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. showjng how it has develit recycling. recycling thewise thing to do. And not just people: Nature has energy. lems SO. jt reduces lems associated with Htter and trash. creates jobs. wjth litter trash. Here js history of recycHng.and how it has become a way jt has a oped of life for millions of CaHfomians. a strong economy. life for millions Califomjans. and helps buHd bujld energy.Recycling is nothing new. showing oped . Here is a brief history do. recycling is still the wise So. And it reduces probeconomy. ng doing it People have been dojng jt for thousands of just of years.

practices in the ancient world. Over time. mud. Over time. the animals. plants. The process takes place as the decaying remains of dinosaurs along with other sea the decaying remains of dinosaurs --along with other sea animals and plants settle on the seabed. and social conventions play a mqjor role in establishing sanitary . 500 B. 1.65 million years ago 65 miHion years ago As dinosaurs die o f and become extinct. they must learn how to dispose of their trash. Millions of years later. mud. The challenge of what to do with waste begins. utilitarian.eo of at least one mjle from the city walls of at least one mile from the city walls. the recycling of dinosaurs will be embodied in "spokesdinosaur" Recycle Rex. local laws dictate that waste must be olspm. plastics. and sediment will gradually comanimals. (Eventually. plants.600 B. Religious. created by the California Department of Conservation to promote recycling. leaving their garbage behind. for example. Athens organizes the tirst municipal dumps in the western world. they are As dinosaurs die offfand become extinct. they will be mined and refined into petroleum.C. The process takes place as i recycled into oil and gas. they are recycled info o l and gas. and sediment will gradually compress into sedimentary rock and change into gas and oil press into sedimentary rock and change into gas and oil through heat and pressure. and thousands of other products.C.) they no longer travel from place to piace. . the animals and plants --settle on the seabed. see 1992. the Jewish code of sanitary laws obligates individuals to be responsible for removal of their own waste.

General George Washington urges the kinds.1031 1031 use of paper Japan begins tthe first recorded use of waste paper for he paper in Japan paper. Infected humans typically within 2 to Before it over. The Massachusetts House of Representatives passes a decree requiring that all House Representatives passes a decree requiring that all towns appoint an individual to receive rags for the mills. And publisher Benjamin o f wom from frigates. iron kettles pots are melted down for armaments. other items to the American Revolution. cloth. Patriots contribute metal. The trash became a fertile environment for diseases carried by rat fleas. iron kettles and the American Revolution. The Rittenhouse Mill near Philadelphia will make paper paper from fiber derived from recycled cotton and linen rags. Silversmith Paul Revere advertises for scrap metal of all kinds. and other used items to Patriots contribute metal. 1776 1776 As America declares its independence from England. paper. Black will died within 2 to 10 days. ck unpcped spawned iin pact by garbage tossed onto unpaved streets n pad by fertile and vacant spaces. The Massachusetts grows dramatically the states. Franklin uses reconstituted scrap in his early printing. Meanwhile. paper use are melted down for armaments. All making new paper. rebels tum to recycling ta provide material to fight the rebels tum recycling to provide War of Independence. publisher Benjamin Franklin uses reconstituted scrap paper in his early printing. . General George Washington reuse of old worn chain from frigates. Meanwhile. Silversmith Paul Revere advertises for Independence. grows dramatically in the new states. paper. America independence from England. cloth. Among other things. of of children. Among other things. in paper recycled and repulped into new paper. All documents and paper in Japan are recycled repulped new paper. Infected humans typically for diseases carried by rat fleas. towns appoint an individual to receive rags for the mills. women. sold in paper shops. and children. 1690 The recycled paper manufacturing process is introRittenhouse duced. 1348 The Black Death epidemic reaches Europe from Asia. Before it is over. Black Death wjll kill hundreds of thousands of men.

