You are on page 1of 254

O R I E N TA L TR A N S LA TI O N F UN D .

N EW S E RI E S .

T H E

K AD A MBA P J O F BANA .

g r a n s I a f e b w it h Q c c a s i o u a t Q m i s s i o u s
, ,

A N D A C CO M P A N I ED B Y A F U L L A B S T R A CT O F T HE CO N T I N U A T I O N O F T HE

R O M A N CE B Y T HE A U T HO R S ’
SO N B HT
J SH A N A B H A T T A ,

C . M . B I D D I N G,
F o rm e r ly S c ho la r of Gi n o n Co llege , Ca m br id ge .

P R I N T ED A ND P U B L I SH E D U N D E R T H E P A TR O N A G E O F TH E

R O YA L A S I A TI C S O CI E T Y ,

A ND S O LD AT

22 , A L B E M A R L E S T R E E T , L O N D O N .

1896 .
C O W E L L ,

WHO FI RS T TO LD ME

''

THE S T O RY O F K AD A M B A RI,

T HI S T RA N S L A T I O N

IS A F F E C T I O N A T E L Y D E D I CA T E D

A n e ll ak éralmvi shk ri t avfit saly e n a c ari t e n a k asya


b an d h ut vam ad h yé ro p ayasi

.
1
I N TR O D U CTI O N .

TH E st 0 1 y o f K a da m b a r i i s interesting for several 1 e aso n s .

I t i s a standard example o f c lass i c al pros e ; it has enj oy e d


a lo n g popularity a s a romance ; and it is o n e o f the c o m
p a r at i v e ly few Sanskrit w o r k s w hich can be assigned t o a
certain dat e and so it can serve a s a la n dm a rk in the ,

his t ory o f I n di a n literatur e and I n d i a n thought .

B an ab h at t a its author lived in t h e reign o f H a r s h a , ,

var d h an a of T h ah e gar the great king men


THE AU T H O R .

2
,

t i o n e d in m a n y inscription s who extended ,

his rule over the whol e of Northern India and f r o m whose ,

reign ( A D 6 0 6) dat e s the H a r s h a era used in Nepal


. .
,
.

B arga as he tells a s both in t h e Harsha Carita and in ’


-
, ,

the introductory verse s o f K a dambar i was a Vat syayan a ,


B rah m an His mother died w hil e h e wa s yet yo u n g and


.
,

his father s t e nd e r care of him record e d in t h e Harsha


,

3
Carita wa s doubtl e ss in his memory a s he recorded the
,

"
u n se lfi sh lov e of V ai q am p a an a s father in K a dambar ‘ ’

y i

1
I t 1 s n e e dl e ss to g i v e h e r e mo r e th an
f cts ss n ti l f t h t he f ew a e e a or e
un d st n di n g i Kad mb i f t h li f e d t i m s of B an a W ill
er a o

a ar ,

or e an e

p o b ab ly b
r t t e d of n t h t n sl t i o n of t h H sh C it by
e re a i e ra a e

ar a ar a

P of sso Co w ll n d M Thom s th i s s i s n d P of sso P e t e


r e r e a r . a 111 er e a r e r r

o n s I n t od ct i o n to h i di t i o n of K ad m b i ( B m b ay S n sk i t
’ ‘ ’
s r u s e a ar o a r

S i s 1 8 89 ) d l s f lly wi th B a n a p l c i n li t t
er e , ea T h f acts
u

s a e e ra u re . e

h gi v n
e re f t h most p t t k n f m t h l tt
e ar e , or w k e ar ,
a e ro e a er or .

E g t h e M a dh b a
2
. .
, g n t of S m 2 5 E I i 6 7 ff F o th i s u n ra a , . . .
, . r

an d oth ch o n ol ogi c l f n c s I m i n d bt d to Mi ss C M D ff
er r a re e r e e a e e . . u ,

Wh h l t m t h M S of h Ch on ol ogy of I n di ‘ ’
o as e e u se e . er r a .

Fo Ba a
3
r l y l i f V H sh C i t chs i
n

s e ar I h av to e, .

ar a -
ar a,

. .
, 11 . e
-

th an k M F W Thom s f r . ll owi n g m to
. t h p oof sh e e ts of
. a or a e se e e r -

h i t n s l ti o
s ra a n .
viii

(p . In his youth h e travell e d much and for a time ,

cam e into reproach by r e ason of his unsettled lif e but ,


the e xp e rienc e gained in f o r e ign lands turned his th o ughts


home w ards and h e r e turn e d to his kin and live d a life of
, ,

quiet study in th e ir midst F r o m this he was summon e d .

to t h e court of King Harsha who at fi r st receiv e d him ,

coldly but after wards attached him to his servic e ; and


,

B a h a in the Harsha Carita relates his own lif e a s a



-

pr e lude to that of his master .

T h e other w o r ks attribut e d to him are t h e Can d ika


k 1
vers s in h n r of C lika; a drama The ‘

c a t a a o r , e

o o u a ig c ,

M uk u t at ad i t aka

P arvat i p ari h aya ; and another called
’ ‘
, ,

t h e e xist e nce of which is inferred f r om G u n avi n ayagan i s


commentary on the N alac am p fi P r o f e ss o r P e t e rson als o .


S u b h ash i t avali 1 0 8 7 )

m e ntions that a verse o f B a h a s ’

,

is quoted by K sh e m e n dra in his A u c i t yavi c arac ar c a with ,

a statement that it is part of a description of K ad am b ari s
so rr ow in the absence of Can d rap i d a whence he adds it , , ,

wo u l d s e em that B an a wrote the story o f K a dambari in


vers e a s well as in prose and he gives some verses which ,

may have com e f r om such a w o rk .

B an a himself died leaving K a dambar i u n fi n i sh e d and , ,

his son B h fi sh ah ab h at t a took it up in t h e midst o f a spe e ch


in which K adam b ar i s s o rr o w s are told and continued the ’

speech without a break save for a few introductory vers e s ,

in h o n o u r of his father and in a p o lo gy for his having ,

undertaken the task a s its u nfi n i sh e d state was a grief to ,

H e continu e d the story on t h e same plan and



t h e good .
,

with careful and indeed exaggerated imitation of his


, , , ,

father s style ’
.

The story of K a dambari is a very complex o n e d e aling


‘ ’

THE m m O F as it does with the lives of two heroes each ,

K AD A M B A RT o f whom is r e born twice on e arth

( 1 4 7 )
-
A learned parrot named V a i ca m a
p y an a was , ,

brought by a Cand a la maiden to King Qfi dr aka and told ,

him how it was carried f r om its birthplace in the V indhy a


1P t so n K ad mb a i pp 9 6 98 ; an d
e er ,

a r ,

.
-
Th e S u b h i shi t é v ali ,

e d i t d by P e t e so n ( Bomb ay S n sk i t S i s er e pp 6 2 66 -
e r a r ,
. .
ix

Forest t o the hermitage of the sage J a b a li from whom it ,

learnt the story of its form e r life .

( 4 7 9 5 ) J ab ali s story was a s f o ll ow s T ar api d a King of



-
,

U j j ayi n i won by penanc e a son Can drap i da who wa s


, , ,

brought up with Vai cam p ayan a son o f his minist e r , ,

Q u k a n a sa In d u e. time C an d r ap i d a was anointed as Cro w n


Prince an d started on an e xpedition of world conquest
,
-
.

A t the en d o f it h e reached Kail a sa and while r e sting , ,

th e re w a s le d o n e day in a vain chase o f a pair of kin n ar as


,

to the shores of the A c c h o da L ake ( 9 5 1 4 1 ) T here he .


-

b e held a young a sc e tic maid e n M ah acve t a who told him , ,

how she b e ing a Gandharva princess had seen and lov e d


, ,

a young Brahman P u n d ari ka ; how h e re t urning h e r ,

fe eling had died from t h e torments of a love at varianc e


,

with his vow h o w a divine being ha d carried his body to


t h e sky and bidd e n her not to die for she should b e
, ,

reunit e d with him ; and how she awaited that tim e in a


lif e o f penance ( 1 4 1 1 8 8.
) But -
her fri e nd K a dambar i ,

another Gandharva princess had vowed not to marry ,

while M ah acve t a w as in so rr ow and M ah acve t a invit e d ,

the princ e to come to help h e r in dissuading K a dambari


from the rash vo w Love sprang up b etwe e n the prince
.

and K a dambar i at fi rst sight but a sudden s u mmo n s from


his father took him to U j j ayi n i without farewell whil e ,

K a dambar i thinking h e rself d e serted almost died of grief


, ,
.

( 1 88 1 9 5 ) M e anwhile n e ws came that his friend


Vai cam p ayan a whom he had left in command o f the
,

army had been strangely a ffected by the sight of the


,

A c c h o d a L ake and refused to leave i t


,
Th e prince set .

o ut to fi n d him but in vain ; and proceeding to the


,

h e rmitage o f M ah acve t a he found her in d e spair b e cause


, , ,

in invoking on a young Brahman who had rashly ap ,

p r o a c h e d her a curs e to the e ff ect that he should become a


,

parrot sh e l e arnt that she had slain Vai cam p ayan a A t


, .

her wo r d s the prince f e ll dead from grief and at that ,

moment K a dambari came to the h e rmitage .

( 1 9 5 2 0-
2 ) Her resolve to follow him in death w a s brok e n
by the promise of a voice from the sky that sh e and
X

M ah acve t a should both be reunited with th e ir love rs and ,

she stayed to t e nd the prince s body from w hich a divine ’

radianc e proce e ded ; w hile King Tar api d a gave Up his


kingdom and lived as a h e rmit near his son
,
.

to d S uch w as J b li tal and t h parrot went ’

( 2 0 2 e n ) a a s e ; e

o n to say how hearing i t the memory o f its form e r love


, ,

f o r M ah acve t a wa s rea w akened and though hidd e n to stay , ,

in the h e rmitage it fl e w away only to be caught and taken


, ,

to the Cand ala princess I t w a s no w brought by her to


.

King Qfi dr aka but kne w no mor e Th e Cand a la maiden


,
.

ther e upon declared to Q fi d r aka t h at sh e wa s the goddes s


Lakshm i moth e r of P u n d ari ka o r V ai cam payan a and
, ,

announced that t h e c u rs e for him and Qfi dr aka was 11 0 W


ove r Th e n C fi draka sud de nly rememb e red his love for
.

K a dambari and wasted a w ay in longing for h e r whil e a


, ,

sudden touch of K a dambar i restored to life the Moon con


c e ale d in the body o f Can d r a i
p c la the form that he still ,

kept b e cause in it he had w on her love Now the Moon


, .
,

as Can d r ap i cla and Cfi d r aka and P u n d ari ka in t h e human


, ,

and parrot shape of V ai oam p ayan a having both f u lfi lle d ,

the curse of an unsucc e ssful love in two births o n earth ,

w er e at last set fr e e and receiving resp e ctively the hands


, ,

o f K a dambar i and M ah acve t a lived happily e ver aft e r ,

wards .

Th e plot is involved and consists of stories w ithin e ach


,

other aft e r the fashion long familiar to E urop e an s in t h e


Arabian Nights but the author s skill in construction is ’

shown by the fact that each o f the minor stories is essential


to the dev e lopment of the plot and it is not till quite the ,

e n d that we see that C fi dr aka himself the b earer o f the ,

story is really the hero and that his hearing the story is
, ,

necessary to r e awaken his love for K a dambar i and s o at ,

the same time f u lfi l the terms of the curse that he should


love in vain during two lives and bring the second life t o ,

an end by his longing for reunion It may help to make .

the plot clear if the threads of it are disentangled The .

author in person t e lls all that happens to Qadr aka


( pp 3 1 6 and p p 2 0 5 to end ) The parrot s tale ( pp 1 6 ’
-
. . . .
xi

20 5 ) include s that o f J a b a li ( p p 4 7 2 02 ) conc e rning Can .


-

d r api d a and V ai cam p ayan a t h e Brahma n w ith t h e story


, ,

told by M ah acve t a ( p p 1 0 1 1 3 6 ) of h e r love f o r P u n i lar i k a .


-
.

The story as told in the Kath a Sarit S a gara of S o m ad e va 1 - -

di ff ers in some respects from this Th e re .

THE ST O RY
A S TO LD m a Nish a da princess brought to Ki n g S u m an as
T HE K A THA a learned parrot which told its life in the ,
S I
AR T forest
'

e nded b y a hunt in w hich its father wa s


S A G ARA
-

killed and the story o f its pa st lif e narrat e d ,

by the h e rmit Aga stya In this story a princ e Soma .


,

p r a b h a aft e r an ,early lif e r e sembling t hat of C a n d r ap i c] a ,

w a s led in his pursuit o f ki n n aras to an asc e tic maid e n ,

M an o rat h ap r ab h a whose story is that of M ah acve t a and , ,

she took him at his own request to se e t h e maiden Maka


, ,

r an di ka who had vowed not to marry whil e her friend wa s


,

unwed H e wa s borne through t h e air by a Vi dyadh ara


.
,

and beh e ld M akar an dika They lov e d each other and a .


,

marriage w as arrang e d between th e m Th e princ e how .


,

ever w as suddenly recall e d by his fath e r and Ma haran


, ,

dik a s wild grief brought on her from h e r parents a c u rse
that she should be born a s a Nish a da T o o late they .

repented and died of grief ; and h e r fath e r b e cam e a


,

parrot keeping from a form e r birth a s a sag e his memory


,

o f the Gast r a s while her moth e r became a sow ,


P u last y a .

added that the curs e would be over w hen the story w as


told in a king s court ’
.

The parrot s tale reminded King Su m an as of his former


birth and o n the arrival of the a scetic maid e n sent by


, ,

i a who is merciful to all his worshippers he again


‘ ’

, ,

became the young hermit she had loved S o m ap rab h a too .


, ,

at i a s bidding went to the king s court and at the sight


,

of him the Nish a da regained t h e shape o f M akaran dika


'

and became his wife ; whil e the parrot left the body o f a ‘


bird and went to the hom e earned by his asceticism
,
.


Thus the story ends t h e appointed union of human
,

,

1
T r an sl t d by M C T wn y ( C l c tt a
a e r . . a e a u , vo l .
pp 1 7 -2 6
. .

S o m ad e v a d t e i bo t A D 10 6 8

s a s a u . . .
b e ings certainly takes place in this world though vast ,

spac e s int e rvene .

T h e main d i fi e r e n c e between t h e stori e s is in t h e p e rsons


a ff e ct e d by t h e curse ; and h e re the artistic superiority of
B a na is shown in his not attaching the d e grading forms of
birth to K a dambar i o r h e r par e nts Th e horse is given as .

a present to t h e hero by Indra who sends him a message , ,

saying : You are a Vi dyadh ar a and I give yo u t h e hors e ,

in memory o f our former friendship Wh e n yo u mount it .

you w ill b e invincible T h e h e ro s marriage is arranged .


’ ’

b e fore his sudden departur e so that the grief of the heroin e ,

is d u e only to their s e paration and not to the doubts o n ,

which B a na dwells so long It appears possible that both .


this story and K a dambar i are tak e n from a common original

now lost which may be the B ri h at kat h aof G u n a( ] h ya


,
1
In .

that case the great e r r e fi n e m e n t of B a na s tal e would b e the ’

result of genius giving grace to a story already familiar in


a humbler guis e .

The author of t h e S ah it ya D arp an a s peaks of the 2


'

RE F E R E N C E S T O K A D A M B A R I Kath a a s follows : I n the Kath a ‘

I N T HE S A H I T YA D A R P A A
(-
tale ) whi c h i s o n e of t he sp e c i e s
N
,
A N D E L S E W HE R E
of o e t i c a l c o m o si t i o n i n p r o se a

p p ,

poetical matter is represent e d in v e rse and sometimes the ,

A ry a an d sometimes t h e V a htra and A p avakt raka ar e the


,

metres employ e d in i t It begins w ith stanza s in saluta .

tion to some divinity a s also d e scriptive o f the behaviour ,

of bad m e n and others To this the comm e ntary adds : .


Th e K a dambar i o f B an ab h at t a is an example Pro


“ ’
.

f e sso r P e t e rson corrects t h e translation of the words


K at h ay am sarasam vastu p ady ai r e va vi n i r m i t am giving

a s their sense A narration in prose with here and ther e


, ,

a stray verse or two of m a t t er a lre ady ex i st i ng i n a m e t r i c a l


,

3
or m
f According to his rendering t h e Kath a is in its

.
,

essence a story claiming to be based o n previous works in


verse whether in this ca se the original w e re B a na s o wn
,

1
V P t so n K ad mb i p p 8 2 9 6
. e er ,

a ar ,

.
-
.

2
T n sl t d by B ll n tyn n d P m d a D as M i t ( C l c tt
ra a e a a e a ra a -
a- ra a u a,

567 T h i t l i cs
. p s n t wo ds s ppli d by t h t n sl to s
e a re re e r u e e ra a r .

3 ‘
K ad mb i p 6 9a ar ,

. .
xiii

metrica l version o f K a dambari or the work which was ,


’ 1

also the origina l o f the Kath a Sarit S a gara story - -


.

The story of P u n d ari ka and M ah acve t a r e ceive s mention ,

fi r st ly for t h e introduction of death contrary to t h e canon


, ,

secondly f o r the d e t e rmination o f the nature of their


,

sorrow and its po e tic quality and consequent appeal to t h e


, ,

f e elings o f the reader F irstly 2 1 5 ) Death whi c h i s a


.
,

c o n di t i o n m ay be br o ught by lo ve , i s n o t d esc r i be d
t o whi c h one

i n p o e t ry a n d t he d r a ma , whe r e t he o t he r c o n di t i o n s , su c h a s
a n x i e t y , e t c , ar e c o n st a n t ly d e sc r i be d , b e cause i t , i n st ea d of
.

e n ha n c i ng, caus e s t h e d e struction o f B ut it “


Flavour.
”2

may be spoken of ( 1 ) a s having nearly tak e n plac e o r ( 2) ,

a s being mentally wished for and it is wi t h p r op ri e t y


d e scribed ( 3 ) if there is to b e at no distant dat e a r e st o ra , ,

tion to life Th e commentary takes the story of P u n clari ka



.

as an example of the third condition and describes it a s a ,

case o f pathetic separation Secondl y 2 2 4 ) E ither o f .


two young lovers being dead and being yet to be regained ,

t h ro ugh so me sup er n a t u r a l i n t erp o si t i o n when the one lef t ,

be hi n d is sorrowful th e n let it be called the s e paration o f


,

tender sadn e ss ( hari ln avip ra lam hha ) The commentary .

gives M ah acve t a as the instance and continu e s : But if ,


t h e lo st o n e b e not regainabl e o r regai n abl e o n ly af t e r t ra ns ,

m igr a t i o n in anoth e r body t h e fl avo u r is called t h e ,

Path e tic simply t he r e bei ng i n t hi s c ase n o r o o m f o r any


,

a d mi x t u re of t he E ro t ic but in the case j ust men t ioned


of P u n d ari ka and M ah acve t a— immediat e ly on Sarasvat i s ’

d e claration from the sky t ha t t he lo r c rs sho u ld be r e un i t e d



,

t here is the E rotic in its form o f t e nd e r sadness for



,

desire arises o n the expectation o f reunion but P R E VI O U S L Y ,

t o S a m sva t i s p r o mi se there w as the Path e tic such is


’ “

t h e opinion of t h e competent authoriti e s And as for w hat


some say in r e gard to the case o f P n ndari ha a n d Nl a ha gi e t a ,

that moreover A F T E R t h e expectation of reunion exc i t e d ,

by S a m sm t i s p ro m ise t o t ha t ej e c t ther e is mer e ly your


P of sso P t son do s
1
r e r e er e not , howe v e r, m k e thi s d d ct i o n
a e u in
f vo of B an s wn v si on
a ur a

o er .

2
I . w po e t i c ch a m
e .
, ra ,
r .
xiv

ho n our s variety of love in abs e nc e 222) t h e on e which


you call b e ing abroa d 221 —


) oth e rs hold it to b e distinct ,

because of t h e presence of that distinction D E A T H whi c h i s , ,

som e t hi ng e lse t ha n m e r e ly be i ng a br o a d These ar e t h e ’


.

pa ssag e s in w hich direct m e ntion is made of K a dambari ,


and in 7 3 5 which d e fi n e s special m e ntion ( p ar i sai nkhyoi )


,

a s taking place w hen something is affi r m e d for the denial ,

e xpressed or understood of something e lse similar to i t


, ,

the comm e ntary adds : When founded upon a Parono


masia it is p e culiarly striking e y
,
Wh e n th at king ,
. .
,

,

the conqu e ror of the world wa s protecting the earth the , ,

mixture of colours ( o ca stes ) wa s in painting etc


r
”— a , ,

passage from the description of Qudraka in K a dambari


(p 5)
Referenc e s to B a na in oth e r works are giv e n by Pro
f e sso r Peterson so that three only ne e d b e m e ntion e d here
, .

T he fi rst I owe to the kindness o f Prof e ssor 0 B e ndall . .

In a coll e ction of manuscripts at the British Museum


( O r , 445 44 7 ) consisting c h i e fl y of law books transcribed
.
- -

( perhaps for some E uropean ) on E uropean paper in t h e


Telugu Canarese charact e r o n e O r 4 4 6 c the K aman
-

,

,
.
,
.
,

da hi ya N i ti Qast r a contains o n folios 1 2 8 1 3 1 a passage


- -
,
-

from K a dambar i ( pp 7 6 8 4 i nf ra ) on the consecration of


1 ’
.
-
,

a crown prince and the duties and dang e rs o f a king It


-
, .

forms part o f an introduction to the K am an d aki ya N i ti -

Q a st r a and occurs without any hint of its being a q u otation


,

from anoth e r work T he author of t h e N alac am p u not only .

writes a v e rse in honour o f B a na b ut models his whole


2
,

style upon him A curious instanc e of the long popularity .

of K a dambar i is that in the D u r ge can an di n i by Ch at t aj i


‘ ’ ‘ ’

an historical novel published in 1 8 7 1 and treating o f the , ,

time o f A kbar t h e heroine is repr e s ented as r e ading in h e r


,

boudoir t h e rom ance o f K a dambari 3


.

1 ‘
K ad mb
N i r n ay a i
a ari

S g ar a P e ss Bomb y
r a pp 2 0 5 -
22 1 E y am
sam at i k ram at su — a a am a
, , , . .

j

g .

2
Bomb y d t o
a e i i n, p 6 . .

3
P of sso Cow ll s
r e r e

re v i e w of A B e n g li H i sto i c l N ov e l

a r a .

M ac
mi ll n A p i l 1 8 7 2
a , r , .
XV

I t may be asked What is the value o f K a dambari for ‘ ’

THE I N T E R E S T E uropean readers 2 and to di ff erent persons ‘

the an sw er will doubtless b e di ff e rent


K A D A M 3 1 11 13

OF
.

Historical interest so far a s that depends o n the narration ,

o f historical facts appears to be entir e ly lacking though it , ,

may be that at some future tim e our knowledge from other


sources may be so increased that we may recognise portraits
and allusions in what seems now purely a work o f romanc e .

B ut in the wider sense in which history claims to deal with


t h e social ideas th at belong to any epoch K a dambar i w ill ‘ ’

al w ays have value a s repr e sentin g t h e ways of thinking


and feeling which w ere either customary o r welcom e at its
o wn time and which have continued to char m Indian
,

readers It is indeed true that it probably in many ways


.

does n o t give a picture o f contemporary manners j ust as a ,

medi aeval illu minat e d manuscript oft e n represents the dress


an d surroundings prior to the time of t h e illuminator so ,

as to gain the grac e of re m oteness bestowed by reverence


for the past In India where change works but slowly
.
, ,

the description o f the court and city life where all the ,

subj ects show by out w ard tok e ns th e ir sympathy with t h e


j oys and sorrows of th e ir ruler a s in a Gr e e k chorus is ,
.
,

Vivid in its fi de li t y 1
Th e quiet y e t busy lif e of the hermits .

in t h e for e st where the day is spent in worship and in


,

peaceful toils where at eve the sunb e ams linger lik e birds
,

o n the crest o f hill and tree and where night darken s all ’

2
save the hearts o f the hermits is full of charm ,

.

1 P t so n K adamb i p
V . e er ,

ar ,

.

I n d d thi s d e sc i pt i o n i so l i k e i n sp i i t to th t of C l i v x
2
ee , r s r a a r au ,

t h at I c n ot fo b q oti n g f w li n s of t h l tt
a n r e ar T h w it
u a e e e a er . e r er

d sc i b s t h wo kshops wh t h b th n l bo
e r e e r nd t h o ch d ere e re re a ur , a e r ar
u s e d f o st n d q i t tho ght n d go s n to y how t h A b
r re a u e u , a e o sa e u e
i s ra i s d by t h to i l s of t h
e b th n to t h l v l of t h A bb y ; i t
e e re re e e e e e

th ows h l f i t w t i n to t h Abb y
r a s if to s l t t h b th n
a er e e ,

as a u e e re re ,

an d s ms to xc s i ts l f f n t comi n g i n i t whol fo c Th ’
ee e u e e or o s e r e . en

it t n s wi th p i d c n t to t h st m n d
r e ur ra d s to i t i n
u rre e re a , a ren er ,

t h n m of C l i v
e a x th n ks f
e ll t h
a r s vi c s whi ch i t h p
au ,
a or a e er e as er

fo m d T h w i t e th n go s n to t ll of t h fo n t in whi ch p
r e .

e r r e e o e e u a , ro

t t d by a g assy p v i l i o n
ec e i s s f om t h mo n t i n
r a d i q i ckly , r e r e u a ,
an s u

en gulf d in t h v ll y off i n g i ts e l f to ch m t h si ght n d s ppl y


e e a e , er ar e a u

t h w n ts of t h e b th n
a if i t w n t w illi n g to h v comm n i a u
'

e re re , as ere o e

t i on wi th an y oth s th an s in ts Th i s l ast i s ly to ch wo thy


er a .

s ure a u r
xvi

The coronation of the crown prince the penances per ,

formed by the queen t o win a son the reverence paid to ,

M ah ak ala also belo n g to o u r picture of the time


,
The .

d e scription of U j j ayini surrounded by the Sipr a is t o o , ,

g e neral in its term s to give a Vivid notion o f what it th e n


was The site o f the temple o f M ah akala is still sho w n
.

outside t h e ruins o f the o ld town A point o f special .

int e rest is the argument against the custom o f suicide on


the death o f a friend Can drap i d a consoles M ah acve t a that .

she h as not fol l owed her lover in death by sayin g that o n e


w ho kills himself at his friend s d e ath makes that fri e nd a ’

shar e r in the guilt and can do no more for him in another ,

w orld whereas by livi n g he can give help by sac rifi c e s and


,

off erin gs Those too who die may n o t be r e unit e d for


.
, ,

1
thousands of births In the Kath a Ko c a a princ e is .

-

dissuaded from following his wife to dea t h b e caus e E ven ‘

t h e idea o f union with your b e lov e d w ill be impossibl e when


you are dead but the occurrence o f the idea in a romance
is more noteworthy than in a work which illustrat e s J ain
doctrines The question o f food a s a ff ected by cast e is
.

touched o n also ( p when the Cand a la maid e n t e lls .

the parrot that a Brahman may in case o f need receiv e , ,

food of any kind and that water poured o n the ground and , ,

fruit are pure even when brought by the lowest An other


,
.

point to be remarked is the mention of followers of many


sects as being present at court i a esp e cially under t h e .
,

name o f M ah akala at U jj ayi ni rec e ives sp e cial w orship an d , ,

A gni and the M at r ikas ( p 1 4 ) also receive rever e nc e T he . .

z enanas includ e aged ascetic women ( p follo w e rs of .

the Arhat Krishna Vi cravasa A valo ki t e cvara and V i ri fi c a


, , , ,

(p . and t h e courtyard o f Q u k an asa has Q ai v a s and


followers of Qakyam un i ( p also K sh ap an akas ( e x .

plained by the Commentary a s Digambaras ) Th e king 2


.
,

of B a na . V D r E al e
. . r an l a i

st s t on o f ‘
St . B e r n ar d s Wo k s

r .

Lon do n ,

1 8 89 , vo l . ii , p p 4 62 4 6 7
. .
-
.

1
T r an s t d by
la e Mr C a ne . . T w y . Ori e n t al T r an sl at i o n F u n d S e ri e s ,

p . 113 .

2
V . K ad mb a ari ,

N ir n ay a S ag ar a, p 19 , 1 2
. . .
xvii

however i s described a s having an mm ( the hair meeting


,

between the brows ) which is one of B uddha s marks ; but ,


the Commentary describe s the ai r na a s


'

t i n am e r a n d nyasya so probably it only belongs t o


'

Buddha a s or universal rul e r This s h ows .

that the reign o f Harsha wa s o n e o f religious tolerance .

H i o u e n Th san g indeed claims him as a B uddhist at heart


, , ,

1
and mentions his building B uddhis t st upas but he describes ,

himself a s a Qaiva in the Madhuban grant and the pre 2


,

emin e nce yi e lded in K a dambari to Civa certainly shows ‘ ’

that his was then the popular worship .

Another source of interest in K a dambari lies in its ‘ ’

contribution to folklore It may p e rhaps contain nothin g .

not found elsewhere but the fact of its having a date gives it ,

a value The love o f snakes for the breeze and for sanda l
.

tre e s the truth o f dr e am s at the end of night the magic


, ,

circles bathing in snake ponds to gain a son the mustard


,
-
,

seed and gh i put in a baby s mouth may all be familiar ’


,

idea s but we have a date at which th e y were known and


,

not despis e d Does the appeal to the truth o f her heart by


.

M ah acve t a in invoking the curse ( p 1 9 3) rest o n the idea .

that fi d e li t y to a husband conf e rs sup e rnatural power or 3


,

is it like the act o f truth by which B uddha often performs


miracl e s in the J a taka
T h e uns e ttled chronology o f Indian literature makes it
impossible to work o u t at present B a na s ’

THE ST YL E O F
K A D AM B AR I relations with other Sanskrit
.
’ writers P ro .

f e sso r Peterson 4
indeed makes some i n , ,

t e r e st in g conj ectures a s to his connection with oth e r


authors of his own country and also suggests from simi , ,

lari t y o f phrase that he may have fallen indirectly under


,

the in flu e nce of Al e xandrian literature B e that a s it may .


,

1
H iou en St t r an sl t d by
a e . J ul i e n M émo ir e s
,
su r le s
Con t s cc d t s
O i e n al e , I , pp 24 7 2 6 5 Cf al so H ar sh a C ari t a v ch.

r ée iii

- -
.
. . . .
,

( p 23 6
. of t s to
t h e r an l a i n ) , e re h e a wh p ys g re a t hon o ur to B u ddh st
a i
s g
a e .

2
E I . . i 67
. .

3
V . K th S i t S ag
a a- ar -
i 5 05
ar a ,

.

4
V .
pp 9.7 1 04 -
.
xviii

he has been for many centuries a model o f style and it is ,

therefore worth while to consider b ri e fly the characteristics


o f his style compare d with E uropean standards The fi rst .

thing t h at strikes the reader is that the sen se of proportion ,

the very foundation o f styl e a s we know i t is entirely ,

absent N o topic is let go till the author can squeez e no


.

more from i t In description s e very possible minor detai l


.

is give n in all its fulness ; then follows a series of similes ,

and then a fi rewo rk o f puns In speeches be th e y l amenta .


,

tions or exhortations grief is n o t assuaged nor advice , ,

ended till the same thing has been uttered with every
,

e x isting variety of synonym This defect though it sprin gs .


,

from the author s richness of resource and readiness of ’

Wi t makes t h e task of rendering in E nglish the merit of


,

the Sanskrit style an impossible o n e It gives also a fa l se .

impr e ssion ; for to u s a l ong description if good gives the , ,

e ff ect of sweetness l ong drawn out and if bad brings



,

, ,

drowsiness whereas in Sanskrit t h e unending compounds


s uggest the impetuous rush o f a torrent and the similes ,

and puns ar e like the play o f light and shade on its waters .

B a na according to Professor Weber


,
1
passes for the special ,

representative of the P a n c a l i style which B hoj a quoted


2
,

in the commentary of t h e S ah i t ya D arp an a d e fi n e s as -


,


a sweet and soft style characterized by force ( aj as) and
elegance ( han t i ) containing compounds o f fi ve or six
,

words B ut style which is to poetic charm a s the body


.

to the soul varies with the sense to be expr e ssed and


, ,

B a na in many o f his speeches is p e rfectly simpl e and


dir e ct O wing t o the peac e fulness o f K a dambar i there is
.
,

little opportunity for observing the rul e that in t h e Kath a ’

l etters ought n o t to b e too rough e ven wh e n the fl avo u r ,

is furious 3
O i t h e alliteration of initial consonants the

.
,

only long passage is in the description of Qukan asa ( p .

but in its subtler form s it constantly occurs O i shorter .

pa ssages there are several e xamples Candra Cand a la


1
V H i sto ry 0 1 I n di an L i t e r at u r e t r an sl ati on Lo n do n 1 8 7 8
.

,

, , ,

p 2 32
. .

2
V S ah i t y a D
‘ ’
.
-
arp an a , 6 2 6 6 28
-
.

3
I bi d , 6 30 . .
XX

The author of t h e R agh av ap an d avi ya considers S u b an dh u ’

and B a na as his only e quals 11] t a ki o kt i 0 1 crooked sp e ech , ,

S ah i t y a

and the fault of a mean i ng to be guessed o u t ‘

D arp an a 5 7 4 ) is not rare


,

Th e Kavya P r akaca in
.
,

addition to the references give n by P i o f e sso r Peterson ,

quot e s a stanz a describing a horse in the Harsha Carita -

( chap iii ) a s an xampl f bh h i


. . e e o s v a ot i o t r
.

The hero belongs to the division describ e d a s t h e high


spirited but temperat e and fi rm S ah i t ya D arp an a
,
-
,

i e
. . he who is not given to boasting placable very
, , ,

profound with gr e at self command r e solute whose self


,
-
, ,

e st e e m is concealed and faithful to his e ngagements
,
and ,

who ha s the eight manly qualiti e s o f brilliancy Vivacity ’


, ,

s w eetness of temp e r depth o f character st e adfastness k e e n


, , ,

sense o f honour gallantry and magnanim i ty ( I bi d


, ,

.
,

K a dambar i i s the type of t h e youthf u l h e roine who feels


love for t h e fi rst tim e is shy and gentle e ven in indigna , ,

tion ( I bi d .
,
T h e companion s of e ach ar e also those
declar e d in t h e books of rhetoric to be appropriat e .

The work which most invites comparison with K a dam


bari is o n e far r e moved from it in place and

time Sp e ns e r s Fa e rie Qu e ene ’
B oth have .

in great measure t h e same faults and t h e


same Virtues The lack of proportion due partly to too
.
— ,

large a p l a n partly to an imagination wandering at will


,

t h e ab sence of visualization — which in Spenser produces


sometimes a line lik e
A l ov e l y L a d i e r od e h im f ai r e b e s i d e
U po n a l owl y A ss e mo r e wh i t e th e n s n o w ,

Ye t sh e mu ch

and in B a na many a description like that of M ah acve t a s ’

f al rn e ss ( p p 9 5 9 7 ) —the undiscriminating prais e bestowed


.
-

on those whom they would fain honour the shadowy nature ,

of ma n y of their personages and the intricacies in which ,

the story loses itself are faults common to both Both , .


,

too by a strange coincidence died with their work u n


, ,

fi n i sh e d .B ut if they have the s ame faults th e y have ,

also many o f the same virtues The love of what is .


xxi

beautiful and pure both in character and t h e w orld around ,

tenderness of heart a gent l e spirit troubl e d by the disquiet ,

1
o f life grace and sweetness of style and idyllic simplicity
, , ,

are common to both Though however Can d rapi d a may .


, ,

have the chivalry and reverence of the Red Cross Knight ,

and Una share w ith K a dambari o r Rohin i nobility tend e r ,

2
ness loftine s s of s oul devotion and charm
,
the E nglish
, ,

hero and heroin e are more real and mor e str e nuous We .

are ind e ed told in one hurried sentence o f t h e heroic


, ,

deeds of Can d r ap i d a in his world conquest and his self -


,

control and fi rm n e ss are often insisted o n ; but a s he


appears throughout the book his s e lf control is constantly ,
-

broken down by afi e c t i o n or gri e f and his fi rm n e ss ,

destroyed by a timid balancing of c o n fl i c t in g duties whil e ,

his real virtu e is his unfailing gentleness and courtesy .

N o r could K a dambari like Una bid him in any c o n fl i c t , , , ,


A dd faith unto your force and be not faint She is ,
.

perhaps in youth and entire self surr e nder more like


,
-
,

Shakespeare s J u li e t but she lacks her co urage and


resolve .

T h e likeness o f spirit between these t wo leads to t h e qu e s


tion Had B a na like Spenser any purpose , , , ,
THE P U R P O S E
OF

K A D AM B AR I ethical or political
.
’ und e rlying his story ? ,

O n the surface it i s pur e romanc e and it is ,

hard to believ e that he had any motive but the simple


d e light o f self expression and love for the children of his
-

o wn imagination H e only claims to tell a story tender


.

with t h e charm o f gracious speech that comes of itself , ,

3
like a bride to the possession of its lord ; but it may be
,

t h at h e gladly gathered up in o ld age the fruits o f his life s ’

experience and that his own memory o f his fath e r s tend e r


,

ness to his childhood of the t e mptations of youth and of , ,

the dangers o f prosperity and fl at t e ry that a ssail the heart


o f kings wa s not used only to adorn a tale
, but to be a ,

guid e to others on t h e perilous path o f life B e that as it .

may the interest o f K a dambar i like that of the Faerie


, ,

Cf S p e n s e r s st an z as o n M ut ab i l i ty
1 ’
. .

2
V i n f r a , p 2 08
. . .
3
V i nf
. ra, p 2 .
xxii

Queene does n o t depend f o r u s now o n any underlying


,

purpose but o n the pictur e it pr e s e nts in itself of t h e life


,

and thought o f a world removed in time but not in ,

sympathy from o u r o wn ; on the fresh understanding it


,

gives o f those who are in the widest sense our fellow


countrym e n ; and o n the charm to quote t h e beautiful ,

w ords of Professor Peterson o i a story o f human sorrow ,


and divine consolation o f d e ath and the passionate longing ,

for a union aft e r d e ath that goes straight from the heart ,

o f o n e who had hims e lf felt the pang and nursed the hop e , ,

to u s who are of like frame with him the story which


from the beginning o f tim e mortal e ars have yearned to
hear but which mortal lips have never spoken
, .

The tran slation o f B a na pres e nts much diffic u lt y from the


elaboration of his styl e and it ha s been a ,
THE P L A N O F T HE
spec ally hard task and m e t m e an 1m
T RAN S L AT I O N i .
so l s ,

possible one t o give any r e nd e ring o f t h e ,

constant play o n words in which he delights I have some .

tim e s e nd e avoured to give what might be an E nglish e q u iva


lent and in such ca ses I have add e d in a note the literal
,

meaning o f both alternatives ; p e rhaps t o o much freedom


may have be en used and sometimes also the b e st alt e rna ,

tive may not have been chos e n to place in the te x t ; but


those who hav e most exp e rience will know how hard it i s to
do otherwis e than fail Some long descriptions have b e en .

omitted such e g a s a passage o f several pag e s d e sc rib


, , . .
,

ing ho w the d u st rose under t h e f e et of Can dr api d a s ’

army and others where there seemed no special int e rest


,

o r variety to redeem their tediousn e ss A list o f thes e .

1
omissions is given at the end together with an app e ndix , ,

in which a fe w passages c h i e fly interesting a s mentionin g ,

religious sects are added I have act e d o n Professor


, .


