre-experimental • • • Static Group Comparison Manipulation: the researcher manipulates i.Non-random selection Quantitative Experimental • • • True experimental designs possess the characteristics of a true experiment.Posttest Quasi-experimental designs are studies involving an intervention in which subjects are not randomly assigned to treatment conditions but the researcher exercises controls to enhance the study’s internal validity. Designs: Pre-experimental Quantitative Experimental • • • One shot case study Notation X O • Where: X – Treatment/intervention O .

prejudices and beliefs so that they do not interfere with or influences their description of the respondent’s experience. Ecologic (Aggregate) Study . genetics. Epidemiological Designs 2. after a sufficient treatment period and often a washout period. Analytical – determinants and risk of disease 2.g. experimental study using primary data generated in the laboratory environment. Cross-Sectional (Prevalence Study) Study .An observational analytical study based on aggregated secondary data. comorbidity. Case Series . stronger. Longitudinal Study) . Case-Control Study .. Qualitative Designs • • • • • Qualitative designs uses systematic. the RCT is the strongest evidence of the clinical efficacy of preventive and therapeutic procedures in the clinical setting. observational study. Individuals with a chronic condition are randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups. Qualitative Historical • Historical design is the systematic collection and critical evaluation of data relating to past occurrences.provides the strongest clinical evidence. typically describing the manifestations. 1. Cohort (Incidence. Randomized Cross-Over Clinical Trial . nutrition. environment. are switched to the other treatment for the same period.A descriptive. typically describing the manifestations. Properly executed. hungrier.O1 X O2 --------------------O3 O4 Threats to Experimental Validity • Internal validity: refers to the condition that the observed differences on the dependent variable are a direct result of the manipulation of the independent variable. observational study often based on secondary data in which the proportion of cases with a potential risk factor are compared to the proportion of controls (individuals without the disease) with the same risk factor. Epidemiological Designs 4. analytical.A prospective. or more experienced during the study. wiser.Anecdotal evidence. observational study of a series of cases. A description of a single case. usually primary. not some other variable Threats to Experimental Validity • Threats to internal validity History effect: an event that is not related to the planned study but occurs during the time of the study and could influence the responses of subjects to the treatment Threats to Experimental Validity Selection threat is more likely to occur in studies in which randomization is not possible Maturation is defined as growing older. age. gender. External criticism: authenticity and genuiness of data Internal criticism: worthiness or truthfulness of data . experimental study using primary data generated in the clinical environment. Laboratory studies are very powerful tools for doing • Grounded theory provides a way to transcend experience – to move it from a description of what is happening to understanding the process by which it happens. and. Epidemiological Designs 3. Intervention studies – explore the association between interventions and outcomes Epidemiological Designs basic research because all extraneous factors other than those of interest can be controlled or accounted for (e. clinical course. Epidemiological Designs 6. interactive approach which is used to describe life experiences and give them meaning. Epidemiological Designs 2. analytical. Case Report . Randomized Controlled Laboratory Study . Threats to Experimental Validity Mortality is due to subjects who drop out of a study before completion • External validity refers to the condition wherein the results are generalizable or applicable to groups and environments outside of the experimental setting Epidemiological Designs • Two broad classifications 1. Aggregate data on risk factors and disease prevalence from different population groups is compared to identify associations. clinical course.A descriptive study of the relationship between diseases and other factors at one point in time (usually) in a defined population Epidemiological Designs 5. and prognosis of a condition. and prognosis of that case. Qualitative Phenomenology Phenomenological design is used to describe experiences as they are lived Bracketing is the suspension of the researcher’s preconceptions. Epidemiological Designs 3. analytical. have or will have the exposure of interest. The common association measure for a case-control study is the odds ratio. to determine the association between that exposure and an outcome. Individuals similar at the beginning are randomly allocated to two or more treatment groups and the outcomes the groups are compared after sufficient follow-up time. analytical. more tired. Qualitative Grounded Theory Observational studies 1. strain of infectious agent) Epidemiological Designs Observational studies 1. Qualitative Ethnographic • Ethnographic design provides a mechanism for studying our own culture and that of others. Unplanned and unrecognized changes can influence the findings of the study. analytical.A prospective. experimental study using primary data generated in the clinical environment.) Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial (RCT) . from a follow-up period of a group in which some have had.A prospective. based on data.A retrospective.A prospective. Descriptive – patterns and frequency of disease Epidemiological Designs Intervention or experimental studies . Observational studies – examine associations between risk factors and outcomes 2.