goods. commercially Industry. Malfhias Koops receives the first pafent for "extracting printing and writing ink receives patent “extracting writing from printed and wntten paper. among America's earliest entrepreneurships. and England. England. canning The U. 1865 1865 Salvation Anny founded The Salvation Army is founded in London. anything These merchants. and converting the paper from written from converting which the ink is extracted into pulp. America‘s The peddler trade. provides provides the first systematic incineration of municipal waste.in BaIfimore. or other metals or fit materials. Civil The California Gold Rush and the Civil War create an food long urgent need for food that could be preserved for 10Dg urgeDt transported distances. and making thereof paper into pulp. making fit for writing." Two years later. sorting. commercially processed food industry. begins when men with backpacks and horsedrawn carts collect and recycle collect recycle anything that has resale value. begins collecting. systematic incineration waste. printing. England. Meandevice “the destructor” while in Nottingham.” pottery.” later. collecting. Travelers settlements Travelers heading westward to open new settlements took East. 18405 1840s trade. These merchants. England. the Koops mill declared bankruptcy and closed.1801 1801 The first from '!'he tim mill to produce paper from material other than England. Maryland. are World. tin. Curbside recydbig begins . periods of time and transported over great distances. usually impoverished immigrants impovenshed immigrants to the New World. foods packed with them foods pocked in metal cans by canners in the East. million million cans in 1849 to 30 million five years later.S. purposes. and recycling unwanted goods. sorting. The Salvation activitjes Army and its resource recovery activities migrate to the United resource 1890s. Cucbside recycling ." launching the materials. printing. 1810 iaio Durand is a 111 Peter Durand is granted a patent by King George IJI of England for his idea of preserving food in "vessels of glass. England food “vessels pottery. States in the 1890s. direct ancestors of direct business families. The organization’s “Household Salvage Brigades” organization's "Household Salvage Brigades" employ the unskilled recover discarded Salvatjon unskilled poor to recover discarded materials. and other purposes.Balhore. canning business will boom from an output of five 1849 five yeors later. 1874 lW4 . Matthias Koops cotton and linen cotton aDd linen rags is built in England. Koops declared bankruptcy closed. a new device called "the destructoc" Nottingham.

various grades paper. from sorting and reselling items found in household trash. metals. The system requires households to sort organic wastes. 1907 1907 An article in Cosmopolitan magazine. metals.1892 The in by T e Sierra Club is founded in San Francisco by h renowned It the renowned conservationist John Muir. even horsehair are also sorted for recycling or reuse. rubber. materials. 19041904 The nation's first aluminum can recycling plants fie nation's fist aluminum can recycling open in Chicago and Cleveland. . and carpet. carpet.a wonderful cycle of transformanew and different material . paper." extols the manner in which "even/ possible substance we use and throwaway comes back as possible substance we use and throw away comes back as new and different material . comprehensive system of refuse management in the United States.a wonderful cycle of transfomation created by scientists' skill. national environmentalorganization 1895 New York City appoints Colonel George E. open in Chicago and Cleveland. ashes. reuse." Waring administers the first practical. Waring as street-cleaning commissioner." Eadv 1900s Early 1900s Recyclers and reuse programs adopt the phrase Recyclers and reuse programs adopt the phrase "Waste As Wealth" to describe the profits to be made 'Waste As Wealth" to describe the profits to be made from sorting and reselling items found in household trash. Waring outfits the proud sweepers and drivers in smart-looking white uniforms. Burlap bags. twine." tion created by scientists' skill. " h Chemical Te House That Jack Built. and even horsehair are also sorted for recycling twine. rubber. "The Chemical An article in Cosmopolitonmagazine. He even helps New York profit from source separation by reselling recovered materials. It is the first environmental organization. Known as the "Apostle of Cleanliness. and street sweepings into separate containers for collection. 1897 1897 New York City creates a materials recovery facility Yodc C t creates a iy recovery focilify where trash is sorted at "picking yards" and separated into is sorted "picking yards" into various grades of paper." extols the manner in which "every House That Jack Built. Burlap bags.