Cow e ll s a dvice a s to the principle o n which omission s
are made as also in giving only a full abstract and not
, ,

a translation o f the continuation of K a dambar i by


,
‘ ’

1
st l ooks l on g b u t t h p g e s i n t h e N i n y S ag
T h e li , e a r a a- ar a e di ti on
con t f q n t ly b t f w lin s n d m n y of t h omi ssi o n s
ain r e ue u e e , a a e ar e a lin e
or two of oft p t e d s i mi l s
re
-
ea e .
x x iii

Bh ushana It is so entirely an imitation of his father s


.

work in sty l e with al l his fau l ts and without the originality


, ,

that rede e ms them that it woul d not reward translation , .

In my ab stract I have kept the direct narration a s more


simple but even when passages are given rather fully it
, ,

doe s not profes s in any case to be more than a very free -

rendering sometimes only the sense o f a whole passage is


summed u p I regret that th e system of transliteration
.

approved by the Roya l Asiatic Society came t o o l ate f o r


a doption here .

The edition o f K a dambari to which the references in the ‘ ’

text are given is that o f the N i r n aya S a gara Press ( Bombay -

which the full commentary mak e s indispensabl e but ,

I have also throughout made use of Professor Peterson s ’

edition ( Bombay Sanskri t Series No F or t h e last ,


.

1
ha l f of the Second Part I have referred to an anonymous
literal translation published by the New Britannia Press ,

Depository 7 8 Amherst Street Calcutta


, , ,
.

I have now to o ff er my grat e ful thanks to the Secretary


of State for I ndia without whose kind help the volume ,

could n o t have been pub l ished I have also to thank Miss .

C M Du ff for allowing me to use the M S o f her Indian



. . .

Chronology Miss E Dal e o f Girton College for botanical .


, ,

notes which I regret that want o f space prevented my


,

prin ting in full ; M r C Tawney librarian o f the Indian . .


,

O ffi c e for information as to the sources o f Indian fi c t i o n ;


,

M r F F Arbuthnot and Professor Rhys Davids for valu


. . .
-
,

able advice ; Prof e ssor 0 Bendall for his description of .


,

t h e K am an daki ya Nit i Qast ra and his con stant kindness - -


,

about my work ; M r F W Thomas of Trinity Co l lege . . .


, ,

for letting me see the proof sheets o f the tran slation o f t h e -

Harsha Carita ; and others for s uggested renderings of ’

di ffi c u lt phrases and for help of various kinds , .

2
B ut especially my thanks are due to Profes sor Cowell
1
B e gin n i n g t p 5 66 of t h e N i n y S ag
a . di ti o n ‘
r a a- ar a e .

2
I h t k e t h oppo tu n i ty to ck n owl dg wh t by n ov e si ght
ere a e r a e e a a r

w as o m i tt d i n i t p op e pl c my in d bt dn ss to P of e sso Cow ll
e s r r a e, e e e r r e

f or th
e re nd i n g i n to E n gl i sh v s of two co p l e ts gi v n o n p p 1 1
er er e u e .

an d 1 1 3 .
for a generosity and unwearied helpfu l ness which all his
pupils know and which perhaps f e w but th e y could
,

imagin e I read through with him the whole of the First


.

Part before translating it myself so that mistak e s in the


,

translation many a s they may b e can arise only from mis


, ,

understanding o n my part from too great fr e e dom o f


,

rendering or from failing to have recours e to t h e know


,

ledge h e so freely gives .

V r ih at sah ay ah kar yan t am k sh o d i yan ap i gac c h at i ;


sa m b h u y am b o dh i m ab h y e t i m ah an a dy a n agap aga

.
K AD A M B A RI .

( 1 ) HA I L to the Birth l ess the cause of creation continuance , , ,

1
and destruction triple in form and quality who shows
, ,

activity in the birth of things goodness in their continu ,

a n ce and darkness in their destruction


, .

( 2 ) Glory to the dust of T ryam b aka s feet caressed by the


2
diadem of the demon B a na ; even that dust that kisses the
circle of Ha vana s ten crest gem s that rests on the crests

-
,

of the lords of gods and demons and that destroys o ur ,

transitory life .

( )3 Glory to V ishnu who resolving to strike from afar


, , ,

with but a moment s glance from his wrath i n fl am e d eye



-

stained the breast o f his enemy a s if it had burst of itself ,

in terror .

I salute the lotus feet of B h at su honoured by crowned


3
,

M au kh ari s the fe e t which hav e their tawny toes rubbed on


a footstool made by the united crowns of n eighbouring kings .

Who is there that fears n o t the wicked pitiless l n cause ,

less enmity ; in whose mouth calumny hard to bear is


always ready as the poison of a serpent 2 ‘

The wicked like fetters echo harshly wound deep l y and


, , , ,

leave a scar ; whi l e the good like j ewelled anklets ever , ,

charm the mind with sweet sounds .

( 4) In a bad man gentle words sink no deeper than the


throat like nectar swallowed by R a hu
,
The good man .

bears them constantly o n his heart as Hari his pure gem ,


.

1
As the th re e Ve d s a , or the t i ad
r .
2
V i s nu h P ur an a , Bk . V ., ch . 33 .

3
His gu ru .
2

story tender with the charm o f gracious speech creates


A ,

in the heart j o y full of fresh int e rest ; and it comes o f itself


1
,

with native f e eling to its lord s possession like a fresh ,



,

2
bride .

Who is not carried captiv e by tales fashion e d in freshness


o f speech all alight with similes and t h e lamps o f glowing
, ,

words : pleasant tales in terwoven with many a contrast of


3

words as j asmine garlands with c am p ak buds 2


4
,

There was once a Brahman Kuvera by nam e sprung , ,

from the race of Vat syayan a sung throughout the world ,

for his virtue a lead e r o f the good : his lotus feet were
,

worshipped by many a Gupta and he se e med a very ,

portion of Brahma .

( 5 ) O n his mouth Sarasvat i e v e r dwelt : for in it all evil


was stilled by the V eda ; it had lips p u r ifi e d by sac rifi c i al
cak e and a palate bitt e r with soma and it was plea sant
, ,

with smriti and c a stra .

In his house frightened boys a s th e y repeated vers e s of ,

the Yaj ur and S a ma Ve da we re chidden at ev e ry w ord by ,

cag e d parrots and m ai n as who wer e thoroughly vers e d in ,

everything b e longing to words .

From him was born A r t h ap at i a lord of the twic e born ,


-
,

as H i ran yagar b h a from the world e gg the moon from the -


,

Milky Oc e an o r Garuda from Vinat a , .

A s h e unfold e d his spreading discourse day b y day at


dawn new troops of pupils intent on listening gav e him a
,
5
, ,

ne w glory like fresh sandal shoots fi xe d on the ear


,
-
.

( 6 ) With countless sac rifi c e s adorn e d w ith gifts duly


off ered having glowing Mah avi ra fi r e s in their midst and
6
,
7
,

raising t h e sac ri fi c i al posts as their hands he won ea sily


8
, ,

a s if with a troop o f elephant s t h e abode of the gods , .

1
R a sa = ( a ) t h e
ght ( 6) l ov ei r a sa s e .

g
2
y y a=
a ( ) compos i t i o n ; (a6) co ch u .

( ) Wh i ch sp kl e wi th e mph t i c wo d s
3
a ar a r an d s im il s ; e ( 6) l ik e
fl h i n g l mps
as a .

; ( b) p oxi m i ty H n gin g n h i o m t
4
( ) P n
a u r .
5
a o s c ar (as an n n )r a e .

I n t h c s of l ph n ts
3
e h vi n g th i i cho
a e e e a , a e r r re g l t d by p op
u a e a r er
gi m n
re e .

Wi th n own d w i o s n th i b cks
7
re e arr r o e r a .

H v in g t n ks thi ck
3
a ac i fi i l posts
ru as as s r c a .
4

1
honoured by a l l the wor l d like the elephant o f the quarter s ,

b e constantly poured forth a stream o f generosity He .

wa s a worker o f wonders an o fferer o f sac rifi c e s a mirror , ,

o f moral l aw a source o f the arts a native home o f Virtue ;


, ,

a s pring o f the ambrosia l sweetness o f poetry a mountain ,

2
o f sunrise to all his friends and a direful comet to all his ,

foes ( 9 ) H e was moreover a founder of l iterary societies


.
, , ,

a refuge for men of taste a rej ecter of haughty b o wh o ld e rs , ,

a l eader among the bold a chief among the wise H e was ,


.

a cause o f gladness to the humble as Vain at e ya was to3


,

Vinat a He rooted up with the point of his b o w the


.

boundary mountain s o f his foes a s P ri t h u raj a did the


-

noble mountain s H e mocked Krishna also for whi l e the


.
, ,

l atter made his boa s t of his man lion form he him self -
,

smote down the hearts of his foes by his very name an d ,

while Krishna wearied the universe with his three steps ,

he subdued the whole world by one heroic e ffort Glory .

long dwelt o n the watered edge o f his sword as if to wa sh ,

o ff the stain o f contact with a thousand base chieftains ,

which had clung to her too long .

B y the indwelling o f Dharma in his mind Yama in his ,

wrath Kuvera in his kindness Agni i n his splendour


,
.

, ,

E arth in his arm L akshm i in his glance Sarasvati in his


, ,

eloquence ( 1 0 ) the Moon in his face t h e Wind in his might


, , ,

Brihaspati in his knowl e dge L ove in his beauty the S un , ,

in his glory h e resembled holy N a r a yana whose nature


, ,

manifests every form and who is the very essence of deity , .

Royal glory came to him onc e for all like a woman coming ,

to meet her lover o n the nights o f battle stormy with the


,

shower s o f ichor from the e l e phants temples and stood by ’

him in the midst of the darkness of thousands o f coats o f


mail loosened from the doors of the brea sts o f warriors
, .

She seemed to be drawn irresistibly by hi s sword which ,

wa s uneven in its edge by reason o f the drop s o f wat e r ,

forced o u t by the pressure of his strong hand and which ,

1
h n d wa w e t wi th st e am o f con s t an t gi vin g ; ( b) t h e
( a) H i s a s a r

t n k w a w t wi th i cho
ru s e r.
2
O to t h e s n s b
r, V i n t a= ( ) moth e o f G aru da ( b) h u mb l e
u

or .
3
a a r .
was decked with l arge pearls clinging to it when he clove
the frontal bones o f wild e l ephants The fl am e of his .

maj esty burnt day and night as if it were a fi re within his ,

foes fair wives albeit reft o f their lords a s if he would


, ,

destroy the husbands now only enshrined in their hearts .

( 1 1 ) While h e having subdued the earth was guardian o f


, ,

1
the wor l d the only mixing of colour was in painting ; the
,

only pulling of hair in caresses ; the only strict fetters in the


laws of poetry ; the only care wa s concernin g moral law ;
2
the only deception wa s in dream s ; the only golden rod s
were in umbrel l as Banner s a l one trembled songs alone
.

s howed variations ; elephants a l one were rampant ; b ows


3 4

alone ha d severed cords ; lattice windows alone ha d


5

ensnaring network ; lovers disputes alone caused sending ’

of messengers dice and chessmen alone left empty squares


and his subj ects ha d n o deserted home s Under him too .
, ,

there wa s only fear of the next world only twisting in the ,

curls of the zenana women only loquacity in anklets only , ,

taking the hand in marriage only shedding o f tears from


6
,

the smoke o f cea s ele s s sac rifi c i al fi re s ; the only sound o f


the lash was f o r horses while the only twang o f the b o w
,

wa s Love s .

( 1 5 ) When the thousand rayed s un bursting open the -


,

young lotus bud s had not long risen though it had lost
-
, ,

somewhat o f the pinkness o f dawn a portress approached ,

the king in his hall o f audience and humbly addressed ,

him Her form wa s lovely yet awe inspiring and w i th


.
,
-
,

the scimitar ( a weapon rarely worn by women) hanging at


her l eft s ide wa s like a sandal tree girt by a snake Her
,
-
.

bosom glistened with rich sandal ointment like the


heavenly Ganges when the frontal bone o f A i ravat a rise s -

from it s waters ( 1 6) The chiefs bent before her seemed


.
,

by her re fl ec t i o n on their crests to bear her o n their fore ,

7
head s a s a roya l command in human form Like autumn .
,

she was robed in the whit ene s s o f h am sas ; l ike the b l ade
1
Or, c st
a e . O r, fi nes of gol d .
3 O r , fi c kle aff e ct i on s .

4
p d
H ad , m a d a = ( a) ri e ; ( 6) i cho r .

5
b k g w y f om
O r , re a in a a r Vir u e t .
3
O r, t i bu t e
r .

7
t m
I n au u n , t h e h a insa s , o r i l w d ge e s e , r e ur nt .
of P aracu ram ashe he l d the circle o f kings in s ubmission ;
1
l ike the forest land of the Vin dh yas she bore her wand , ,

and she seemed the very guardian goddess o f the realm -


.

Placing o n the ground her lotus hand and kn e e she thu s ,

spake : Sir e there sta n ds at t h e gate a Can d é la maiden


,

from the South a royal glory o f the race o f that Tr i camku


,
2

wh o climbed the sky but fell from it at the murmur of,

wrathful Indra She bears a parrot in a cage and bids


.
,

me thus hail your maj esty : Sire thou like the ocean , , ,

art alone worthy to receive the treasures o f the whole earth .

In the thought that this bird is a marvel and th e treas ure ,

of the whole earth I bring it to lay at thy feet an d desire


, ,

to behold thee ( 1 7 ) Thou 0 king h ast heard her mes
.
, ,

sage and must decide


, S o saying she ended her speech ,
.

The king whose curiosity was aroused looked at th e chiefs


, ,

around him and with the words Why not ? Bid her
,

enter gave his permission .

Then the portres s immediately o n the king s order


,

ush e red in the Cand a la maiden And she entered and .

beh e ld the king in the midst o f a thousand chiefs like ,

golden peaked Meru in the midst o f the noble moun


-

tains crouching together in fear of Indra s thunderbolt o r ’


,

in that the brightnes s o f the j ewels scattered o n his dress


almost concealed his form like a day o f storm whereon , ,

the eight quarters o f the globe are covered by Indra s ’

thousand bows H e was sitting on a couch studded with


.

moon stones beneath a small silken canopy white a s the


-
, ,

foam o f the river s of heaven with its four j ewel encru s ted ,
-

pillars j oined by golden chains and enwreathed w ith a ,

rope o f l arge pearls Many cowries with golden handl e s


.

waved around him ( 1 8 ) his left foot rested on a footstool


o f crystal that wa s like the moon bent in humiliation before

the fl ash in g beauty o f his countenance and was adorned by ,

the brightness of his feet which yet were tinged with b l ue ,

from the light rays o f the sapphire pave ment a s though ,

darkened by the sighs of his conquered foes His breast .


,

crimsoned by the rubies which shone o n his throne recalled ,

1
O r, b mboo s
a .
2
R am I . . 60 .
Krishna red with blood from the fre s h slaughter o f Madhu
,

kai t ab h a ; his two silken garments white a s the foam o f ,

ambrosia with pairs of h am sas painted in yellow o n their


,

hem waved in the wind raised by the cowrie s the fragrant


,

sandal unguent with which his chest wa s whitened b e ,

sprinkled with sa ff ron ointment wa s l ike snowy K ailé sa ,

w ith the early sunshine upon it his face was encircled by


pearls like stars mistaking it for the moon ; the sapphire
bracelets that clasped his arms were a s a threat o f chains
to bin d fi c kle fortune o r a s s nakes attracted by the s mell o f
,

sandal wood ( 1 9 ) the lotus in his ear hung down slightly ;


-

his nose was aquiline his eyes were l ike lotuses in full
,

blossom the hair grew in a circle between his brow s and


, ,

was p u rifi e d by the waters that in augurated his possession


of universal rule his forehead wa s like a piece o f the
e ighth day moon made into a block of pure gold gar l anded
-
,

with sweet j asmine like the Western Mountain in the dawn


,

with the stars growing pale o n its brow H e wa s like the .

God o f Love when struck by i a s fi re for his body was ’

tawny from the colour o f his ornaments His hand .

maidens surrounded him a s if they were the goddesses of


,

the quarters of the globe come to worship him ; the earth


bore him a s on her heart through loyalty in the re fl e c t i o n
, , ,

of his image in her cl e ar mosaic pavement ; fortune seemed


his alone though by him she was given to all to enj oy
,
.

( 2 0 ) H e was without a second though


, his followers were
without number ; he trusted only to his own sword though ,

he had countless elephants and hor s es in his retinue h e


fille d the whole earth though he stood in a s mall s pace of
,

ground he rested only o n his bow and yet wa s seated on ,

his throne he sho n e with the fl ame o f maj esty though all ,

the fuel of his en e mies was uprooted ; he had large eyes ,

and yet saw the smallest things he was the home o f all
Virtues and yet was overreaching ; he wa s beloved o f his
,
1

wives and yet wa s a despotic lord he was free from in


,

to x ication though he ha d an unfailing stream o f bounty ;


,

2
he was fair in nature yet in conduct a Krishna ; he laid
,

1
H e h ad ( a ) gr e at fau l ts ; ( b) a l o n g arm 2
D ark
. .
8

1
no heavy hand o n his subj ects and yet the whole wor l d ,

rested in his grasp .

Such was this king A n d she yet afar beho l ding him . ,

with a hand soft as t h e peta l of a red lotus and sur ,

rounded by a tinkling b racelet and clasping the bamboo ,

with its end j agged ( 2 1 ) s truck once o n the mo s aic fl o o r


,

to arou s e the king ; and at the s ound in a moment the ,

whole a ssemblage of chiefs turned their eyes from the king


to her l ike a herd of wild elephants at the fallin g of the
,

cocoanut Then the king with the words Look yonder

.
, , ,

to his suite gazed steadily upon the Cand a la maiden as


, ,

she wa s pointed out by the portress Before her went a .

man who s e hair wa s hoary with age whose eyes were the
, ,

colour o f the red lotus whose j oints despite the loss of , ,

youth were fi rm from incessant labour whose form


, , ,

though that of a M a tanga was not to be despised and , ,

who wore the white raiment meet for a court B ehind her .

went a Cand a la boy with locks falling on either shou l der


, ,

bearing a cage the bar s of which though o f go l d shone


, , ,

like emerald from the re fl e c t i o n of the parrot s p l umage ’


.

( 22) She herself s eemed by the darkness o f her hue to



imitate Krishna when he guilefully assumed a woman s
attire to take away the amrita seized by the demons She .

wa s as it were a doll of sapphire walkin g alone ; and over


, ,

the blue garment which reached to her ankle there fell


, ,

a veil of red silk like evening sunshine falling on b l ue


,

l otuses The circle of her cheek wa s whitened by the ear


.

ring that hung from o n e ear like the face o f night inlaid ,

with the ray s o f the rising moon ; she ha d a tawny tilaka


o f go r o c an a a s if it were a third eye like Parvat i in
, ,

mountaineer s attire after the fashion o f the garb o f


i a .

She was l ike Qri darkened by the s apphire g l ory o f ,

N a r a yana re fl e c t e d o n the robe on her breast o r like Rati ,

s t ained by smoke which rose a s Madana wa s burnt by the


fi re o f wrathful i a ; or like Yamun a fl e e i n g in fear o f ,

being drawn along by the ploughshare of wi l d Ba l ar a ma ;


1
I . e .
, i mpos d n o h e avy t i b t e
e r u .
9

o r, from the rich l ac that turned her lotus feet into budding
shoots like Durg a with her feet crimsoned by the blood o f
, ,

the Asura Mahisha she ha d j ust trampled upon .

( 2 3 ) Her nails were rosy from the pink glow o f her


fi n ge rs the mosaic pavement s eemed too hard for her
touch and she came forward placing her feet like tender
, ,

twigs upon the ground .

The rays o f her anklet s rising in fi am e co l our seemed to ,


-
,

encircle her a s with the arms of Agni a s though by his , ,

love for her beauty he would purify the stain o f her birth
, ,

and so s et the Creator at naught .

Her girdle wa s like the stars wreathed on the brow o f


the elephant of L ove ; and h er necklace wa s a rope of
large bright pearls like the s tream of Gang a j ust ting e d by
,

Yamun a .

Like a utumn she opened her lotus eye s ; like the rainy
,

s eason she had cloudy tresse s ; like the circle o f t h e


,

Malaya Hills she wa s wreathed with sandal ( 2 4) like the


,

1
z odiac she wa s decked with starry gem s ; like Qri she
, ,

had the fairness o f a lotus in her hand like a swoon she ,

entranced the heart ; like a forest she wa s endow e d with ,

2
living beauty like the child of a goddess she was claimed ,

3
by no tribe ; like sleep she charmed the eyes ; as a ,

lotus pool in a wood is troubled by elephants s o wa s she


-
,

dimmed by her M a tanga birth ; like a spirit she might


1 ‘

not be touched like a letter s he gladdened the eyes alone ,

like the blossoms o f spring she lacked the j a ti fl o we r ; her ,


5

slender waist like the line o f L ove s bow could be spanned


,

by the hands ; with her curly hair she was like the ,

Lakshm i o f the Yaksha king in Alaka 6


She had but .

reached the fl o we r o f her youth and was beautifu l exceed ,

i n gly. And the king wa s ama z ed ; and the thought aro s e


in his mind ( 2 5 ) Ill placed wa s the l abour of the Creator
,
-

in producing this beauty ! For if she has been created a s


1
Or wi th c i t r a an d gr ay an a lun ar m an si on s
, ,

.

2
O r li vi n g c r e at ur e s
, .

( a ) O i l o wl y b irth ; n o t dw e llin g o n e ar th
3
.

4
( ) C dzt la ; ( b) e l e ph an t

a an .

5
O r , aj at i , wi tho t c st e u a .

3
A la ka = ( a) c l s ; ( b) c i ty
ur a .
10

though in mock e ry o i her Cand a la form such that all the .


,

world s wealth o f loveliness 1 s laughed to scorn by her


own why was she born in a race with which none can
,

mat e 2 Surely by thought alone did Praj a pati cr e ate her



,

fearing the penalties of contact with the M a tanga race ,

else wh e nce this unsullied radianc e a grac e that b e longs ,

n o t to limb s sullied by touch ? Moreover though fair in ,

form by the ba seness of her birth whereby she lik e a


, , ,

Lakshmi o f t h e lower world is a perp e tual reproach to th e ,

1
gods she lovely a s she is causes fear in Brahma the
, , , ,

maker o i so strange a union. While the king was thus .


thinking the maiden garlanded with fl o we rs that fel l over , ,

her e ars bowed herself before him with a c o n fid e n c e


,

beyond her years And when she had made her reverence .

and st e pped o n to the mosaic fl o o r her attendant takin g , ,

the parrot which had j ust entered the cage advanced a


, ,

few steps and showing it to the king said : Sire this


, , , ,

parrot by name Vai cam p it yan a knows t h e meaning o f all


, ,

the c a stras is e xpert in t h e practic e o f royal policy


, ,

( 2 6) skilled in tales history and P a ran as and acquainted , , ,

with songs and with musical intervals H e recites and .


,

himself composes graceful and incomparable modern


romances love stories plays and po e ms and t h e like he
,
-
, , ,

is versed in witticisms and is an unrivalled d isciple of the ,

Vi n a fl ut e and drum
,
H e is skilled in displaying the
, .

di fi e r e n t movements of dancing dextrous in painting v e ry , ,

bold in play ready in resources to calm a maiden angered


,

in a lover s quarrel and familiar with the charact e ristics


of elephants horses men and women H e is the gem o f, , , .

the whole earth and in the thought that tr e a sur e s belong


to thee a s pearls to the ocean the daughter o f my lord has
, ,

brought him hither to thy feet 0 king ! Let him be ,

accepted as thine .

Having thus said he laid the cage before the king and ,

retired ( 2 7 ) And when he wa s gone the king of birds


.
, ,

standing b e fore the king and raising hi s right foot having , ,

uttered the words All hail ! recited to the king in a song ,


1
O r, whos e l ov e wo l d b u e a re p o ach
r .
12

announcing that t h e sun had reached the z enith ( 2 9 ) And .


,

hearing this the king dismissed hi s band o f chiefs as the


, ,

hour for bathing wa s at hand and arose from hi s ha l l of ,

audience .

Then as he started the great chiefs thronged together


, ,

as they rose tearing their silk raiment with the leaf work
,
-

o f their bracelets a s it f e ll from its place in the hurried


,

movem e nt Their necklaces were swinging with the


.

shock t h e quarters of space were made tawny by shower s


o f fragrant sandal powder and sa ff ron s cattered from their
-

limbs in their re s tlessness the bees arose in swarms from


their garlands o f m a lat i fl o we r s all quivering ; their ,

cheeks were caressed by the l otuses in their ears half ,


.

hanging down ; their strings of pearls were tremb l ing o n



their bosoms each longed in his self consciousness to pay -

his respects to the king a s he departed .

The hall o f audience wa s astir on all sides with the sound


o f the anklets o f the co wrie bearers as they disappeared in

all directions bearing the cowries o n their s h oulders their


, ,

gems tinkling at every step broken by t h e cry of the ,

kalah am sas eager t o drink the lotus honey ; ( 30 ) with the


,

pleasant music o f the j ewelled girdles and wreath s of the


dancin g girls coming to pay their respects a s they struck
-

their breast and sides ; with the cries o f the kalah am sas
o f the palace lake which charmed by the sound o f the
, ,

anklets whitened the broad steps of the ha ll of audience ;


,

with the voices of the tame cranes eager for the sound o f ,

the girdles screamin g more and more with a prolonged


,

outcry like the scratching of bell metal ; with the heavy


,
-

tramp on the fl o o r of the hall of audience struck by the feet


of a hundred neighbouring chiefs suddenly departing ,

which seemed to shake the earth like a hurricane ; with


the cry o f Look from the wand bearing usher s who were -
,

driving the people in confu s ion before them and shouting ,

l oudly yet good naturedly Behold


,
-
long and shrill
, ,

resounding far by its echo in the bower s o f the pa l ace ;


( 3 1 ) with the ringing of the pavement as it wa s s cratched by
t h e point s o f diadems with their proj ect ing aigrette s a s the ,
13

kings swiftly bent ti l l their trembling crest gems touched -

the ground ; with the tinkling o f the earrings a s they rang



on the hard mosaic in their owners obeisance ; with the
s pace pervading din o f the bards reciting auspicious verses
-
,

and coming forwar d with the p l ea s ant continuous cry ,

L ong life and Vi c t ory to our king with the hum o f the
bees a s they rose up leaving the fl o we r s by reason o f the ,

turmoi l o f the hundred s o f departing feet ; with the clash


o f the j ewe ll ed pillars o n which th e gems were set j angling

from being struck by the point s o f the brace l ets a s the


chieftains fell hastily prostrate in their confusion The ki ng .

then dismissed the assembled chiefs saying Rest awhile , ,


and after s ay ing to the Cand al a maiden Let Vai cam p ayan a ,

be take n into the inner apartments and giving the order ,


to his bete l nut bearer he went accompanied by a few


-
, ,

favourite prince s to his private apartments There laying


,
.
,

aside his adornments l ike the s un divested o f his rays or


, ,

the sky bare o f moon and stars he entered the hall o f ,

exercise where all wa s du l y prepared Having taken


,
.

pleasant e x ercise therein with th e princes of his o wn age ,

( ) he then entered the bathing place which was covered


3 2 -
,

with a white canopy surrounde d by the verse s o f many


,

a bard It had a go l d bath fi lle d with sc e nted water in


.
,

its midst with a crysta l bathing seat placed by i t and


,
-
,

was adorned with pitcher s placed o n o n e side ful l of ,

most fragrant waters havin g their mouths darkened by


,

bees attracted by the odour a s if they were covered with ,

blue cloths from fear of the heat ( 3 3 ) Then the hand


, .

m aidens some darkened by the r e fl e c t i o n o f their emerald


,

j ars like embodied lotuses with th e ir l eafy cups some


, ,

holding s ilver pitchers like night with a stream o f l ight


,

shed by the fu l l moon duly besprinkled the king , .

( ) Straightway there arose a blare o f the trumpets


3 4
sounded f o r bathing penetrating al l the hollows o f the
,

universe accompanied by the din o f song lute fl u t e


, , , ,

drum cymbal and tabor resounding shril l y in diverse


, , ,

tones mingled with the uproar o f a multitude o f bards


, ,

and c l eaving the path o f hearing Then in due order the .


, ,
14

king put upon him two white garments light a s a shed ,

snake skin and wearing a turban with an edge o f fi n e silk


-
, , ,

pure as a fl e c k of white cloud lik e Hima laya with the stream ,

o f the h e av e nly riv e r falli n g upon i t h e made his libation to ,

the Pitris with a handful o f wat e r consecrated by a hymn , ,

and then prostrating himself b e fore the sun proce e ded to


, ,

the temple When he had worshipped i a and made an


.
,

o ff ering to A gni ( 35 ) his limbs were anointed in the


,

perfuming room with sandal wood sweetened with the


- -
,

fragrance of sa ff ron camphor and musk the scent o f , , ,

which wa s followed by murmuring bees he put on a chaplet


of scented m a lat i fl o we r s changed his garb and with no , , ,

adornment save his j ew e lled earrings h e together with the , ,

kings for w ho m a fi t t i n g meal was prepar e d broke his


, ,

fast with t h e pl e asure that arises from the enj oyment o f


,

viands o f sw e et savour Then having drunk o f a fragrant .


,

drug rinsed his mouth and taken his bet e l he arose from
, , ,

his dai s with its bright mosaic pavement The portress who
, .
,

was close b y hastened to him and leaning o n h e r arm he


, , ,

went to the hall o f a udi e nce follow e d by the attendants ,

worthy to enter the inner apartments whos e palms were ,

like boughs very hard from their fi rm grasp of their


,

wands .

The hal l show e d a s though walled with crystal by rea so n


o f the white silk that draped its ends ; the j e welled fl o o r

was watered to coolness with sandal water to which was -


,

added very fragrant musk ; the pure mosaic wa s cea selessly


strewn with masses o f blossoms a s t h e sky with its b e vy ,

of stars ; ( 3 6 ) many a golden pillar shon e forth p u ri fi e d ,

w ith scented water and d e cked with countl e ss images a s


, ,

though with t he household gods in their niches ; aloe


spread its fragrance richly ; the whole was dominated by an
alcove which h e ld a couch white as a cloud after storm
, ,

with a fi o we r s cented covering a pillow of fi n e linen at the


-
,

head castors encrusted with gems and a j ew e lled footstoo l


, ,

by its sid e like the peak of Him a laya to b e hold


, .

Reclining on this couch while a maiden s e at e d on the , ,

ground having placed in her bosom the dagger she wa s


,
15

wont to bear gently rubbed h i s f e e t with a palm soft as the


,

leaves of fresh lotuses the king rested for a short time , ,

and held converse on many a theme with the kings ,

ministers and friends whose presence was me e t for that


,

hour .

H e then bade t h e portr e ss wh o was at hand to fetch , ,

Vai cam p ayan a from the women s apartm e nts for he had

b e come curious to learn his story And she bending hand .


,

and knee to the ground with the words Thy wil l shall ,

be done ! taking the command on her head f u lfi lle d



,

his bidding ( 3 7 ) Soon Vai cam p ayan a approached the


.

king having his cage born by the portress under the escort
, ,

of a herald leaning on a gold sta ff slightly b e nt white


, , ,

robed wearing a t o p knot silvered with age slow in gait


,
-
, ,

and tremulous in sp e ech like an aged fl am in go in his lov e ,

for the race of birds who placing his pa l m o n the ground


, , ,

thus deliv e red his message : Sir e t h e queens send thee ,

word that by thy command this Vai cam payan a has b e en


bathed and fed and is now brought by the portress to thy
,

feet.

Thus speaking he retired and the king a sk e d , ,

Vai cam p ay an a : Hast thou in the interval eat e n food


su ffi c i e n t and to thy taste Sire repli e d h e what have ’


, ,

I not eaten 2 I have drunk my fi ll o f t h e j uice of t h e j amb a


fruit aromatically swe e t pink and blue as a cuckoo s e y e


, ,

in the gladness of spring ; I have crack e d the pomegranate


s e e ds bright a s p e arls wet with blood which lions claws
, ,

have torn from t h e frontal bones of elephants I hav e torn .

at my wil l o ld myrobalans green as lotus leaves and sweet , ,

as grapes ( 38 ) But what need o f furth e r words ? For


.

e verything brought by the queen s with their o wn hands



turns to ambrosia And the king rebuking his talk said
.
, ,

L e t al l this cease f o r a while and do thou remove o u r



,

curiosity Tell a s from the Very beginning the whole


.


history o f thy birth i n what country and how wert thou ,

born an d by whom was thy name given ? Who were thy


,

father and mother ? How came thine attainment of the


V edas and thin e acquaintance with t h e gast ras and thy
, ,

skill in the fi n e arts What caused thy remembrance o f a


16

former birth 2 Wa s it a specia l boon given thee



O r dost
thou dwell in disguise wearing the form only of a bird and
, ,

where didst thou formerly dwel l ? How o l d art tho u and ,

how came this bondage o f a cage and the falling into the ,

hands o f a Cand a la maiden and thy coming hither ,

Thus respectfully questioned by the king whose curiosity ,

was kindled Vai cam p éyan a thought a moment and


, ,

reverently replied Sire the tale is long but if it is thy


, ,

pleasure l et it be heard
,
.

There is a forest by name Vindhya that embraces the


, ,

shores o f the eastern an d western ocean and decks the ,

centra l r e gion as though it were the earth s zone ( 3 9 ) It ’


.

is beauteou s with tr e es watered with the ichor o f wil d


elephants and bearing on their crests masses o f white
,

blossom that rise to the sky and Vie with the stars ; in it
the p e pper trees bitten by ospreys in their spring gladness
-
, ,

spread th e ir boughs tam ala branches trampled by young


elephants fi ll it with fragrance ; shoots in hue like the
wine fi u sh e d che c ks o f M alab ari s a s though roseate with
-
,

l ac from the feet o f wandering wood nymphs overshadow -


,

it
. Bowers there are too wet with drippings from parrot
, ,

pierced pomegranates ; bo we rs in which the ground is


covered with torn fruit and leaves shaken down by rest l ess
monkeys from the kakkola trees o r sprink l ed with pol l en ,

from ever falling blossoms or s trewn with couches of clove


-
,

branches by travellers o r hemmed in by fi n e cocoanuts , ,

ke t aki s kari ras and b aku las bowers so fair that with th e ir
, ,

areca trees girt about with betel vines they make a fi t t in g ,

home for a woodland Lakshmi Thickly growing el ai s make


'

the wood dark and fragrant a s with the ichor o f wild ,

e l ephants ; ( 4 0) hundreds of lions who meet their death ,

from barbaric leaders eager to sei z e the pearls o f the


elephants frontal bones still c l inging to their mouth and

-

claw s roam therein ; it is fearful a s the ha unt o f death


, ,

l ike the citade l of Yama an d fi lle d with the bu ffa l oes dear
,

to him like an army ready for batt l e it has bees resting ,

o n its arrow trees a s the points o n arrow s and the roar of


-
, ,
7

the lion is clear a s the lion cry o f onset it has rhinoceros -

tusks dreadful a s the dagger o f D u rgé and like her is ,

adorned with red sandal wood ; like t h e story o f K ar n i su t a -


,

it has its Vi p ula Acala and Qaca in the wide mountain s ,

1
haunted by hares that l ie near it a s the twilight of the ,

l ast e ve o f an aeon has the frantic dance of blue necked -

i a so has
, it the dances of blue necked peacocks and -
,

bursts into c so n a s the time o f churning the ocean had


the glory of Qri and the tree which grants all desires and ,

2
was surrounded by s weet draughts of Va runa so is it ,

adorned by Qri tr e es and Varuna trees It is densely dark


2
.
,

a s the rainy season with clouds and decked with poo l s in ,

countless hundreds ; like the moon it is alway s the haunt


3
,

4
of the bears and is the home of the deer , ( 4 1 ) Like a .

king s palace it is adorn e d by the tails o f cowrie deer and


,
5
,

protected by troops o f fi e rc e elephants L ike D ur gé it is .


,

strong o f nature and haunted by the lion Like Si t é it


3
,
.
,

has its Ku c a and is held by the wander e r o f nigh t


,
?
Like a
maiden in love it wear s the sc e nt of sandal and musk and
, ,

is a dorned with a t i laka o f bright aloes ; like a lady in her


8

l over s absence it is fanned with the wind of many a



,

9
bough and possessed o f Madana ; like a child s neck
,

10
it is bright with rows o f tiger s claws and adorned with a ’
-
,

rhinoceros ; like a hall o f revelry with its honeyed draughts


11
,

12
it ha s hundreds o f beehives Visib l e and is strewn with ,

fl o we rs In parts it has a circle o f earth torn up by the


.

tusk s o f large boars like the end o f the world when the ,

circle of the earth was l ifted up by the t a sks o f M ah évar éh a


1
V i pu la, A c al a , an d C a a,
c ch ar a ct ser in t he B ri h at k at h a . O r,
b o ad mo n t
r u ai n s an d h ar e s .

2
t
V a r u n a , r e e v ar u n a , wi n e .

3
w th ght
O r, i li n i n g .

4
Co st t o s
n e ll a i n The . moon w as s ppos e d to h v
u a e a de er dw lli n g e

in it .

5
( ) a co wThe i s h l d by t hr es u i t e 6
( ) deiff e n t k i n ds o f d e
e re er .

3
( ) Rocky ; ( 6) h vi n g i
a a a .

7
n a ( ) S i t a s a n ; ( 6) g ass ’
N i ga so r : ( ) B av i
ar ; (rb) o w l s . ca a a a .

3
( ) M
a k of a l o
ar s n t h b o w ; ( )
b e t i l k a
o t e s a n d leo e t e s
r a ll a r e a re

b ri gh t .

9
( at ) Lov e ( b) m d n t a a a re e s .
10
As an a m l t u e .

11
N am of e an o n m nt
r a e .
12
Wi n e- c ps
u .
18

here like the city of B ava ri a it is fi lle d with lofty c alas


, ,
1

inhabited by restless monkeys ; ( 4 2 ) here it is lik e the scene ,

o f a recent wedding bright with fresh ku c a gra ss fuel , , ,

fi o we r s acacia and p alé ca ; here it seem s to bristl e in


, , ,

terror at the lions roar ; here it is vocal with cuckoos ’

wild for j oy ; here it is as if in excit e m e nt resonant with , ,

the sound of palms in t h e strong wind ; here it drops its


2
,

palm l e aves like a widow giving up her e arrings her e like


-
,

a fi e ld of battle it is fi lle d with arrowy r e eds ; here like


3
, ,

Indra s body it has a thousand n e t r as ; here lik e V ishnu s


,
4
,

form it ha s the darkness of t am fi las ; here lik e the banner


,
5
,

o f A rj u n a s chariot

it is bla zoned with monk e ys ; here , ,

like t h e court of an earthly king it is hard of access , ,

through the bamboos ; here l ike t h e city of King Vi r ét a , ,

it is guarded by a K i c aka ; h e re like the Lakshm i o f the


3
,

sky it has the tremu l ous eyes of its deer pursued by the
,

hunter ; here like an ascetic it ha s bark bushes and


7
, , , ,

ragg e d strips and grass 8


( 4 3 ) Tho ugh adorned with .

S ap t ap ar n a it yet poss e sses leaves innumerable ; though


9
,

10
honoured by ascetics it i s yet very savage ; though in its ,

season of blossom it i s yet m ost pure ,


.

In that forest there is a hermitage famed throughout ,


the world a very birthplace o f Dharma It is adorned .

with trees tended by L O p am u dr é a s her own children fed ,

with water sprinkled by h e r own hands and tr e nched ,

round by hers e lf She w as the wife o f t h e great ascetic .

Agastya ; he it wa s who at the prayer o f Indra drank up


the waters of ocean and wh o when the V indhya moun , ,

tains by a thousand wide peaks stretching to the sky in


,

1
(a) H all s ; ( b) 951 t r e e s .