Bustamante. Qualitative Feminist Research • • • Feminist research is based on the premise that gender is a central construct in a society that privileges men and marginalizes women. Sampling plan defines the process of making the selection. Elements are the entities that make up the sample or the population Definitions • Purposive or judgmental: subjects are hand picked to be included in the sample. and suggesting the implications of those answers. Experimental: 15 – 30 subjects per group Gay and Diehl.Qualitative Philosophical Inquiry • Philosophical inquiry considers an idea or an issue from all perspectives by extensively exploring the literature.05 or 0. • Involves an extensive exploration of a single unit of study. Categories of Sampling Plans • Critical social theory dares to question the unquestioned and uncovers injustice and inequity in the society.1992 Sample Size • It is the combined use of two or more theories. Qualitative Critical Social Theory • • • Sampling frame is a list of all cases. or institution. objects. • Slovin’s Formula n = N 1 + Ne2 Where: n = sample size N = population e = desired margin of error ( 0. events. or representative cases Triangulation • Minimum acceptable sample size 1. Irma C. and then taking a random sample from each section. Sample defines the selected group of people or elements. Generalizing means that the findings can be applied to the population. PhD Definitions • • • • Sampling involves selecting a group of people. family. methods. It proceeds through a set of stages from larger to smaller sampling units. based upon the researcher’s knowledge of the population. Correlational: 30 subjects 3. Used for rare. It seeks to equalize power relations by using a broad range of methodologies. RN. Non-probability sampling: elements are selected by non-random methods Sample Size RULE: The larger the sample. Definitions • Systematic sampling: every nth name from a roster of names can be taken as sample. Population or target population is the entire set of individuals or elements who meet the sampling criteria. investigators. interesting. or other elements with which to conduct a study.01 ) Probability Techniques • • Simple random: sampling by chance either by lottery or by the use of table of random numbers Probability Techniques Stratified random: involves taking certain areas of the population. Remember The KEY in choosing the research design The best research design is the one that is most appropriate for the problem and the purpose of the study. It may have both quantitative and qualitative elements. or groups of cases in the populations. Probability Techniques Sample Ma. providing answers. or a very small number of subjects who are examined intensively. data sources. community. behaviors. such as a person. Ex post facto: 15 subjects 4. There is randomization. K = N/n Where: K = sampling interval N = population n = sample size Probability Techniques • • Cluster sampling: sampling in groups Probability Techniques Multi-stage sampling: used for extremely large populations. the more representative of the population. examining conceptual meaning. Representativeness means that the sample must be like the population in as many ways as possible. Non-probability Techniques . Accessible population is the portion of the target population to which the researcher has reasonable access. Non-probability Techniques • • • Sampling criteria list the characteristics essential for membership in the target population. Case Study Probability sampling: a process in which each element of the population has an equal chance of being chosen for the sample. Descriptive: 10 – 20% of the population 2. group. raising questions. dividing the areas into sections. or analysis methods in the study of the same phenomenon.

N. Rating Scales: list an ordered series of categories of a variable assumed to be based on an underlying continuum. Identify the accessible population 3. Identify the target population 2. Physiologic Measurement Criteria for effective question • Clarity of language • Specificity of content and time period • Singleness of purpose • Freedom from assumption • Freedom from suggestion • Linguistic completeness • Grammatical consistency Types of questions • Closed ended: respondents answer a number of alternative responses 1. Obtain the subject’s cooperation. There is data repetition. The steps may vary from one sampling design to another Qualitative sampling Interview Tools Observation • Observation: involves looking at the phenomenon • Used to study human behavior • Hawthorne effect: is the effect on the dependent variable caused by the subject’s awareness that they are participants in a study Types of Observation • Structured observation is one in which aspects of the phenomenon to be observed are decided in advance • Unstructured observation is a nonselective description of the phenomenon to be observed Types of Observation • Participant observation is done when the researcher is involved in the setting with the subject • Non-participant observation is when the researcher is merely viewing the situation Records • Records are prepared and preexisting data • Selective deposit and selective survival are the two major sources of bias. RN. Irma C.B. incidental: utilizes readily available subjects Non-probability Techniques Snowball or network: subjects act as informants who identify others for inclusion in the sample who in turn leads to more samples Steps in Sampling General outline of procedures 1. Checklist 2. Questionnaire • Questionnaire: a paper and pencil instrument completed by the study subjects • Formats 1. Questionnaire Formats • Checklist • Multiple Choice • Rating Scale and Ranking Type Interview • Interview involves verbal communication between the researcher and the subject • Interview structure is the amount of direction and restriction imposed by the interview situation Interview Types . Dichotomous: two response alternative 2. This is also called biophysiologic measures • Used in clinical nursing studies • The choice of the physiologic measure is dependent upon its ability to yield good information. 