Otheman Stevens initiates ambitious tin Meanwhile. The service also advocates scientifjc old rags and wastepaper. for the first time in America. increases its annual California. ash. New Jersey. 1920s 19205 Landfflliag . The service also advocates scientific management of the nation‘s water. revenue The new revenue allows the cents collectors’ collectors' wages by 25 cents a ent to increase garbage increase 193 1935 The f i n t aluminum can for bevzrages isyanufactuced first bev61raSlles by a brewer in Newark. "light weighting" reduce aluminum beverage cans to weigh just one-half ounce. sorting waste materials. timber.early steps in the evolution of progressive programs to protect resources for future generations. selling t h e Califomia. Due to shortages of raw materials during World War J. Otheman Stevens initiates an ambitious fin the sole foil collection program 10s foil collection program in Los Angeles and becomes the sole Cross Salvage Bureau. becomes and.is introduced and becomes a popular disposal method. for the Used paper becomes a valuable commodity and. representative representative of the Red Cross Salvage Bureau. thousands of tons of old books. a process called “light weighting” will ounces. it ounces. land.1916 1916 The Chicago cityjail initiates a unique recycling The Chicago city jail initiates a unique recycling collecting and experiment as puts prisoners to experiment as it puts prisoners to work collecting and sorting materials. newsfirst Amenca. land. Meanwhile.” The Service with the motto "Don't Waste Waste . 1916-1918 1916-1918 Due to shodages of raw materials during I. 1929 1929 The Garbage Sacramento. . t h e federal govemment creates the Waste Reclamation the federal government creates the Waste Reclamation Senice the motto “Don’t Waste Waste . are papers. S x y years later. and business papers are recycled by paper mills. Sixty later. and minerals steps the evolution progressive programs .reclaiming wetlands with layers of garbage. becomes a disposal dirt -is introduced and dirt . timber. Landtilling . mills. increases its annual revenue by selling the city‘s to city's wastepaper to an independent paper company.Save It" The agency advertises extensively to encourage the public to save agency advertises extensively to encourage the publlc to save old rags and wastepaper. protect resources for future generations. The Municipal Garbage Department of Sacramento. Ms. and minerals management of the notion's water. tons books.Save It. papers. The can weighed three Jersey.reclaiming wetlands layers garbage. ash. one-half ounce. Ms.

and other materials is taken very seriously. The War Production Board's Salvage Division is responsible for promoting nationwide recycling. Citizens contribute everything from doorknobs to girdles to help build the military machine. In a productive public-private partnership to help the government's war effort.000 volunteers. More than 20.000 salvage committees. 400. you are aiding the Axis.000 carrier boys known as the "Junior Salvage Commandos" to make personal house-to-house calls in search . The Boston General Salvage Committee helps the war effort with scrap drives advertising the campaign on streetcars and billboards. eJ<hibits in grocery stores. In Chicago. "Special Salvage Days. the Herald & American newspaper enlists the aid of its 3.1939-1945 Thousands of tons of material are recycled to support U. rubber. The rhetoric is strong: "If you have even a few pounds of scrap metal in your home. II is said that salvaging metal straps from corsets alone saved enough metal to build two warships. and with informational circulars to homes." a children's scrap metal contest involving schools.S. and Allied troops during World War II. the International Harvester Company coordinates an effort using its 10. The salvage of tin.000 dealerships nationwide to collect much of the estimated three million tons of ferrous scrap metal lying idle on American farms." asserts one wartime magazine ad. and a volunteer women's group known as the "Salvage Commandos" are also used to enlist support for the program. and millions of citizens pledge to "Get in the Scrap" to help the war effort. aluminum.

U. The Amencan Society of Civil Engineers publishes o American Engineers a guide to londfffling. state and local governments with their disposal programs. . forests. highways are littered with trash. it celebrated these products’ ability to “cut down on household celebrated these products' ability to "cut down on household chores. 1964 The all-aluminum can is introduced. and product marketing. Recognizing the value of used aluminum cans as a ruw material for making new of used aluminum cans as a raw material for making new cans. and to collect methane gas.000recycling centers. produced as waste decomposes. increases in packaging.“With photo of family article on "Throwaway Living. Later standards will call for new landfills to have a later liner on the bottom and liquid collection systems that pump collection that pump liner the bottom and out water for treatment. U. which is out water to which is produced as waste decomposes. the The Solid Waste Disposal Act is passed by Congress.” Consumers are increasingly sold on the idea that chores. the aluminum industry will soon begin creating a massive system for recycling and redeeming used beverage massive system for recycling and redeeming used beverage containers. The first significant recognition of trash as a national issue." With aaphoto of aa family cheerfully tossing dozens of disposables into the air.000 recycling centers. The primary thrust of the act is to “initiate and accelerate” a primary thrust of the act is to "initiate and accelerate" a national research and development program and to assist national research and development program and to assist state and local govemments with their disposal programs.2 billion cans in 1972 to more than 62 billion cans in 1995 through curbside 1972 to more than 62 billion cans in 1995 through curbside recycling programs and more than 10. calling for compacting trash and landfUling. A negative side-effect: parks. Recognjzing the value The all-aluminum can is introduced.S. the aluminum industry will soon begin creating a cans.S. covering it daily with a layer of soil to guard against rodents of and odors.1948 1948 Morket occeptonce of frozen orange concentrate leads Market acceptance of frozen orange concentrate leads to the expansion of the frozen foods industry. A negative side-effect: parks. the first significantrecognition of trash as a national issue.2 billion cans in containers. collection will grow from 1. forests. 1955 1955 7he August 1issue of Life magazine offers a two-page The August 1 issue of Life magazine offers a two-page orticle on “Throwaway Living. Ease and single-use items are necessities of a modem lifestyle. recycling programs and more than 10. with associated increases in packaging. with associated to the expansion of the frozen foods industry. it cheerfully tossing dozens of disposables into the air. Ease and convenience become the two most desirable qualities in convenience become the two most desirable qualities in product marketing. collection will grow from 1. 1965 1965 The SolidWaste Disposal Act is passed by Congress. and highways are littered with trash." Consumers are increasingly sold on the idea that single-use items are necessities of a modem lifestyle.