2
(a) C l appi n g of h an ds ; ( 6) p al m t re e s -
.

3
(a) Arr ows ; ( b) r e e ds 4
( a ) T re e s ; ( b) e y e s
. .

5
( )
a A s t am al a t r e e s ( v e r y d ark) ( b) wi th t amal a t re e s .

3
V i ra a , t a kin g who b f i n d d e r e e t he Pan d v s a a . Th e chi f o f hi
e s
a m y vas n a me d K i c k V Mbh B k iv 8 15 K i c a ka l so m e n s
i y
a a . . .
, . .
, . a a
am l o o

.

7
twi nk l in g st s o f t h e D
O r, t he co n st ll ti on pu s e d by
ar e er e a ,
r u t he
H n t ( con st e ll ti o n )
u er a a .

B k g m e n ts m tt d l ocks n d gs o f g ss
3
ar ar , a e , a ra ra .

( ) S v n l e av s ; ( b ) t
9
a e e e a re e .

( ) O i fi c e di sp os i t i on ; ( 6) f ll of wil d b sts
13
a er u ea .
20

watered with the blood o f countless hosts o f demons struck


down by R a ma s many keen shafts and a s if now its

,

p a l ac as were stained with their crimson hue ; there even ,

yet the o ld deer nurtured by S i t a when they hear the


, ,

deep roar o f fresh clouds in the rainy season think on the ,

twang o f R ama s bow penetrating all the hollows of the


universe and refuse their mouthfuls of fresh grass while


, ,

their eyes are dimmed by ceaseless tears a s they see a ,

d e s e rted world and their o wn horn s crumb l ing from age ;


,

th e re too the golden deer a s if it had been incited by the


, , ,

rest o f the forest deer slain in the cea seless chase deceived ,

S i t a and led the son o f Raghu far astray ; there t o o in


, , ,

their grief for the bitter l oss o f Si t fi R a ma and L aksh m an a ,

seized by K ab an dh a like an ec l ipse of sun and moon ,

heralding the death o f B a va ri a fi lle d the universe with a ,

mighty dread ; ( 4 6) there too the arm o f Yo j an ab ah u , , ,

struck o ff by R ama s arrow caused fear in the saints a s it


lay o n the ground l est it should be the serpent form o f


,

N ah u sh a brought back by Agastya s curse ; there even



, ,

now foresters behold S i t a painted inside the h ut b y her


,

husband to solace his bereavement a s if she were again ,

rising from the ground in her longing to see her husband s ’

home .

Not far from that hermitage of Agastya o f which the ,

ancient history is yet clearly to be seen is a lotus l ake ,

call e d Pamp a It stands near that h erm itage as if it


.
,

were a second ocean made by the Creator in rivalry with


Agastya at the prompting of V aruna wrathful at the
, ,

drinking o f ocean ; it is like the sky fallen o n earth to bin d


tog e th e r the frag m ents o f the eight quarters wh e n severed
in t h e day of doom 1
( 4 8 ) It is. inde e d a peerless,
home ,

o f waters and its depth and extent none can tell


, There .
,

even now the wanderer may see pairs o f c akravakas with


, ,

their wings turned to blue by the gleam o f the blo s soming


lotuse s a s if they were swallowed up by the impersonate
,

curse of R a ma .

O n the left bank o f that l ake and near a c l ump o f pa l ms ,

1
Do e s thi s re fe r to t h e re fl e c t i o n of t h e sky i n i t s c l e ar w at er
21

broken by R a ma s arrows wa s a large tree o ld calm ali



1
.
,

It shows a s though it were enclosed in a large trench ,

because its roots are alway s encircled by an o ld snake ,

like the trunk o f the elephants of the quarters ; ( 4 9 ) i t .

s eems to be mantle d with the slough o f serpents which ,

hangs o n its lofty trunk and waves in the wind ; it strives


t o compa s s the measurement of the circle o f s pace by its
many boughs spreadin g through the fi rm am e nt and so to ,

imitate i a whose thousand arm s are outstretched in his


,

wi l d dance at the day o f doom and who wears the moon on ,

hi s crest Through its weight of years it clin gs for support


.
,

even to the shoulder o f the wind ; it is girt with creepers


that cover its whole trunk and stand out l ike the thick ,

veins of o ld age Thorns have gathered o n its surface like


.

the moles of o ld age n o t even the thick clouds by which


it s foliage is bedewed can behold its t o p when after , ,

drinking the waters o f ocean they return from a ll s id e s t o ,

the s ky and pause for a moment weary with their load of


, ,

water like bird s amongst its bough s


,
From it s great .

2
height it se e ms to b e o n tiptoe to look at the glory of the
,

3
N an dan a Wood ; it s topmost branches are whitened by
cotton which men might mistake f or foam dropped from
,

the corners of their mouths by the s un s s teed s a s be s et ’


,

with weariness o f their path through the sky they come ,

near it in their course overhead ; ( 5 0) it has a root that


will last f o r an aeon for with the garland of drunken bee s , ,

s ticking to the ichor which clin gs t o it where the cheeks of


woodland elephants are rubbed against i t it seem s to b e ,

he l d motionless by iron chains it seems alive with s warms


o f bees fl ash i n g in and o u t of it s hollow trunk
, It beholds .

the alighting o f the wings o f birds a s Duryodhana r e ceives ,

proof s of Qakuni s parti z anship like Krishna it is e n


“ ’

5
circled by a woodland chaplet ; like a ma ss of fresh clouds
its rising is seen in the sky It is a temple whence wood .

1
l k cotto
m a li = siln t e -
re .

2
L it st i vi n g pw ds to
.
, r u ar se e .

3
I n d s wood ra

.

4
h n i = ( ) b i d ; ( 6) n m of D ur yodh an s s ppo
Q

a u a r a e a u rt e r .
5
O by V n m ald Kri sh n s ch p l t
r, a a/ ,

a

a e .
22

land goddesses can look o ut upon the whole world It is .

the king o f the Dandaka Wood the l eader o f t h e llo r dly ,

trees the friend o f the V indhya Mountain s and i t se e m s to


, ,

embrace with the arm s of its boughs the whole V indhya


Forest There o n the edge of the boughs in t h e centre of
.
, ,

the crevice s amongst t h e twigs in the j oints o f the trunks


, , ,

in the holes o f the rotten bark fl o c ks o f parrots have tak e n ,

their abode From its spaciousness they have c o nfi de n t ly


. ,

built in it their thou s and nests ; from its steepness they ,

have come to it fearlessly from every quarter ! Though its


leaves are thin with age this lord o f the forest still looks
,

green with dense foliage a s they rest upon it day and ,

night ( 5 1 ) In it they spend the nights in their o wn nests


.
,

and daily as they rise they form lines in the sky ; they
, ,

s how in heaven like Yamun a with her wide s tream s


scatt e red by t h e tossing o f Bala s ploughshare in his ’

passion they suggest a lotus bed o f the heavenly Gange s -

fl o wi n g away uprooted by the e l ephant o f h e aven ; they


,

s how forth a sky streaked a s it were with the brightnes s , ,



of the steeds o i the sun s chariot they wear the semb l ance
o f a moving fl o o r o f emera l d ; they stretch out in the l ake

o f heaven like long twines o f V allisneria ; they fan the


faces of the quarters w e aried with the mass o f the sun s ’

keen rays with their wings spread against the sky like
,

plantain leaves they form a grassy path stretching through


the heaven and a s they roam they grace the fi rm am e nt
,

with a rainbow After their meal they return to the young


.

birds which stay in the nest and give them from beaks , ,

pink as tiger s claw s reddened with the blood of slain deer


the J u l e e o f fruits and many a dain ty morsel o f rice clusters -


,

for by their deep love to the ir children all their other


likings are subdued ; ( 52 ) then they spend the night in
this same tree with their young under their wings .


Now my father who by reason o f his great age barely
,

dragged o n his life dwelt with my mother in a certain old


,

hollow and to him I was by the decree o f Fate born a s


, , ,

his only so n My mother overcome by the pain s of child


.
,

birth when I wa s born went to another world and in , , ,


23

spite of his grief for the death o f his loved wife my father , ,

from love to his child checked the keen onrush o f his ,

sorrow and devoted himself in his l one l iness wholly to my


,

nurture From his great age the wide wings he rais e d


.
,

had lost their power o f fl i gh t and hung loose from his ,

shoulder s so that when he shook them he seemed to be


,

trying to shake o ff the painful old age that clung to his


body while his few remain ing tail feather s were broken
,

like a tatter o f ku c a grass ; and yet though he wa s unable ,

to wander far he gathered up bits of fruit torn down by


,

parrots and fallen at the foot o f the tree and picked up ,

grains of rice from rice stalks that had fallen from other -

n e sts with a beak the point o f which wa s broken and the


,

e dge worn away and rubbed by breaking rice clusters and -


,

pink as the stalk of the se p h éliké flower when still hard ,

and he daily made his own mea l o n what I left .

( 5 3 ) But one day I heard a sound of th e tumult of the


chase Th e moon reddened by the glow o f dawn wa s de
.
, ,

sc e nding to t h e shore of the Western Ocean from the island ,

o f the h e avenly Ganges like an o ld ham s a with its wings ,

reddened by t h e honey of the heavenly lotus bed the circle -

o f spac e was wide n ing and wa s whit e a s the hair of a ranku


,

deer ; the throng of stars like fl o we r s strewn o n the pavement


,

of heaven were being ca st away by the sun s long rays a s if


,

they w e re brooms of rubies for they were red as a lion s ,


mane dyed in elephant s blood or pink a s sticks o f burning


lac ; the clust e r of the Seven Sages was a s it were de , ,

scending the bank o f the M a na sa L ake and rested on the ,

northern quarter to worship the dawn the Western Ocean


w as lifting a mass o f p e arls scattered from O pen shells o n ,


its shore a s though the stars melted by the sun s rays
, , ,

had fallen on i t whiten i ng the surface o f its alluvial


,

islands The wood wa s dropping dew ; its peacocks were


.

awak e ; its lions were yawning ; ( 5 4 ) its wild elephan t s


w ere wak e ned by herds of she elephants and i t with its -
, ,

boughs raised like reverential hands sent up towards the ,

sun as he r e sted o n the peak o f the E astern Mountain a


, ,

ma ss o f fl o we r s the fi lam e n t s o f which were heavy with


,
24

the night dews The lines o f sac rifi c i al smoke from the
.

hermitage s gray as the hair of an ass were gleaming like


, ,

ban n ers of holiness and rested lik e doves on the tree tops
,
-

whereon the wood nymphs dwelt The morning bree z e


-
.

was blowing and roamed softly for it was weary at the


, ,

end o f night ; it gladdened swarms o f bees by the fl o we r s ’

perfume it rained showers o f honey dew from the O pened


lotuses ; it was eager to teach the dancing creepers with
their waving bough s it carried drops of foam from the
rumination o f woodland buff alo e s it removed the p e r spi ra
tion o f the weary mountaineers ; it shook the lotuses and ,

bore with it the dewdrops The bees who ought to be the .


,

drum s on the elephant s frontal bones to recite auspicious



-

s ongs for the wakening o i the day l otus groves now sent -
,

up their h um from th e hearts o f the night lotuse s as their -


,

wings were clogged in the clo sing petals ; ( 5 5 ) the deer


o f the wood had the markings o n their breast gray with ,

resting on t h e salt ground and s l owly opened eyes the , ,

pupils o f which were sti l l squinting with the remains of


sleep and were caught by the coo l morning bree z e a s if
,

their eyelashes were held together by heated lac ; foresters


were hastening hither and thither ; the din of the kala
h am sas o n the Pamp a L ake sweet to t h e ear wa s now , ,

begin ning the pleasant fl ap pin g o f the wild elephant s ’

ears breaking forth caused the peacock s to dance in time


the sun him self slow l y arose and wandered among the ,

tree tops round the Pamp a Lake and haunted the mountain
-
,

peaks with rays of madder l ike a mass o f cowries bendin g


, ,

downwards from the sun s e l ephant as he plu n ges into the
sky ; the fresh light sprung from the sun banished the
stars falling o n the wood like the monkey king who had
,

again l ost T a r a ; the mornin g twilight became visible


1

quickly occupying the eighth part o f the day and the


, ,

sun s l ight became clear .

The troops o f parrot s had a ll started t o the places they


desired that tree seemed empty by reason o f the gr eat
1
T ar a = (a) wi f o f S
e u gri v a , t he mo nk y k in g ;
e ( b) st ar .
25

s til l nes s though it had al l the young parrots resting


,

quietly in their nests ( 5 6) My father was still in his own


.

nest and I a s from my youth my win gs were hardly


, ,

fl e dge d and had n o strengt h was close to him in the ,

hollow when I suddenly heard in that forest the sound o f


,

the tumu l t o f the chase It t e rri fi e d every woodland


.


creature ; it wa s drawn out by a s ound of birds wings
fl yin g hasti l y u p ; it was mingled with cries from the
frightened young elephants it wa s increased by the hum
o f drunken bees disturbed o n the shaken creepers ; it wa s
,

l oud with the noi s e of wild boars r o am i n g with rais e d r

snouts ; it was swollen by the roar o f lion s wakened from


their sleep in mountain caves ; it s eemed to shake the
trees and wa s great a s the noise o f the torrent s o f Gang e s
, ,

when brought down by B h agi rat h a ; and the woodland


nymphs listened to it in terror .

When I h e ard this strange s ound I began to trembl e in


my childishness the cavity o f my ear wa s almo s t brok e n
I shook for fear and thinking that my father who was
, ,

close b y could help me I crept within his win gs l oo s en e d


, , ,

as they were by age .

Straightway I heard an outcry o f Hence comes the


scent o f the lotus b e ds the leaders o f the elephants have
trampled ! Hence the perfume o f rushes the boars have
chewed ! Hence the ke e n fragrance o f gum olibanum the -

young e l ephants have divided Hence the rust l ing o f dry


leave s shaken down ( )
5 7 Hence the dust o f an t h e ap s that
the horns o f wild bu ffaloes have cleft l ike thunderbolts !
Hence came a herd o f deer ! Hence a troop of wild elephants !
Hence a ban d o f wild boars ! Hence a multitude o f w ild
bu ff aloes ! Hence the shriek o f a circle o f peacocks !
Hence the murmur o f partridge s ! Hence the cry o f
ospre y s ! Hence the groan o f e l ephant s with their frontal

bones torn by lion s claws ’
This is a boar s path stained
with fresh mud ! This a mass of foam from the rumina
tion o f deer darkened by the j uice o f mouthfuls o f grass
,

j ust eaten This the hum o f b e e s garr u lo u s a s they cling


,

to t h e sc e nt left by the rubbing o f elephants foreheads with ’


26

ichor fl o wi n g ! That the path of the ruru deer pink with


withered leav e s bedewed with blood that has been shed .

That is a mass o f shoots o n the tre e s crushed by t h e feet of


e lephants Those are the gambols of rhinoceroses that is
the lion s track j agged with pieces of the el e phant s pearls
’ ’
,

pink with blood and engraved with a monstrous device by


,

their claws ; that is the e arth crimsoned with the blood o f


the newly born o ff spring o f the does ; that is the path like ,

a wi dow s braid darken e d with the ichor of the lord o f the


h e rd wand e ring at his will ! F ollow this row of yak s


straight before u s ! Quickly occupy this part o f the wood
where t h e dung o f the deer is dried ! ( 58 ) Climb the tree
top ! L ook o u t in this direction ! Listen to this sound !
Tak e the bow ! Stand in your places ! Let slip the hounds
The wood trembled at the tumult of the hosts o f men intent
o n t h e chase shouting to each other and concealed in the

hollows of the trees .

Th e n that wood wa s soon shaken o n all sides by the roar


o f lions struck by the G abara s arrows d e epened by its echo

rebounding from the hollows o f the mountains and strong ,

a s the sound o f a drum n e wly oil e d ; b y t h e roar from the


throats o f the el e phants that led the h e rd like the growl of ,

thunder and mixed with the ceaseless lashing of their


,

trunks as th e y came o n alone separat e d from the fright


, ,

ened herd ; by the pit e ous cry of the deer with their ,

tremulous t e rri fi e d eyes when th e b ounds suddenly tore


, ,

their limbs ; by the yell o f she e lephants length e ning in -

grief for the death o f the i r lord and lead e r a s they wandered ,

every way with ears raised ever pausing to list e n to the


,

din bereft o f th eir slain leaders and followed by th e i r


,

young ; ( 5 9 ) by the bel l owing of she rhinoceroses seekin g -

with outstretched necks the ir young on ly born a few day s ,

b efore and n o w lost in the panic ; by the outcry o f birds


,

fl y i n g from t h e tree top s and wandering in confusion ; by


-
,

t h e tramp o f herds o f deer with all the haste o f limbs made


for speed seeming to make the earth quake a s it wa s struck
,

simultaneously by their hurrying feet ; by the twang o f


bow s drawn to the ear m ingled a s they rain ed their arrows
, , ,
28

in s pired great dread ; it wa s l ike a mu l titude o f demons


portending disaster s .

6
( )1 And in the midst o f that great host o f Q abaras I
beheld the Cabara leader M a tanga by name H e wa s ye t in
,
.

early youth ; from his great hardness h e s eemed made of


1
iron ; he wa s like Ekalavya in another birth ; from his
growing beard he was like a yo u ng roya l elephant with its
,

temples encircled by its fi r st line o f ichor ; he fi lle d the wood


with beauty that s tream e d from him sombre as dark lotuses ,

l ike the waters of Yam u n zi ; he had thick locks cur l ed at


the ends and hanging o n his s houlders like a lion with its ,

man e stained by e lephant s ichor ; hi s brow was broad ;’

his nose wa s stern and aqui l ine ; his l eft side shone red
de n e d by the faint pink rays o f a j ewelled snake s hood

that wa s made the ornament for o n e o f hi s ears l ike the ,

glow of shoots that had clung to him from his restin g o n a


leafy couch ; he wa s perfumed with fragrant ichor bearing ,

the s cent o f sap t ac c h ada blossoms torn from the cheeks of


an elephant freshly slain l ike a stain of black aloes ; ( 62 )
,

he had the heat warded o ff by a swarm o f bee s like a ,

peacock feather para sol flyin g about b l inded by the scent


-
, ,

a s if they were a branch o f tam a la ; he wa s marked with


lines o f perspiration on his cheek rubbed by his hand a s ,

if Vindhya F orest being conquered by his strong arm were


, ,

timidly o fi e ri n g homag e under the gui s e o f it s slender waving


twigs and he seemed to tinge space by his eye somewhat
,

pink as if it were bloodshot and shedding a twi l ight of the


, ,

night of doom for the deer ; he had mighty arms reaching


to his knees a s if the measure o f an e l ephant s trunk had
,

been taken in making them and hi s shoulder s were rough ,

with s cars from keen weapon s often u s ed to make an


o fl e r i n g of blood to K a l i ; the space round his eyes wa s

bright and broad as the V indhya Mountain and with th e ,

drop s of dried deer s blood clinging o n i t and the markin g


o f drop s o f perspiration as if they were adorned by large


,

pear l s ii r o m an e l ephant s frontal bone mixed with gu nj a


fruit ; his chest wa s scarred b y c on st an t and ceaseles s ‘

1
Ek alavya ki n g of t h e N i sh ad as ki ll e d by Kri sh na
, , Mbh I 1 32 . .
, .
, .
fatigue ; he wa s clad in a silk dress red with cochineal ,

and with his strong l egs he mocked a pair o f elephants ’


posts stained with e l ephants ichor ; he seemed from his
causeless fi e rc e n e ss to have been marked o n his dread brow
by a frown that formed three banners a s if D u rgfi pro , ,

p i t i at e d by hi s great devotion had marked him with a ,

trident to denote that he wa s her s ervant ( 6 3) H e was .

accompanied by hounds o f every colour which were his ,

familiar friends ; they s howed their wearines s by tongues


that dry a s they were s eemed by their natura l pinkness to
, ,

drip deer s b l ood and which hung down far from tirednes s ;

a s their mo nth s were open they raised the corners of their


l ips and s howed their fl ashin g te e th cl e arly like a lion s ,

m ane caught between the teeth ; their throats were covered


with strings o f cowrie s and they were hacked by blows ,

from the large boars tusks ; though but smal l from t h eir

great strength they were like lions cubs with their manes ’

ungrown they were s killed in initiating the does in widow


hood ; with them came their wive s very large like lionesses , ,

coming to beg an amne s ty for the lions H e wa s surrounded .

by troops o f Qabaras of a l l kinds : s ome had sei z ed elephants ’

tusks and the long hair o f yaks som e had vessels for honey
made o f leave s clo s ely bound ; some like lions had hands , ,

fi lle d with many a pearl from the frontal bones o f e lephants ;


some like demons had pieces o f raw fl e sh ; some like
, , ,

goblin s were carrying the skins o f lions ; some like J ain


, ,

a scetic s held peacocks tail s ; s ome l ike children wore


,

, ,

2
crows feather s ; some represent e d Krishna s exp l oits by

1

bearing the elephants tusks they had torn o u t ( 6 4 ) some ’


,

l ike the days o f the rainy season had garments dark a s ,

clouds 3
He had his s word sheath a s a wood its rhino
.
-
,

ceros o s ; like a fresh cloud he he l d a bow bright a s


4 5
,

peacocks tai l s ; l ike the demon V aka he possessed a



6
,

peerle s s army ; l ik e Garuda he had torn out the teeth ,

1
O r, url c s .
2
V H ari v am ca, 8 3
. .

3
O r , wi l u th c o ds .
4
h oc os S h e -
r in er 5
O r , r ain
. bows .

E ka c a kr a = ( a ) c i ty po s s e ss e d by V ak a ; ( 6) o n e ar my
3
a , or on e
qu o i t .
30

of many large n a gas ; he was hostile to peacock s a s 1


,

B h i sh m a to C ikh an di ; like a summer day he always


2
,

3
showed a thirst f o r deer ; like a heavenly genius he was ,

impetuous in pride ; as Vyfi sa followed Yo j an agan dh é so


4 5
,

did he follow the musk deer ; like Gh at o t kac a h e wa s ,

dreadful in form ; a s the locks o f Um a were decked with


3

i moon so was h adorned with the eyes in the



a s e ,

peacocks tails ; a s the d e mon H i ranyakaci p u by Mah a


7 ’ 3

V ar éh a so he had his breast torn by the teeth o f a great


,

boar ( 6 5 ) like an ambitious man h e had a train of captives


9
,

around him ; like a demon he loved the hunters ; like the


10
,

gamut of song he was closed in by N i sh é das ; l ike the


,
11

trident of Durga he wa s wet with the blood o f bu ffaloes ;


,

though quit e young h e had se e n many l ives pas s ; though 12


,

he had many hounds h e lived o n roots and fruits though


13
,

14
o f Krishna s hue he was n o t good to look o n ; though he

wandered at will his mountain fort was his only refuge


15
,

though he always lived at the foot o f a lord o f earth he 13


,

wa s unskilled in the service o f a king .

H e wa s as the child o f the V in dhya Mountains the



,

partial avatar o f death ; the born brother o f wickedness ,

the essence o f the Iron Age ; horrible a s he was he yet ,

inspired awe by rea son of his natural greatness and his 17


,

13
form cou l d not be surpa ssed His name I afterwards .

l earnt In my mind was this th ought : Ah the life o f


.

,

1
N aga = ( a e l e an ; ( b) na e ph t s k .

2
O r , Qikh an di , a so n o f D r u p ad a, a r i e n t h e P é md avas f d of ‘

3 m g
O r, ira e .

4
g M s k
O r , e a e r f or t h e good
an a a l a e T h e V i dy adh ara w as a
. or
v g
e il s tt d g
eniu gods
a e n in the M V K ullfik a o n . an u , X 11 , 4 7
. . .

5
moth of
Yo j an agan dh a, er V yé sa ,
3 b
O r, g fo m of Bh m
e ari n t he r Bh m s i a

H e w as i a

. so n . V
Mbh , I.
, 155 . .

7 C sc t moo of
( a) r e e n y s of p cocks t s
n i a ( 6) e e ea

ai l .

3 H i r an ak a i u
y cp V H ar i v a nl
. c a , 2 2
. 5 .

9
O r , an a mb t o s s o d d by b ds to s g
i i u m an urr u n e p s ar ( in h i s rai s e ) .

13
O r, l in ov g b ood
l .

11
N i sh ad a s = ( a ) mo t s h gh st ot of
u n ai n e e r
( b )sct h e i e n e t h e al e .

12
( a ) H ad a e p ss d m y g s
an a e k d m y b ds
( 6 ) h ad i ll e an i r .

13
O r , re a g t w th
e al B ck 14
la
. D g 15
O r, ur i
. .

13
O r, mo t
u n ai n .

17
( a) M g
a n an i

m ty
i g t st gth
; ( 6) re a re n .

13
A n a b hi b h a van i ya
°
.
1

these men is full o f folly and their car e e r is blam e d by the


,

good ( 66) F o r their o n e religion is o ff ering human fl e sh


.

to D urgé ; their meat mead and so forth is a m e al loath e d


, , ,

by the good ; their exercise is the chase ; their c astra is 1

the cry o i the j ackal ; their teachers o f good and evil are
.

owls ; their knowledge is skill in birds ; their bosom


2 3

friends are dogs ; their kingdom is in deserted woods ;


th e ir feast is a drinking bout ; their friends are the bows
that work their cruel deeds and arrows with their heads , ,

smeared l ike snakes with poison are their helpers ; their


, , ,

song is what draws o n bewild e red de e r ; their wives are


the wives o f others tak e n captive ; their dwelling i s with
savage tigers ; their worship of the gods is with the blood
o f beasts their sac rifi c e with fl e sh their live lihood by
, ,


theft ; the snakes hood is their ornament their cosmetic ,

elephants ichor ; and the very wood wherein th e y may


dwell is utterly destroyed root and branch ” .

As I was th us thinking the Qab ar a l eader desiring to , ,

rest after his wandering through the forest approached , ,

and laying his bow in the shade beneath that very cotton
,

tree sat down o n a seat of twigs gathered hastily by his


,

suite ( 67 ) Another youthful Qabara coming down hastily


.
, ,

brought to him from the l ake when he had stirred it s ,

waters with his hand some water aromatic with lotus ,

pollen and freshly plucked bright lotus fi b re s with their


,
- -

mud washed o ff ; the water wa s like liquid lapis laz uli o r ,

showed a s if it were painted with a piece o f sky fa llen


from the heat o f the s un s rays in the day o f doom o r ha d

,

dropped from the moon s orb o r were a mass o f melted pearl , ,

o r as if in its great purity it wa s frozen into i c e and could ,

only be distinguished from it by touch After drinking i t the .


,

ab ar a in turn devoured the lotu s fib r e s a s Rfih u does the


Q -
,

moon s digit s ; when h e wa s rested he rose and followed


, ,

by all his host who had sat i sfi e d their thirst he went


, ,

slow ly to his desired goal B ut one o ld (; abara from that .

barbarous troop had got no deer s fl e sh and with a ’

, ,

1
( a ) Aw ak e ni n g c ry ( b ) mor al law .

2
Owl s ar e su ppos e d to b e de sc e n d an ts o f t he s ag e V i cvam it ra .

3
A s om e n s .
32

demoni ac e x pression coming into his face in his de s ire


1

for meat he l ingered a short time by that tree ( 68 ) A s


, .

soon as the Qab ara l eader had vanished that o l d Qabara , ,

with eyes pink a s drops o f blood and terrible with their


overhangin g tawny brows drank in a s it were o ur lives ; , , ,

he seemed to reckon up the number in the parrots nests
like a falcon eager t o taste bird s fl e sh and looked up the ’
,

tr e e from its foot wishing to climb i t The parrots s e emed


,
.

t o have drawn their last breath at that very moment in


th e ir terror at the sight o f him F o r what is hard for the .

pitiless 2 S o he climbed the tree easily and without eff ort



,

as if by l adders though it wa s a s high a s many palms and


, ,

t h e tops of its boughs swept the clouds and plucked the ,

young parrots from among it s bough s one by o n e as if they ,

were its fruit for some were not yet strong for fl i gh t ; some
,

w er e only a few da y s o l d and were pink with the down o f ,

their birth so that they might almost be taken for cotton


,

fi o we r s ; some with their wings j ust sproutin g were like


2
, ,

fresh lotus leave s ; some were like the Asc l epias fruit ;
-

some with their beaks growing red ha d the grace o f


, ,

l otus bud s with their heads rising pink from s l owly un


-

folding leaves ; while some under the guise of the cease ,

l ess motion o f their heads seemed to try to forbid him , ,

though they could not stop him for he slew them and cast ,

them on the ground .

( 6 9 ) B ut my father seeing o n a sudden this great de



, ,

structive remediless overwhe lming calamity that had come


, ,

o n u s tremb l ed doubly
, and with pupi l s quivering and , ,

wandering from fear o f death cast a l l roun d a glance that ,

grief had made vacant and tears had dimmed ; his pa l ate
was dry and he could not help himself but he covered me
, ,

with his wing though its j oints were re l axed by fear and
, ,

bethought himself o f what help could avail at such a


moment S wayed who l ly by l ove bewildered how to s ave
.
,

me and puz zled what to do he stood holding me to hi s


,

, ,

breast That miscreant however wandering among the


.
, ,

1
P i gi t ci ga/n a , a de mo n o acco di n g to t h e comm en t a y h ere
, r, r r , a t ig e r.
2 L it , .

c
r e a in t g dou bt o i a .

33

boughs came to the entrance of the hollow and stretched


, ,

o u t his left arm dreadfu l as the body of an o ld black


,

snake with its hand redolent of the raw fat of many boars
, ,

and its forearm marked with wea l s from ceaseless drawing


of the bowstrings like the wan d of death ; and though my
,

father gave many a b l ow with his beak and moa n ed ,

piteously that murderous wretch dragged him down and


,

s l ew him ( 70 ) Me however he somehow did n o t notice


.
, , ,

though I wa s within the win gs from my being smal l and ,

cur l ed into a ba ll from fear and from my not having ,

lived my fated life but he wrung my father s neck and ,


threw him dead u pon the ground Meanwhi l e I with my .


,

neck between my father s feet clin ging quietly to his ’

breast fel l with him and from my having some fated life
, , ,

yet to live I found that I had fallen o n a large mass o f dry


,

leaves heaped together by the wind so that my l imbs were


, ,

n o t broken While the Qab ara was getting down fro m the
.

tr e e t o p I left my father like a heart l ess wretch though I


-
, , ,

should have died with him ; but from m y extreme youth , ,

I knew no t the l ove that belongs to a later age and w as ,

wholly s wayed by the fear that dwells in u s from birth ; I


could hardly be seen from the likeness o f my colour to the
fallen leaves I tottered along with the help o f my win gs ,

which were j ust beginning to grow thinking that I had ,

escaped from the j aws of death and came to the foot of a ,

very l arge tam ala tree close b y Its shoots were fi t t e d to .

be the earrings o f Qab ara women a s if it mocked the beauty ,



of V ishnu s body by the c olour o f Ba l ar a ma s dark blue

-

robe ( 7 1 ) or as if it were clad in pure strips o f the water


,

o f Yamun a ; its twigs were watered by the ichor o f wild .

e lephants it bore the beauty of the tresses o f the V indhya


Forest ; the space between its boughs wa s dark even by
1
day ; the ground round its root wa s hollow and unpierced ,

by the sun s rays ; and I entered it as if it w e re the bosom


of my noble father Then the Cabara came down and .

1
Cf . E m e r son s E ss ay’
on E xp e r i e n c e : S l e e l in p g s ll o l i f e
er a ur

t i m abo t
e u ou r e y s e , as n i ght hov s er all d ay i n t h e bo ghs of t h fi
u e r

t e]
re
4

gathered up the tiny parrots scattered o n the ground he


bound them hastily i n a bask e t o f leaves with a coi l o f
creeper s and going o ff with hasty ste ps b y t h e path
, ‘

trodden by his l e ader he made for that region I mean ,


.

whi l e had b e gun to hope for life but my heart was dried ,

up with grief for my father s recent death ; my body was in ’

pain from my long fall and I wa s possessed by a Violent ,

t hirst caused by fright which tortured a l l my l imbs


, ,
Then .

I thought The Villain has now gone some way


,
so I ,

lifted my head a little and ga zed aroun d with eyes trem a


lous with fear thinking even when a blade o f gra ss mov e d
,

t hat the wretch was co m ing back I watched him go step .

by step and then leaving the root of the tam ala tr e e I


, , ,

m ade a gr e at e ff ort to creep n e ar the water ( ) My steps


7 2 .

were feeble because my wings were n o t yet grown and


, ,

again and again I fell o n my face ; I supported myself on


1
o n e wing ; I wa s weak with the weariness of creeping along

the ground and from my want of practice after each step


,

I always lifted my head an d panted hard and as I crept ,

along I becam e gray with dust Truly even in the .


hardest trials I re fl e c t e d l iving creature s never become
, ,

c areless o f life Nothing in this worl d is dearer to a l l


.

c reated bei n gs than life seeing that when my honoured ,

father of well chosen name is dead I still live with senses


,
-
, ,

u nimpaired ! Shame o n me that I should be so pitiless ,

c ru e l and ungrateful
,
F or my life goes o n shamefully in
that the gri e f o f my father s death is so easi ly borne I ’
.

regard no kindnes s truly my heart is vile ! I have even


forgotten h o w when my moth er died my father restrained
, ,

his bitter gri e f and from the day o f my birth o ld as he


, ,

w as reckoned lightly in his deep love the great t oil o f


,

bringing me up with every car e And yet in a moment I .

h ave forgotten how I wa s watched over by him ( )


7 3 Most
v ile is this breath o f min e which goes not straightway forth

to fol l ow my father o n his path my father that was s o , ,

good to me ! Surely th ere i s no n e that thirst o f life does


n o t harden if the longing for water can make me take
,

1
R ad Q e , r am d .
36

with a t rip u n d raka mark in ashes a s if with threefo l d 1


,

2
truth ; he laid his left hand o n a crysta l pitcher with its
neck held ever upwards as if to look at the path t o heaven ,

like a crane gazing upwards to the sky ; he wa s covered by


a black ante l ope skin hanging from his shoulders like t hic k ,

3
smoke that wa s coming o u t again after being swallowed in
thirst f o r penance with pale blue l ustre ; he wore o n his

,
-

left shoulder a sac ri fi c i al thread which seemed from it s ,

lightness to be fashioned from very young lotus fi b re s and -


,

wav e red in the wind a s if counting the framework o f his fl e sh


less ribs ; he held in his right hand an ash adh a staff h aving
5
,

o n its t 0 p a l eafy basket full o f creeper b l ossoms gathered -

for the worship o f i a ; he wa s fo ll owed by a deer from


the hermitage still bearin g the c l ay of the bathing place
,
-

dug up by its horn s quite at home with the hermi t s fed o n , ,

mouthfuls of rice and l etting its eyes wander on all sides ,

to the ku c a gra ss fl o we rs and creepers Like a tree he wa s .


,

covered with soft bark ; l ike a mountain h e was surrounded


3
,

7 3
by a gird l e ; l ike R a hu he had often ta sted Soma ; like a ,

day lotus bed he drank the sun s rays ; ( 7 6 ) like a tree by


-
,

the river s side his tangled locks w e re pure with ceaseless


wa shing ; l ike a young e lephant his teeth were white a s 3


,

pieces of moon l otus petals ; l ike B rauni he had Kripa


-
10
,

ever with h i m ; l ike the z odiac he wa s adorned by having ,

11
the hide o f the dappled deer ; like a summer day he wa s ,

free from darkness ; like t h e rainy season h e h ad allayed


12
,

13
the blinding dust o f pa ssion ; like V aruna he dwelt on the ,

Th e ho i z on t l li n s
1
re r a e .

T th i n tho ght wo d
2
ru u , r , an d d d ee .
3
R ad
N i shp a t a t a
e , .

4
N i l p an d mott l d b l
a

i l, e ue an d wh t i e Th e Hin u
. e n an d p c e is
to b b e tw n fi fi
e fo
ee ve re s u r o n e ar th an d t h e su n a e V bov . . M an u ,

vi . 23 .

5
The s i gn of o w a v .

3
( )
a B k g
ar m n t ; ( ) b k of t
b ar e s ar re e .

7
(a) G i dlre V M n . i i 4 2 ( b )
. mo un t i n
a s l op u, . a e .

3
O t h e moo n
r, O wi th
.
3
r, .

13
( )
a K m p a —comp'

s s iro n ( ) K i p w t h e t e ach of A cv at t h fim
b a r a as er a,

or D r au n i .

11
O r , V ir go C v s t h Pl i ds
, er u , e e a an d D co ra .

12
( ) H avi n g twil i ght d n k p
a ru u ( 6) h v i n g m n y f u l ts
a a a e r adi c ted a .

13
R j =
a as
( ) d st ; ( )
ba p ss i o n u a .
37

1
w aters ; like Krishna he had banished the fear o f hell ; ,
2

l ike the begin nin g o f twilight he had eyes tawny as the ,

3
glow o f dawn ; like early morn he wa s gilded with fresh ,

sunlight l ike the chariot of the sun he was controlled in ,

his course ; like a good king he brought to nought the


4
,

secret guiles o f the foe ; ( 7 7 ) like the ocean his temples were
5
,

cavernous with meditation ; like B h agi rat h a he had often


3
,

7
beheld the descent o f Ganges ; l ike a bee he had often ,

ta sted life in a water engirt wood ; though a woodsman


3

-
,

9
he yet entered a great home ; though unrestrained he ,

10
longed for release ; though intent on works of peace he ,

11 12
bore the ro d ; though asleep he was yet awake ; though ,

13
with two w e ll placed eyes he had his sinister eye abo l ished
-
,
.

Such was he who approached the lotus l ake to bathe -


.

Now the mind of the good is ever wont to be com


passionate and kind instinctively Wherefore h e seeing .


,

my plight wa s fi lle d with pity and said to another young


, ,

ascetic standin g near : ( 7 8 ) This little half fl e dge d parrot -

ha s somehow fallen from the top o f that tree o r perhap s ,

from a hawk s mouth F o r owing to his long fal l he has



.
, ,

hardly any life left ; his eyes are clo sed and he ever falls ,

o n his face and pants violently and open s his beak nor , ,

can he hold up his neck Come then take him before hi s .


, ,

breath deserts him Carry him to the water ” So saying . .


,

1
o m c o vow
I n p e r f r an e f a V M an u , v i 2 3 . . . .

2
Or, of d mo
t he e k s
n N ar a a , l ai n by K shri na H ariv am ca, 1 2 2

. .

3
O r , h ad st s t w y
ar a n j ct o of ght
at t h e u n i n ni an d d ay .

4
o g p ss o s st t
L i t , ( a ) H l din all h i s a i n i n fi r m r e r ai n ; ( 6) a in
. h v g the
x o
a le wh s
f i t s e e l fi rm .

5
Li t , ( a ) H e h ad a
. body w st d by s c t p o m c of p
a e e re erf r an e c
e n an e
b o ght to o ght
( 6) h e r u n u t h e ene ie m s p ’
l an sof b tt by s c t co s
a le e re un e l
an dby h i s army .

3
h v g c v s w th h poo
O r, a i n a e i W i rl c c s o sh s ob q
l s an d t h e ir l e f e ll li u e .

7
q ys
O r, ua .

3
P h ps p c o g m g
( a ) e r a P u shkara , t h e l a e f p i l ri a e i n A j m e re ( b ) l u s ot
g ov e
r .

9
( ) H av i n g e nat n c i n to g t h ll
ras ( )
6 b e i n g bso b d
e n B ahm re a a a r e i r a .

13
O s lv ti on
r, a a .

11
O i n fl i c t d p n i shm n t ; o
r, e tho gh i nt n t n t h e sam a v e d h
u e r, u e o a, e

w as y t d ndi ; i
e a a n sc t i c who d spi s s i t l
. c .
, a a e e e r ua .