4.• Quota sampling: researchers identify strata of the population and then determine how many participants are needed from each stratum to meet a quota. Non-probability Techniques • Structured: the interviewer has a list of prepared questions in the form of an interview schedule Unstructured interview: more like a conversation. Physiologic Measurement • Physiologic measurements are techniques used to measure physiologic variables either directly or indirectly. • • Sample size is not predetermined in qualitative research Saturation: is the point in data gathering where no new data emerge therefore sampling is stopped. convenience. PhD Goal and Purpose • Goal – to collect data that are meaningful for the purpose of the study • Meaningful data depend on the quality of the instrument employed in the process • No amount of sophisticated statistics can salvage a poor set of data gathered through defective instruments. Data Collection Ma. Decide the sample size and how the sample will be taken. Multiple Choice 3. Multichotomous: multiple responses • Open ended: respondents are given enough flexibility to answer questions or specify answers other than those found in the questionnaire Characteristics of tools • Validity refers to the ability of a data gathering instrument to measure what it is supposed to measure and to obtain data relevant to what is being measured. • Records available for use may not constitute the entire set of all possible data. The interviewer uses an interview guide • • • • Accidental. Bustamante. 5. A numerical value is assigned to each category. Recruit subjects according to the designated plan.

Shape of distribution • Frequency distribution Frequency Table _________________________________ Score Frequency (f) Percentage 1 2 12. Variability QUAN . The SD tells us how much on the average the scores deviate from the mean. .75% 5 1 6. in most quantitative studies. Research questions 3. The median is larger than the mean because there are so many high scores. A frequency distribution can be obtained graphically by means of a frequency polygon QUAN .• Reliability refers to the ability to obtain consistent results when reused.Shape of distribution Purposes of statistics Summarize Organize Evaluate Numeric Interpret Information Communicate • A distribution is said to be symmetrical in shape if when folded over. 2. Quantitative Analysis Example – Negatively skewed distribution Age at death – most people die when they are old. Shape: Asymmetrical Distributions Negatively skewed: Tail points to the left Shape: Asymmetrical Distributions • • Branches of statistics 1. Quantitative Analysis QUAN .50% 2 4 25. the testing of the hypotheses using those data.Shape of distribution Scores in a pilot survey on patient satisfaction 1 4 3 4 3 3 2 2 5 1 3 2 2 3 4 3 1 = Very dissatisfied 4 = Satisfied • Standard deviation (SD) captures the degree to which the scores deviate from one another. The bulk of the people are at the upper end of the distribution. Shape: Symmetrical Distributions Shape: Symmetrical Distributions Shape: Asymmetrical Distributions Positively Skewed: Tail points to the right Shape: Asymmetrical Distributions Quantitative Analysis • Factors to consider in choosing the appropriate statistical test 1. QUAN – Variability Frequency distribution is a systematic arrangement of numerical values from the lowest to the highest. PhD Data Analysis • • Data analysis is the systematic organization and synthesis of research data and. 2 = Dissatisfied 3 = A little satisfied 5 = Very Satisfied Data Analysis and Interpretation Ma. Purpose of the study 2. Shape of distribution 2. Shape: Kurtosis • • Kurtosis explains the degree of peakedness of the curve. Bustamante.00% 3 6 37. RN. few die when they are young.50% 4 3 18. Extreme kurtosis can affect the validity of statistical analysis because the scores have little variation Shape: Kurtosis QUAN – Central Tendency • A set of data can be summarized in terms of 3 characteristics 1. Irma C. Descriptive statistics used to describe and synthesize data obtained from empirical observations and measurements. together with a count of the number of times each value was obtained. Sampling technique and sample size 5. Number and measure of variables 4.Shape of distribution • Frequency polygon • QUAN . The mean is larger than the median because there are so many low scores.Shape of distribution • • • • • • Mode – that numerical value in a distribution that occurs most frequently Median – that point in a distribution above which and below which 50% of the subjects fall Mean – the point on the score scale that is equal to the sum of scores divided by the number of scores. Inferential statistics: it is concerned with making decisions about a large body of data in the population of interest by using a sample of that universe. the two halves of a frequency polygon would be superimposed. Ability of the researcher Quantitative Analysis • Example – Positively skewed distribution Personal income – most people have low to moderate income with very few at the tail end. which is related to the spread of variance of scores. It also tells us the homogenecity or heterogenecity of the group. It is also known as average.25% n = 16 100% QUAN .Availability of statistical software 6. Central tendency 3. Quantitative Analysis The manipulation of numerical data through statistical procedures for the purpose of describing phenomenon or assessing the magnitude and reliability of relationships among them.