and youth groups take the lead in these efforts. tirst "bottle U.292 nationwide. The U.S. aluminum industq efforts lead to a record of 53 million pounds of aluminum being recycled this year. Schools. Twenty-five years later. One focus is recycling. with some 119. energy. to evolve into a mainstream movement. MeanCongress while. Environmental Protection Agency is created as government a government response to the public's growing environmental Office of examining concerns. requiring recycled. industry Meanwhile. and the conversion of waste into energy. Meanwhile.1970 tirst Earth OD The first national Eatth Day is held on April 22.S. I1 get a boost in 1991. movement. The Nelson. brother of distinguished American painter Andrew Wyeth. which begins throughoutlhe U. . religious institutions. country. federal involvement recovery. The bottles will soon begin replacing glass bottles for some uses. PET recycling will in 1979 to 622 In 1995.. environmental organizations. environmentalorganizations. Schools. 1973 1973 battle The polyethylene terephthalate (pET) plastic bottle is (PET) pateDted brothel' patented by chemist Nathaniel Wyeth. as recycling and litter clean-up programs spring up throughout the country. citizens Americans festivals An estimated 20 million Americans celebrate at festivals and fairs throughout the U S . religious institutions. conversion of resource recovery. focus recycling. nationwide. when Coca-Cola soda bottle. and its Ofice of Solid Waste begins examining the disposing problems caused by generating and disposing waste. Congress passes the Resource Recovery Act to shift the emphasis of federal involvement from disposal to recycling. Recycling wjll begin in 1977.. will 1977. recycling.S. 1972 Oregon passes the first "bottle bill" in the US.292 cans recycled every minute ll9. Americans will exceed that amount Americans every week. to be redeemed when the container is recycled. brainchild of Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson. significant number of recycling facilities accept PE7 bottles. it is inspired "teach-Ins" by "teach-ins" held to educate citizens about the Vietnam War. effo 1991. though it will be years before a significant facilities PET boffles. requiring consumers to pay a deposit on bottles and cans.