12
H vi n g b a t i f l m tt d l ocks
a e u u a e .

( ) H v i n g n o l ft y e ; ( 6) h vin g n o c ook d gl n c s
13
a a e e a r e a e .
38

he had me taken to the edge o f the lake ; and coming ,

there he laid down his sta ff and pitcher near the water
, ,

and taking me himself j ust when I had given u p al l e ff ort


, , ,

he lifted up my h e ad and with his fi n ge r made m e drink a


,

few drops o f water ; and when I had been sprinkled with


water and had gained fresh breath h e placed me in the ,

coo l wet s h ade of a fresh l otus le ai growing on the bank -


,

and went through the wonted rites of bathing After that .


,

he p uri fi e d himself by often holding his breath and ,

murmuring the cleansing agh am ar sh an a and then h e


1
,

arose and with upraised face made an o ff ering to the sun


, ,

with freshly pluck e d red l otuses in a cup o f lotus leaves


- -
.

Having taken a pure whit e robe so that he was like the ,



glow of evening sunlight accompanied by the moon s
radiance he rubbed his hair with his hands t i ll it shone
, ,

and ( 7 9 ) followed by the band o f a scetic youths with their


, ,

hair yet wet from recent bathing h e took me and went ,

slowly towards the penance grove .

And after going but a short way I beheld the penance ,

grove hidden in thick woods rich in fl o we r s and fruit


, .

( )
8 0 Its precincts were fi lle d by munis entering o n all
sides followed by pupils m urmurin g the V edas and bearing
, ,

fuel ku c a gra ss fl o we r s and earth There the sound of


, , , .

the fi llin g of the pitchers was eager l y heard by the pea


cocks ; there app e ared a s it were a bridge to heaven und e r
, ,

the guise o f smoke waving to exalt to the gods the muni


rac e w h ile yet in the body by fi re s sat i sfi e d with t h e cease
less off ering o f ghee ; all round were tanks with their wave s
traversed by lines o f sun beams stainless as though from
contact with the hermits they rested upo n plunged into ,

by the circle of the Seven Rishis who had come t o see


their penance and lifting by night an open moon l otus bed
,
- -
,

l ike a cluster o f constellations descending to honour the


rishis ; the her m itage received homage from woodland
creeper s with their tops bent by the wind and from trees ,

with their ever falling blossoms and wa s worshipped by


-
,

trees with the afi j ali of interlaced bough s ; parched grain


1
R V . .
, X . 19 0 .
39

wa s scattered in the yards round the huts and the frui t o f ,

the myrobalan l aval i j uj ube banana bread tree mango


, , , ,
-
, ,

1
panasa and palm press e d o n each other ; ( 8 1 ) the youn g
,

Brahmans were eloquent in recitin g the V edas ; the parrot


race wa s garru l ous with the prayer o f oblation tha t they
learnt by hearing it incessantly ; the subrahmany a was 2

recited by many a maina ; the bal l s of rice o ff ered to t h e


deiti e s were devoured by t h e co oks o f the forest and t h e ,

off ering o f wild rice was eaten by the young kalah am sas o f
the tanks close b y The eating places o f the sages wer e
.
-

protected from pollution by a shes cast round them ( 8 2 ) Th e .

fi r e for the munis homa sac ri fi c e was fanned by the tai l s o f


their friends the peacocks ; the sweet scent of the oblatio n


prepared with nectar the fragrance of t h e half cooked
,
-

sac r i fi c i al cake wa s spread around the crackling o f fl am e s


in the off ering of a stream o f unbrok e n libations m ade
the place resonant ; a host o f guests was waited upon ; t h e
Pitris were honoured ; V ishnu i a and Brahm a were , ,

worshipped The performance of cr ad d h a rites wa s taught ;


.

the science of sac ri fi c e explained ; t h e c a stra s of right


conduct examined ; good books o f every kind recited ; and
the meaning of the c a stra s pondered Leafy huts were .

being begun ; courts smeared with paste and the inside o f ,

the huts scrubbed Meditation was being fi r m ly grasped


.
,

mantra s duly carried out yoga practised and o fi e ri n gs made


, ,

to woodland deities Brahmanica l girdles o f m u fi j a grass


.

were being made bark garments wa shed fuel brought deer


, , ,

skins decked gra ss gath e red lotus seed dried rosaries strung
, ,
-
, ,

3
and bamboos laid in order f o r future need Wandering .

ascetics receiv e d hospitality and pitchers were fi lle d ,


.

( )
8 4 T h e re d e fi le m e n t is found in the smoke o f the ob l a
tions n o t in evil conduct ; redness o f face in parrots not
, ,

i n angry men sharpness in blades o f grass not in disposi ,

4
tions ; w avering in plantain l eaves not in minds red ey e s -
,

i n cuckoos alone ; clasping of necks with pitchers only ;


1
An oth e r k i n d of b r e ad t r e e -
.

Th e Co m m e n t ar y e xp l ai n s i t d ’
2
as

Ve a .

3
T h e t r i d an d ak a o r th ree st v s of
a e t h e m en i d c t B hm n whoan ra a

h as sg d
re i n e t h e W rl o d .
4
O r, i mp ss i o n d gl n c s
a e a e .
40

1
binding of g i rd l es in vows not i n quarrels ; p a kshap at a in ,

cocks n o t in sc ie n t ifi c discus sion s ; wandering in making


,

the s unwise turn round the soma fi re but not error in the ,

c a stra s ; mention o f the V as a s in legends but n o t lo n gin g


'

for wealth ; counting o f beads for Rudra but no account made ,

o f the body ; l oss o f locks by the saints in the practice o f

sac rifi c e but n o t loss of their chi l dren by death ; p r o p i t i a


2
,

3
tion of R a ma by reciting the R a m ayana n o t of women by ,

youth ; wrinkles brought o n by old age n o t by pride of ,

riches the death of a Qaku n i in the Mah a bh a rata on l y


4

5
only in the Pur a na windy talk ; in old age only loss o f
7
teeth ; coldness only in the park sandal trees ; ( 8 5 ) i n
3 -
.

fi re s only turning to ashes ; only deer love to hear song


3 °

only peacocks care for dancing only snakes wear hoods


1o
only monkeys desire fruit ; only roots have a downward
tenden cy .

( 8 5 -
8 9 condensed
, ) There beneath the shade
, o f a red
aco ka tree beauteous with new oblations o f fl o we r s p u r ifi e d
-
, ,

with ointmen t of fresh go m aya garlanded with ku c a gra ss ,

and strips o f bark tied o n by the hermitage maiden s I saw ,

the holy J ab a li surrounded by most ascetic sages l ike time ,

by ae on s the la st day by suns the sac rifi c e by bearers o f


, ,

the three fi re s the golden mountain by the noble hi l ls o r


11
, ,

the earth by the ocean s .

( 8 9 ) An d a s I looked o n him I thought :



Ah ! how “

great is the power o f penance His form calm a s it is y et , ,

pure a s molt e n gold overpowers like lightning t h e bright


, , ,

ness of the eye with its brilliance Though ever tranquil .


,

it inspires fear at fi r st approach by its i nh e rent maj e sty .

The splendour o f even those ascetics wh o have practised


but littl e a sceticism is wont to be ea sily provoked like fi r e ,

swiftly falling on dry reeds k a c a grass o r fl o we r s ( 9 0 ) How , ,


.

much more then that o f holy men like these whose feet
, , ,

1
( a ) Mo u l t in g ; ( b) p ar t i s an sh i p .

2 B
ala = ( a ) h ai r ; ( 6 ) ch i l d e n 3
r R am a wom an
.
, .

a kwn i = ( a ) a b i r d ; D yod s c l
Q
4
( 6 ) h

u r an a u n e .

5
V ayw z ( a ) i n ; ( b) r e a w d b
3
( a ) th
e e .
; T th ( b) B hm n s
ra a .

7
O r, u ldn ss
e .
3 O r , e e in r e ri s k g p osp ty .

2
s k j oym t
O r, e e e n en
10
. Or r un e good fo t .

11
T h e G zi rh ap at y a , D ak sh i n a , an d A h av an i y a fi r e s .
41

ar e honoured by the whole wor l d whose stains are worn ,

away by penance wh o l ook with divine insight on the ,

whole earth as if it were a m yro b alan in the h and and


l
,

who purge away al l sin F or even t h e mention o f a great .

sage has its reward much more then the sigh t o f him ! , ,

Happy is the hermitage where dwells this king o f Brahman s !


Nay rather happy is the whol e world in bei ng trodden by
, ,

him who is the very Brahm a of earth ! Tru ly these sages


e nj oy the reward o f their good deeds in that they attend

him day and night with no other duty hearing holy stories ,

an d ever fi xi n g o n him their steady gaze a s if he were ,

another Brahm a Happy is Sarasvat i who encircled by


.
, ,

hi s shining t e eth and ever enj oying the nearness o f his


,

lotus mouth dwells in his ser e ne m ind with its unfathom


-
, ,

a b l e depths an d its full stream o f tenderness lik e a hamsa ,

o n the M a nasa lake The four V e da s that have long d w e lt


.
,

in the fo ur lotus mouths of Brahm a fi n d here th e ir best


-
,

an d most fi t t i n g home ( 9 1 ) All the sciences which he .


,

came turbid in the rainy season o f the Iron Age becom e ,

pur e when they reach him a s rivers coming to autumn ,


.

O i a sur e ty holy Dharma having taken up his abode


, ,

here aft e r quelling the riot of the Iron Age no longer car e s ,

to recall the Golden Age Heaven seeing earth trodd e n .


,

by him no longer tak e s pride in being dwelt in by the


,

Seven Rishis How bo l d is o l d age which fears not to


.
,

fal l on his thick matted locks moonbeam pale a s they ,


-

a r e and hard to gaz e o n a s the rays of the sun of doom


2
.
,

For it falls on him a s Ganges white with flecks o f foam , ,


l
on
i a or a s an
, o ff ering o f milk o n Agni E ven the su n s .

rays keep far from the pen ance grove as if t e rri fi e d by -


,

the greatness o f the saint whose hermitage is darkened by


the thick smoke o f many an oblation These fi re s too .
, ,

for love of h i m receive oblations p ur ifi e d by hymns for


, ,

their fl am e s are pressed together by the wind like hands ,

reverently raised ( 9 2 ) The wind itself approaches him


.

1
P ov b i l ph s f c l n e ss
r er a ra e or e ar .

2
V i sh P an i h 3 T h s v
nu ur a, V .
, c .
, e e en so l ar r a ys dil t to s e v a e en

su n s nd t t h th wo l ds n fi ’
, a se e re e r o re .
42

timidly j ust stirring the l inen an d bark dresses fragrant


, ,

with the sweet creep er blossoms o f the hermitage an d ,

gentle ln motion Yet the glorious might o f the elements


.

is wont to be beyond o u r resistance B ut this man towers


1
above the mightiest ! The earth shines a s if with two
suns being trodden by this noble man In his support
,
.

the world stands fi rm H e is the stream of sympathy the


.
,

bridg e over the ocean o f tran sient e xistenc e and the h ome ,

o f t h e waters of patience ; t h e axe for the glades of the

creepers o f desire the ocean o f the nectar o f content t h e


, ,

guide in the path of perfection the mountain behind which ,

2
s e ts the planet o f ill the root of the tree o f endurance the
, ,

nave of the whee l of wisdom the staff o f the banner o f ,

righteousness the holy place for the descent of all know


,

le dge the submarine fi re of the ocean of craving the touch


, ,

ston e o f t h e j ewels of the c a stras the consuming fl am e o f ,

the buds of passion the charm against the snake of wrath


, ,

the sun to dispel the darkness of delusion the binder of ,



the bolts of hell s gates th e native home of noble deeds , ,

the temple o f propitious rites the forbidden ground for the ,

degradation o f passion the sign post to the path s of good ,


-
,

the birthplace of holiness the f e lly o f the wheel of e ff ort , ,

the abode of strength the foe of the Iron Age the treasury
, ,

o f penance the friend of truth the n ative soil of sincerity


, , ,

the source o f the heaping up o f merit the closed gate for ,

envy the foe of calamity ( 9 3 ) Truly he is one in whom


, .

disrespect can fi n d no place ; f o r he is averse from pride ,

unclaimed by meanness unen slaved by wrath and u n , ,

attracted by plea sure P urely by the grace o f this holy.

man the hermitage is free from envy and ca l m from


enmity Great is the power of a noble soul Here c e asi n g
. .
,
r
,

their con stant feud the v e ry animals are quiet and l e arn
, ,

the j oy of a hermitage life F or here a snake w e aried by .


,

the sun fearlessly enters as if into fresh gra ss into the


, , ,

peacock s tail like an interwove n grove of open lotuses


, ,

with its hundred beauteous eyes changing in hue a s the ,

eyes of a deer Here a young ant e lope leaving his mother


.
, ,

1
L it i s l e ad e r o i 2
O r c ap r i c e

. .
, .
,
44

he gazed long upon me and then lookin g again and , ,

again a s if he were beginning t o recognise me said : H e ,



is reaping the fruit o f his own ill conduct For by the - .

potency of penance t h e saint with div1n e i ns i ght beholds


the past presen t and future and sees the whole world a s
, , ,

tho u gh placed o n the palm o f his hand H e knows past .

births H e t e lls things yet to come H e d eclares the


. .

length o f days o f beings within his sight .

A t th e se words the whole a ssemb l age of hermits aware ,

o f his pow e r b e came curious to know what wa s my crime


, ,

and why committ e d and where and who I was in a former


, ,

birth ; and implored the saint sayin g : ( 9 6) V ouchsafe ,



,

sir to tell a s of what kind o f misconduct h e is reaping the


,

fruits Who was he in a former birth and how was he born


.
,

in the form o f a bird 2 H o w is he named ? Do thou satisfy


o u r curiosity for thou art the fountain head o f al l marve l s


,
-
.

Thus urged by the a ssemblage the great saint replied ,

The story of this wonder is very long the day is almost ,

spent our bathing time is near while the hour for wo r


,
-
,

shipping the god s is passing Arise therefore ; let each


.
,

perform his duties a s i s meet In the afternoon after your .


,

mea l of roots and fruits when yo u are resting quietly I , ,

wi l l tell you the whole story from beginning to end who —


he is what he did in another birth and how he wa s born
, ,

in this world Meanwhile let h im be refreshed with food


.
,
.

H e will certainly recall a s it were the vision o f a dream


, ,

when I tell the whole story of his former birth S o saying .


,

he arose and wi t h the hermits bathed and performed their


,

other daily duties .

( 9 ) The day wa s now drawing to a close When the



7 .

hermits rose from their bathing and were o ff ering a ,

sac r i fi c e the sun in the sky seemed to bear upwards b e fore


,

o u r eyes the o ff ering cast o n the ground with its unguent ,

o f red sandal wood Then his glow faded and vanished ;


-
.

1
the e fii u e n c e of his g l ory was drunk by the U sh m ap as
with faces raised and eyes fi xe d o n his o rb a s if they were ,

a scetics ; and he glided from the sky pin k a s a dove s foot ,

1
Vi sh nu P ur an a , i .
,
12 3 .
5

drawing i n hi s rays a s though to avoid touching the Seven


B i sh i s a s they rose His o rb with its network o f crimson
.
,

rays re fl e c t e d o n the Western Ocean was like the lotus of ,

V ishn u o n his couch o f waters pouring forth nectar ; his


beams forsaking th e sky and deserting the lotus groves
,
-
,

l ingered at eve like birds on the crest o f hill and tree the
splashes of crimson light seemed for a moment to deck the
trees with the red bark garments hung up by the ascetics .

And when the thousand rayed sun had gone to rest twi -
,

light sprang up like rosy coral from the Western Ocean .

( 9 8 ) Then the hermitage became the hom e of quiet thought ,

as the pleasant sound o f milking the sacred cows arose in


one quarter and the fresh ku c a grass was scatt e red o n the
,

a l tar o f Agni and the rice and oblations to the goddesses


,

o f space were tossed hither and thither by the hermitage

maidens And red starred e ve seemed to the hermits a s


.
-

the red eyed cow o f the hermitage roam ing about tawny
-
,

in the fa ll o f day And when the sun had vanished the


.
,

lotus bed in the grief o f bereavement seemed to perform a


-
, ,

vow in the hopes of rej oining the l ord of day for she l ifted ,

the goblets o f her buds and wore the fi n e white vesture o f


,

her h am sas and wa s girt with the sac ri fi c i al thread o f white


,

fi lam e n t s and bore a circ l e of bees a s her rosary


, And the .

starry host l eapt up and fi lle d the sky like a splash of spray ,

when the sun f e ll into the Western Ocean ; and for a brief
space the star bespangled sky shone a s though inlaid with
-

fl o we r s o ffered by the daughters of the Siddhas in honour 1

of twilight ; but in a mom e nt the whole glory of the gloam


ing vanished a s though wa shed away by the l ibations which
the hermits with faces upraised cast to w ards the sky ;
, ,

( )
9 9 and at its departure night a s sorrowing
, ,
f o r its loss ,

wor e a deeper darkness l ike a black antelope s skin a ,


— ’

blackness which darkened all save the hearts o f the


h e rmits .

L earning that the sun had gone to rest t h e lord of rays ,

ambrosial in pure severity of light array e d in the white


, ,

ness o f clear gossamer dwelling in t h e palac e of his wives


,

1
S e m i di v in e b e i n gs d w e llin g b e tw e e n t h e e arth an d t h e su n
- .
46

1
with T a r a mounted the sky which in that it was outlined
, ,

with the darkn e ss o f tam al a trees presided over by the -


,

circle o f Seven Rishis p urifi e d by the wanderings of Arun ,

dhat i surrounded by Ash adh a showing its M h la w it h its


2 3 4

, ,

5
soft e yed white deer was a very hermitage of heaven
-
, .

White a s a hamsa moonlight fell o n the earth fi llin g the , ,

sea s ; falling a s Ganges from the hea d of i a from the


, ,

sky which wa s decked with the moon and inlaid with the ,

shattered potsherds o f the stars ( 1 00 ) And in the m oon .

lake white a s an opening lotus was seen t h e motionless


, ,

deer which went down in eagerness to drink the water


,

o f t h e moonbeams and was caught a s it were in the mud , , ,

o f ambrosia The lak e s o f the night lotus w e r e fond l y


.
-

visited by the moonbeam s like h am sas falling o n the , ,

ocean white a s si n d u vara fl o we r s in their fresh purity after


the rains A t that moment the globe of the moon lost all
.

t h e glow o f its rising lik e the frontal bone of the e lephant ,

A i r avat a when its red lead is washed away by p l unging


into the heav e nly stream ; and his highness the cold
shedder had gradually risen h igh in t h e sky and by his ,

light had whitened th e earth a s with lime dust ; the breezes -

o f early night were blowing slackened in their course by ,

the cold d e w aromatic with the scent o f opening moon


,

lotuses ( 1 0 1 ) and gladly welcomed by the deer who with


, , ,

eyes weighed down by the approach o f sleep and eyelashes ,

clinging together were beginning to ruminate and rest in ,

quiet .

Only half a watch o f the night wa s spent when H ari t a ,

took me after my meal and w e nt w ith the other holy hermits


t o his father who in a moonlit spot of the hermitage wa s
, , ,

sitting o n a bamboo stool g e ntly fanned by a pupil nam e d ,

J alap ad a who held a fan of antelop e skin white a s dharba


,

grass and he spake saying


,
F ather the whole a ssemblage , ,

1
T ar a= ( ) a st s ;
ar ( )
1
9 wi f of B i h sp t i c
e r a a ,
arr i e d w y by a a the
moo n .

2
( )
a Wi f of t h s g e V ci h t h
e e a a s a ( ) e
;b t h mo rn i n g st ar .
3
( )
a Co n st ll t i on ;
e st ff bo
a a rn e d
u ri n a g w vo .

4
(a) Con st ll t i on ; ( b ) oots f
e a r or t h e er i h m ts food ’
.

5
O r, co st ll t i on
n e a .
47

of hermits is in a circ l e round thee with hearts eager to ,

hear this wonder ; the little bird too has rest e d T e ll u s , , .


,

therefore what he has done wh o was h e and who will he


, , ,

be in another birth ? Th us addressed the great saint , ,

l ooking at me and seeing the hermits before him intently


,

listening slowly spake : L et the ta l e be to l d if ye care to


, ,

hear i t .

( 1 0 2 ) There is a city named U J J ayi ni the proud e st ,

g e m o f earth the very home


,
of the golden age created by ,

M ah akala creator preserver and d e stroyer of the thre e


1
, , ,

worlds and lord of P r am at h as a s a habitation meet for


, ,

himself a s it were a second earth There the sun is dai l y


, .

seen paying homage to M ah akala for his steeds vail their ,

h e ads at the charm of the s w eet chant o f the women


singing in concert in the l ofty white palace and his pennon ,

droops before him .

( 1 0 ) There darkness never falls and the nights



9

,

bring no separation to the pairs o f c akravakas nor need


they any lamps for they pass golden as with mornin g
,

sunshine from t h e bright j e wels of women a s though the


, ,

world were o n fi r e with the fl am e o f love ( 1 1 0) There th e .

only unending life is in j e w e l led lamps t h e only wavering in ,

pear l necklaces the only variations in the sound of drum


,

and song the only disunion o f pairs in c akrav akas the


, ,

2
on l y testing of colour in gold pieces the only unsteadines s ,

3
in banners the only hatred of the sun in night lotuses the
,
-

only concealment o f metal in the sheathing o f the sword .

( 1 1 1 ) Why should I say more ? For he whose bright feet


are kiss e d by the rays of the j ewelled crests o f gods and
demons who hath the river o f heaven wandering lost in his
,

locks tawny with a wr eath of fl am e for the burning o f the


wor l d ; he the foe of A n d h aka he the holy one ; he who
hath given up his love for his home on Kail a sa ; ev e n
he whos e name is M ah akala hath there made a habitation
for himself And in this city was a king named T a r a
.

pi da H e wa s like unto the great kings Nala N ah u sh a


.
, ,

Yay at i D u n dh u m ar a Bharata B h agi r at h a and D acar at h a


, , , ,

1
i a .
2
C st
a e .
3 F ri e n ds .
by the might o f h i s arm he conquered the whol e wor l d ; he
reaped the fruits o f the three powers ; wise and resolute1
,

with an intellect unwearied in political sci e nce and a deep ,

study of the law books he made in light and glory a third


,

with the sun and moon ( 1 1 2 ) His form wa s p u rifi e d by


.

many a sac rifi c e by h i m th e ca l amities o f the whole world


were set at r e st ; to him L akshm i openly clung deserti n g ,

her l otus woods and d espisin g the happiness of h e r home in


-

the breast o f N a r ayana she the lotus hande d wh o ever j oys


,
-
,

in the contest of heroes H e wa s th e source o f truth ever


.
,

h o noured by the race of saints as the foot of V ishn u wa s o f ,

the stream o f the heavenly Ganges .

From him arose glory a s from the ocean of the moon , ,

for his brightness free from heat con sumed his foes
, ,

constant ever roamed ; stain l ess d arkened the brightne ss


, ,

of the lotus faced widows of his foe s whit e made all things
-
,

gay ( 1 1 3 ) He was the incarnation o f j ustice the very


.
,

representative o f V ishnu and the destroyer of al l the


sorrows o f his people .

( 1 1 5) When he approached the throne that blossomed


with the ray s o f many gems and wa s hung with clusters o f
pear l s like the e l ephant o f space approaching the tree of
,

desire a ll the wide quarters o f space like creepers w e ighed


, ,

down by bees bo w ed do wn before his m aj esty ; and o f him


, ,

I think even Indra wa s envious F rom him t o o pro


,
.
, ,

c e e d e d a host o f virtues like a fl o c k o f h am sa s from Mount


,

K r au fi c a brightening the earth s surface an d gladdening
, ,

t h e hearts of al l mankind His fame wa n dered so that the


.
,

world echoed with it throughout the ten regions making ,

fair t h e world o f gods and demons like a streak of foam o f ,

the stream o f milk tossed by Mandara ambrosia l sweet , .

His royal glory never for a moment l aid a side the shade o f
her umbrella a s though scorched by the heat o f a splen dour
,

hard to bear ( 1 1 6 ) His achievements were heard by the


.

peop l e like news of good for t une were received like the ,

teaching of a guru were valued like a good omen were


, ,

murmured l ike a hym n and were remembered lik e a sacred


,

1
I e k i n g m i n i st e r an d e n e r gy
. .
, , ,
.
49

text And while he was king though the fl igh t of the


.
,

mountains was stayed the fl i gh t of thought wa s free ; ,

su ffi xe s a l one were dependent and the people f e ared no ,

foe ; nought dared to face him but his mirror ; the pressure
o f D urg a was given to
1 ’

i a s image alone ; the bow was


only borne by the clouds ; there was no uprising save of
banners no bending save o i bows no shaft sped home save
, ,

the bee s o n the bamboo no enforced wandering save of the ,

images of gods in a procession no imprisonment save of ,

fl o we r s in their calyx no restraint save o f the senses ; ,

wild elephants entered t h e pale but none paled b e fore the ,

water ord e al ; t h e only sharpness was in the edge of the


-

sword the on l y endurance of the fl am e w as by a scetics ; 2

the only passing the Balance wa s by t h e stars ; the only


3

clearing of baneful waters wa s in the rising of Agastya ;


4

the only cutting short wa s o f hair and n ails ; t h e only


stained garb was o f the sky on stormy days ; the only
laying bar e was of gems and not o f s e cret counsels ; the ,

5
only mysteries were those o f religion ( 1 1 7 ) none ceased to
behold the light save slaught e r e d T a raka in the praises o f 6

Kum a ra ; non e dreaded e clipse save the sun non e pass e d


7
over the First born save t h e moon ; none heard of the -

Disobedient save in the Mah a bh arata ; none gra sped the


ro d
3
save in th e decline o f life ; none clung to a sinister
obj ect save t h e sword sheath ; no stream o f lib e rality was -

interrupted save the elephant s ichor ; no squares were ’

des e rted save those o n the dice board - .


That king had a minister by name Q ukan asa a

, ,

Brahman whose intelligence was fi xe d o n all the a ff airs


,

of the kingdom whose mind had plunged deeply into the ,

arts and c a stras and whose strong a ff ection for the king ,

had gro w n up in him from childhood Skill e d in the .


precepts of political scienc e pilot o f the world s govern ,

1 O r m i sfo t u n e
,
2
A n o r d e al
r .
3
A h or d e al . .

4 a ) C l e a i ng of t h e w at e s aft e r t h e r ai n y s e aso n ; ( 5 ) o r d e al of
( r r

poi so n .

5
( ) M a g i c ; ( )
6 p ctai c of Yog ra e a .

3
( )
.
L iat t i n g o t of
. y,
s ( )
b s l
e ar ght of t h
u d mo n Ta k e e au er e e ra a

by Ka tik y r e a .

7 A st i t h S co p i o s t i l
ar n e S i z i n g of t i b t
r n

a .
3
e r u e .
0

ment unshaken in resolve by the greatest diffic u lt i e s he


, ,

was the castl e o f con stancy the station of st e adfastness the , ,

bridge o f bright truth the guide to all goodness th e con , ,

ductor i n conduct the ordainer of all ordered life Lik e the


,
.

serpent Qe sha enduring the weight o f the world ; like t h e


,

1
ocean full of lif e ; like J ar asan dh a shaping war an d p e ace ;
, ,

( 1 1 8 ) like C i v a at home with D arg a 2


like
,
Y u ddh i sh t h i r a ,

a dayspring o f Dharma he knew all the V eda s and ,

V e d angas and wa s the ess e nce o f t h e kingdom s prosperity


,

.

H e was lik e Briha spati to S u n asi ra ; lik e Q u kr a to V r i sh a


3

parvan ; like Vaci sh t h a to D acarat h a lik e V i cv am i t ra to


R ama ; like D h au m ya to A j at acat ru ; like D am an aka to
Nala . H e by the force of his knowl e dge thought that
, ,

L akshmi was not hard to win resting though sh e w e re on ,

the breast of Narayana terribl e with the scars of the ,

weapon s of the demons of hell and a strong shoulder ,

hardened by the pitil e ss pressure of Mount Mandara a s it


m oved to and fro N ear him knowledge spr e ad w ide thick
.
,

with many a tendril and showed t h e fruits gain e d from ,

conqu e red realms like a creeper n e ar a tre e ( 1 1 9 ) To him .

throughout the earth s surface mea sured by the circum ’

f e rence of t h e fo ur ocean s and fi lle d with the goings to and ,

fro of many thousands o f spies every w hisp e r o f the kings ,

wa s kn own a s tho u gh ut t e red in his o wn palace .

Now T ar api d a while ye t a child had conquered the


,

whole earth ringed by the seven D vi p as by t h e might o f his


'

arm thick a s t h e tr u nk of Indra s el e phant an d he devolved


,

the w e ight o f the empire o n that councillor named Q uka


n a sa and having made his subj ects perf e ctly cont e nt e d he
, ,

s e arch e d for anything e ls e that r e main e d to b e done .


And as h e ha d crushed his en e mies and had lost all
caus e for f e ar and a s the strain o f t h e world s a ffairs had
,

become a littl e relax e d for t h e most part h e b e gan to ,

pursu e the ordinary pleasures o f youth .

( 1 24) And some tim e pass e d while the king pursued


“ ‘

1
h vi n g h i body n i t d V Dowso C l ss i c l D i ct i o
O r, a s u e . . n,

a a n ar y .

2
H v i g fo t ss s s bd d
a n r re e u ue .

Th s t ch s of t h gods n d h o s
e e ar e ea er e a er e .
52

lashes of
thine are stringing a s it were a network o f pearl s , ,

o f d r o p p i n g tears Why slender one art thou unadorned


'

.
, ,

and why ha s not the stream o f lac fallen on thy feet like
early sunlight o n rosy lotus buds ? And why are thy -

j ewelled anklets with their murmur like tea l s on the lake


,

o f love n o t graced with the touch of thy lotus feet ?


, And -

why is this waist o f thine bereft o f the music o f th e girdle


thou hast laid aside And why is there no device painted
on thy breast like the deer on the moon an d why is that
slender neck o f thine fair limbed queen not adorned with ,
-
,

a rope o f pearls a s the crescent o n i a s brow by th e ’

heavenly stream ? and why dost thou erst so gay wear , ,

in vain a face whose adornment is washed away with


fl o wi n g tears ? And why is this hand with its petal like ,
-

cluster o f soft fi n ge r s exalted into an ear j ewe l a s though


,
-
,

it w e re a rosy l otus ? ( 1 2 7 ) And why froward l ady dost , ,

thou raise thy straight brow undecked with the mark of


yellow pigment and surrounded by the mass of thine
,

unbound tr e sses 2 F or th e se fl o win g locks o f thine bereft



,

o f fl o we r s grieve my ey e s
,
like the loss o f the moon in ,

the dark fortnight clouded in masses of thickest gloom


,
.

B e kind and tel l me my queen the cause of thy grief


, , ,
.

For this storm o f sigh s with which the robe on thy breast
is quive ring bows my loving heart like a ruddy tendril .

Has any wrong been done by me or by any in thy service ? ,

Closely a s I examin e myself I can truly see no f ailure of ,

mine towards th e e For my life and my kingdom are


.

wholly thine L et the cau s e o f thy wo e fair queen be


.
, ,

told .

But Vi lasavat i thus addressed made no reply and , , ,

turning to her attendant s h e asked the cause o f her ex ,

c e e di n g grief Then her b e tel nut bearer M akari ka who


.
-
, ,

wa s always near h e r said to t h e king : My lord how could


, ,

any fault however slight be committed by thee ? ( 12 8 ) and


, ,

how in thy presence could any o f thy followers or anyone ,

else o ff end ? The sorrow o f the que e n is that her union


,

w ith the king is fruitless a s though she were seiz ed by ,

Hahn and for a l ong tim e she ha s been su ffering


,
F o r at .

fi r st our lady wa s like o n e in heavy grief wa s only occupied ,


53

with diffi c ult y by the persuasion o f her attendants in the


ordinary duties o f the day however fi t t in g they might b e , ,

such a s sleeping bathing eating putting o n o f ornaments


, , , ,

and the like and l ike a Lakshmi o f the l ower world


, , ,

1
ceaselessly upbraided divine love But in her lon ging to .

take away the grief o f my lord s heart she did not show ’

her sad change N o w however a s it was the fourt e enth


.
, ,

day o f the month she went to worship holy M ah akala and


, ,

heard in a recitation of the Mah a bh a rata No bright ,


ab o des await the chi l d l ess for a son is he who delivers ,

from the sunless shades and when she heard this she ,

returned to her palace an d n o w though reverently , ,

entreated thereto by her attendants she takes no pleasure ,

in food nor does she busy herself in putting o n her j ewels


, ,

n o r does she vouchsafe to an swer u s ( 9 ) she only weeps


1 2 ,

and her face is clouded with a storm of e ver fl owing tears -


.

My lord has heard and m ust j udge S o saying s he



.
, ,

ceased ; and with a l ong and passionate sigh the king ,

spoke thus
My queen what can be done in a matter decreed by
,

fate E nough o f this weeping beyond mea sure F or it is


not o n u s that the gods are wont to bestow their favour s .

In truth o u r heart is n o t destined to hold the bliss o f that


,

ambrosial draught the embrace o f a child of our own In


,
.

a former life no glorious deed was done ; f o r a deed done


in a former life brin gs forth fruit in man s life on earth ; ’

even the wisest man cannot change destiny L et all be .

done that may be done in this mortal life Do more .

honour to the gurus ; redouble thy worship o f t h e gods ;


let thy good works be seen in thy reverence to the rishi s ;
for the rishis are a powerful deity and if we se rve t h e m , ‘

with all o u r might they will give boons that f ulfi l o ur


,

( F

heart s desire hard though it be to gain
,
1 3 0 ) o r .

the tale is an o ld o n e h o w King B r ih adrat h a in M agadh a


wo n by the power o i Can d akau ci ka a son J ar asan dh a victor
-

o f V ishnu peerless in prowess fatal to his foes


,
D acarat h a ,
.
,

too when very old received by t h e favour o f B i sh yacr in ga


, , ,

( a ) T h e gods ; ( b ) l ov e
1
.
54

so n of the great saint Vib h an d aka four sons unconquerabl e , ,

a s the arms of N a r a yana and un shaken as the d e pths o f the


,

oceans .
1
And many other roya l sag e s having conciliated ,
-

a scetics have e nj oyed the happiness of tasting the am b ro si a


,

o f the sight of a son F o r the honour paid to saints is


.

never without its reward .

And for me when shal l I b e hold my queen ready to


,

bear a child pale as the fourteenth night when the rising


,

o f the full moon is at hand ; and wh e n will her attendants ,

hardly abl e to bear the j oy o f the great festival of the birth


of my so n carry the full basket of gifts ? When will my
,

queen gladden me wearing yellow robes and holding a son ,

in her arms l ike t h e sky with the newly risen sun and the
,
-

early sunlight ; and when wil l a son give me j oy o f heart ,

w ith his cur ly hair yellow with many a p l ant a few a shes ,

mixed with mustard seed o n his palate which has a drop


-
,

of ghi o n it a s a talisman ( 1 3 1 ) and a thread bright with


,

yellow dye round his neck a s he lies o n his back and smiles
,

with a little toothles s mouth ; when will this baby destroy


a ll the darkness of sorrow in my eyes lik e an auspicious
l amp welcomed by all the people handed from o n e to ,

another by the z enana attendants shining tawny with ,

yellow dye ; and when will he adorn the courtyard as he ,

toddles round i t fol l owed by my heart and my eyes and


, ,

gray with th e dust o f the court ; and when will he walk


from o n e place to another an d the power o f motion be
formed in his knees so that like a young lion he may try
, , ,

to catch the young tame deer screened behind the crystal


walls ? and when runnin g about at will in the courtyard
, ,

will he run after t h e tame gees e accompanied by t h e ,

tink l ing of the anklets o f the z enana and weary his n urse , ,

who will ha sten after him fo l lowing the sound o f the b e l l s


,

of his golden girdle ; ( 1 3 2 ) and when will he imitate the


antics of a wild elephant an d have his cheeks adorned
,

with a line of i chor painted in black aloe full of j o y at the ,

s ound o f the bell held in his mouth gray with th e dust of ,

sandal wood scattered by his uplifted hand shaking his


-
,

1
Fo ur was t h e n u mb e r o f t h e oc e an s an d o f t h e arms o f N aray ana .
5

head at the beckoning of the hooked fi n ge r ; and when


will he disguis e the faces of the old chamb e rlains wit h the
j uice of handfuls o f lac left after being used to colour h i s
moth e r s feet ; and when with eyes restless in curiosity

, ,

w i l l he bend his glance on the inlaid fl o o r s and with ,

tottering steps pursue his o wn shadow ; and when w ill


he creep about during the audience in front o f me a s I
stand in my audien ce hal l with his eyes wandering b e -
,

wildered by the rays o f the gem s and have his coming ,

w e lcomed by the outstretched arms o f a thousand kings ?


Thinking on a hundred such desires I pass my nights in ,

su ffering Me too the grief arising from o u r want o f


.
, ,

children burns like a fi r e day and night The world seem s .

empty I look o n my kingdom as without fruit B ut what .

can I do towards Brahm a from whom there is no appeal 2 ,


Ther e fore my queen cease thy continual grief Let thy


, ,
.

heart be devoted to endurance and to duty For in crease .

of blessings is ev e r nigh at hand for those who set their


thoughts o n duty ( 1 33 ) Thus saying with a hand like a
.

fresh t e ndril he took water and wiped her tear stained face
,
-
,

which show e d a s an O pe n ing lotu s and having comforted


her again and again with many a speech sw e et with a
hundred e ndearments skilled to drive away grief and full , ,

o f in struction about duty he at last left her And when ,


.

he wa s gone Vi lasavat i s sorrow wa s a little soothed and


,

she went about her u sual daily dutie s such a s putting on ,

of her adornments And from that time forth she was


.

more and more devoted to propitiating the gods honourin g ,

B rahman s an d payin g reverence to a l l holy person s ;


,

whatever recommendation she heard from any source she


practised in her longing for a child nor did she count the ,

fatigue howev e r great ; she slept within t h e temples o f


,

Durg a dark with smoke o f bdellium ceaselessly burnt on a


, ,

bed of clubs cover e d with green gra ss fasting her pur e , ,

form clothed in white raim e nt ; ( 1 3 4 ) she bathed unde r


cows e ndued with auspicious marks adorn e d for t h e ,

occasion by the wives o f the old cowherds in the herd


s tations with golden pitchers l aden with all sorts of j ewe l s
, ,
6

decorated with branches o f the pipal decked with divers ,

fruits and fl o we r s and fi lle d with holy water ; e very day


she would rise and give t o Brahmans golden mustard leave s -

adorned with every gem ; she stood in the midst o i -a circle


drawn by the king himself in a place wher e four roads
,

meet on the fourt e enth night o f the dark fortnight and


, ,

performed auspicious rites o f bathing in which the gods ,

o f the quarter s were gladd e ned by the various oblations

o ff ered ; she honoured the shrines o f the siddhas and


1
sought the houses o f neighbouring M at r ikas in which ,

faith was displayed by the people ; she bathed in all the


celebrated snake ponds ; with a sun wise turn she wor
- -
,

shipped the pipal and other trees to which honour wa s


wont to be shown ; after bathing with hands circled by ,

swaying bracelets she herself gave to the birds an o ffering o f


,

curds and boiled rice placed in a silver cup ; she o ff ered daily
to t h e goddess Durg a a sac rifi c e consisting o f parched grain
o f oblation boiled rice s e samum sweetmeats cakes ungu e nts
, , , , ,

incense an d fl o we r s in abundance ; ( 1 3 5 ) she besought


, , ,

with a mind prostrate in adoration the nak e d wanderin g ,

ascetics bearing the na m e o f siddhas an d carryin g their


, ,

begging bowl s fi lle d by her ; she greatly honoured the


-

direction s of fortune tellers ; she fr e quent e d all the sooth


-

sayers learned in signs she showed all respect t o those wh o


understood the omens o f birds ; she accepted all the secrets
handed do wn in the tradition o f a succession o f venerab l e
sages ; in her longing for the sight o f a so n sh e made the ,

Brahman s who came into her presence chant the V eda ;


she heard sacred stories incessantly repeated ; sh e carried
about l ittle caskets of mantras fi lle d with birch leaves -

written over in yel l ow l etter s she tied strings o f medicinal


plant s a s amulets ; even her attendants went o u t to hear
-

pa s sing s ounds and grasped the omens arising from them ;


she dai l y threw o u t lumps o f fl e sh in the evening for the
j ackals ; she told the pandit s the wonder s of her dreams ,

an d at the cro s s roads sh e o fi e r e d oblation to i a


-
.