RESULTS are data bound: DISCUSSION is data based • • Categories are underlying regularities. State how each literature relates to the topic under investigation. and other devises to maximize the lucidity of the presentation. QUAN – Measurement levels Include key previous researches to strengthen the reason for the investigation. Describe the tool used together with the validity and reliability testing. the methods used. practice. Writing the introduction and problem • Go directly into what the problem is investigating. Use tables. & definition of terms. Irma C. Consistency in style should be followed in writing the discussion. population or institution if applicable. figures. Writing the results & discussion Present results in a logical order with the research question as guide. Writing the literature review Include conflicting viewpoints of various authors. Qualitative Analysis Process • Comprehending – making sense of the data and learning “what is going on” and preparing a thorough description of the phenomenon. and how the findings relate to past research. • • • • Simplicity Conciseness Straight forwardness Consistency in the use of terms . • • • Nominal – lowest level. Writing the conclusions REMEMBER: the conclusion is an abstraction drawn from the summary of findings and is tied from the question investigated. Present the population and the sampling design. Characteristics of scientific writing • Recontextualizing – involves the further development of the theory such that its applicability to other settings or groups is explored. and sample size. RN. Researchers develop alternative explanations of the phenomenon and then hold these explanations up to determine their fit with the data. Qualitative Analysis Process Writing the summary • • • • • • • Theorizing – involves a systematic sorting of the data. Include the significance. setting. They emerge from the data. Qualitative Analysis Process • Synthesizing – involves sifting of the data and putting pieces together. Recommendations are geared towards: education. assignment of numbers to simply classify characteristics into categories Ordinal – attributes are ordered or ranked according to some criterion Interval 0≠0 The distance between any 2 numbers on the • • Ratio – Highest scale are 0=0 of known and equal size Qualitative Analysis Qualitative analysis is the organization and interpretation of non-numerical data for the purpose of discovering important underlying dimensions and patterns of relationships Qualitative Analysis Data analysis components Qualitative Analysis Learn to choose ONLY relevant literature. Text should be followed by tables. Researchers get a sense of what is typical with regard to the phenomenon and what variation is like.• score. and clusters of concepts. Look back at the questions and tie them up with the main findings. Do not write everything in the findings in the summary. what conclusions have been drawn at the end. Range is the highest score minus the lowest • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • State the rationale. Writing the methodology Include the research design and the justification of why it was chosen. Writing recommendations Recommendations should have a logical link with the data and the conclusions. name categories. Bustamante. Put together references saying the same thing. Qualitative Analysis Process The summary puts together the highlights of the important findings of the investigation. Discuss how the data was analyzed. concepts. A theme is an abstract entity that brings meaning and identity to experiences and its variant manifestations. the interpretation of results. Writing the Research Report Ma. It captures and unifies the nature or basis of the experience into a meaningful whole. PhD Purpose in writing the report • To communicate in writing: the problem investigated. scope and limitations. Themes develop within categories of data. the findings generated. future research. the integration with the theory.

W. RN. Researchers receive personal recognition and professional advancement It promotes critique and replication It helps identify additional problems Promotes the use of research findings in practice Avenues for communicating research Publication in journals including on-line journals Oral presentation in conferences Poster presentation in conferences Publication in conference proceedings Publication in other sources e. policy makers. PhD Communicating research • Communicating research findings.• • • Continuity through transitional sentences Accuracy Parsimony Communicating Research Ma. newspapers. involves developing a research report and disseminating it through presentations and publications to audiences of nurses.g. Advantages • • • • • • • • • • Researchers are able to advance the knowledge of a discipline. books. health care professionals. Cheran . Bustamante. the final step in the research process. magazines REMEMBER Genius is the ability to reduce the complicated to the simple. and health consumers. C. Irma C.