and newspapers. businesses separate these recyclables from their trash." a report of the Federal no Resource Conservation Committee. about one in seven of which will be recovered for recycling. wams: “We Resource Conservation Committee. plastic (PET and HDPE) bottles. it that landfills is passed. local govemment. Among other things. with than billion cons bottles recycled annually. with more than 70 billion pieces of mail delivered annually.”a report Federal "Choices for Conservation. Our materials-use practices affect environmental energy consumption. gloss. these cecyclables from their trash. generation. Within 20 years. federal als. with more Direct-mail advertising begins to take off. warns: "We have no for complacency which consume cause for complacency about the rate at which we consume practices affect endowment. local government. glass. 1976 1976 The Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery The Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is passed. with more than $5 billion spent to promote credit cards. environmental policy. magazines. and the federal govemment choices every affect govemment all make choices every day which affect our use conservation resources. and other important concerns. the industry will hundreds of other products. Rhode Island becomes Rhode Island the first state to pass a mandatory recycling law for aluminum the to pass mandatory recycling low for and steel (“tin’? cans. and the nation‘s management program launches the nation's hazardous waste management program 1979 1979 ”Choices for Conservation. Among other things. the industry will grow to more than $100 billion. waste generation." 1986 Califomia enacts the California Beverage Container California Recycling and Litter Reduction Act. and hundreds of other products. and than $S billion spent to promote credit cords. and steel ("tin") cans. plastic (PIT and HDPE) bottles. placing a deposit on Recycling Reduction Act. Individuthe balance of trade. about one in seven which pieces of moil delivered annually.with more than 10 billion cans and 80% by the 1990s.“ and conservation of resources. magazines. The low emphasizes recycling and conserving energy and other resources. Residents and businesses must now newspapers. other important concems. will be recovered for recycling. Within 20 years. recyclables . private companies. with more than 70 billion grow to more than $100 billion. the trade.1974 1974 Dicect-mail advertising begins to take off. energy consumption. The law emphasizes become more closely monitored. The program cons program pushes the state‘s overall beverage container recycling rate to state's recycling 80% by the mid 1990s. and recycling and conserving energy and other resources. aluminum cans and glass and plastic bottles. Meanwhile. lndividucompanies. OUI our natural endowment. it mandates that landfills become more closely monitored.

California state breakthroughs advance recycling. hypodermic needles and other medical waste wash up beaches. their findings: Trash doesn't break down in landfills.1987 The Mobro. 50 favoring recycled paper. Students unearth decades-old newspapers that are intact. is widely publicized and paper. Students decades-old that are intact. and bananas that are still yellow. hypodennic In an unrelated incident a year later. By the early postconsumer content. tries The Mobro. Caljfomia government allows a price preference for paper with at least a for govemment 50% recycled and 10% postconsumer content. other medical waste wash up onto East Coast beaches. The event is wjdely publicized and brings new interest in recycling as an alternative to landfilling. The "solid media begins referring the situations collectively media begins referring to the sjtuahons collectively as a “solid waste crisis. a barge carrying garbage from New Yo&. a barge carrying garbage from New York. 1989 1989 Arizona archaeologist William Rathje begins the William Garbage Project in which he leads students in "mining" which “mining” local landfills to learn about modem civilization.000 miles for six months before it is finally allowed to dump its load. In 1993 President Clinton orders favoring 1993 President Cljnton orders federal agencies to buy paper with at least 20% federal agencies to postconsumer content.The barge travels 6. The barge months before countries. '90s. bananas that are still yellow. all 50 states adopted legislation or executive orders legislation executive orders ’90s. tries unsuccessfully to get rid of its load in six states and three other unsuccessfully to get rid of its load in six states and three other countries. back New York. conSisting primarily of it is finally allowed to dump its load. consisting primarily of paper." 1988 Government purchasing policies and technological Govemment purchasing breakthroughs advance paper recycling. Among local landfills leam cjvjljzation. bnngs new interest in recycling as an altemative to landfilling. . their findings: Trash doesn‘t down in landfills. back in New York. postconsumer content.

Califomia govemment California state government mandates municipalities to municipalities reduce their waste stream by 25% by the year 1995 and 50% reduce 1995 2000. The California lntegrated Waste ManageAssembly 1989) ment Board is established (by Assembly Bill 939 in 1989) to administer the program. and ! other bestsellers join with network TV specials and magazine cover stories to bring a renewed focus on recycling and other conservation efforts. Don’t litter. becomes finding markets for the materials being collected. Integrated by the year 2000. administer program. The Green Consumer. Califomia Govemor Deuhejian Meanwhile. Califomia first Recycle California observes its first Recycle Week in mid-April. and elsewhere. Environmental Media Association. begin promoting buying recycled-content products as key to the continued success of recycling in the U. A “closing loop” A new emphasis is placed on "closing the loop" . government agencies in California. continued 1991 1991 7he League teams The National Football League teams up with the Califonda Department of Conservation. and other prominent environmentalorganizations. California Governor George Deukmejian introlitter prevention campaign targeting youthful duces a litter prevention campaign targeting the youthful can.buying from material. htterbug. along with state govemment agencies Califomia. products made from recycled material. Public opinion polls show environmental protection as a top concern.S. recyclables challenge Collection of recyclab\es is so prolific that the challenge prolific findjng markets collected. The ad line: "Learn to hold it until you get to the can.” Don't litter. and the Rose Bowl to implement the first comprehensive recycling comprehensive recycling program at Super Bowl XXVII. promoting recycled-content products where. National Recycling Coalition. Environmental Association. Coalition. 50 Simple Things You Can Do to Save the Earth. of Pasadena. Meanwhile. Recycling The Environmental Defense Fund.1990 The 20th anniversary of Earth Day marks a pinnacle of the modem environmental movement as millions of citizens worldwide participate in environmental events. along prominent environmental organizations. line: ‘Leam litterbug. Washington. the city California Conservation. Washington. Fund. conservation efforts." .