And a s time went o n it chanced once that near the
,

1
T h e di v in e moth e r s o r p e r so n ifi e d e n e r gi e s of t h e ch i e f d e i t i e s
, .
57

end o f night when the sky wa s gray a s an o ld pigeon s


,

wing and but few stars were left t h e k ing sa w in a dream


, ,

the full moon entering the mouth o f V i lasavat i as she ,

rested on the roof of her white palace like a ball o f lotus ,

fib r e s into the mo uth o f an elephant ( 1 3 6 ) Ther e upon he .

woke and arising shedding brightness through his dwelling


, ,

by the j oyous dilation o f his eyes he straightway called ,

Q u k an a sa and told him the dream ; whereto the latter ,

fi lle d with sudden j oy replied : Sire our wishes and those


, ,

o f thy subj ects are at length f u lfi lle d ; After a few days


my lord will doubt l ess exp e rie n ce the happiness o f beholding
the lotus face o f a son for I too this night in a dream saw
-
, ,

a white rob e d Brahman o f godlike bearing and calm aspect


-
, ,

place in M an o ram a s lap a lotus that rained drops o f honey


1 ’

,

with a hundred outspread white petals like the moon s ,

digits and a thousand quivering stamens forming its


,

matted locks N ow all auspicious ome n s which come to


.
,

u s foret e ll the near approach of j oy ; and what other cause

o f j oy can there be than this 2 for dream s seen at the close


o f night are wont to bear fruit in truth ( 1 3 7 ) Certainly .

ere long the queen shall bear a son that l ik e M an dh at ri , ,

shall be a leader among all roya l sages and a cause o f j oy ,

to all the wor l d and h e shall gladden thy h e art 0 kin g , ,

a s the l otus pool in autumn with its burst of fr e sh lotus e s


-

gladdens the royal elephant ; by him thy kingly line shall


become strong to bear the weight o f the world and shall ,

be unbrok e n in its succession a s the stream o f a wild


elephant s ichor ’
As he thus spoke the king taking him
.

, ,

by the hand entered the inner apartments and gla ddened


,

the queen with both their dreams And after some day s .
,

by the grace o f the gods the h O p e o f a child came t o ,

V i lasavat i like t h e moon s image o n a lake and she


, ,

became thereby yet more glorious like the line o f the ,

N an d an a wood with the tree of Paradise o r the breast o f ,

V ishnu with the K au st u b h a gem .

( 1 38 ) O n o n e memorable day the king had gone at


evening to an inner pavilion where encircled by a , ,

1 Wi f of
e u k an fi sa
Q .
58

thousand lamps burning bright with abundance of scented


,

oil he wa s li ke the full moon in the midst of stars or lik e


, ,

N a r a yana s e ated among the thousand j ewelled hoods of the


z

king of snak e s ; he wa s surrounded only by a f e w great


kings who had recei ved t h e sprinkling o f coronation ; his
own attendant s stood at some distance ; close by Qu kan fisa
was sitting on a high stool clad in whit e silk with little
, ,

adornm e nt a statesman profound a s the depth s of ocean ;


,

and with him the king wa s holding a conversation o n many


topics full of the c o n fi d e n c e that had grown with th e ir
,

growth wh e n he was approached by the handmaiden


,

K u lav ar dh an a the queen s chi e f att e ndant always skill e d


, ,

in t h e ways of a court well trained by nearness to royalty


, ,

and versed in all auspicious ceremonies who whispered in ,

his ear the news about Vilasav at i ( 1 3 9 ) A t her words so .


,

fresh to his ears the king s limb s were bedewed a s if with


,

ambrosia a thrill passed through his whol e body an d h e


, ,

was bewilder e d with t h e draught o f j oy ; his che e ks burst


into a smile ; under the guise of the bright flash of his
teeth he scatter e d abroad the happin e ss that o ve rfl o we d his
heart and his e ye with its pupil quivering and its l ashes
, , ,

wet with t e ars of gla dn e ss fell o n the face o f Qu kan asa


,
.

And when C u kan asa saw the king s exceeding j oy s uch a s ’

he had n e v e r se e n befor e and beheld the approach of


,

K u lavardh an a with a radiant smile o n her face though he ,

had not heard the tidings yet from con stantly revolving
, ,

the matter in his mind he saw no ot h er caus e b e fi t t in g the


,

time of this excess o f gladness ; ( 1 4 0 ) he saw all and ,

bringing his s e at closer to t h e king said in a low voice : ,

M y lord there is some truth in that dream ; for Kulavar


,

dhan a has her e yes radiant and thy twin ey e s announce a


,

cause of great j oy for they are dilated their pupils are


, ,

tremulous and they are bathed in tears o f j oy and a s they


, ,

seem to cr e ep to the lobes o f thy ears in their eagerness to


hear the goo d tidings they produc e a s it wer e t h e beauty
, , ,

o f an ear pendant of blue lotuses


-
My longing heart y e arns .

to hear the f e stival that ha s sprung up for i t Therefore .

l et my lord t e ll me what is this news When he had thu s .



60

the boy there like a young lion in a cage forbidding all


, ,

egress surrounding him with a suite composed main l y o f


,

the sons o f his tea chers removing every allurement to the ,

s ports o f boyhood and keeping his mind free from dis ,

tra ction o n an a uspicious day ( 1 5 6) he entrusted him


, ,

together with Vai cam p ay an a to masters that th e y might , ,

acquire all knowledge E very day when he rose the king .


, ,

with Vilésavat i and a small retinue went to watch him , ,

and Can d rapi d a undisturbed in mind and k e pt to his


,

work by the king quickly gra sped all t h e sciences taught


,

him by teachers whose eff orts were quickened by his great


,

powers a s they brought to light his natural abilities ; the


,

whole range of arts assembled in his mind a s in a pure


j ewelled mirror H e gained the highest skil l in word
. ,

sentence proof law an d royal policy ; in gymnastics ; in


, , ,

all kinds of weapons such a s the bow quoit shie l d , , , ,

scimitar dart mace battle axe and club ; i n driving and


, , ,
-
,

el e phant riding ; in musical instruments such a s the lute


-
, ,

fi f e drum cymbal and pipe ; in the laws o f dancing l aid


, , ,

down by Bharata and oth e rs and the science o f music , ,

such a s that of N a rada ; in the managem e nt of elephants ,

the knowl e dge o f a horse s age and the marks o f men ; in ’

painting leaf cutting the use of books and writing ; in all


,
-
, ,

the arts o f gambling knowl e dge o f the cries of birds and , ,

a stronomy ; in te sting of j ewe l s ( 1 5 7 ) carpentry t h e work , ,

ing of ivory ; in architecture physic mechanics antidotes , , , ,

mining crossing of rivers leaping and j umping and sleight


, , ,

o f hand ; in stories drama s romances poems ; in the , , ,

Mah a bh arata the Pur a nas t h e I t ih asas and the


, , ,

R am ayana in all kind s of writing all foreign languages , ,

a l l t e chnicalities all m e chanical arts ; in metre and in


, ,

every other art An d while he c e aselessly studied eve n in


.
,

his childhood an inborn vigour like that of Bhi ma shone


forth in him and stirred the world to wonder F o r when .

h e wa s b ut in play the young elephants who had attacked ,

him a s if he were a l ion s whelp had th e ir limb s bowed ’

down by hi s grasp o n their ears and could not move ; ,

with o n e stroke o f his scimitar he cut down palm trees a s -


1

ii they were lotus stalks ; his shafts lik e those of Para gu


-
-
,

r fim a when he blazed to consume the forest of earth s royal


'

stems c l eft only the loftiest peaks ; he exercis e d himself


,

with an iron club which ten men were needed to lift and ,

except in bodily strength he was fo l lowed clos e in al l hi s ,

accomplishments by V ai cam p ayan a ( 1 5 8 ) who by reason , ,

o f the honour Can drap i d a felt for his deep learning and o f ,

his reverence due to Qukan asa and because they had played ,

in the dust and grown up together wa s the prince s chief ,


friend and a s it were his second heart and the home of


, , , ,

al l his c o n fide n c e s H e would n o t be without Vai cam p zt yan a


'

f o r a moment while Vai cam p éy an a never for an instant


,

ceased to follow him any more than the day would cease ,

to fol l ow the sun .

And whi l e Can drap i d a wa s thus pursuing his acquaint


ance with all knowledge the spring o f youth loved o f the , ,

three worlds a s the amrita draught o f the ocean gladdening ,

the hearts o f men a s moonrise gladdens the gloaming ;


transient i n change o f iridescent glow like the full arch o f ,

Indra s bow to the rainy season ; weapon of love like the


outburst of fl o we rs to the tree o f desire b e autiful in ever


freshly revealed glo w l ike sunrise to the lotus grove ; ready
,
-

for a ll play of graceful motion like the plumes o f the ,

peacock became manifest and brought to fl o we r in him


, ,

fair a s he was a double beauty ; love lord of the hour


, , ,

stood ever nigh a s if to do his bidding ; his chest expanded


,

like his beauty ; his limb s won fulness like the wishes of ,

his friends his waist became slender like the host of his ,

foes ; ( 1 5 9 ) his form broadened like his liberality ; his ,

maj esty grew like his hair ; his arm s hung down more
,

and more like the plaits o f his enemies wives his eyes
,

became brighter like his conduct ; his shoulders broad


, ,

like his knowledge ; an d his heart deep like his voice ,


.

And so in due course the king learning that Candr a ,

p i da had grown to youth and ha d completed his knowledge ,

of all the arts studi e d all the sciences and won great praise
, ,

from his teachers summoned B aléh aka a mighty warrior


, , ,

and with a larg e escort of cavalry a n d infantry sent him


, ,
62

on a very auspicious day to fetch the prince And B alfih aka .


,

going to the palace o f learning enter e d announc e d by the , ,

porters an d bending his head till its crest j ewels rested o n


,
-

the ground sat down by the prince s permission on a seat


, ,

b e fi t t i n g his o ffice a s reverently a s though in the kin g s


presence ; after a short pause he approached Can dr api d a


and resp e ctf ully gave the king s message : Princ e the king ’
,

bids me say : Our desires are f u lfi lle d ; the c a stra s have


been studied ; all the arts have been l earnt ; thou ha st
gained the highest skill in all the martial sciences .

( 1 60 ) All thy teachers give the e permission to l e ave the


house o f learning L et the people se e that thou ha s t
.

received thy train ing like a young royal el e phant com e


,

o ut from the enclosure having in thy mind the whole ,

o r b o f t h e arts like t h e f ull moon n ewly risen L et the


,
.

eyes o f the world long eager to behold the e f u lfi l their


, ,

true j unction ; f o r all the z enana s are yearning for thy


sight This is now the tenth year o f thin e abode in the
.

school and thou didst enter it having reached the e x


,

p e r i e n c e of thy sixth year This year then so r e ckone . d , , ,

is the sixteenth of thy life N ow therefor e when thou .


, ,

ha st com e forth and shown thyself t o all the mothers


longing to see th e e and ha st saluted those who deserve
,

thy honour do thou lay a side thy early discipline and


, ,

e xperience at thy will the pleasur e s of the court and the

d e lights o f fresh youth Pay thy respects to the chiefs ; .

h onour the Brahmans ; protect thy p e ople ; gladden thy


k i n sfolk Th e r e stands a t the door sent by the king this
.
, ,

horse named I n dr ayu dh a s w ift as Garu d a or a s the wind


, , ,

the chief j ewel o f the thr e e worlds ( 1 6 1 ) for in truth the


monarch o f Persia who e steemed him the wonder o f t h e
,

universe sent him with this message : This nobl e steed


,

,

S prung straight from the waters o f oc e an was found by me , ,



and is worthy for thee 0 king to mount ; and w hen he , ,

was shown t o those skilled in a horse s points th e y said ’

H e has all t h e marks of which men tell u s a s belongin g to


U c c ai h cravas ; th e r e nev e r has b e en nor will b e a st e e d like
him .

Therefore let him be honoured by thy mounting
3

him These thousand princes all sons o f anointed kin gs


.
, ,

highly trained h e roic wise and accomplished and of lo n g


-
, , , ,

descent sent for thine escort wait o n horseback all eager


,

, ,

to salute thee Having thus said B alzrh aka paus e d and


.
, ,

Can drépi d a laying his father s command o n his h e ad in a



, ,

voice deep a s a new cloud gave the order Let I n drayu dh a ,

be brought for he desired to mount him


,

.

Immediately o n his command I n dr ay u dh a was brought ,

and he beheld that wondrous steed led by two m e n o n each ,

side gra sping the circ l e o f the bit and using all their e fforts ,

to c urb him H e wa s very large his back being j ust


.
,

within reach o f a man s up l ifted hand ; he se e med to drink ’

the sky which wa s o n a level with his mouth ; with a neigh


,

which shook the cavity o f his belly and fi lle d t h e hollows ,

o f the three worlds h e a s it w e re upbraid e d Garuda for


, , ,

his vain trust in his fabled sp e e d ; ( 1 6 2 ) with a nostril


snorting in wrath at any hindrance to his co urse h e in his , ,

pride examined the three worlds that he might leap over


, ,

them ; his body wa s variegated with streaks o f black ,

yellow green and pink like Indra s bow ; h e wa s like a


, , ,

young e lephant with a many hued rug spread over him


,
-

like i a s bull pink with metallic dust from butting at


K ai lé sa s peaks ; like P a rvati s lion with his mane


’ ’

crimson e d w ith th e red streak o f the demon s clotted ’

blood and like the Very incarnation of all energy with a ,

sound emitted from his ever quivering nostrils he seemed -


,

to pour forth the wind inhaled in his swift course ; he


scattered t h e f o am fl ake s that frothed from his lip s from
-

the champing of t h e points of the bit which rattled as he


roll e d it in his mouth a s if they were mouthfuls of ambrosia
,

drunk in his ocean home ( 1 6 4 ) And beholding this st e e d


,
.
, ,

whose like was n e v e r before seen in form fi t for t h e gods , ,

meet f o r the kingdom o f the whol e universe ( 1 6 5 ) possessed ,

of all the favourable marks the perf e ction of a horse s ,


shape the heart o f Can dr épi d a though of a natur e n o t


, ,

easily moved wa s touched with amaz e ment and the


, ,

thought arose in his mind : What j e wel if not this ,

wondrous horse wa s brought up by t h e Suras and Asuras


,
4

when they churned the waters of ocean and whir l ed round


Mount Mandara with the serpent V asu ki revo l ving in cease
l ess gyration And what has Indra ga ined by h i s lo rd sh ip _

o f the three worlds if he did n o t mount this back broad a s ,

Mount Meru ? Surely Indra wa s cheated by the ocean


wh e n his heart was gladdened by U c c aih cravas ! And I
think that so far he ha s not crossed the sight o f holy
N ii r ay an a who even now does n o t give up his infatuation
,

for riding Garuda My fath e r s roya l glory surpasses the


.

riches o f the kingdom o f heaven in that treasures such a s ,

this which can hardly be gained in the whole universe


, ,

com e h e re into servitude From its m agn ifi c e n c e and .

energy this form of hi s seem s the shri n e o f a go d and


, ,

the truth o f this makes m e fear to mount him F o r forms .

l ike this fi t for the gods an d the wonder o f the universe


, ,

belong to no common horse E ven deities subj ect to a .


,

muni s curse have been known to l eave their o wn bodies


and inhabit other bodi e s brought to them by the term s


o f the curse ( 1 6 6 ) For there is a story of o ld how
.

St h fi laci r as a muni of great a usterity cursed an Ap saras


, ,

named Rambh a the ornam ent of the three worlds ; and


,

she leaving heaven entered the heart o f a horse and thus


, , , ,

a s the story goes dwe l t f o r a long time on earth a s a mare


, ,

in the service o f King Qat adh an van at M ri t t i kavat i ; and ,

many other great souled beings having had their glory -


,

destroyed by the curse o f munis have roamed the ,

world in various forms Surely this must b e some noble .

being subj ect to a curse ! My h e art d e clares his divinity .


Thus thinking he rose wish ing to mount and in mind only


, ,

approaching th e steed he prayed thus : Noble charger ,



,

thou art that thou art ! All hail to thee ! Yet le t my


audacity in mount i ng thee be forgiven ! for even deities
whose pr e s e nce is unknown ta ste o f a contumely all unmeet
f o r the m

.

As if knowi ng his thought I n drayu dh a looked at him ,

with eye a skance the pupil turned and partly closed by the
,

lashing of his tossing mane ( 1 6 7 ) and repeatedly struck ,

the ground with his right hoof till the hair on his chest ,
65

wa s gray with the dust it ca st u p a s though summoning ,

the prince to mount with a plea sant whinnying long drawn


,

out into a gentle soft murmur blent with t h e snor t ing


of his quivering nostrils Whereupon Can drfip i d a mounted
.

I n drfiy u dh a as though invited thereunto by his p l easant


,

neighing ; and having mounted he passed o u t thinking


, , ,

the whole universe but a span long and beh e ld a cavalcade ,

o f which the furthest limits could not be seen ; it deafened

the hollows o f the thre e wor l ds with the clatter of hoofs


breakin g up the e arth fi e rc e a s a shower o f stones let fa l l
,

from the clouds and with a n e ighing sounding the fi e r c e r


,

from nostrils choked with dust ; it decked the sky with a


forest of lances al l horrent whose shafts g l eamed bright ,

when touched by the sun like a lake half hidden in a ,

grove o f blue lotus bu d s upborne on t heir stalks from its


-

darkening the eight quarters with its thousand umbrellas


al l raised it wa s like a mass of c l ouds iridesc e nt with
,

the full arch of Indra s bow shining o n them ; ( 1 6 8 ) while
from the horses mouth s being white with foam fl ake s cast

-

abroad and from the undulating lin e of their ceaseless


,

curv e tting it rose to sight like a mass of ocean billows


,

in the fl o o d o f fi n al d e struction ; all the horses were in


motion at Can drapi d a s approach a s the wave s o f ocean

,

at the moon s risin g ; and the princes each wishing to be ,

fi r st in their eagerness to pay their homage having their ,

heads unprotected by the hasty removal of their umbrel l as ,

and weary with trying to curb their horses which were wild ,

with trampling o n each other drew around t h e prince A s , .

B alfih aka presented each by name they bowed bending , ,

low th e ir heads which showed the g l ow of l oyalty under


,

the guise o f the rays uprising from the rubies in their


w aving crests and which from their having buds held
, ,

up in adoration were l ike lotuses resting on the water in


,

the pitchers o f coronation Having saluted them Can .


,

dré pi d a accompanied by Vai cam p éy an a also mounted


, , ,

straightway set o u t for the city ( 1 6 9 ) He wa s shad e d by .

a very large umbrella with a gold stick borne above him , ,

formed like the lotus o n which royal glory might dwell ,

5
66

l ike the moon s orb to the moon lotus grove o f royal races

-
,

like an island being form e d by the fl o w o f the cavalcade in ,

hue lik e the circle o f Vasu ki s hood whit e ned by the sea o f ’

milk garlanded with m any a rope of pearls bearing the


, ,

device o f a lion designed above The fl o we rs in his ears .

were set dancing by t h e wind o f the cowries waved o n


eith e r side and his praise s were sung by many thousa n ds
,

of retainers running before him young f o r the mo st part , , ,

and brave and by the bards who ceasel e ssly r e cited aloud
, ,

auspicious V erses w i th a soft cry o f Long life and


,

Victory .

An d a s h e passed o n his way to the city lik e a mani ,

l
f e st at i o n o f the go d o f lov e no longer b o di le ss all the ,

people like a l otus grove awakened by the moon s rising
,
-
,

left th e ir work and gathered to b e hold him .

K artikeya scorns the name of Kum a ra since his o wn


2
,

form is looked o n with scorn by the throng of l otus faces -

when this prince is b y Surely we reap the reward o f great .

Virtue in that we behold that godlike form with eyes wide


with t h e o ve rfl o w o f love sprung up within u s and upraised ,

in eager curiosity ( 1 7 0 ) Our birth in this world has now


.

brought forth it s fruit Nevertheless all hail to blessed .


,

Krishna who in the guise of Can drfipi d a has a s s umed a


,

new form ! With such words the city folk folded their
hands in adorat i on and bowed before h i m An d from the .

thousand windows which wer e unclosed from curiosity to


behold Can dr fipi d a the city itself became a s it were a mass
,

o f O pen eyes for straightway on hearing that he h ad l eft


the palace o f learning fi lle d with all knowledge women ,

eager to see him mounted t h e roofs hastily throughout the


city leaving their half done work ; som e with mirrors in
,
-

their left hand were l ike t h e nights of the full moon when ,

the moon s whole o rb is gleaming some with feet roseate


with fr e sh lac were like l otus buds whose fl o we r s had


,
-

drun k the early sun l ight ; some with their tender feet ,

1
O r , A n an ga , n a m of K am e a.
2
c
S i n e h e c an n l o y gi v e i t t h e n m n t t h e s bst an c e
a e, o u or m e an i n g .

K u m ar a = ( a ) n a e m of K ar t ik y a ; ( b) p in c e
e r .
68

formed of b l ue lotus petals by the long line o f bright -

glances As the women ga z ed o n him with e yes fi xe d


.

and widened i n curiosity the form o f Can drépi d a entered ,

into their hearts a s though they were mirrors o r water o r


crystal ; and a s the g l ow of love manifested itself there ,

their gracefu l speech b e came straightway mirthful con ,

fi de n t i al confu s ed envious scornful derisive coquettish


, , , , , ,

l oving o r full o f l onging ( 1 7 3 ) As for instance : Hasty


,
.
,

o n e wait for me !
, Drunk with gazing ho l d thy mantle ! ,

Simpleton lift up the long tresses that han g about thy


,

face ! Remove thy moon digit ornament ! Blinded with -

l ove thy feet are caught in the fl o we rs o f thine o ffering


, ,

and thou wilt fall ! L ove distraught tie up thy hair ! -


,

Intent on the sight o f Can drapi d a raise thy gird l e ! ,

Naughty o n e lift up the ear fi o we r waving o n thy cheek !


,
-

Heartless one pick up thine earrin g ! E ager in youth


, ,

thou art being watched ! Cover thy bosom ! Shame l ess


o n e gather up thy l oosened robe !
,
Artfully artless go on ,

quicker ! Inquisitive gir l take another l ook at the kin g ! ,

In satiable how long wilt thou look


, Fickle hearted think -
,

o f thin e o wn people ! Impish gir l thy mantle has fa l len , ,

and thou art mocked ! Thou whose e yes art fi lle d with
l ove seest thou not thy fri e nds ? Maiden full o f gui l e
, ,

thou wilt live in sorrow with thy heart in causeless


torment ! Thou who feignest coyness what mean t h y ,

crafty glances ? ( 1 7 4 ) l ook boldly ! Bright with youth ,

why rest thy weight against u s Angry one go in front ,

E nviou s girl wh y block up the windo w ? Slave o f love


, ,

thou bringest my outer rob e to utter ruin ! Drunk with


l ove s breath restrain thyself ! Devoid of self control why

,
-
,

run before thine elders ? Bright in strength why so ,

confused ? Silly gir l hide the thril l o f lov e s fever ! Il l


,

behaved girl why thus weary thyself ? Changeful o n e thy


, ,

girdle presseth thee and thou su ff erest vain ly ! Absent


,

minded thou h e e de st not thyself though outside thy


, ,

house ! L ost in curiosity tho u hast forgotten how to ,

breathe ! Thou whose eyes art closed in the happy


imagination of nn i o n with thy be l oved O pen them ! H e ,
69

i s passing ! Bereft o f sense by the stroke o f love s arrow ’

place the end o f thy silken robe o n thy head t o keep o fi the
sun s rays ! Thou wh o hast taken the vo w of S a t i thou

,

lette s t thine eyes wander n o t seein g what is to be se e n ! ,

Wretched one thou art cast down by the vo w not to ga z e


,

o n other men V ouch safe to rise dear friend and to look , ,

at the blessed fi sh bannered go d without his banner and


1 -
,

bereft o f Rati vi sib l y pre s ent ( 1 7 5 ) His crest o f m alati


, .

fl owers under his umbrella looks l ike a mas s o f moonbeams


fa l len in under the idea that night ha s set in on his head ,

dark with swarm s o f bees His cheek is fair as a garland of .

open c ir i sha fl o we r s touched with green by the s plendour o f


his emerald earring Our youthfu l glow o f love under the
.
,

guise o f rich ruby rays among the pear l n e cklaces shines ,

o u t eager to enter his heart It is s o s een by him among .

the cowrie s Moreover what i s he l augh ing at a s he talk s


.
,

to Vai cam p ayan a so that the c i rc l e o f space is whit e ned


,

with his bright teeth ? B alah aka with the edge o f hi s ,

silken mantle green a s a parrot s p l umage is removi ng ’


,

from the tips of his hair the dust raised by the horses
hoofs His bough like foot soft a s Lakshm i s lotus hand
.
-
,

-
,


is raised and sportively cast athwart his horse s shoulder .

His hand with taperin g fi n ge r s and bright a s pink lotus


,

buds is outstretched to its full length to ask for betel nut


,
-
,

j ust a s an elephant s trunk in eagerness f o r mouthfuls o f


vallisneria ( 1 7 6 ) Happy is she who a f e llow bride with


.
,
-

earth shall like Lakshmi win that hand outvyin g the


, , ,

lotus ! Happy too is Queen Vi lasavat i by whom he who


, , ,

is able to bear the whole earth wa s nour i s hed in birth a s ,

the elephant o f the quarter s by Space



And a s they uttered these and other sayin gs of the
same kind Can dr épi d a drunk in by their eyes summoned
, , ,

by the tinkling o f their ornaments fol l owed by their hearts , ,

bound by the ropes o f the rays o f their j e wels honoured ,

with the o fi e rin g of their fr e sh youth bestrewn with fl o we r s ,

and rice in salutation like a marriage fi re advancing st e p ,

1
Kam a.
by step on a ma s s of white brace l et s s l ipping from their
l anguid arms reached t h e palace ”
, .

[ Dismounting and l eaning o n V ai cam p éyan a he entered ,

the court preceded by B alah aka and passing through the


'

, ,

crowd of attendant kings behe l d his father seated on a ,

white couch and attended by his guards ] 1


.

( 1 8 9 ) And on the chamberlain s saying Behold him


the prince with his head bent low and its crest shaking
, , ,

while yet afar 0 11 mad e his salutation and his fath er , ,

c rying from afar Come come hither ! stretched forth


, ,

both arms rai s ed himself slightly from his couch while his
, ,

eyes fi lle d with tears o f j oy and a thrill pa ssed over his


body and embraced his reverently bent son a s though he
,
-

would bind him fast and absorb him and drink him i n
2
,
.

And after the embrace Can drfipi d a sat down o n the bare ,

ground by his father s footstool kicking away the cloak ’


,

which had been rol l ed up and hastily made into a seat by


his o wn b e t e l nut bearer and s oft l y bidding h e r take it away ;

-
,

( 1 9 0 ) and then Vai cam p ayan a being embraced by the king ,

like his own s on sat down on a seat placed for him When
,
.

h e had been there a short time a ssailed a s it were by , , ,

glance s from the women who stood motion l ess with the ,

waving of the cowrie s forgotten glances o f love long a s , ,

strings of l otus stirred by the wind from fi n e eyes ,

tremulous and a skant he wa s dismissed with the words , ,

Go my son s a l ute thy loving mother who longs t o see



, , ,

thee and then in turn gladden all who nurtured thee by


,

thy sight Respectfully rising and stopping his suite


.

,
'

from following him h e went with Vai cam p zi yan a to the


,

z enana l ed by the royal servants meet to e nter therein ,



,

[ a s she sat

and approaching his mother sa l uted her ,

s urrounded by her attendants and by aged a scetic women ,

who read and recited legends to her ] 3


.

( 1 9 1 ) She raised him whi l e her attendants skilled in , ,

do in g her c ommands stood around her and with a lovin g


, , ,

1 S u mm ar y o f
pp 1 7 6 18 9 2
.L i t s e w h i-
m to h i m.s elf .
,
.

3 S mm y of pp
u ar . 19 0 , 19 1 .
71

car e ss he l d him i n a long embrace a s though think ing


, ,

inwardly o f a hundred auspicious w ords to say and ,

straightway when the claim s o f aff ection had been


,

sat i sfi e d and she had embraced Vai cam p éyan a she sat
, ,

down and drew Can drépi d a who wa s reverently seate d


, ,

o n the ground forcibly and against his will to rest in her,

arms ; ( 1 9 2 ) and when Vai cam p ayan a wa s seated o n a


stool quickly bro u ght by the attendants she embraced ,

Can drapi d a again and again on brow breast and shoulders , , ,

and said with many a caressing touch : Hard hearted my


,
-
,

child wa s thy father by whom so fair a form meet to be


, , ,

cherished by the whole universe wa s made to undergo ,

great fatigue for so long ! How didst thou endure the


tedious restraint of thy gurus ? Indeed young a s thou ,

art thou hast a strong man s fortitude ! Thy heart even


,

in childhood ha s lost all idle liking for childish amusement


,

and play A h well all devotion to natura l and spiritua l


.
,

parents is something apart ; and as I n o w see thee endowed ,

by thy father s favour with all knowledge s o I shall s oon


, ,

see thee endowed with worthy wives Having thus said .


a s he bent his head smiling half in shame s he kissed him , ,

o n the ch e ek which wa s a ful l r e fl e c t i o n o f her o wn and


, ,

garlanded with O pen lotuses and h e when he had stayed ,

a short time gladd e ned in turn by his presence the whole


,

z enana Then d e parting by the royal door he mounted


.
, ,

I n d r éyu dh a who wa s standing o u tside and followed by th e


, , ,

prince s went to see Qukan é sa
, [ and at the gate o f an ,

outer court fi lle d with priests o f many sect s he dismounted ]


,
1
,

( 1 9 4 ) and entered the palace of Q u kan é sa which resem ,

bled a second royal court O n entering he saluted Qu kan et sa


'

l ike a s econd father as he stood in the midst o f thousands


of kings s howin g him all respect with his crest bent low
, ,

even from afar C u kan asa quickly rising while the kings .
, ,

ro s e o n e after another and respectfully advancing straight ,

to him with tears of j oy fal l ing from eyes wide with glad
,

ness heartily and with great a ffection embraced him


, , , ,

together with Vai cam p éyan a Then the prince rej ecting .
,

1
S um m ar y o f p 1 9 3 . .
72

the j ewelled seat respectfully brought sat o n the bare ,

ground and ne x t t o him sat Vai cam p ayan a ; and when he


,

sat o n the ground the whole circl e o f kings except (; ukan asa
, , ,

leaving their own seat s sat a l so o n the ground Qukan fisa ,


.

stood silent for a moment showing his extreme j oy by the ,

thrill that passed ove r his limbs and then said to the ,

prince : Tru l y my child n o w that King T arapi da has



, ,

seen thee grown to youth and posse s sed o f knowledge he ,

has at length gained the fruit o f his rule over the universe .

N ow all t h e b l es s ings o f thy parents have been f ulfi lle d .

Now the merit acquired in many other births has borne


fruit Now the gods o f thy race are cont e nt ( 1 9 5 ) F o r
. .

they who l ike thee aston i sh the three worlds do not


, , ,

become the s ons o f the unworthy F or where is thy age ? .

and where thy superhuman power and thy capacity o f reach


ing boundless knowledge Yea blessed are those subj ect s ,

who have thee for their protector one like unto Bharata ,

and B h agi rat h a What bright deed of merit was done by


.

E arth that she has won th e e a s lord ? Sure ly L akshmi is ,

destroyed by persisting in t h e ca price o f dwelling in



Vishnu s bosom that she does n o t approach thee in morta l
,

form ! B ut neverth e less do thou with thine arm a s the


, , ,

Great Boar with his circle o f tusks bear up for myriads of ,



ages the weight of the earth helping thy father Thu s ,
.

saying and off erin g homage with ornaments dre ss es


, , ,

fl o we r s and unguents he dism i ssed h i m


, Thereupon the
,
.

prince rising and enter ing t h e z enana visited V ai oam


, , ,

p ayana s mother by name M an o r am a and departing
'

, , , ,

mounted I n dr ayu dh a and went to his palace It had been


,
.

previous l y arranged by his father and had white j ar s fi lle d ,

and placed on the gates like an i mage o f the royal palace ; ,

it had garlands o f green sanda l boughs thousands o f white ,

fl ags fl yi n g and fi lle d the air with the s ound o f auspicious


,

instrument s o f music open lotuses were strewn in it A .

sac rifi c e to Agni had j ust been p e rformed every attendant ,

wa s in bright apparel every auspicious c e remony for ,

entering a hou s e had been prepared O n his arriva l he .

sat for a short time on a couch p l aced in the hal l and ,


,
3

then together with his princely retinue perform ed t h e


, ,

day s duties beginning with bathing and e nding with a
,

banquet ( 1 9 6) and meanwhile b e arranged that I n d ray udh a


s hould dwell in his o wn chamber .


And in these doings o f his the day came to a close ;
the sun s orb fell with lifted rays like the ruby anklet — its


interstice s veiled in its own light o i the Glory of Day as ,

she hastens from the sky ( 1 9 8 ) And when evening had .

begun Can dr api d a encircled by a fence o f lighted lamps


, , ,

went on f oot to the king s pala ce ( 1 99 ) and having stayed a ’

short time with his father and seen Vi lésavat i he returned , ,

to his o wn house and lay down o n a couch many hued ,


-

with the radiance o f various gems like Krishna on the ,

circle o f Qe sh a s hoods ’
.


And when night had turned to dawn h e with h i s , ,

father s leave rose before sunrise in eagerness f o r the new
, ,

delight o f hunting and mounting I n dr ayu dh a went to , , ,

the wood with a great retinue of runners horses and , ,

elephants His eagerness wa s doubled by huntsmen lead


.

ing i na golden leash hounds large as asses With arrows .

whose shafts were bright a s the leaves of a blossoming


lotus and fi t to cleave the fronta l bones o f young wild
,

1
e l e phants he slew wi l d boars
, lions carabh as yaks and , , , ,

many other kinds o f deer by thousands ( 2 0 0 ) whil e the ,

woodland goddesses looked at him with half closed eyes -


,

fl u t t e re d by fear of the twanging of his bow Other animals .

by hi s great energy he took alive A nd when the sun .

reached the z enith he rode home from the wood ( 2 0 1 ) ,

with but a few princes who were well mounted going over ,

the events of the cha se saying Thus I killed a lion thus


, ,

a bear thus a bu ffa l o thu s a c arab b a thus a stag


, , ,
.

O n dismounting he sat down on a s eat brought hastily


,

by his attendants took o ff his cor s elet and remov e d the


, ,

rest of his riding apparel he then rested a s hort tim e till ,

his weariness was removed by the wind of waving fans ;


having rested h e went to the bathroom provided with a
, ,

1
Qa r ab h a a f ab u l
,
o u s an i m a l s u ppos e d to h av e e i ght l e gs an d to ,

d we ll i n t h e sn owy mou n t ai n s .
74

hundred pitchers o f gold silver and j ewe l s and having a , , ,

gold s eat placed in its midst And when the bath was .

over and he had been rubbed in a separat e room with


,

cloth s his head wa s covered with a strip of pur e lin e n his


, ,

raiment was put o n and he performed his homage to the


,

gods ; and when he entered the perfuming room th e re -


,

approached him the court women attendants appointed by ,

t h e grand chamber l ain and sent by the king slaves o f ,

Vi lasavat i with K u lavar d h an a and zenana women sent


, ,

from t h e whol e zenana bearing in baskets difl e r e n t orna ,

ments wreaths unguents and robes which th e y presented


, , , ,

t o him Having taken them in due order from the women


.
,

he fi rst himself anointed Vai cam p ayan a When his own .

anointing wa s done and giving to those around him ,

fl o we r s perfumes robes and j ewels a s was meet ( 2 0 2 ) he


, , , , ,

wen t to the banquet hall rich in a thousand j ewelled -


,

vessels like the autumn sky gleaming with stars H e


,
.

there sat on a doubled rug with Vai cam p ayan a next him , ,

eagerly employed as was fi t t i n g in praising his virtues


, , ,

and the host o f princes placed each in order o f seniority o n ,

the ground felt the plea sure of the i r service increased by


,

seeing t h e great courtesy wi th which the prince s aid L et


thi s be given to him and that to him And so he du l y
,

partook of his morning meal .

After rin sin g his mouth and taking bet e l he stayed ,

there a short time and then went to I n drayu dh a and there


, , ,

without sitting down while his attendants stood behi nd ,

him with upraised faces awaitin g his commands and


, , ,

talking mostly about I n dray u dh a s points he himself with ’

, ,

heart uplifted by I n drayu dh a s merits scattered the fodder ’

before him and departing visited t h e court ; and in the


, ,

same order of routin e he saw the kin g and returning , ,

home spent the night there Next day at dawn he beheld


, .
, ,

approaching a chamb e rlain by name K ailé sa the chief of , ,

the zenana greatly trusted by the king accompanied by a


, ,

maiden of noble form in her fi r st youth from her life at , ,

court s e lf possessed ye t not devoid of modesty ( 2 03) grow


-
, ,

ing to maidenhood and in her V eil o f silk red with cochinea l


, ,
76

A s the day s thus passed o n the king eager for the , ,

anointing of Can dr api d a a s crown prince ( 2 0 6 ) appointed ,

chamberlains to gather together all things needful for i t ;


and when it was at hand Qukan asa desirous o f increasing
, ,

the prince s modesty great a s it already was s poke to him
, ,

at length during o n e o f his visits : Dear Can dr api d a ,

though thou hast learnt what is to be known and read all ,

the c a stra s no little remain s for thee to l earn For tru l y


, .

the darkness arisin g from youth is by nature very thick ,

n o r can it be pi e rced by the sun nor cleft by the radiance ,

of j ew e ls nor dispelled by the brightness of lamps The


,
.

intoxication o f L akshm i is terrible and does n o t cease even ,

in o ld age There is too another b l indness o f power evil


.
, , , ,

not to be cured by any sa l ve The fever o f pride run s very .

high and no cooling appliances can a l lay i t The madne s s


,
.

that rises from tasting the poison o f the senses is violent ,

and not to be counteracted by roots o r charms The d e fi le .

ment of the stain of passion is never destroyed by bathing


o r p u rifi c at i o n T he sleep of the multitude o f royal pleasures
.

is ever terrible and the end o f night brings no waking


,
.

Thus thou must often be told at l ength L ordship inherited .

ev e n from birth fresh youth peerl e ss beauty superhuman


, , ,

talent all this is a l ong s uccession of ills ( 2 0 7 ) E ach o f


, .

these separately is a home of insolence how much more


the a ss e mblage of them ! F or in early yo uth the mind
often l oses its purity though it be c l ean s ed with the pure
,

waters of the c a stra s The eyes o f the young become


.

i n fl am e d though their clearness is n o t quite lost


,
Nature .
,

too when the whirlwind o f passion arises carries a man


, ,

far in youth at its o wn will like a dry leaf borne o n the ,

wind This mirage of pleasure which captivates the sen s es


.
,

a s if they were deer alway s ends in sorrow When the


,
.

mind has its con sciousness dulled by early youth the char ,

ac t e ri st i c s of the outer wor l d fa l l on it like water all the ,

more sweetly for being but j ust tasted E xtreme clinging .

to the things of sense destroys a man misleading him like ,

ignorance o f his bearings B ut men such a s thou art the .

fi t t i n g vessels f o r instruction F o r on a min d f ree from.


77

sta in the Virtue o f good counsel enters easily as the moon s ,


rays on a moon crystal The words of a guru though pure


.
, ,

yet cause great pain when they enter the ears of t h e bad ,

a s water does ; ( 2 0 8 ) while in others they produce a nobler


beauty like the ear j ewel o n an elephant They remove
,
-
.

the thick darkness o f many sins like the moon in the ,

1
gloaming The teaching of a guru is ca l ming and brings
.
,

to an end the fau l ts o f youth by turning them to Virtue ,

j ust a s old age takes away the dark stain o f the locks by
turning them to gray This is the time to teach thee
. ,

while thou ha st not yet ta sted the pleasures o f sense For .

teaching pours away like water in a heart shattered by the



stroke o f l ove s arrow Family and sacred tradition are
.

unavailing to the froward and undisciplined Does a fi re .

not burn when fed on sandal wood 2 Is not the submarine


-

fi re the fi e rc e r in the water that is wont to quench fi re ?


B ut the words o f a guru are a ba t hing without water ab l e ,

to cleanse all the stains o f man they are a maturity that


chang e s not the locks to gray ; they give weight without
increase of bulk ; though not wrought of gold they are an ,

ear j ewe l of no common order ; without l ight they shine ;


-

without startling they awaken They are specially needed


.

f o r kin gs for the admonishers of kings are few


, ( 2 0 9 ) For .

from fear men fo l low like an echo the words o f kings an d


, ,

so being unbridled in their pride and having the cavity of


, ,

their ears wholly stopped they do not hear good advice


,

even when o ff ered and when they do h e ar by closing ,

their eyes like an e l ephant they show th e ir contempt and


, ,

pain the teachers who o ffer them good counsel F or the .

nature o f kings being darkened by the madnes s of pride s


,

fever is perturbed their wealth causes arrogance and fa l se


,

self esteem ; their royal glory ca uses the torpor bro ught
-

about by the poison o f kingly power First let o n e who .


,

strive s after happiness look at L akshmi For this Lakshmi .


,

who n o w rests like a b e e o n the l otus grove of a circle o f -

naked swords ha s risen from the milk ocean has taken her
, ,

g l ow from the buds o f the coral tre e her crookedness from


-
,

1
( ) M an y sin s ( b) twi l i ght
a .
the moon s digit her restlessness from the steed U c c aih

c rava her witchery from K alak at a poison her intoxication


, ,

from nectar and fro m the K au st u b h a gem her hardness


,
.

( 2 1 0 ) All these she has taken as keepsakes to relieve her


longing with m emory o f her companions friendship There ’
.

is nothing so l ittle understood here in the world a s this


base Lakshmi When wo n she is hard to keep ; when
.
,

bound fast by the fi rm cords of heroism she vanishes ; ,

when h e ld by a cage of swords brandished by a thousand


fi e r c e champions she yet escapes ; when guarded by a ,

thick band o f elephants dark with a storm o f ichor she , ,

yet fl e e s away She keeps not friendships ; sh e regards not


.

race she r e cks n o t o f beauty she follows n o t the fortunes


o f a family ; s h e looks not o n character ; she counts not

cleverness ; she hears not sacred l e arning ; she courts not


righteousness ; she honours not liberality ; she valu e s not
discrimination ; she guards not conduct ; she und e rstands
not truth ; she makes not auspicious marks h e r guide like
the outline o f an a erial city she vanishes eve n a s we look ,

o n her . She is still diz zy with the feeling produced by the


eddying o f the whirlpool ma d e by Mount Mandara As if .

she were the tip o i a lotus stalk bound to the varying


motion o f a lotus bed she gives no fi rm foothold anywher e


-
, .

E ven when held fa st wi t h gr e at e ff ort in palaces sh e ,

totters a s if drunk with the ichor o f their many wild


e lephants ( 2 1 1 ) She dwe l ls o n the sword s edge as if to

.

learn cru e lty She clings to the form of N a r ayana a s if to


.

learn constant change of form F ull of fi c kle n e ss she .


,

leaves ev e n a king richly endow e d with fri e nds j ud i cial , ,

power treasure and territory as she leaves a lotus at the


, , ,

end of day though it have root stalk bud and wide


, , , ,

spreading petals Like a cre e per she is ever a para site


.
1
, .

Like Gang a though producing wealth she is all a stir with


, ,

bubbl e s like the sun s ray she alights o n o n e thing aft e r ,

another like the cavity o f h e ll she is ful l o f dense dark ,

ness Like the demon H i dam b a her heart is only won by


.
,

the courage o f a Bhi ma l ike the rainy sea son she sends ,

1
L i t ( a ) c lim bs t r e e s ; ( b) p r ot e cts p aras i t e s
.
, .
80

hotbed of the pustules of scandal th e prologue of the ,

drama of fraud the roar of the elephant o f passion t h e


, ,

slaughter house o f goodn e ss the tongu e o f R a hu f o r th e


-
,

moon of holiness Nor see I any who has no t been


.

violently embraced by her while she wa s yet unknown to


him and whom she has not deceived Truly even in a
,
.
,

picture she moves even i n a book she practis e s magic even


cut in a gem she deceiv e s e ven when heard she mis l eads
even when thought o n she betrays .

When this wretched evil creature win s kings after


great toil by the will o f destiny th e y becom e h e lpl e ss and , ,

the abode of every shamefu l d e ed F or at the very .

moment o f coronation their graciousness is washed away


a s if by the auspicious water j ars ; ( 2 1 4 ) their heart is -

darkened as by the smoke of the sac rifi c i al fi re ; their


patience is swept away a s by the ku c a brooms of the priest
their remembrance o f advancing age is concealed a s by t h e
donning o f the turban ; t h e sight of the next world is k e pt
afar a s by the umbrella s circle ; truth is removed a s by the

wind o f the cowries V irtue is driven out a s by the wands


o f o ffi c e ; the voices of the good are drowned a s by cries o f

All hai l and glory is fl o u t e d a s by t h e streamers of the


banners .

F or some kings are deceived by successes which are


uncertain a s the tremulous beaks o f birds when loose from
weariness and which though pleasant for a moment a s a
, ,

fi re fi y s fl ash are contemned by the wise ; they forget their


’ ‘

origin in t h e pride o f amassing a l ittle wealth and ar e ,

troubled by the onrush o f pa ssion a s by a blood poisoning -

brought o n by accumulated diseases they are tortured by


the senses which though but fi ve in their eagernes s to
, ,

taste eve ry pleasure turn to a thousand ; they are b e


,

wildered by the mind which in native fi c kle n e ss follows its


, , ,

o wn impulses and being but one gets the force of a


, , ,

hundred thousand i n its changes Thus they fa ll into .

utter he l plessness They are seized by demons conquered


.
,

by i mps ( 2 1 5 ) poss e ssed by enchantments held by


, ,

mon s ters mocked by the wind swallow e d by ogres


, , .
Pierced by the arrows o f K a ma they make a thousand ,

contortions scorched by covetousness they writhe ; struck ,

do wn by fi e rc e blows they sink down 1


Like crabs th e y , .
,

sidle ; like cripp l es with steps brok e n by sin they are led , ,

helpless by others like stammerers from former sins of


falsehood they can scarce babb l e like sap t ac c h ada tre e s
,
2
,

they produce headache in those near them ; like dying


men they know not even their kin ; like purblind men
,
3
,

they cannot see the brightest Virtue ; like men bitten in a


fata l hour they are not waked even by mighty charms ;
,

like lac ornaments they cannot endure strong heat ; like


- 4
,

rogue elephants being fi rm ly fi xe d to the pillar o f self,

conceit they refuse teaching ; bewildered by the poison o f


,

covetousness they see everything a s golden ; like arrow s


,

5
sharpened by polishing when in the hands o f other s they ,

cause destruction ( 2 1 6) with their rods they strike down


3

great families like high growing fruit like untim e ly


,
-

blossoms though fair outwardly they cause destruction ;


, ,

they are terrible o f nature like the a shes o f a funeral pyre ; ,

like men with cataract they can see no distance ; like men ,

possessed th e y have their houses ruled by court j esters


,

when but heard o i they terrify like funera l drums ; when , ,

but thought o i like a resolve to commit mortal sin they


, ,

bring about great calamity being daily fi lle d with sin they ,

become wholly pu ffed up In this state having allied them .


,

selves to a hundred sins they are like drop s o f water ,

hanging o n the tip o f the grass on an anthill and have ,

fallen without perceiving i t .

B ut others are deceived by rogues intent on their


o wn ends greedy o f the fl e sh pots o f wealth crane s of the
,
-
,

palace l otus beds ' Gambling say these-


is a rela x a , ,

tion ; adultery a sign o f cleverness ; hunting exercise ; ,

drinking delight ; recklessness heroism ; neglect o f a


, ,

wife freedom from infatuation ( 2 1 7 ) contempt o f a guru s


,

word s a claim to others submission u nruliness of s ervants


,

,

1
Lit , . th i li mbs f i l th m
e r a e .
2
Wh i ch h v a e a st o ng sc n t
r e .

h vin g th obb i n g e y e s ( ) A n ob l e m an ; ( b) fi re
3 4
M en a r . a .

5
O r, d ink
r .
3
O r,t ax s e .

6
82

the en suring o f p l ea sant service d e votion to dance song , ,

music and bad company is knowledge of the world ;


, ,

hearkening to shameful crim e s i s greatness o f m ind ; tam e


endurance of contempt is pati e nce ; self w ill is lordship ; -

disregard o f the gods is high spirit t h e prais e o f bards is


glory rest l essness is enterprise ; lack of discernment i s
impartiality Thus are kings deceived with more than
.

mortal praises by men ready to raise faults to the grade of


Virtues practised in deception laughing in their hearts
, , ,

utterly Villainous ; and thus these monarchs by reason of ,

th e ir senselessness have their minds intoxicated by the


,

pride of wealth and have a settled false conceit in them


,

that these things are real l y so ; though subj ect to morta l


conditions they l ook on themselves a s having alighted o n
,

earth a s divine beings with a superhuman destiny ; they


m p loy a pomp in their undertakings only fi t for gods ( 2 1 8 )
and win the contempt of a l l mankind They welcome thi s .

deception o f themselve s by their followers From the .

delusion a s to the i r own divinity established in their min ds ,

they are overthrown by false ideas and they think their ,

1
o wn pair of arms have received another pair ; they ima gin e
their forehead has a third eye b uried in the sk i n 2
They .

consider the s ight of themse l ves a favour ; they esteem


their g l ance a b e n e fi t ; they regard their word s as a
present ; they hold their command a g l orious boon ; they
deem their touch a p u rifi c at i o n Weighed down by the .

pride of their fa l se greatness they neither do homage to the


,

god s nor reverence Brahman s nor honour the honourable


, , ,

nor sa l ute those to whom salutes are due nor address ,

those who should be a ddressed nor rise to greet their gurus


, .

They laugh at t h e l e arned a s losing in useless labour all


the enj oyment of pleasur e th e y loo k o n the teaching o f
the o ld a s the wandering talk o f dotage ; they abuse th e
advice o f their councillors as an insult to their o wn wis
d o m ; they are wroth with the giver o f good counsel .

A t all events the man they we l come with whom



, ,

they conv ers e ; whom th e y place by their side advance ( 2 1 9 )


, ,

2
Lik e Gi va .
84

down to t h e e t h at thy for e fathers have borne Bow the


'

heads of thy foes raise the host of thy friends after thy
coronation wander round the world for conquest ; and
br i ng under thy sway the earth with its seven continents
subdued o f yore by thy father .

This is the time to crown thyself with glory ( 2 2 1 ) .

A glorious king ha s his commands f u lfi lle d a s swiftly a s a


gr e at a scetic .


Having said thus much he wa s silent and by his , ,

words Can d rapi d a wa s a s it were wash ed wakened ‘

, , , ,

r i fi e d brightened bedewed anointed a dorned cleansed


p u , , , , , ,

and made radiant and with gla d heart he returned after a


,

short time to his o wn palace .


Som e days l ater on an au spicious day the king , , ,

surround e d by a thousan d chi e fs raised aloft with Q uka , ,

n a sa s help the vessel of consecration and himse l f anointed



, ,

his son while t h e rest o f the rites w e re performed by the


,

family pri e st The water of consecration wa s brought from


.

e very sacred pool river and ocean encircled by every


, ,

plant fruit earth an d gem mingl e d with tears o f j oy and


, , , , ,

p u r ifi e d by mantras A t that very mom . e nt while the ,

prince wa s yet wet with the water of con secration roya l ,

glory pa ssed o n to him without leaving T ar ap i d a a s a ,

creeper stil l clasping its o wn tre e passes to another ( 2 22 ) .

Straightway he was anointed from head to foot by Vi lé sa


vati a ttended by all the z e nana and full o f tender love
, , ,

with sweet sandal whit e a s moonb e ams H e wa s gar .

landed with fresh whit e fl o we r s ; deck e d with lin e s o f


1

g o r o c a n a adorned with an earri n g of d fi r va grass c l ad in


two new silken rob e s with long fringes white a s the moon ,

bound with an amul e t round his hand tied by the family ,

pri e st ; and had his breast e ncircl e d by a pearl necklace -


,

like the circl e of the Seven Rishis come down to see his
coronation strung on fi lam e n t s from th e lotus poo l o f the
,
-

royal fortune o f young royalty .


From t h e complete concealment o f his body by
wreaths o f white fl o we r s interwoven and hangin g to his
1 L it i n l ai d

.
.
,
85

knees soft as moonbeams and from his w earing s n o wy


, ,

1
robes he wa s like Nara simha shaking h i s thick mane , ,

o r like Kail a sa with its fl o wi n g str e ams or A i ravat a rough


, , ,

with the tangled lotus fi b r e s of the heavenly Gang e s or the


-
,

Milky Ocean all covered with flak e s o f bright foam


, .

( 22 3 ) Then his father himself for that time took the


chamberlain s wand to make way for him and he went to

the hall o f assembly and mounted the royal throne like ,

the moon o n Meru s peak Then when he had rec e iv e d ’


.
,

due homage from the kings after a short pause t h e ,

great drum that heralded his setting o u t on his triumpha l


course resounded deeply under the stroke of golden drum ,

sticks Its sound was as the noise of clouds gathering at


.

the day o f doom ; o r the ocean struck by Mandara o r the


foundations of e arth by the earthquakes that close an aeon ;
o r a portent cloud with its fl ash e s o f lightning ; o r the
-
,

hollow o f hell by the blows of the snout of the Great Boar .

And by its sound the spaces o f the world were in fl at e d ,

O pened separated outspread fi lle d turned sunwise and


, , , , ,

deepened an d the bonds that held the sky were unloosed


,
.

The echo of it wand e red through the three worlds ; for it


was embraced in the lower wor l d by Q esha with his ,

thousand hoods raised and bristling in fear ; it was chal


l enged in space by the elephants o f the quarters tossing
their tusks in opposition ; it was honoured with sunwise
2
t u rn s in the sky by the sun s steeds tossing their heads ’

in their snort o f terror ; ( 2 24) it was wondrously answered


on Kail a sa s peak by i a s bull with a roar o f j oy in the
’ ’

belief that it was his master s loudest laugh it wa s met in ’

Meru by A i ravat a with deep trumpetin g ; it was reverenced


,

in the hal l of the gods by Yama s bull with his curved



,

horns turned sideways in wrath at so strange a sound and


it wa s heard in terror by the guardian gods o f the world .

Then at the roar of the d rum followed by an outcry


, ,

of Al l hail from all sides Can drapi d a came down fro m ,

the throne and with him went the glory of his foes Hé
,
.


1 O r, k e s ar a fl o w e rs .
2
B e c a ka , so comm n t y
e ar .
86

left the hall o f ass e mbly fol l owed by a thousand chiefs


, ,

w ho rose hastily around him strewing o n all sides the large


,

pearls that f e ll from the strings o f th e ir n e ckla ces a s they


struck against each other like rice sportive ly thrown a s a
,

good omen for th e ir setting o ff to conquer the world H e .

showed like the coral tree amid the white buds o f the
-

kalpa tree s ; o r A i r avat a amid the e lephants o f the


- 1

quarters bedewing him with water from their trunks ; o r


heaven with the fi rm am e n t showering stars ; o r the rainy
,

season with c l ouds ever pouring heavy drops .

( 2 2 5) Then an elephant was hastily brought by the


mahout adorned with all auspicious sign s for the j ourney
, ,

and o n the inner seat P at rale kh fi was placed T he prin ce .

then mounted and under the shade o f an umbre l la with a


,

hundred wires enmeshed with pear l s beauteous as Kail a sa ,

standing on the arms o f Havana and white a s the whirl ,

pools o f the Milky Ocean under the tossing of the mountain ,

he started o n his j ourn e y And a s he paus e d in his .

departure he s aw the ten quar t ers tawny with the rich


sunlight surpassing molten lac of the fl ash i n g crest j ewels
, ,
-

o f the kings who watched him with faces hidd e n behind

the ramparts a s if the light were t h e fi r e o f his o wn


,

maj esty fl ash in g forth after his coronation H e saw t h e


,
.

earth bright a s if with his o wn glow o f loya l ty when


anointed a s heir apparent and the sky crimson a s with the
-
,

fl am e that hera l ded the swift destruction o f his foe s and ,

daylight roseate a s with lac j uice from the feet of th e -

Lakshm i of earth coming to greet him .

O n the way hosts o f kings with their thousand


“ ‘
,

elephants swayin g in confusion their umbrella s broken by ,

the pressure o f the crowd their crest j ewels falling low a s


,
-

their diadems bent in homage ( 22 6) their e arrings h anging ,

down and the j ewels fall i ng o n their ch eeks bowed l ow


, ,

before him a s a trusted genera l recited their names The


,
.

elephant Gan dh am fidan a followed the prince pink with ,

much red l ead dangling to the ground his ear ornament s


,
-

o f pear l s having his head o ut l ined with many a wre ath o f


,

1
Both tr e e s o f p aradi s e .
88

Tarap i d a, for thee to conquer 2 Wh at regions unsubdued ‘


,

for th e e to subdue ? ( 2 3 5 ) What fortresses untaken for ,

thee to take ? What continents unappropriated f o r the e ,

t o appropriate ? What treasures ungain e d for t hee t o ,

gain ? What kings have not been h umbled ? B y whom


have the raised hands of salutation soft a s young l otuses , ,

not been placed on the head ? B y whose brow s encircled ,

with golden bands have the fl o o r s o f his halls not been


,

polished ? Whose crest j ewel s have not scraped his foot -

stool ? Who have not accepted his sta ff o f o ffic e ? Who


have not waved his cowries ? Who have not raised t h e
cry o f Hail Who have not drunk in with the crocodile s
o f their crest s the radiance o f his feet like pure streams
, ,

F or all the s e pr i nce s though they are imbued with t h e ,

pride o f armie s ready in their rough play to plunge into


,

the four oceans though they are the peers o f the grea t
kings D acarat h a B h agi rat h a Bharata D i li p a Alarka and
, , , , ,

M an dh at r i ; though they are anointed princes soma ,

drinker s haughty in the pride of birth yet they bear o n


, ,

the spray s of crests p u rifi e d with the shower of the water


of consecration th e dust of thy feet o f happy omen like an ,

amu l et o f a she s B y them a s by fresh n oble mountain s


.
,

the earth i s uphe l d These their armies th at have enter e d


.

the heart of the ten regions fo l low thee alone ( 2 3 6 ) F or .

10 wherever thy g l ance i s cast hell seems to vomit forth ,

armies the earth to bear them the quarte rs to di scharg e


, ,

them the sky to rain them the day to create them And
, ,
.

methinks the earth trampled by the weigh t o f boundless ,

host s recalls to day the confusion o f the battles of the


,
- .

Mah a bh a rata .

Here the s un wander s in the groves of pennons with ,

hi s o rb stumblin g over their t 0 ps as if he wer e trying out o f , ,

curiosity to count the banners The earth is ceaselessly


, .

submerged under ichor s weet a s cardamons and fl o win g ,

like a plait o f hair from the elephants who scatter it all


,

round and thick too with the murmur o f the bees s ettlin g
, , ,

o n i t
, so that it shines as if fi lle d with the waves o f Yamun a .

The line s of moon white fl ags hide the horizon like river s
-
,
9

that in fear o f being mad e turbid by the heavy host have


fl e d to the sky It is a wonder that t h e earth has not
.

t o day been split into a thousand pieces by the weight of


-

the army and that the bonds o f its j oints the noble ,

mounta in s are n o t burst a sunder ; and that the hoods o f


,

Q esha the
, lord of serpents in distress at the burden of earth
,

pressed down under the l oad o f tr 0 0 ps do not give way , .


( 237) While he was thus speaking the prince reached ,

his palac e It was adorned with many lofty triumpha l


.

arches ; dotted with a thousand pavilions enclosed in


gra ssy ramparts and bright with many a tent of shining
,

white c l oth Here he dismounted and performed in kingly


.
,

wise al l due rites and though the kings and min isters who
had come together sought to divert him with various tales ,

he spent the rest o f the day in sorrow for his heart was ,

tortured with bitter grief for his fresh separation from his
father When day wa s brought to a close he passed the
.

night t o o mostly in s l eep l essness with Vai cam p ayan a


, , ,

restin g on a couch n o t far from his own and P at rale kh a ,

sleeping hard by o n a blanket p l aced o n the ground ; hi s


talk wa s now o f his father n o w o f his mother now of , ,

Q u k a n a sa and ,he rested but little A t dawn he arose and .


,

with an army that grew at every m arch a s it advanced ,

in unchanged order he hollowed the earth shook the , ,

mountains dried the rivers emptied the lakes ( 2 38 )


, , ,

crushed the woods to powder levelled the crooked places , ,

tore down the fortresses fi lle d up the hollows and hol l owed , ,

the s o l id ground .


B y degrees a s he wandered at will he bo w ed the
, ,

haughty e x alted the humble encourag e d the fearful p r o


, , ,

t e c t e d the suppliant rooted out the Vicious and drove o u t


, ,

the hostile H e anointed princes in di ff erent places


. ,

gathered treasures accepted gif ts took tribute taught local


, , ,

regulations e stablished monuments of his visit made


, ,

hymns of worship and inscrib e d edicts H e hon o ur e d


,
.

Brahmans reverenced saints protected hermitag e s and


, , ,

showed a prowess that won his people s love H e exalted ’


.

h i s maj esty heaped up his glory showed his virtues f ar


, ,
90

and wide and won renown for his good deeds


, Thus .

trampling down the woods on the shore and turning the ,

who l e expanse o f ocean to gray with the dust o f hi s army ,

he wandered over the earth .


The E ast was his fi r st conquest then the Southern ,

Q u arter m arked by Tri canku then the Western Quarter


, , ,

which has V aruna f o r its s ign and immediately afterwards ,

the Northern Quarter a dorned by the Seven R i shis .

Within the three years that he roamed over the world he


had subdued the whole earth with it s continents bounded , ,

o n ly by the moat o f four oceans .

( 2 39) H e then wandering sunwise conquered and


“ ‘
, ,

occupied S uvar n ap u ra n o t far from the E astern Ocean the , ,

abode o f those K i rat as who dwell near K ailét sa and are cal led ,

He m aj akfi t as and a s his army wa s weary from its wor l d


,

wide wandering he encamped there for a few days t o rest


,
.

One day during his soj ourn there h e mounted Indr a


yudha to hunt and a s he roamed through the wood he
,

beheld a pair o f K i nn aras wandering down at will from the


mountains Wondering at the strange sight and eager to
.
,

take them he brought up his horse respectfu l ly near them


,

and approached them B ut they h urried o n fearing the .


,

unkno wn sight o f a man and fl e e in g from him whil e he , ,



pursued them doub l ing I n drayu dh a s speed by frequent
,

pat s o n his neck and went o n a l one l eaving his army far
, ,

behind Led o n by the idea that he wa s j ust catching


.

them he wa s borne in an in stant fif t e e n l eague s from his


,

o wn quarters by I n d r fi u dh a s speed a s it were at one


y
bound and was left companionless ( 2 40 ) The pair o f
, .

Ki nn aras he wa s pursuing were climbing a s teep h ill in


front o f him H e at length turned away hi s glance which
.
,

wa s following their progress and checked by the steepne s s , ,

o f the a scent reined in I n dray u dh a


,
T hen seeing that .
,

both his horse and himself were tired and heated by the i r
toi l s he considered for a moment and l aughed at himse l f
, ,

a s he thought : Why have I thu s wearied myse l f for ‘

nothing l ike a child ? What matter s i t whether I catch


,

the pair o f K inn aras o r n o t 2 If caught what is the good 2 ‘

,

92

f or water he wandered ti ll at l e ngth he saw a track wet


,

with masses of mud raised by the fe e t o f a large troop of


mountain elephants wh o had lately come up from bathing
in a l otus pool ( 24 3 ) Inferring thence that there w
,

-
. as

water near he went straight o n along the slope o i Kail a sa


, ,

the trees o f which closely crowded as they were seem e d , , ,

from their lack of boughs to be far apart f o r they were , ,

mostly pines c al and gum olibanum trees and were lofty


, , , ,

and like a circle o f umb rellas to be gazed at with uprais e d ,

head There wa s thick y e llow sand and by reason o f the


.
,

stony soil the gra ss and shrub s were but scanty .

( 2 44 ) A t length he beheld o n the north east o f Kail a sa ,


-
,

a very l ofty clump o f trees ri s ing like a mass o f clouds , ,

heavy with its weight of rain and massed a s if with the ,

darkn ess o f a night in the dark fortnight .


The wind from the waves soft as sandal dewy cool , , ,

from passing over t h e wat e r aromatic with fl o we rs met , ,

h im and s eemed to woo him and the cri e s of kalah am sas


,

drunk with lotus honey charming his ear summoned him -


, ,

to enter S o he went into that clump and in its midst


.
,

behe l d the A c c h o d a Lake a s if it were t h e mirror o f the ,

L akshmi of the three worlds the crystal chamber o f the ,

goddess o f earth the path by which the waters o f oc e an


,

escape the oozing of the quarters the avatar of part o f th e


, ,

sky Kai la sa taught to fl o w Himavat li q u e fi e d moonlight


, , ,

melted ( ; iva s smil e turned t o water ( 2 4 5 ) the merit o f the


,

three worlds abiding in the shape of a lake a range of hills ,

o f l api s la z uli changed into water o r a mass of a utumn ,

c l oud s poured down in one spot F rom it s clearness it .

might be Varuna s mirror ; it seemed to be fashioned o f ’

the hearts o f ascetics the virtues o f good men the bright , ,

e yes o f deer or the rays o f pearls , .

2
( 47) Like the person of a great man it showed clearly ,

t h e signs o f fi sh crocodile tortoise and cakra ; l ike the


,
1
, ,

story of K artikeya the lamentation s o f the wives of ,

K rau ri c a resounded in i t ; it was shaken by the wings of


2 ‘'

1
All au sp l c l o u s s gn s C a kr a i s ( a ) a qu o i t ; ( b ) a c akr avfik a
1 .
f
.

2
(a) A d mon ;
e ( b) the h oner .
white D h é rt arash t ras as the Mah abh arata by the rivalry
,

o f P a ndava s and D h art ar ash t r a s and the drinking o f


poison by i a was r e presented by the drinking o f its wate r
by peacocks as if it were the time of the churnin g o f ocean
, .

It w a s fair like a god with a gaze that never wavers


, , .

( 2 4 8 ) Lik e a futile argument it seemed t o have no end ; ,

and wa s a lake most fair and gladdening to the eyes .

The very sight of it seemed to remove Can drépi d a s ’

weariness and a s he gaz e d he thought


,

Though my pursuit of the horse faced pair was -

fruitless ye t now that I see this l ake it has gained its


,

reward My eyes re ward in b e holding all that is t o be


.

seen has now been won the furthest point o f all fair things,
.

seen the limit of all that gladd e ns u s gazed upon the


, ,

boundary line of all that charms u s descri e d the perfection ,

o f all that cause s j oy made manifest and the vanishing ,

point o f all worthy o f sight beheld ( 24 9 ) B y creating thi s .

lake water sweet a s nectar t h e Creator has made hi s own


, ,

labour of creation super fluous F o r this too like the .


, ,

n e ctar that gladdens all the senses produces j oy to the eye ,

by its purity o ff ers the pleasure of touch by its cooln e ss


, ,

gladdens the sens e of smell by the fragrance of its lotus e s ,

pleases the ear with the ceaseless murmur of its h am sas ,

and delights the taste with its sweetness Truly it is from .

eagerness to behold this that i a leave s n o t his infatuation


for dwelling on K ailé sa S urely Krishna no longer follows .

his own natural desire as to a watery couch for he sleeps ,

o n the ocean with its water bitter with salt and leaves this
, ,

water s weet a s nectar Nor is this in sooth the prim aeva l , ,

lake f o r the earth when fearing the blows o f the tusks of


,

the boar o f destruction entered the ocean all the water s o f


, ,

which were d e signed but to be a draught f o r Agasty a ;


whereas if it had plunged i nto this mighty lake deep a s
, ,

many deep hells it could not have been reached I say n o t


, ,

by o n e but not even by a thousand boars ( 2 5 0) Veri ly it


,
.

is from thi s lake that the clouds of doom at the s eason s o f


fi n al destruction draw little by little their water when they
overwhelm the interstice s o f the un i ver s e and darken all ,
94

the quarters with their destroying storm A nd methinks .


that the world Brahm a s e gg which in the beginning of
, ,

creation was made of water was ma ssed toget h er and ,

S o thinking he

placed here und e r the guise of a lak e .
,

reached the south bank dismounted and took o ff Indr a ,

y u d h a s harnes

s ; ( 2 5 1 ) and the latter rolled on the ground ,

arose ate s ome mouthfuls o f grass and then t h e prince


, ,

took him down to the lake and let him drink and bathe at ,

w ill After that the prince took o ff his bridle bound two
.
, ,

o i: his feet by a golden chain to the lower bough of a tree

hard b y an d c utting o ff with his dagger som e d arv a gra ss


, ,

from the bank o f the lake threw it befor e the horse and , ,

went back himself to the water He washed his hands .


,

and feasted like the c a tah a o n water ; like the c akravaka


, , ,

he tasted piec e s of l otus fi b re ; like the moon with its -

beams he touched the moon lotuses with his fi n ge r tips ;


,
- -

1
l ike a snake he welcomed the breeze o f the waves ; like
,

o n e wounded with L ove s arrows he placed a covering o f ,

lotus leaves on his breast ; like a mountain elephant when


-
,

the tip of his trunk is wet with spray he adorned his hand s ,

with spray washed l otuses Then with dewy lotus l e aves


- .
-
,

with fresh ly broken fi b re s he made a couch o n a rock


-
,

embowered in creepers and rolling up his cloak for a ,

pi ll ow l ay down to sleep After a short rest he heard on


,
.
,

the north bank o f the lake a sweet sound o f unearthly


music borne o n the ear and blent with the chords o f the
, ,

vi n a ( 2 5 2 ) I n dr ay u dh a heard it fi r st and letting fall the


.
,

grass he was eating with ears fi xe d and neck arched , ,

turned towards t h e voice The prince a s h e heard i t rose .


, ,

from his lotus couch in curiosity to see whence this s ong


-

cou l d arise in a pla ce deserted by men and cast his glance ,

towards the region but from the great distance he wa s , ,

unable though he s trained his eyes to the utmost to


, ,

discern anything although he ceaselessly heard the sound, .

De s iring in his eagerness to know its source he determined ,

to depart and saddling and mounting I n drayu dh a he set


, ,

1
F o r t h e l ov e o f s n ak e s f o r t h e b r e e z e V R agh u v am ca X III 12 , .
, .
, ,

an d B u ddh ac ar i t a I 44 S n ak e s are som e ti m e s c all e d vaywba ksha


, .
,
.

.
96

massed together l ike Ganges between the trees giving a ,



fresh whiteness to Kail a sa and purifying the ga zer s soul , ,

though it but enter e d his eye The e xc e eding whiteness o f .

h e r form concealed her limbs a s though she h ad enter e d a


crysta l shrine or had plunged into a sea o f milk or wer e
, ,

hidden in s potless silk or were caught on t h e surface o f a


,

mirror o r were veiled in a utumn clouds S h e seemed to


,
.

be fashion e d from the quintes sence o f whiteness without ,

t h e bevy of helps for the creation o f the body that con sist
o f matter formed of the fi ve gross elements .

( 2 5 9 ) She wa s like sa c r i fi c e imp e rsonate come to worship ,

i a in
,
f e ar of being sei z e d by the un w orthy ; or Rati ,

undertaking a rit e o f propitiation to conci l iate him f o r the ,



sake o f K a ma s body o r L akshm i goddess of the Milky ,

Ocean longing for a digit of i a s moon her familiar


,

friend of yore wh e n they dwelt together in the deep ; o r the


embodied moon seekin g i a s protection from R ahu ; or ’

the beauty o f A i ravat a come to f alhl ( ; iva s wish to wear


1
,

an elephant s skin ; o r the brightness of the smil e o n the


right face o f i a become manifest an d taking a separate


abode or the white a sh with which i a besprinkles him
s elf in bodily shape ; or moonlight made manifest to dispel
,

the darkness o f i a s neck o r the embodied purity o f



Gauri s mind o r the impersonate chastity of K a rtikeya ;
o r the brightness o f i a s bul l dwe l ling apart fro m his

body ; ( 2 6 0) o r the wealth of fl o we r s o n the temple trees


come o f thems e lves to worship i a ; or the fulness o f
Brahm a s penance come down to earth ; or the glory o f the

Praj a patis o f the Golden Age resting after the fatigue o f ,

wandering through the seven worlds or the Three V eda s ,

d welling in the woods in grief at the overthrow o f righteous


nes s in the Kali Age ; o r the germ of a future Golden
Age in the form of a maid e n ; or the ful n ess o f a muni s
,

contemplation in human shape ; or a tr 0 0 p of heavenly


,

elephants fa l ling into confusion on reaching the heavenly


,

G anges o r the beau t y of Kail a sa fallen in drea d of being ,

1
M e gh ad fi t a , 3 8 .
97

uprooted by R a vana ; o r the Lakshmi of the Qve t advi p a 1

come to behold another continent ; o r t h e grace of an


opening k a c a blossom looking f o r the a utumn ; o r the
-

brightness of Qe sh a s body le avin g h e ll and com e to e arth


’ ‘

o r the brilliance o f Balar a ma which had lef t him in ,

wearin ess o f his intoxication ; or a succession o f bright


fortnights mass e d tog e ther .

She seemed from her whiteness to have taken a share


from al l t h e h am sas ( 2 6 1 ) o r to hav e come from the heart
of righteousness o r to have been fa shioned from a sh e ll ;
o r drawn from a pearl ; or formed from lotus fi b r e s ; o r -

made o f fl ake s o f ivory ; or p u rifi e d by brushes of moon


beams ; or inlaid with lime ; or whitened with foam ba l ls -

of ambrosia o r laved in streams o f quicksilver ; o r rubbed


with melted silver ; or dug o u t from the moon s orb ; or ’

decked with the hues of k a t aj a j asmine and si n duvfira , ,

fl o we r s She seemed in truth to be the V e ry furthest


.
, ,

bound of whiteness Her hea d wa s bright with matted .

locks hanging on h e r should e rs made a s it were o f the , , ,

brightness of morning rays taken from the sun o n the


E astern Mountain tawny like the quivering spl e ndour o f
,

fl ashing lightning a n d being wet from r e cent bathing


, , ,

marked with the dust o f i a s feet clasped in her devotion ; .


she bore i a s f e et marked with his name in j e w e ls on h e r


head fasten e d with a band o f hair ( 2 6 2 ) and her brow


,

had a sectarial mark o f ashes pure a s the dust o f stars


ground by the he e ls o f the sun s horses ( 2 6 6 ) She wa s a ’
.

goddess and her age could not be known by earthly


,

reckoning but she r e sembl e d a maiden of eighteen


,

s ummers .

Having beh e ld her Can dr api d a dismounted ; tied his ,

horse to a bough and then reverently bowing b e fore the


, ,

blessed i a gaz ed again o n that heavenly maiden with a


,

steady unswerving glance And as her beauty grace and .


, ,

s e renity stirred his wonder t h e thought arose in him ,

1 T h e d vip a s ar e con t i n n ts s p t d f om ch oth by oc n s


e e ar a e r ea er ea .

Th e
Q v e t a d v ip a , o r Whi t Con t in t i cco d in g to W b s gg st d
e en , s, a r e er, u e e

by A l e xan dri a . V . I n di sch St di n I 400 ; II 3 9 7 39 8


e u e ,

.
, .
, , .
98

How in this wor l d each matter in its turn becomes o f no


va l ue ! F o r when I was pursuing the pair of K in n aras
wanton l y and vainly I beh e ld this most beautiful place ,

inacce s sible to men and haunted by the immortals ( 2 6 7 ) ,


.

Then in my search f o r water I saw this de l ightful lake


sought by the Siddha s While I rest e d o n its bank I heard .

a divine song ; and a s I followed the sound this divine ,

maiden too fair for mortal sight met my eyes F o r I


, ,
.

cannot doubt her divinity Her very beauty proclaims her .

a goddess An d whence in the world o f men could ther e


.

arise such h armonies of h eavenly minstrelsy ? I f there ,

fore she vanishes not from my sight nor mounts the


, ,

summit o f Kail a sa nor fl i e s to the sky I will draw near


, ,

an d ask her Who art thou and what is thy name and
,

, ,

why hast thou in the dawn of life undertaken thi s vo w ?


This 1 s all full o f wonder With this resolve he approached .

another pillar o f the crysta l shrine and sat there awaiting , ,

the end of the song .


Then when she had stilled her lute l ike a moon ,

lotus bed when the pleasant hum o f the bees is silenced ,

( 2 6 8 ) the maiden rose made a sunwise turn and an ,

ob e isance to i a and then turning round with a glance, ,

by nature clear and by the power o f penan ce c o n fid e n t


, ,

she a s it were gave courage to Can drapi d a a s if thereby


'

, , ,

she were sprinkling him with merits laving h im with holy ,

water purifying him with penance freeing him from stain


, , ,

giving him his heart s desire and leading him to purity ’

, .


Hail to my guest said she

How has my l ord .

reached this place 2 Rise draw near and receive a guest s


, ,

S o she spake ; and h e deeming himself



due welcome .
,

honoured even by her deigning to sp e ak with him ,

reverently arose and bowed before her As thou b idde st .


,

lady he rep l ied and showed his courtesy by following in


,

her s teps like a pupil And o n the way he thought : L o .


,

even when she beheld me she did n o t vanish ! Truly a


hope of a sking her questions has taken hold o f my heart .

And when I see the courteous welcome rich in kindness o f , ,

this maiden fair though she be with a b e au t y rare in


,
'
100

Can drapi d a to the enj oyment o f them the thought aros e in ,

his h eart : O i a truth there is nought beyond the power ,

of penance For it is a great marvel how the lords o f the


.

forest albeit devoid o f sense yet l ik e beings endowed with


, , ,

sense gain honour for themse l ves by ca sting down their


,

fruits for this maiden A wondrous sight is this and o n e .


,

never seen befor e .