ycle even more in order to reach the historic 50% reduction by 2000. Evidence grows that recycling helps create jobs. and rec.000 new jobs by the year 2000. The California Department of Conservation publishes Good. For example.OOo-plus attendees and is heralded as the largest event of its kind in the country.600 tons of material. A study by the California Integrated Waste Management Boord calculates that diverting 50% of the state's waste stream from landfills could create 40. is created through a parlnership ~~ between The Walt Disney Company . and celebrities. Green Jobs. Conservation fair '97.1992 Recycle Rex. and families to reduce.S. an increase of 500 million over the previous year. California's spokesdinosaur for recycling and conservation. Re'l1l'" e 1993 The first Earth Day ConservatioD :Fair at State Capitol Park in Sacramen10 educates and entertains more than 5. ~e". businesses. reuse. McDonald's sponsors the distribution of the "Recycle Relt classroom video in English and Spanish .5 billion soft drink con1ainers. with 120 exhibits.000 public and private elementary schools..to the state's 6. .000 recycling centers natianwide and at least 4. attracts SO. and the Califomia Department of Conservation.000 curbside collection programs. The California Integrated Waste Management Board intensifies its efforts to help communities.000 kids and adults. There are more than 400 recycled papers in all grades. There are more than 10. .. the city of Son Jose estimates it could create 775 jobs by recycling 624. 1995 Amedcons recycle a record 47. documenting how companies are creating economic growth through recycling and other environmental initiatives. live music.Television public service announcements introduce the popular character to all residents. and 80% in Califomia. Aluminum cans are recycled ata rate of 63% in the U. Californians achieve a milestone by diverting 25% of their waste. meeting the requirements of state law.

And the future looks bright. such as certifying locations for consumers to drop off used motor oil for recycling and tire recycling efforts. glass.s. Californians recycle nearly 10 billion glass and plastic bottles and aluminum cans every year . This recycling program is funded through redemption payments made by beverage distributors on every eligible beverage container sold in the state.. CallI-BOO-RECYCLE for Information. or to order a publication. reviews plans submitted by cities and counties for reaching 50% waste diversion.nearly one a day for every state resident. as well as ensuring that the state's landfills and other waste facilities operate in compliance with all federal and state environmental and health and safety laws. communities.Today . to find the used oil recycling center closest to you. The Department also provides public information on recycling . Revenues from these payments are used to pay consumers who redeem their California Redemption Value (CRV) beverage containers at certified recycling centers and to fund various recycling programs. The IWMB also is responsible for specialized waste prevention programs. and Tomorrow Recycling has come of age in CalifoOlia . and provides information and assistance to governments. schools and other institutions.and throughout the u. For more information on IWMB programs. Among other things. call the new CallEPA hotline at l-BOO-ClEANUP. households.from where to find certified recycling centers to how to join the RecyCool Club. . plastic and bi-metal beverage containers in an environmentally sound and economically viable manner. recycling programs continue to grow in companies. The six-member Board assists developing markets for recyc1ables through a variety of measures.with more than a quarter of all household waste being diverted from landfills and incinerators. . . The purpose of the program is to foster recycling of the state's aluminum. California's recycling agencies T he CalifoOlia Depadment of Conservation administers the state's Beverage Container Recycling and litter Reduction Act. including its Recycling Market Development Zone loon program. The CalifoOlia Integrated Waste Management Board is the state agency responsible for promoting recycling of cornmodities other than cans and bottles. Public opinion pools show that Americans in general overwhelmingly support recycling programs and believe they are an important part of our everyday efforts to conserve resources and protect the environment. businesses and individual Californions on ways they can recycle and buy recycled products. Throughout California.