S o marvelling yet more h e brought I n dr ay u dh a to


, ,

that spot unsaddled him and ti e d him up hard b y ( 2 7 1 )


, , .

Then having bathed in the torrent he partook of the


, ,

fruits sweet as ambrosia and drank the cool water of the


, ,

cascade and having rinsed his mouth he waited apart


, ,

while the maiden enj oyed h e r repast o f water roots an d , ,

fruit .


When her meal wa s ended and she had said her

evening prayer and taken her seat fearlessly on the rock


, ,

the Prince quietly approached her and sitt i ng down near ,

her paused awhile and then respectfully said :


,

Lady the folly that besets mankin d impe l s me even


,

against my wil l to question thee for I am b e wi ld e r e d by a , .

curiosity that ha s taken courage from thy kindness F or .

even the slightest grac e of a lord embolden s a weak nature


even a short time spent together creates intimacy E ven a .

slight acceptance of homage produces a ff ection Therefore .


,

if it weary thee not I pray thee to honour me with thy ,

story F o r fr om my fi r st sight o f thee a great eagerness


.

has possessed me a s to this matter Is the race honoured .

by thy birth lady that of the Maruts o r B i sh i s or Gand


, , , ,

b arva s or G uh yakas or Apsara ses ? And wherefore in


, ,

thy fresh youth tend e r a s a fl o we r has this vo w been, ,

taken ? ( 2 7 2 ) F or how far apart would seem thy youth ,

thy b e auty and thine exceeding grace fro m this thy pea ce
, ,

from all thoughts o f earth ! This is m arvellous in min e


eyes ! And wh e r e fore hast thou left t h e heavenly h e rmit
age s t h at gods may win an d that hold all things needful ,

for the highest saints to dwell alone in this deserted wood 2 ,


A n d whereby hath thy body though formed o f the fi ve ,

gross elements put on this pure whiteness Never have I


,
101

heard o r seen aught such as this I p ray thee dispe l my .

curiosity and tell me all I a sk


, .

F or a little time she pondered his request in sil ence ,

and then she began to weep noiselessly and her eyes w e re ,

blinded by tears which fe l l in large drops carrying with ,

them the purity of her heart showering down the innocence


,

o f her senses distilling the essence o f a sceticism dropping


, ,

in a liquid form the brightness of her eyes most pure , ,

falling on her white cheeks like a broken string of pearls ,

unceasing splashing o n her bosom covered by the bark


,

robe .

( 2 7 3 ) And

a s he behe l d her weeping C an d r ap i d a r e

flect ed : How hard l y can misfortune be warded o ff if it ,

takes for its o wn a beauty like this which one might have ,

deemed beyond its might O i a truth there is none whom


the sorrows o f life in the body l eave untouched Strong .

indeed is the working of the opposed pow e rs o f pleasure .

and pain 1
. These her tears have crea t ed in me a further
curiosity even greater than before It is no slight grief
,
.

that can take its abode in a form like her s For it is not a .

feeble blow that causes the earth to tremble .


While his curiosity was thus increased he felt himself


guilty of recalling her grief and rising brought in h i s
, ,

fo l ded hand from the torrent some water to bathe her face .

B ut she though the torrent o f her tears was in nowi s e


,

checked by his gentleness yet bathed her reddened eyes


, ,

and drying her face with the edge o f her bark robe slow l y ,

said with a long and bitter sigh


( 2 7 4) Wherefore Prince wilt thou hear the story of
, ,

my a scetic life all u n fi t for thy ears ? for cruel has been
,

my heart hard my destiny and evil my condition even


, , ,

from my birth Still if thy desire to know be great


.
, ,

hearken It has come within the range of o u r hearin g


.
,

usually directed to auspiciou s knowledge that there are in ,

the abo d e of the gods maiden s called Apsarases O i these .

there are fourteen fami l ie s : o n e sprung from the mind o f


Brahm a another from the V edas a n other from fi re
, , ,

1
D van d va a p air o f oppo s i t e s a s
, ,pl e asu re an d p ai n
,
.
2

anothe r fr om the wind another from nectar when it wa s


,

churned another from water another from the sun s rays
, , ,

another from the moon s beams another from earth and ’


, ,

another from lightning ; o n e was fashioned by Death and ,

another created by L ove ; besides Daksha father o f all , , ,

had among his man y daughters two Muni and A ri sh t a , ,

and from their union with the Gandharva s were sprung


the other two families These are in s um the fourteen .
, ,

races B ut from the Gandharva s and the daughters o f


.

Daksha sprang these two families Here Muni bore a .

si x teenth so n by name Ci t rarat h a who excelled in V irtues


, ,

Sena and all the rest o f his fi f t e e n brothers F o r his .

heroism wa s famed through the three worlds ; his di gnity


wa s increased by the name of Friend bestowed by Indra , ,

whose l otus feet are caressed by the crests of the gods cast
down before h im ; and even in childhood he gained the
s overeignty of all the Gandharvas by a right arm tinged
with t h e fl ashin g of his sword ( 2 7 5 ) N o t far hence north .
,

of the lan d of Bharata is his dwelling H e m akfi t a a , , ,

boundary mountain in the K i m p uru sh a co untry There .


,

protected by his arm dwe ll innumerable Gandharvas B y


,
.

him this p l ea sant wood Cai t rar at h a was made this great
, , ,

lake A c c h o d a wa s dug o ut and this image of i a wa s ,

fashioned B ut the son of A ri sh t é in the second Gand


.
,

b arva fami l y wa s a s a child anointed king by Ci t r arat h a


, ,

lord o f the Gandharvas and now holds royal rank and , ,

with a countless retinue o f Gandharva s dw e lls l ik e wise on


this mounta in N o w from that family o i Apsarases which
.
,
.

S prang from the moon s nectar wa s born a maiden ’


,

fashioned a s though by the grace of all the moon s digits
poured in o n e stream gladdening the eye s o f the universe
, ,

1
moonbeam fair in name and nature a second Gaur i
-
,
.

( 7 6) Her Hamsa lord o f the second family wooed a s


2 , , ,

the Mi l ky Ocean the Ganges ; with him she wa s united a s ,

Rati with K a ma or the lotus bed with the autumn ; and


,
-

enj oy i ng the great happiness o f s uch a union she became


the queen of his z enana To this noble pair I wa s born a s .

1
( a
) B r illi an t; ( b) D ur gfi .
04

de l ight and to fi ll t h e sense o f smell Bees followed i t


,
.
,

seeking to make it their o wn : it wa s truly a perfume


unknown heretofore and fi t f o r the gods I t o o e age r to
,
.
, ,

l earn whence it came with eyes turned into buds and


, ,

drawn o n like a bee by that scent and attracting to me ,

the kalah am sas of the lake by the j angling of my ank l et s


loudly clashed in the tremulous speed o f my curiosity ,

advanced a few steps and beheld a graceful yout hfu l asc e tic
coming down to bathe H e was lik e Spring doing penance
.

in grief for Love made the fuel o f i a s fi r e or t h e ’

crescent on i a s brow performing a vow to win a full orb



,

o r Love restrained in his eagerness to conquer i a : by


'

his great splendour he appeared to be girt by a cage o i


quivering lightning embosomed in the globe of the summer
,

sun o r encircled in the fl am e s o f a furnace : ( 2 80) by the


,

brightness o f his f orm fl ashin g forth ever more and more


, ,

yellow a s l amplight he made the grove a tawny gold his


,

l ocks were yel l ow and soft like an amulet dyed in go ro c an a .

The line o f ashes o n his brow mad e him lik e Ganges with
the line o f a fresh sandbank as though it were a sandal ,

1
mark to win Sarasvat i and played the part of a banner of
,

holiness ; his eyebrows were an arch rising high over the


abode o f men s curses ; his e yes were so long that he

seemed to wear them a s a chaplet ; he shared with the


deer the beauty of their glanc e his nose wa s l ong and
aquilin e ; the citron o f his lower lip was rosy as with the
glow of youth which wa s refused an entrance to his heart ;
,

with his beard l ess cheek he wa s like a fresh lotus the ,

fi lam e n t s of which have not yet been tossed by t h e bees in


their sport ; he was adorned with a sac ri fi c i al th read like
the bent string o f Love s bow o r a fi lam e n t from the l otus

grove of the pool o f penance in o n e hand he bore a


p itc h er like a kesara fruit with its stalk ; in the other a
crystal rosary strung a s it were with the tears o f Rati
,

wailing in grief for Love s d eath ( 2 8 1 ) His l oins were girt



.

with a m u fi j a grass gird l e a s though he had assumed a


'
-
,

1
T h e Comm e n t ar y s ays A ho u s e i s wh i t e n e d to w e l com e an yo n e .

T h e f ac e ( o r mo u th ) i s t h e d we ll i n g of S ar a sv at i .

1 05

ha l o having outvied the sun by his i nnate splendour ; the


,

o ffi c e of vesture wa s performed by the bark of the heavenly

cora l tree bright a s the pink eyelid of an o ld partridge


-1
, ,

and wa shed in the waves o f the heavenly Gange s ; he was


the ornament o f a scetic l ife the youthfu l grace of holines s , ,

the delight of Sara svati the chosen lord of all the sciences , ,

and the meeting place o f: al l divine tradition H e had like


- .
,

the summer season his ash fidh a he had like a winter


2 3
, ,

wood the brightness o f opening millet and he had l ike the


, ,

month o f honey a face adorned with white tilaka ,


4
With .

him there was a youthfu l ascetic gathering fl o we r s to


worship the gods his equal in age and a friend worthy o f ,

him s elf .

( 28 2 ) Then I saw a wondrous s pray of fl o we r s which


decked his ear like the bright smile o f woodland Gri j oying
,

in the sight o f spring or the grain o ff ering of the honey ,


-

month welcoming the Malaya winds or the youth o f the ,



Lakshm i of fl o we rs o r t h e cowrie that adorns L ove s ,

el e phant it wa s wooed by the bees ; the Pleiads lent it


their grace ; and its honey wa s nectar Surely I .
,

decided this is the fragrance which makes all other


,

fl o we r s scentless ” an d gazing at the youthful asc e tic the


, ,

thought arose in my mind Ah how lavish is t h e Creator ,

who has skill to produce the highest perfection o f form for


5
,

he has compounded K a ma of all miraculous beauty excel ,

ling the universe and yet has created this ascetic even ,

more fair surpassing him like a second love god born of


, ,
-
,

3
enchantment ( 2 8 3) Methink s that when Brahm a made
.


the moon s orb to gladden the world and the lotuses to be ,

Lakshmi s palace o f delight he wa s but practising to gain ,

s kill for the creation of this ascetic s face ; why else should ’

s uch things be created ? S urely it is false that the sun


1
M n da o n e o f t h e t e s o f P di s
a ra , re ar a e
T h mo n th J n —J ly
.

2
e u S t ff
e u .
3
a .

( ) A til k m k of sh e s ; ( b) b n d n c of til k t e s whi t e


4
a a a, o r ar a a u a e a a re

wi th b l ossoms .

5
R dK cl y
ea au a as a.
3 C
f D ul c
. di m n t m m e dit n t i li l i q on d m n t
e ru e c m s s u a s a u a a ur az , u e e

opera d m jo
a p t — R pi n n t h co n vol v l s V H ll m
a ra ar ar e .

a , o e u u . . a a ,

Hi st of
. Pt i h . v .
, c . v.
106

with i ts ray S u sh um n a drinks all the digits o f the moon a s


1

it wanes in the dark fortnight for their beam s ar e cast ,

down to enter this fair form How otherwise could there .

be such grace in o n e who lives in weary penanc e beauty s ,


destroyer ? ” As I thus thought L ove beauty s fi rm ’


, ,

adherent who knows not good from ill and who is ever at
, ,

hand to the young enthralled me together with my sigh s


, , ,

as the madness o f spring takes captive the bee Then .

with a right eye gazing steadily the eyelash e s half closed , ,

t h e iris darkened by the pupil s tremulous side l ong glance


I looked l ong o n him With this glance I a s it wer e


.
, ,

drank him i n besought him told him I was wh olly his


, , ,

o ff ered my heart tried to enter into him with my whole


,

sou l sought to be absorbed in him imp l ored his protection


, ,

to save Love s victim showed my suppliant state that


a sked for a place in his h e art ; ( 2 8 4 ) and though I asked

myself What is this shameful feeling that has arisen in m e


, ,

un seem ly and unworthy a noble maiden yet knowin g


this I could n o t ma ster mys e lf but with great di ffi c u lt y
, ,

stood fi rm ga zing at him F or I seemed to be paraly z ed


, .
,

o r in a picture or scattered a b road or bound o r in a


, , ,

trance and yet in wondrous wise upheld a s though


, ,

when my l imbs were failin g s upport wa s at the same ,

moment given ; f o r I know not h o w one can be certain


in a matter that can neither be told n or taught and ,

that is not capab l e o f being to l d f o r it is only learnt ,

from within Can it be ascertained a s presented by hi s


.

beauty or by my own mind or by love o r by youth o r


, , ,

a ff ection or by any other causes ? I cannot tell L ifted


, .

up and dragged towards him by my senses led forward by ,

my heart urged from behin d by Love I yet by a strong


, ,

eff ort restrained my impulse ( 2 8 5 ) Straightway a storm .

o f sighs went forth unceasingly prompte d by Love a s he ,

strove to fi n d a place within me ; and my bo s om heaved

as longing to speak earnestly to my heart and then I ,

thought to myself : What an unworthy action is this of


V ile K a ma who surrenders me to this cold a scetic free from
,

1
V i sh n u P ar an a W i l so n 1 8 6 5 vo l u p 2 9 7
, , , . .
, . .
1 08

ro s e o n his cheek l ike a s econd gar l and hanging from his


,

ear his eyes a s his pupils dilated and his glance widened
,

in the j oy of beholding me turned the spot to a very lotus ,

grove so that the ten regions were fi lle d by the long rays
,

coming forth like masses o f O pen lotuses that had o f their


own a ccord left the A c c h o d a lake and were rising to
the sky .

B y the manifest change in him my love was redoubled ,

and I fell that moment into a state I cannot describe all ,

unworthy o f my cast e ”
Surely I r e fl e c t e d K a ma h im
.
, ,

self teaches this play of the eye though general ly after a ,

long happy love else whence comes this a scetic s gaz e ?


,

( 2 8 8 ) For his min d is unversed in the mingled feelin gs o f


earthly j oys and yet his eyes though they have never
, ,

learnt the art pour forth the stream o f love s sweetnes s


,

rain nectar are half closed by j oy are slow with distress


, , ,

heavy with sleep roaming with pupil s tremu l ou s and


,

languid with the weight o f gladness and yet bright with ,

t h e play o f his eyebrows Wh ence comes this e x ceedin g


.

ski l l that tells the heart s l onging word l e ssly by a glance


alone 2 ”
Impelled by these thoughts I a dvanced and bowing ,

to the second young a scetic his companion I asked , ,

What is the name o f his Reverence ? O i what a scetic is


he the son 2 From what tree is this gar l and woven 2 F o r
its scent hitherto unknown an d o f rare sweetne s s kindles
, , ,

great curiosity in me ” .

With a slight smile he replied Maiden what need s


, ,

this question 2 B ut I wil l enlighten thy curiosity Listen .

“ ‘
There dwells in the world o f gods a great s age ,

ve t ake t u ;
Q his noble character is famed through the
universe ; his feet are honoured by bands o f siddhas god s , ,

and demons ; ( 2 8 9 ) his beauty exceeding that o f Nala ,

kfi b ara ,
1
is dear t o the three worlds and gladden s the ,

hearts o f goddesses Once upon a t i me when seeking


.
,

l otuses f o r the worship of the god s he went down to the ,

Heavenly Ganges which lay white a s i a s smile while


,

,

1
Son of K v e u r a.
9

its water wa s studded a s with peacocks eyes by the ichor of ’

A ir f wat a Straightway Lakshmi enthroned o n a thousand


.
,

petal l ed white lotus close b y beheld him coming down ,

among the fl o we r s and looking o n him she drank in his


, ,

beauty with eyes half closed by love and quivering with ,

weight o f j oyous tears and with her slender fi n ge r s laid ,

on her softly opening lips and her heart was disturbed by


-

L ove ; by her glance alone she won his a ff ection A son .

wa s born and taking him in her arm s with the words


, ,


Take him f o r he i s thin e she gave him to Qve t ake t u
, ,

who performed al l the rites of a son s birth and calle d him ’


,

P un d ari ka because he wa s born in a p u n d ari ka lotus


, .

Moreover after initiation he led him through the whole


, ,

circle o i the arts ( 2 9 0) This is P u n d ari ka whom you see


. .

1
And this spray comes from the p a rij a ta tree which rose ,

when the Milky Ocean was churned by gods and demons .

How it gained a place in his ear contrary to his vow I ,

will now tell This being the fourt eenth day o f the month
.
,

he started with me from heaven to worship i a who had ,

gone to Kai l a sa O n the way near the N an d an a Wood a


.
, ,

nymph drunk with the j uice o f fl o we rs wearing fresh


, ,

mango shoots in her ear veiled completely by garlands ,

falling to the knees girt with kesara fl o we r s and restin g


, ,

o n the fair hand lent her by the L aksmi of spring took ,

this spray of p a rij a ta and bending low thus addressed , ,

P un d ari ka : Sir let I pray this thy form that gladdens


, , , ,

the eyes o f the universe have this spray as its fi t t i n g ,

adorn ment let it be placed on the tip o f thy ear for it ,

has but the p l ayfu l ness that belongs to a garland ; let the
birth of the p érij fit a now reap its full blessing ! A t her ’

word s his e yes were cas t down in modesty at the praise he


so wel l d e served and he turned to depart without r e garding


,

her ; but a s I saw her following u s I said What is t h e , ,

harm friend Let her courteous gift be accepted and so


, .

by force again st his will the S pray adorns his ear Now
, , .

all ha s been told : who he is wh ose son and what this , ,

fl o we r is an d h o w it has been rais e d to his ear



, ( 29 1 ) .

1
T h e co r al t re e .
1 10

When he had thus spok e n P u n d ari ka said to me with a ,


slight smile : Ah curious maiden why didst thou take



, ,

the trouble to a sk thi s 2 If the fl o we r with its sweet scent



, ,

please thee do thou a ccept i t an d a dvancing he took it


, , ,

from his o wn c ar an d placed it in mine a s though with , ,

the soft murmur o f t h e bees o n i t it were a prayer for love , .

A t onc e in my eagerness to touch his hand a thrill arose


, ,

in me like a second p arij ét a fl o we r where the garland lay ;


, ,

while h e in the pleasure of touching my cheek did not


, ,

see that from his tremulous fi nge r s he had dro pped his
rosary at the same time a s his timidity ; but before it
reached the groun d I seiz ed i t and p l ayfully plac e d it o n ,

my neck where i t wore the grace o f a necklace unlike all


,

others while I learnt the j oy o f having my neck clasped


, ,

as it were by his arm ,


.

As o ur hearts w e re th us occupied with each other my ,

umbrella bearer addressed me : Princess the Queen has


-

,

bathed It is nearl y time to go home Do thou therefore


. .
, ,

also bathe A t her words l ike a new l y caught elephant


.
,
-
,

rebellious at the fi r st touch o f the new hook I was un ,

willingly dragged a way and a s I went down to bathe I , ,

could hardly withdraw my eyes for they seemed to be ,

drowned i n the ambrosial beauty o f his face or caught in ,

the thicket o f my thrilling cheek o r pinned down by Love s ,


1
shafts o r sewn fast by the cords o f his charms
,
.

( 2 9 2 ) Meanwhile the second young a scetic


,
see i ng ,

that he was l osing his s e lf contro l gently upbraided him -


,


Dear P u n d ari ka this is unworthy o f thee This is the
, .

way trodden by common men F or the good are rich in .

self control Why dost thou like a man of lo w caste fail


-
.
, ,

to restrain the turmoil o f thy sou l ? Whence comes this


hitherto unknown a ssault o f the senses which so trans ,

forms th e e ? Where is thine old fi rm n e ss ? Where thy


conquest o f the senses 2 Wh ere thy s elf control ? Wher e -

thy calm o f mind thine inherited holiness thy care l ess


, ,

ness o f earthly things ? Where the teaching of thy guru ,

thy le a rning of the V edas thy reso l ves o f a sceticism thy , ,

1
O r, v i tu e
r .
112

palace I dism i ssed my fr i en d s at the door and shut o ut


, ,

my attendants and then putting aside all my occupations


, , ,

I stood alone with my face against the j ewelled w indo w I .

gazed at the region which in its possess i on o f hi m wa s , ,

richly decked endowed with great treasur e o ve rfl o we d


, ,

by the o cean o f nectar adorned with the rising o f the full


,

moon and most fair to behold I longed to a sk his doings


,
.

even of the bree z e wa i ted from thence or of the scent o f the ,

woodland fl o we r s or o f the s ong o f the birds ( 2 9 5 ) I


, .

envied even the toils of penance for his de votion to t hem .

F or his sake in the blind adherence o f love I took a vo w


, ,

of silence I attribut e d grace to the ascetic garb because


.
,

he accept e d i t beauty to youth because he owned it charm


, ,

to the p arij éi t a flower because it touched his ear delight to ,

heaven beca use he dwelt there and invincible power to ,

l ove beca use he wa s so fair Though far away I turned .


,

towards him as the lotus bed to the sun the tide to the -
,

moon o r t h e peacock to the cloud I bore o n my neck his


, .

rosary like a charm against the loss of the life stricken by


,

his absence I stood motionless though a thrill ma de the


.
,

down on my cheek like a kadamba fl o we r ear ring a s it -


,

rose from the j oy o f being touched by his hand and from ,

the p ari j ét a spray in my ear which spoke sweetly to me ,

o f him .

N ow my bete l bearer Taralik é had been with me to


-
, ,

bathe ; she came back after me rather late and softly ,

a ddressed me in my sadness : Princess o n e o f those god ,

lik e asc e tic s we saw o n the bank of Lake A c c h o da


he by whom this spray of the heav e nly tree wa s placed in

thy ear as I wa s following thee e l uded the glance o f his ,

other self and approaching me with soft steps between t h e


,

branches of a fl o we rin g creeper a sked me concerning thee , ,

saying Dam sel who is this maiden 2 Whose daughter is


, ,

she ? What is h e r name ? An d whither goes she 2 I ’

replied : She is spru n g from Gauri an Apsara s of the



,

moon race and h e r father Hamsa is king of all the Gand


,

h arvas ; the nails of his feet are burnished by t h e tips of


t h e j ewelled aigrettes o n the turban s of all the Gandharvas
113

his tree like arms are marked by the cosmetics o n the


-

cheeks of his Gand harva wives and the lotus hand of ,


-

Lakshmi forms his footstoo l The princ e ss is named .

M ah acve t a and she has set out now for the hil l of
,

H e m akfi t a the abode o f the Gandharva s



.
,

When this tale had been told by me he thought



,

silently for a mom e nt and then looking long at me with a ,

steady gaze a s i t gently entreating me he said : Damsel


, , ,

thy form young as thou art is o f fair promise and augurs


, , ,

truth and steadfastness Grant me therefore one request .


, ,
.

Courteously raising my hands I reverently replied : ( 2 9 7 ) ,


Wher e fore say this ? Who am I ? When great souled -

men such a s thou meet for the honour of the who l e ,

universe deign to c ast ev e n their sin removing glance on


,
-

o n e like m e their act wins merit ,


— much mor e if they give a
command Say therefore freely what is to be done
.
, , .

Let m e be hono ured by thy bidding .


Thus addr e ssed he saluted me with a kind l y glance , ,

a s a friend a helper or a giver o f life ; and taking a


, ,

shoot from a tam a la tree hard b y b e crushed it o n the -


,

stones o f the bank broke o ff a piece from his upper bark ,

garment as a tabl e t and with the tam ala j uice sweet a s ,


-
,

the ichor o f a gandha elephant wrote with the nail o f t h e ,

l ittle fi n ge r o f h i s lotus hand and placed it in my hand -


, ,

say i ng Let this letter be secretly given by thee to that


,

maiden when alone With these words she drew it from


.

the betel bo x and showed it to me


- .

As I took from her hand that bark letter I wa s



,

fi lle d with this talk about him which though but a sound , , ,

produced the j oy o f contact and though f o r the ears a l one , ,

had its pervading presence in al l my limbs manifested by a


thrill a s if it were a spel l to invoke L ove 5 and in his l etter
,

1
I beheld these lines
A h ams a o n t h e M i n as l ak e l u r e d by a c r e e p e r s t r e ach e r o u s sh i n e

, ,

My h e ar t i s le d a we ary ch as e lu e d by th at p e arl y wre at h of thin e ,


2
r .

1
I n t h e i r y zi e r e , ln t h e
'

an m t
ri S sk t .

2
M an a si j a n m a = ( a ) rn i n t h e ama a l a bo M s '

k e ; ( b) bo rn in t h e
m d in , t e , l e
. . ov
M u kt ala t a = ( a ) a
. i e re e e r ; wh t c p ( )
b a p e ar l n e ckl ac e .

8
1 14

( 98)
2 By
the reading of this an even greater chang e ,

for the worse was wrought in my lovesick mind as in o n e ,

w ho has lost his way by also losing his bearings ; a s in a


,

blin d man by a night of the dark fortnight ; a s i n a dumb


,

man by cutting out t h e tongue ; as in an ignorant man


, ,

by a conj uror s waving fan a s in a confused talker by the



,

de l irium o f fever ; a s in one poison e d by the fatal sleep ; ,

a s in a wicked man by atheistic philosophy ; a s in o n e ,

distraught by strong drink ; o r a s in o n e possessed by t h e


, ,

action of the possessing d e mon ; so that in the turmoil


it created in me I was tossed like a river in fl ood
,
I .

honoured T arali ka for having s e en him again as o n e who ,

had acquired great merit or who had tasted t h e j oys o f ,

heaven or had been Visited by a god o r had h e r highest


, ,

boon granted o r had drunk nectar o r had been anointed


, ,

queen of the three worlds I spoke to her rever e nt l y a s i i .


, ,

though always by me sh e were a rare visitant and though , ,

my familiar friend she were hitherto unknown I looked


, .

o n her though behind me a s above the world ; I tenderly


, ,

caressed t h e cur l s on her cheek and entirely set at nought ,

the condition of mistress an d maid again and again ,

a sking ( 2 9 9 ) H o w was he seen by thee 2 What did he say


,

to thee 2 How long wert thou there 2 How far did he follow
us 2
” And shutting o u t al l my attendants I spent the
, ,

whole day with her in the palace list e ning to that tal e ,
.

The sun s o rb hanging in the sky became crimson sharing



,

my heart s glow t h e L akshm i of sunlight longing f o r the


sight of the fl u sh e d sun and pr e paring her lotus couch ,


-
,

turned pale a s though faint with love the sunbeams rosy ,

a s they fell o n waters dyed with red chalk rose from the ,

lotus bed s clustering like h e rds of woodland e lephants ; t h e


-

day with an echo of the j oyous neighing of the steeds o f


,

the sun s chariot longing to rest after their descent o f the


sky entered the caves of Mount Meru ; the l otus beds as


,
-
,

the bees enter e d the folded l eav e s o f the red lilies seemed ,

to c l ose their eyes a s though their hearts w e re darken e d by


a swoon at the sun s departure ; t h e pairs of c akr av akas

,

each taking the other s heart safely hidden in the hollow ’

,
-
1 16

It was in thy presence that I sternly rebuked Pun


dari ka and after that speech I left him in anger and went
,

t o another place leaving my task o f gatherin g fl o we r s


,
.

After thy departure I remained apart a short time ( 3 0 2 )


, ,

and then becoming a n xious a s to what he was doing I


, ,

turned back and e xamined the spot from behind a tree .

As I did n o t see him there th e thought arose within me , ,

His mind wa s enslaved by love and perchance h e fo l ,

lowed her ; and n o w that she is gone he has regained his ,

sense s and is a shamed to come within my sight ; o r he


,

has gone from me in wrath o r departed hence to another ,

p l ace in search of me Thus thinking I waited som e .


time but troub l ed by an absence I had never sinc e my


, ,

birth su ffe red f o r a moment I again thought It may be , ,

that in shame at his failure in fi rm n e ss h e will come to


, ,

some h arm ; for shame makes everything possible ; he


must not then be left alone , With this reso l ve I
, .

earnestly made search for him But a s I could not see .

him though I sought o n all sides made anxious by l ove


, ,

f o r my friend I pictured this o r that misfortune and


, ,

wandered long e x amining glades o f trees creeper bowers


, ,

among t h e sandal avenues and the banks o f lakes care , ,

fully glancing on every side ( 30 3) A t l ength I beheld him .

in a thicket o f creepers near a lake a very birthplace for ,

S pring most fair and in its close growth app e aring to be


, ,

made wholly o f fl o we r s of bees of c uckoos and o f peacocks


, , ,
.

From his entire absence o f employment he wa s a s o n e ,

pa i nted or engraved or paraly z ed o r dead o r a sleep o r


, , , , ,

in a tranc e of meditation ; he was motionless yet wander ,

ing from his right course ; alone yet possessed by L ove ; ,

all aglow yet raising a pallid fac e abs e nt minded yet


,
-
,

giving his love a place within him silent and yet telling ,

a tale o f Love s great woe seated o n a stone ye t standing


in face of death H e wa s tormented by K a ma who yet in


.
, ,

fear o f m any a curse remained unseen B y his great ,


.

stil l ness he appeared to be deserted by the senses which


had entered into him to behold the l ove that dwelt in h i s
h eart and had fainted in fear at its unbearable heat o r
, ,
1 17

had left him in wrath at the tossing o f his mind From .

eyes steadi ly closed and dimmed within by the smoke o f


,

Love s keen fi re he ceaselessly poured forth a storm o f


tears trickling down through his eyelashes ( 30 4) The .

fi lam e n t s o f the creepers near trembled in the sighs which


rushed o u t bearing the redness of his lips like the u p
,

starting ruddy fl am e o f K a ma burning his heart As his .

hand rest e d o n his left cheek his brow from the clear rays
, ,

o f his nails rising upwards seemed to have a fresh mark


,

o f sandal very pure ; from the late removal o f his earring ,

the p a rij a ta fl o we r his ear was endowed with a tam ala


,

shoot o r a blue l otus by th e bees that murmured a charm


to bewitch love under the guise o f their soft hum a s they
,

crept up in longing for what remained o f that fragrance .

Under the guise of his hair rising in a passionate thril l he


s e emed to bear o n his limbs a mass o f broken points o f the
fl o we ry darts o f L ove s arrows discharged into his pores

.

With his right hand h e bore on his breast a string o f pear ls


that by being interlaced with the fl ash in g rays o f his nails
, ,

seemed bristling in j oy at the plea sure o f touching his


palm and that was a s it were a banner o f recklessness
, , ,
. .

H e was pelted by the trees with pollen like a powder to ,

subdue Love ; h e wa s caressed by acoka shoots tossed by


the wind and transferring to hi m their rosy glow he wa s
,

besprinkled by woodland L akshmi with honey dew from -

clusters o f fr e sh fl o we r s like waters to cro wn L ove ; he


,

wa s struck by Love with c am p ak buds which as th e ir , ,

fragrance was drunk in by bees were l ike fi e ry barb s al l ,

smoking ; ( 30 5 ) he wa s rebuked by the south wind a s if ,

by the hum of the bees maddened by the many scent s o f


the wood ; he was bewildered by the honey month as by -
,

cries of All hail ! to Spring raised by the cuckoos in


‘ ’

their melodious ecsta sy Like the risen moon he wa s


.
,

robed in palen e ss ; like the stream o f Ganges in summer ,

he had dwindled to meagreness ; like a sandal tree with a -

fi re at its heart he wa s fading away


, H e seemed to have .

entered on another birth and was a s another man s trange


, ,

and unfamiliar ; he wa s changed into another shape A s .


1 18

o ne entered by an evil spirit ruled by a great demon pos , ,

sessed by a strong devil drunk de l uded blind deaf dumb , , , , , ,

all merged in j o y and lov e he had reached the climax of ,

the mind s slavery wh e n possessed by L ove and his o ld


self could no long e r be kno w n .

As with a steady glance I long examined his sad


state I became despondent and thought in my trembling
, ,

heart : This is o f a truth that L ove whose forc e none can


resist for by him P u n d ari ka has been in a moment
brought to a state for which ther e is no cure For how .

e l se could such a storehouse o f learnin g become straight


way unavailing 2 ( 3 0 6 ) It is alas ! a miracle in him who ,

from childhood has been fi rm o f nature and uns w erving in


conduct and whose life was the e nvy of myself and the
,

other young ascetics Here like a mean man despising .


, ,

knowledge contemning the po wer o f penance h e has


, ,

rooted up his de e p steadfastness and is paralyzed by L ove ,


.

A youth which has never swerv e d is indeed rare I w e nt


forward and sitting down by him o n the same stone
, ,

with my hand resting o n his shoulder I a sked him though , ,

his eyes were still c l osed : Dear P u n d ari ka tell me what ,

thi s mean s Then with gr eat di ffi c u lt y and e ffort he


.

opened his eyes which seemed fast e ned togeth e r by their


,

long closin g and which were red from incessant weeping


,

and o ve rfl o wi n g with tears a s if shaken and in pain while ,

their colour was that o f a red lotus bed veiled in white silk - .

H e look e d at m e long with a very l anguid glance and then , ,

de e ply sighing in accents broken by shame he slowly and


, ,

with pain murmured Dear K ap i fi j ala why a sk m e what ,

thou knowest 2 Hearing this and thinking that Pun


dari ka was su ff ering in this way a cureless ill but that still , ,

as far a s possible a fri e nd who is e nterin g a wrong course


,

should be held ba ck to the utmost by those wh o love him ,

I replied : Dear P u n d ari ka I know it well ( 30 7 ) I w ill



, .

only a sk this question : Is this course you have begun


taught by your gu rus o r read in the holy books 2 o r is this
,

a way o f winning holin e ss o r a fresh form of penance or , ,

a path to heaven o r a mystic v o w o r a mean s of salvation


, , ,
1 20

else in t h e world is a friend like the e 2 What ails m e that


I cannot restrain myself 2 Thou sawest in a moment my
wretch e d plight The time then for advice is now past
.
, ,
.

( 30 9 ) While I breathe I long for som e cure f o r the f e ver of


,

love viol e nt a s the rays of tw e lve suns at the end o f the


,
1

world My limbs are baked my h e art is seething my


.
, ,

eyes are burning and my body on fi re Do therefore


,
.
, ,

He then becam e si l ent and



what the tim e demands .
,

after this speech I tried again and again to rous e him but
a s he did n o t listen even when tenderly and a ffectionately
e xhorted in the words o f the pure teaching of the c a stras

full o f cases like his own together with the l e g e ndary ,

histories I thought H e is gone too far ; h e cannot be


, ,

turned back Advice is now useless so I will make an


.
,

e ff ort j ust to preserve his life With this reso l ve I rose .


an d went and tore up some j uicy lotus fi b re s from the lake ;


,
-

then taking some l otus petals marked by wat e r I plucked


,
-
,

lotuses o f all kinds sweet with t h e fragrance of the ,

aromatic pollen within and prepared a couch o n that same ,

rock in the bow e r And as he rested there at ea se


. I
crushed soft twigs o f t h e sandal tre e s hard b y and with its -
,

j uice naturally sweet and cold a s ice mad e a mark o n his


, ,

brow and anointed him from h e ad to foot I allayed the


, .

perspiration by camphor dust powdered in my hand broken -


,

from the interstices o f the split bark of the trees near and ,

fanned him with a plantain leaf dripping with pure water -


,

w hile the bark robe he wore w a s moist with the sandal


placed on his breast and a s I again and again strewed
fresh lotus couches and anointed him with sandal and
, ,

r e moved the perspiration and constantly fanned him t h e , ,

thought arose in my mind S urely nothing is too hard f o r ,

L ove F or how far apart would seem P u n d ari ka by nature ,

simpl e and content with his woodland hom e like a fawn , ,

and M ah acve t é the Gandharva princes s a galaxy of graces


, ,

surely there is nothing for L ove in the world hard o r ,

di ffi c u lt o r unsubdued o r impossible
; H e scornfully , .

attempts the hardest tasks nor can any resist him For , .

1
Th e V i sh n P
u u r an a , Bk . V i . , oh . iii .
, m n ti on s s e v
e en s ns
u .
21

why speak o f beings endowed with s e nse when i f it so ,

please him he can bring together eve n things without


,

sense 2 For the night lotus b e d falls in love with the sun s -

ray and the day l otus leaves h e r hatred o f the moon and
,
-
,

night is j oined to day ( 3 1 1 ) and moon l ight waits on dark


,

ness and shade stands in the face of light and lightning


, ,

stays fi rm in the cloud and o ld age accompanies youth ; ,

and what more diffi c ult thin g can there b e than that o n e
like P u n d ari ka who is an ocean of unfathomable depth
, ,

should thus be brought to the lightness o f grass 2 Where


is his former penance and where his present state 2 Truly ,

it is a cureless ill that has befall e n him ! What must I


n o w do or attempt o r whither go o r what refuge o r
, ,

resource o r help o r remedy o r plan o r recourse is there


, , , ,

by which his life may b e sustained 2 D r by w hat skill o r ,

device or means o r support or thought o r solace may he


, , , , ,

yet live 2 These and oth e r such thoughts arose in my


downcast heart B ut again I thought What avails dwell


.
,

ing o n this us e les s thought ? His l ife must be pr e served


by any means good o r had ( 3 1 2 ) and there is n o other way
, ,

to save it b ut by her union with him ; and a s h e is timid


by reason of his youth and mor e ov e r thinks the a ff airs of ,

love contrary to his vo w uns e emly and a mockery in him , ,

s e lf h e certainly even at his last breath w ill not gratify


, , ,

his longing by hims e lf approaching h e r This his disease .

o f love admits n o d e lay Good m e n a l ways hold that a .

friend s lif e must be saved even by a blameworthy deed


so that though this is a shameful and wrong action it ha s ,

yet become imperative for me What else can be done ? .

What other course is there ? I will certainly go to her .

I will te l l her his state Thus thinking I left t h e place .



,

o n some pretext and came hither without telling him lest


, ,

perchance he should fe e l that I was engaged in an un


seemly employment and should in shame hold m e back ,
.

This being the state o f a ffairs thou lady art the j udg e o f , , ,

what action is needful for the time worthy o f so gr e at a ,

l ove fi t t in g f o r my coming and right f o r thyself


, With ,
.

these words he became silent fi xing his eyes o n my face to ,


1 22

'

see what I should say B ut I havin g h e ard him wa s .


, ,

plunged a s it were into a lake o f ambrosia l j oy o r


, , ,

imm e rsed in an ocean o f the sweets o f l ove fl o at i n g above ,

all j oys mounting to t h e pinnacle of all desir e s resting at


, ,

the utmost bound o f gladn e s s I showed my happiness by .

j oyful tears pouring clear large and h e avy b e cause my , , ,

e y e lashes wer e not clos e d strung like a garland by their


,

unceasing succ e ssion and not touching my cheek b e cause , ,

my face wa s som e what bent in sudd e n sham e ; ( 3 1 3 ) and I


thought at once 0 j o y that L ove entangl e s him a s well ,

a s m e so that eve n while tormenting m e he has in part


, ,

showed me kindness ; and if P u n d ari ka is indeed in such a


plight what help has not L ove given me o r w hat has h e
, ,

not done for me o r what friend is lik e him or how could a


, ,

false tale even in sle e p pass the lips of t h e ca l m souled


, ,
-

K ap i fi j ala 2 A nd if this b e so what m ust I do and w hat , ,

must I say in his pr e senc e 2 ” While I wa s thus de


l iberating a portr e ss hastily ent e red and said to me
, ,

Princess the Q u e e n has learnt from h e r attendants that


,

thou art ill and is now coming , O n hearing this .


,

K ap i nj ala fearing t h e contact of a great throng quickly


, ,

rose saying : Princess a cause of gr eat delay has aris e n


, ,
.

The sun the crest j ewel o f the three worlds is now sinking
,
-
, ,

so I will depart B ut I raise my hands in salutation a s a


.

slight off ering f o r the saving o f my dear fri e nd s life ; that ’

is my greatest treasure ( 3 1 4 ) Then without awaiting my .


,

reply he with d iffi c u lt y departed for t h e door wa s blocked


, ,

by t h e entrance of the attendants th at heralded my L ady


Mother Ther e were t h e portresses bearing golden staves
.

the chamberlain s w ith ungu e nts cosmetics fl o we r s and , , ,

betel holding waving cowries ; and in their train were


,

hu m pbacks barbarians deaf men eunuchs dwarfs and


, , , , ,

deaf mutes .

Then the Queen came to m e and after a long visit , ,

went hom e ; but I obs e rve d nothing o f what she did said , ,

o r att e mpted while with me for my h e art wa s far away ,


.

When she went the sun with his steeds bright a s h ari t ala ,

pigeons lord of life to t h e lotuses and frien d of the


, ,
24

from hel l ; after that night became fair with the moon , ,

the gladdener o f the world o f mortals the d e light of ,

lovers now leaving its childhood behind and becoming the


,

ally o f Love with a youthfu l glow arising within i t the


, ,

only fi t t i n g light for the enj oyment o f Love s pleasures ’

ambrosial c l imbing the sky like youth impersonate Then


,
.

I beh e ld the risen moon as if fl u sh e d with the coral o f the


oc e an it had j ust left crimsoned with the blood o f its deer
,

struck by the paw o f t h e lion o f the E astern Mountain ,

mark e d with the lac of Ro h i ni s feet a s she spurned her


1 ’

lord in a l ove quarrel ( 3 1 7 ) and ruddy with his newly ,

kindled glow And I though the fi re o f Lov e burnt within


.
,

m e had my heart darkened ; though my body rested o n


,

the lap of Taralika I was a captive in the hands o f Love


,

though my eyes were fi xe d o n the moon I was l oo king o n ,

d e ath and I straightway thought


, There are the honey ,

month the Malaya winds and all other such things


, ,

brought together and in the same place to have this evi l


,

miscreant moon cannot be endured My h e art cannot bear .

it
. Its rising n o w is like a shower of coals to o n e consumed
by fever or a fall of snow to o n e ill from cold o r the bite
, ,

o f a black snake to o n e faint with t h e sw e lling of poison .

An d a s I thus thought a swoon closed my eyes l ike the , ,

sleep brought by moonlight that withers the lotuses of the


day Soon how e ver I regained consciousness by mean s of
.
, ,

t h e fanning and sandal unguents o f the bewildered Tara


lik a and I saw her weeping her face dimmed with cease
, ,

less tears pressing the point o f a moist moonstone to my


,

brow and seemin g possessed by despair impersonate As


,
.

I opened my eyes she f e ll at my feet and said raising h ands


, , ,

y e t wet with the thick sandal ointment : Princess why “


,

think o f shame or disr e spect to parents ? B e kind ; send


m e and I will fetch the beloved o f thy heart ; ( 31 8 ) ris e
, ,

o r go thither thyself Henceforth thou canst not bear this


.

2
Love that is an oc e an w hose manifold passionate waves
are swelling at t h e rise o f a strong moon To this speech .

1
T h e a e ri st sm Rohi ni .

2
U t ka li ka= ( ) w v ; a a e ( b) l on gi n g .
1 25

I replied : Mad girl what is love to me 2 T he moon it is


, ,

even the lord of the night lotuses who remov e s all scruples , ,

undermines al l search f o r means o f escape conceals all ,

d i ffi c u lt i e s takes away al l doubts contemns al l fears roots


, , ,

o u t all shame veils the sinful levity o f going myself to


,

my lover avoids al l delay and ha s come mer e ly to l e ad me


, ,

either to P u n dari ka o r to death Ris e th e refore ; f o r .


,

while I have life I will follow him and honour him who

,

dear a s he is tortures my heart


, Thus saying I rose .
, ,

leaning o n her for my limbs were yet unsteady with the


,

w e akness of the swoon caused by L ove and a s I rose my ,

right eye throbbed presaging ill and in sudden terror I


, ,

thought What new thin g is this threatened by Destiny 2


(31 9) The fi rm am e n t wa s n o w fl o o de d with moonlight ,



as if the moon s orb which had not yet risen far was like
, , ,

the wat e rp ip e o f the temple o f the universe discharging a ,

thousand str e ams o f the heavenly Ganges pouring forth ,

the waves of an ambrosial ocean shedding many a cascade ,

o f sandal j uice-
and bearing fl o o d s o f nectar ; the world
,

seemed to l earn what life was in the White Continent and ,

the pleasures of seeing the land of Soma the round earth


was being poured o u t from the depths of a Milky Oc e an by
the moon which was like the rounded tusk of t h e Great
,
'

B oar ; the moonrise o fi e rin gs were being presented in every


house by the women with sandal water fragrant with O p e n -

l otuses ; the highways were crowded with thousands of


women messengers sent by fair ladies ; girls going to meet
-

t h eir lovers ran hither and thither veiled in blue silk and ,

fl u t t e re d by the dread of the bright moonlight a s if they


were the nymphs of the white day lotus groves concealed
in the splendours o f the blue lotuses ; the sky became an
alluvial island in the river o f night with its centre ,

whitened by the thick po l len o f the groves o f O pen night


lotu ses ; while the night lotus beds in the house tanks - -

were waking encircled by bees which clung to every


,

blossom ; ( 3 2 0 ) the wor l d o f mortals was like the ocean , ,

unabl e to contain the j oy o f moonrise and seemed made o f ,

l ove o f festivity of mirth and o f tenderness : evening was


, , ,
1 26

pl e asant with the murmur o f peacocks g arrulous in gladness


at the c ascade that fell from the wat e rp i p e s of moonstone .

Tar ali ké accompanied me holdin g powd e rs perfumes , , ,

unguents bete l and various fl o we r s and I had also that


, , ,

napkin wet with the sandal ointment which had been


,

app l ied in my swoon and which ha d its nap slightly dis


,

ord e r e d and gray with t h e partly dried mark of sandal -

wood clinging to i t ; the rosary was o n my neck ; the


p a rij a ta spray was kissing the tip of my ear ; veile d in
red silk that seemed fashion e d from rays o f rubies I we nt ,

down from the top o f th at palace uns e e n by any o f my ,

d e voted attendants O n my way I wa s pursued by a swarm


.

o f bees which hastened l e aving lotus b e ds and des e rting


, ,
-

gardens drawn by the scent of the p arij ét a spray sportively


, ,

forming a blue v e il round me I d e parted through the .

door o f the plea sure grove and set out to meet P u n dari ka
-
.

( 3 2 1 ) As I went I thought seeing myself a ttend e d by


, ,

Tar ali ka only : What needs pomp o f r e tinu e when we


se e k o u r dearest ! Surely o u r s e rvants th e n but play a


mockery of attendance for L ove fol l ows m e with shaft ,

fi t t e d to the strung bow ; the moon stretching o u t a long ,

ray draws me o n lik e a hand ; pa ssion supports me at


,
1

every step from fear of a fall ; my heart rushes on with the


senses l eaving shame behin d ; longing has gained cer
,

tainty an d leads me o n ” A loud I said : Oh Tarali ka


, .
, ,

would that this miscreant moon would with its beams seiz e
him by the hair an d dra w him forward like myse l f As I
thus spoke she smilingly rep l ied : Thou art foolish my
,

,

princess ! What do e s the moon want with P u n d ari ka ?


Nay rather h e himself a s though wounded by Love does
, , , ,

all these things for thee f o r under t h e guise of his imag e


he kisses thy ch eeks marked with drops o f perspiration ;
with trembling ray he falls on thy fair breast ; he touch e s
the gems of thy girdle ; entangled in thy bright nails he ,

falls at thy feet ; moreov e r the form of this lovesick ,

moon wears the pallor o f a sanda l unguent dried by fever ;


( 3 22 ) he stretches out his rays white as l otus fi b re s ; under
2 -

1
O r h an d ,
2 H an ds
. .
128

Whence comes this thy great hardness ? Say whither , ,

without thee shall I go 2 Whom shall I 1m p lo r e 2 What


,

refug e shall I seek 2 I am blinded F o r m e space is


empty ! Life is aimless penance vain t h e world void o f
, ,

j oy ! With whom shall I wander to whom sp e ak with , ,

w hom hold converse 2 Do thou arise Grant me an


answer Friend where is thine old love to me ? Where
.
,

that smiling welcome that never fail e d me 2 ”


( 3 2 4 ) S uch wer e th e word s I heard K a i
p jfi ala utter ;
and a s I heard them I uttered a loud cry while yet far o ff , ,

as if my life had fallen and with my silk cloak torn a s it


clung to the creepers by the lake s bank and my f e et ’

placed o n the ground regardless o f its being rough o r e ve n ,

and a s hastily as I cou l d I went o n to that place stumbling


, ,

at every step and yet a s if led on by o n e who lifted me up


,

again .

There I beheld P u n dari ka lying o n a couch made on


a slab of moonstone wet with showers o f cool spray close to ,

t h e lake it was made of lotus fi b r e s like a garland o f tender


-

fl o we r s from al l li l ies and seemed to be formed wholly of


,

the points o f Love s arrows P u n d ari ka seemed from his



.

great stillness to be listening f o r the sound of my step .

H e seemed to have gained a moment s happiness in sleep


a s if L ove s pain had been quench e d by inward wrath ; h e


seemed engaged in a yoga penance of holding his breath ,

as an atonem e nt for his breach of ascetic duty ; he seemed


to murmur with bright yet trembling lip : B y thy deed
,

am I come to this pass H e seemed pierced by the moon


.

beams which under t h e guise o f his bright fi n ge r nai l s


,
-

placed o n a h e art throbbing with L ove s fi re fe l l o n his ’

back as he lay averted in hatr e d of the moon ( 3 2 5 ) H e .

bore a mark o n his brow of a l ine of sandal which by its , ,

being pale from dryn ess was like a digit of Love s waning
,

moon portending his o wn destruction Life seemed to lea ve .

him in anger saying : Fool another is dearer to thee than


, ,

I His eyes wer e not wholly closed ; th e ir pupils w ere


slightly turned to look ; they were re d with ceaseless weep
ing ; th e y seemed to drop blood since by failure o f breath ,
1 29

his tears were exhausted ; and they were partly curved in


pain at L ove s darts H e now experi e nc e d t h e pain of

.

unconsciousness a s if togeth e r with the torm e nt of love he


,

were also yielding lif e itself he se e med to m e ditat e a n e w


version of Love s myst e ry and to practise an unwont e d re

tention of br e ath His life seemed to be carried o ff as a


.

1
priz e by Love who had in kindnes s arranged my coming
,
.

O n his brow was a sandal t ri p u n d raka mark ; he wore a


sac ri fi c i al threa d of j uicy lotus fi b r e ; his dress clung to
-

his shoulder beautiful as the leaf: that ensheath e s a plantain ;


2
his rosary had only the thickness o f a single row ; the
ashes on his brow were of abundant white camphor powder -

he was fair with the string of lotus fi b r e bound on his arm -


,

as an amulet he se e med to wear the garb o f Love s vow ’

a s if completing a charm for my coming With his eye he .

tenderly utt e r e d the r e proach : Hard hearted ! I wa s but“


-

followed by one glance and never again received thy,

favour .
( 6 ) His lips were slightly open so that his
3 2 ,

form gl e amed white in the rays o f his teeth which came ,

forth a s if they were moonbeams that ha d e ntered him to


take a w ay his life ; with his left hand placed o n a hear t
breaking with t h e pain o f love he seemed to say : B e ,

kind depart not with my life thou that art dear a s life
, ,

and so to hold me fi rm ly in his heart his right hand ,

which from the uneve n rays o f his nail s j utting forth


seemed to drop sandal was raised as if to ward o ff the
,

moonlight ; near him stood his pitcher t h e friend o f hi s ,

penance with n e ck upright a s if it ga z ed at t h e path by


, ,

which his lif e was j ust rising t h e garland o f lo tus fi b r e s -

which ado rned his n e ck bound him as if with a rope o f


moonb e am s to l e ad him to another world ; and when at ,

the sight of me K ap ifi j ala with a cry of Help help


, ,

,

raised his hands and crying aloud with redoubled tears


, ,

fell on his neck at that v e ry moment I wicked and ill


, ,

fated as I wa s beheld that nobl e youth yi e ld up his life


,
.

Th e darkness of a swoon came upon m e and I d e scended ,

1
P ar n ap d t r a a b ask e t of gi fts to b e sc r amb l e d f o r at a we dd i n g
, .

2
I e t h e r o w of p e arl s gi v e n by M ah é cy e t a
. .
, .
1 30

into hell nor knew I anything of whither I th e n w e nt or ,

what I did or said N either kn e w I why my life did not at


.

that moment l e ave m e ( 3 2 7 ) w hether from t h e utter hard


n e ss of my st u p e fi e d h e art or from the callousn ess to bear
'

thousands o f troubl e s o f my wretched body or from being ,

fated to endure a long gri e f or fr o m b e ing a vessel o f e vil


,

earned in another birth o r from the skill of my cruel


,

destiny in bestowing sorrow or from t h e singular perversity


,

of malign accursed love Only this I kno w : that when at


.

length in my misery I regained consciousn e ss I found ,

myself writhing on t h e ground tortured a s if I had fallen , ,

o n a fi r e by a grief too hard to bear


, I could not b e lieve .

aught so impossible a s that h e should die and I yet live ,


and rising with a bitt e r cry o f A las w h at is this mother , ,


father friends 2 I exclaim e d : Ah my Lord thou w ho “
, , ,

upholdest my lif e speak to me ! Whith e r goest thou


, ,

pitil e ssly leaving me alone and protectorless ? Ask Tara


lik a what I have su fi e re d for thy sak e Hardly have I .

been able to pa ss the day drawn out into a thousand ages


,
.

B e gracious ! Utter but one w ord ! Show t e ndern e ss to


h e r that loves the e L ook but a littl e o n me F u lfi l my
longing ! I am wretched ! I am loyal ! I am thine in
heart ! I am lordl e ss ! I am young ! I am helpl e ss ! I
am unhappy ! I am bereft o f other refug e ! I am van
q u i sh e d by Love Why sh o we st thou no pity 2 Say what
I have done or left undon e what command I have n e glected
, ,

o r in what thing pl e asing to thee I hav e not sho wn a ff ection ,

that thou art wroth ( 3 2 8 ) F e arest thou not the r e proach


.

o f men in that thou goest des e rting m e thy handmaid


, , ,

without cause ? Yet why think o f me p e rv e rs e and w ick e d , ,

and skilled to deceiv e by false shows of love ! A las I yet ,

live Alas I am accurs e d and undon e


, F o r why 2 I
have neither th e e nor honour nor kinsfolk n o r h e aven
, , , .

Shame on m e a worker of evil deeds for whose sake this


, ,

fate hath befallen thee There is none of so murderous a


.

heart a s I who went home leaving one so p e erless a s thou


, .

What to me were home mother father kinsfolk followers ?


, , , ,

Ala s to what r e fuge shall I fl e e 2 Fate show pity to me !


, ,
1 32

again to taste the bitt e rness of that form e r plight so cruel , ,

and so hardly e ndured and a swoon ber e ft her of sense ,


.

In the force of her swoon she fell on the rock and ,

Can d r fipi d a hastily stretched o u t his hand like her servant , ,

and supported her full o f sorrow A t l e ngth h e brought


, .

her back to consciousness by fanning h e r with the edge of


her o wn bark garment we t with tears Filled with pity , .
,

and with his ch e e ks bathed in tears h e said to her a s she , ,

cam e to life : Lady it is by my fault that thy grief has



,

been brought back to its fi r st freshness and that thou h ast ,

come to this pa ss Therefore no more o f this tal e Let it


. .

be ended E v e n I cannot bear to h e ar i t F o r the story


. .

even o f past sorrow endured by a friend pain s a s as if we


ourselves were living through i t 1
Thou wilt not there .

fore surely plac e on the fi re o f grief that life so precious


and so hardly preserved 2 ( 3 3 1 ) Thus address e d with a ’

long hot sigh and eyes dissolve d in tears she despairingly


, ,

replied : Prince even in that dreadful night my hated life


,

2
did not desert me ; it is not likely that it will leave me
now E ven blessed Death turn s a w ay his eyes fr om one
.

so ill fated and wicked Whence could one so hard heart e d


-
.
-

feel grief 2 all this can be but f e igned in a n ature so Vil e .

B ut be that a s it may that shamel e ss heart ha s mad e me


,

chief among the shameless F o r to one so adamantine a s .

to have s e e n love in all his power and yet to have lived ,

through this w hat can mere speaking of it matter ?


,

O r what could there be hard e r to tell than this very


thing which is supposed to be impossibl e to hear or say ?
,

I will at least brie fl y t e ll the marv e l that followed on that


thund e rbolt and I will tell too what came as a tiny dim
, , ,

cause of my prolonging my lif e which by its mirage so ,

deludes me that I h e ar abo u t a h ated body almost dead , ,

alien to m e burdensome u n fi t t e d to my n e eds and thank


, , ,

l es s for my care That shall su ffic e Afterwards in a


. .
,

sudden change of feeling with resolve fi rm ly set on death


3
, ,

lamenting bitterly I cried to T ar ali ka: ,


Rise cruel ,

1
O mi t p r i y aj an avi cvasa va c a an i
,
n
2
R e a d p a m t ya kt a .
,

3
R d ea , a n t ar e .
1 33

hearted girl ; how long wilt thou w e e p ? Bring together


wood and mak e a pil e I w ill follo w t h e lord of my
.

life.

b

( 33 2 ) Straightway a being swiftly left th e moon s o r

and d e sc e nd e d from t h e sky B e hind him he trailed a silken .

vestur e hanging from his cres t w h ite a s the foam o iz n e ctar , ,

and waving in t h e wind his cheeks were r e ddened w ith the


bright gems that s w ay e d in his e ars on his breast he bore
a radiant necklac e from the size o f its pearls like a cluster
,

o f stars his turban wa s tied with strips of white silk ; his


head was thick with curling locks and dark a s bees ; his ,

earring was an op e n moon lotus ; o n his shoulder w as the


impress o f t h e sa ff ron lin e s that adorned his w ives ; he
was white as a moon lotus lofty in statur e endow e d with , ,

all the marks of greatness and godlike in form ; h e seemed ,

to purify spac e by the light shed round him clear as pure


wat e r and to anoint it a s by a thick frost with a de w y
,

ambrosial sho w er that created a chill as h e shed it from


his limbs cool and fragrant and to b e sprinkle it with a
, ,

1
rich stor e of go ci r sh a sandal j u ice -
.

With arm s sturdy as t h e trunk of A i rav at a and fi n ge r s ,

whit e a s lotus fi b r e s and cool to the touch h e lift e d my


-
,

d e ad lord ( 3 3 3 ) and in a voic e d e e p a s a drum he said to


, , ,

me : M ah acv e t a my child thou must not d i e ; for thou


, ,

shalt again b e unit e d with him 1 ” And with thes e w ords ,

t e nd e r a s a fath e r s he fl e w into the sky with P u n d ar i ka


,
.

But this sudd e n e v e nt fi lle d m e with fear dismay , ,

and eag e r anxi e ty and with upraised face I asked K ap i fi j ala


,

what it might m e an H e howeve r started up hastily with


.
, ,

o u t replying and w ith t h e cry Monster w hith e r goest “


, , ,

thou with my friend 2 with uplift e d ey e s and sudden w rath


h e ha stily gir t up his loins and following him in his fli gh t , ,

in hot pursuit h e rose into the sky ; and w hil e I ye t gazed


th e y all e nt e r e d amongst t h e stars But t h e d e part u re of .

K api fi j ala was to me like a second death o f my belove d and ,

it redoubled my gri e f so that my heart was rent asunder


, .

Bewild e red what to do I cried to T ar alikei : Knowest thou


,

1
G o gi r sh a a k in d of f r a gr an t s an d al
, .
1 34

n ot ? Tell me what this means ' B ut she with all a ,



woman s timidity at the sight wa s at that v e ry moment ,

trembling in all her limbs overcome by a f e ar st ro n ge r ,


z

than her gri e f and was frightened moreov e r by the dread


, , ,

o f my death ; and so w ith downcast heart sh e piteously


r e p l ied : Princ e ss wretch that I am I kno w n o t ! Ye t

, ,

this is a gr e at miracle The man is o f no mortal mould .


,

and thou wert pityingly comforted by him in his fl i gh t a s


by a fath e r S uch godlike b e ings are not w ont to d e c e ive
.

u s ev e n in sleep much l e ss face to fac e ; and when I think


, ,

it ove r I cannot see t h e least caus e for h is sp e aking falsely .

( 3 3 4 ) It is meet th e r e fore that thou shouldst w e igh i t and


, , ,

restrain thy longing f o r death In thy pr e sent state it is .

in truth a great ground for comfort Moreov e r K ap i fi j ala .


,

has gone in pursuit of P u n d ari ka From him thou canst .

l e arn whenc e and who this bein g is and why P u n d ari ka o n ,

his d e ath wa s by him raised and carri e d o ff and whither ,

he is carried and wherefore thou w e rt consoled by him


,

with t h e boon of a hope o f reunion that exceeds thought ;


then thou canst devote thys e lf either to lif e o r death F o r .

when d e ath is r e solved upon it i s easy to compass But ,


.

this can wait ; for K ap i fi j ala if he lives will certainly not , ,

r e st without seeing thee ; therefore le t thy lif e b e pre


served till his return Thus saying sh e f e ll at my fe e t
.
,
.

And I from the thirst for life that mortals fi n d so hard to


,

overcom e and from the w e aknes s of woman s natur e and


,

from t h e illusion his words had cr e ated and from my ,

anxiety for K ap i fi j ala s return thought that that plan w a s’

best for the time and did not d i e F or what will not hope
,
.

achieve 2
That night I spent in T ar alika s company on the bank ’

o f the lak e T o my wretchedn e ss it was like a night of


.

doom drawn out to a thousand years all torment all


1
, , ,

grief all hell all fi re ( 33 5) Sleep was rooted out and I


, , .
,

tossed o n t h e ground my fac e wa s hidden by the loosen e d


and dishevell e d tresses that clung to my ch e eks wet w ith ,

1
V Vi. sh n u P ur fi na , B k i . .
, ch . ii i .
( F o r the d sc i pti o n of B ahm a s
e r r

ni ght )
.
1 36

the do e r of that mon strous c rl m e t h e slaught e r o f a Brah ,

man 2 T hus saying she cov e red h e r fac e with t h e white


edge o f h e r bark garment a s if veiling t h e moon w ith a ,

fl e c k of autumn cloud and unabl e to quell the i rr e sistible


, ,

torrent o f her t e ars she gav e way to her sob s an d b e gan


, ,

to we e p loud and long .


From t h e v e ry fi r st Can drap i d a ha d been fi lle d with
reverence by h e r bea uty mod e sty and court e sy ; by the , ,

charm of h e r speec h her u n se lfi sh n e ss and her austerity


,

and by h e r serenity humility dignity, and purit y But now


, , .

he wa s carri e d a w ay both by t h e story of h e r life which ,

show e d her nobl e character and by her d e voted spirit and , ,

a fr e sh tenderness aros e in him With soft e n e d h e art he .

gently said : L ady those may weep w ho f e ar pain an d are



, ,

devoid of gratit u de and love pl e a sur e for th e y ar e unable


, ,

to do anything worthy of love and show th e ir a ff e ction ,

m e rely by vain tears But thou who hast done all right ly
.
,

what d u ty o f love hast thou l e ft undon e that thou w e e pest ? ,

F o r P u n d ari ka s s ake thy kinsfolk who from thy birth


’ ‘

have b e en around the e d e ar a s they w e r e have b e en for , ,

sak e n a s if they were strangers ( 3 38 ) E arthly pl e asur e s .


,

though at thy f e et hav e be e n d e spis e d and r e ck o n e d light


,

a s gra ss The j oys o f po w e r though th e ir rich e s e xc e lled


.
,

the empire o f I ndra have b e e n r e sign e d T hy form ha s


,
.

b e en emaciat e d by dr e ad p e nances e ven though by nature ,

it w a s sl e nd e r a s a lotus stalk T hou hast tak e n t h e ascetic


-
.

vo w . T hy soul has b e e n d e voted to great p e nanc e Thou .

ha st d w e lt in the woods hard though it b e for a w oman ,


.

Moreove r lif e is easily r e signed by those whom sorrow has


,

ove r wh e lm e d but it ne e ds a gr e at e r e ffort not to throw


,

away lif e in heavy grief This follo w ing anoth e r to d e ath .

is most vain ! It is a path follow e d by t h e ignorant ! It


is a mere fr e ak of ma dness a path of ignoran c e an e nter , ,

prise o f r e cklessness a view of basen e ss a sign o f utter


, ,

thoughtlessn e ss an d a blunder o f folly that o n e should


, ,

resign life o n the death of fath e r broth e r friend o r , , ,

h usband If life leaves u s n o t o f itself w e must not resign


.
,

it. F o r this leaving of life if we examine i t is merely f o r , ,


1 37

o u r o wn interest becaus e we cannot h ear o u r o wn cur e l e ss


,

pain T o t h e dead man it brings no good what e v e r For


.
.

it is no m e an s of bringing him back to lif e or h e aping u p ,

merit or gaining h e aven f o r him or saving him from h e ll


, , ,

o r seeing him again or b e ing r e united w ith him , ( 3 3 9 ) For .

h e is led h e lplessly irresistibly to another state m e e t for


.
,

the fruits of his own d e e ds And ye t he shares in t h e guilt .

of t h e friend who has killed himself But a man w ho lives .

o n can h e lp greatly by off erings o f wat e r and the lik e both


, ,

t h e dead man and hims e lf but by dying he helps n e ither .

R e member how Rati the sol e and b e lov e d wif e of Love , .


,

when her nobl e husband who won t h e hearts of all w omen , ,

was burnt up by t h e fi re of i a yet did not yi e ld her lif e ; ,

and rem e mb e r also Kunt i of t h e race of Vr i sh n i daughter , ,

o f S ar ase n a for her lord wa s P a ndu the wise ; his seat w as


,

perf u med by the f lo w e rs in t h e cr e sts of all the kings whom


he had conqu e r e d w ithout an eff ort and he r e c e ive d the ,

tribut e of the whole e arth and y e t when he wa s con ,

sumed by K i n dam a s c u rs e sh e still r e main e d aliv e Uttar a



.
,

t o o the young daughter of V ir at a on t h e d e ath of Abhi


, ,

many u g e ntle and her o ic and j oyful to t h e e y e s as the


, ,

yo u n g moon ye t liv e d o h And D uh calyet t o o daughter o f


'

.
, , ,

Dhritar a sh t ra t e nd e rly car e d for by h e r hundr e d broth e rs ;


,

wh e n J ayadrat h a king o f Sindhu was slain by Arj u na fair


, , ,

a s he wa s and great a s he had b e come by i a s gift yet 1 ’

mad e no r e signation of h e r lif e ( 3 4 0 ) A nd oth e rs are told .

o f by thousands daught e rs o f R akshasas gods d e mons


, , , ,

ascetics mortals siddhas and Gandharvas who wh e n


, , ,

b e reft of th e ir husbands yet pr e s e rv e d th e ir live s Still .


,

where reunion is doubtf u l life might be yi e lded But for , .

the e tho u ha st heard from that gr e at b e ing a promis e o f


,

reunion What doubt can there be in a matter of thine


.

own experi e nce and how could fa ls e hood fi n d a place in


,

the words o f such noble truth speaking saints even when -


,

there might be gr e ater ca u se 2 And w hat union could ‘

1
T t
a a h S ai n dh av a k o r aj ii k sh u d r a s , a a , J ay ad r at h ah, t t
V ar ad an e n a R u dr a sy a ar an n ah s am av ar ay at s v .

( Th n v t he ile in h S d k g t
i n l e , J ay a d r at h a , the th o gh boo n

e r u c on

f e e d by R d
rr u r a, O my
so n , k pt
e u s all — M ah ?1b h arat a , vii .
,
2 5 74 .
1 38

th e re b e between the d e ad and the living ? Ther e fore of a


sur e ty that wondrous being w as fi lle d with pity and carried
away P u n d ari ka to h e ave n solely to b r1n g him back to life "
.

For t h e po wer o f gr e at m e n tran scends thought Lif e h as .

many a spects D e stiny is manifold


. Thos e skilled in .

p e nanc e are fi t t e d for wondrous miracles Many are the .

forms of pow e r gain e d by previous actions Mor e ove r .


,

howeve r subtly we may consider the matt e r w hat other ,

cause can we imagin e for P u n d ar i ka s being tak e n a w ay ’


,

but the gift o f fr e sh lif e A nd this thou must know is .


, ,

not impossibl e I t is a path often trodd e n ( 3 4 1 ) F or


. .

P r am advaréi daughter of Vi cvé vasu king o f t h e G and


, ,
r

b arva s and Menak a lost her lif e through a poisonous


'

snak e at the hermitage o i S t h fi lake ca and the young .


,

ascetic Ruru so n of P r am at i and grandson o f the B h r i gu


,

Cy avan a provid e d her w ith half his own life


, A nd w hen .

Arj una wa s following t h e A cvam e dh a st e ed he was pierced ,

in t h e van o f the battle by an arrow from his o w n son


B ab h r u v ah an a an d a N a ga m aid e n U lf1 p a brought him
, , ,

back to life Wh e n P ari ksh i t A b h i m an yu s son was con


.
,

,

sumed by A cvat t h am a s fi e ry dart though h e ha d already


,

died at birth Krishna fi lle d w ith pity by U t t ar é s lam e nt


, , ,

r e st o r e d his pr e cious lif e And at U j j ayi ni h e whose steps


.
,

are honoured by the thr e e worlds carri e d off from the city ,

of d e ath the son of S an di p an i t h e Brahman and brought ,

1
him back . And in thy case too t h e sam e will som e how , ,

come to pa ss F or by thy pres e nt grief what is e ft e c t e d or


.
,

w hat won ? F at e i s all po w erf u l Destiny is strong We


-
. .

cannot even dra w a breath at our o wn will Th e freaks o f .

that accurs e d and m ost harsh destiny are e xc e e ding cruel .

A lov e fair in its sinc e rity is not allo w e d long to e ndure ;


f o r j oys are wont to b e in th e ir ess e nc e frail and unlasting ,

while sorrows by th e ir nature are long lived ( 34 2 ) F o r -


.

how hardly are mortal s u nit e d in o n e lif e whil e in a ,

thousand lives th e y are separat e d T hou can st not surely


th e n blame thys e lf all und e s e rving of blam e F o r thes e


, .

things often happen to those who ent e r t h e tangled path o f


1
H ar i v am ca , 4 9 0 6 .
1 40


Nobl e sir sh e r e plied ,

from t h e race of Apsarases ,

sprung from ambrosia of w hich I told you th e r e w a s born ,

a fair e yed daught e r named Madir a who marri e d King


-
1
,

Ci t r ar at h a t h e king w hos e footstool was form e d o f the


,

buds in the cr e s t s of all t h e Gandharvas Charm e d by h e r .

countl e ss Virtues h e sho w e d his favour by giving h e r the


,

title of Chi e f Qu e e n h e aring w ith it cowri e sceptre and , ,

umbr e lla mark e d by a gold e n throne and placing all the


, ,

z e nana b e low h e r— a wo m an s rarest glory ! A nd as they ’

p ursu e d tog e ther the j oys of youth in th e ir utt e r devotion


to e ach other a pric e les s da u ghter wa s in d u e tim e born
,

to th e m by name K a dambari mo st wondrous t h e v e ry


, , ,

lif e o f h e r parents and of the whole Gandharva rac e and , ,

ev e n of all living b e in gs From her birth sh e w as the .

fri e nd of my childhood and shar e d with m e seat couch , , ,

m e at and drink on h e r my d e epest love was set and she ,

wa s t h e hom e o f all my c o n fi d e n c e and like my other ,

h e art . Tog e th e r we l e arnt to danc e and sing and o ur ,

childhood passed away free from restra int in the sports


that b e long to i t ( 3 4 5 ) From sorro w at .my unh appy
story sh e mad e a r e solv e th at sh e w ould in nowis e acc e pt
a husband while I w as still in grief and b e for e h e r gir l ,

fri e nds sh e took an oath saying : I f my fath e r should in ,

any w is e o r at any time wish to marry m e against my wil l


and by forc e I will e n d my lif e by hunger fi re cord or
, , , ,

poison Ci t r ar at h a hims e lf heard all t h e r e solution o f his


.

daught e r spok e n of positiv e ly in the rep e ated gossip of her


,

att e ndants an d a s time w ent o n seeing that sh e was


, ,

gro w ing to full youth he b e came pr e y to great vexation , ,

and for a tim e took pleasure in nothing an d ye t a s she , ,

wa s his only child and h e d e arly loved her h e could say ,

nothing to h e r though h e saw no other resourc e But as


,
.

he d e emed the tim e now ripe he consider e d t h e matt e r with ,

Qu e en Madir a and sent the herald K sh i r o d a to me at e arly


,

dawn with the messag e : D e ar M ah acve t a o ur h e arts ,

wer e already burnt up by thy sad fat e and no w this new ,

1
M a d i r a, i n toxi c tin g b a , e wi tch i n g ; so c ll d b c s
a e e au e her e y sw
e e re
m a d i i ah
'
.
1 41

thing has come upon u s T o the e we look to win back .

K a dambar i Thereupon in r e v e r e nc e to t h e word s of one ,

so respected and in love to my fri e nd I sent Taralika w ith


, ,

K sh i r o da to bid K a dambar i not a dd grief to o n e already


sad e nough ( 3 4 6 ) for if she wished m e to liv e she must
f u lfi l h e r fath e r s words ; and ere Tarali ka had been long

gone thou noble sir camest to this spot S o saying she



.
, , ,

w a s silent .

T hen the moon arose simulating by his mark the ,

heart of M ah acve t é burnt through by the fi re of gri e f , ,

bearing the great crime of the young ascetic s d e ath ’


,

showing t h e long ingrained scar of the burning of Daksha s ’

1
curse whit e with thick ashes and half cov e red by black
, ,

antelope skin lik e the left breast of Durg a the crest j ewe l
, ,
-


of i a s thick locks ( 3 4 7 ) T hen at length Can d r l i da -
.

beh e ld M ah acve t a a sle e p and quietly lay down hims e lf on ,

his leafy couch and fell a sleep while thinking what V ai cam
p a yana and sorrowing P at r ale kh a and his princely com
p e ers would th e n be imagining about him .

Then at dawn when M ah ac ve t é had honour e d the ,

twilight and wa s murmuring the agh am ar sh an a and ,

Can dr api d a had said his morning prayer T arali ka wa s seen ,

coming with a Gandharva boy named K e yfi raka As


she drew n e ar she looked long at Can d répi d a wondering
, ,

who h e might b e and approaching M ah acve t a sh e bowed , ,

lo w and sat r e sp e ctfully by her Then K e y araka with head .


,

low b e nt ev e n from afar took his place on a rock some way ,

o ff a ssign e d to him by a glance from M ah é cv e t é and wa s


, ,

fi lle d with won d er at the sight o f Can drap i d a s marvellous


beauty rare mocking that o f gods d e mons Gandharva s


, , , , ,

and Vi dyadh aras and surpassing e ven the god of love , .

( 3 4 9 ) When she had fi n i sh e d her prayers M a h acv e t a ,

a sked T ar alika Didst th ou see my d e ar K a dambar i w e ll 2


and w ill she do a s I said 2 Princess said T aralika ’

,

in a very s weet voice with head r e spectfully inclin e d I , ,

D ksh c s d t h moon wi th co n s mpt i o n t t h pp l of hi


1 a a ur e e u a e a ea s

fo ty n i n d ght s t h moo s wi v s who compl in d of h i sp c i l


r -
e au er , e n

e , a e s e a

f vo to t h fi f t i t h s i st
a ur e e er .
142

saw Princess K a dambar i well i n all respects and told her ,

all thin e advice ; and what wa s h e r r e ply when with a ,

continuous stream o f thick tears she had hear d i t that her ,

lut e player K e yfi r aka whom she has s e nt shall t e ll the e


-
, ,

and a s sh e ceased K e yfi raka said P rincess M ah acve t a my , ,

lady K a dambar i with a close embra c e sends this message


, , ,


Is this that T ar alik a ha s been sent to t e ll m e said to
, ,

pl e a se my pare n t s or to t e st my feelings o r to subtly ,

r e proach m e for my crime in dwelling at home or is it a


d e sir e to break o u r fri e ndship or a devi ce to desert o n e ,

who lov e s h e r or is it simply anger ? Thou kno w e st that


,

my h e art o ve r fl o ws w ith a love that was inborn in


me . How wert thou not a shamed to s e nd so cr uel a
message ? Tho u erst so soft of speech from whom ha st
, ,

thou learnt to speak unkindness and utter reproach 2 Wh o


in his senses would even if happy mak e up his min d to
, ,

und e rtake e ven a slight matt e r that would e n d in pain ?


how much l e ss o n e lik e me w hose h e art is struck down by ,

deep gri e f 2 F o r in a heart worn by a friend s sorrow ’

what hope is there of j o y what cont e ntm e nt what pl e asures


, ,

o r w hat mirth ? ( 3 5 0 ) How should I f u lfi l the d e sire of


L ove poisonous pitil e ss unkind wh o ha s brought my
, , , ,

dear fri e nd to so sad a plight ? E ven t h e hen c akr avaka ,

when the lotus beds are widow e d by the sun s setting


-

r e nounces from t h e friendship that arises from d w e lling


among them the j oys of union with h e r lord ho w much
,

more then should wom e n


, , While my friend dwells day
and night sorrowing for the loss o f her lord and avoiding
t h e sight o f mankind how could anyone e lse e nt e r my
,

h e art and while my friend in her sorrow tortur e s h e rself


with p e nances and s u ff e rs great pain h o w could I think so ,

lightly o f that a s to s e e k my own happin e ss and accept a


husband or h o w could any happiness befall m e ? F o r
,

from love o f thee I have in this matter accepted dis


grace by embracing an ind e pendent life contrary to the
wont of maidens I have despise d noble br e e ding tran s
.
,

r e sse d my parent s commands s e t at nought the gossip o f


g ,

mankind thrown away modesty a woman s inborn grac e


, ,

1 44

forward at t h e sight of M ah fi cve t é bowing while yet far 0 2 , ,

and hol ding th e ir gold e n stave s he e nter e d and b e h e ld the ,

inside o f the maid e ns palace It seemed a new woman s ’


.

world consisting wholly of women in countless numbers


, ,

a s if the womankind o i the three worlds ha d be e n gathered


together to make such a total ; o r it might be a fresh
manl e ss creation a yet unborn contin e nt of girls a fi f t h
, ,

women s e ra a fresh race created by P r aj fip at i o u t of


hatr e d for m e n o r a tr e a sury of women pr e pared for the


,

making of many yugas The wave of girlish beauty which .

surrounded it on all sid e s which fl o o d e d space sprinkled , ,

nectar on the day rained spl e ndour o n the interstice s of


,

t h e world and shone lustrous a s an emerald made the


, ,

place all aglow a s if with thousand s o f moon s ; ( 3 5 3) it


seem e d modelled in moonlight ; j ewels made another sky ;
servic e wa s done by bright glanc e s ; every part was made
for youthful plea sures ; here wa s an a ssemblage for Rati s ’

sports a mat e rial for L ov e s practice ; here the entrance


,

o f all wa s made smooth by Love ; here all wa s aff e ction ,

beauty : the supr e me deity of pas sion the arrows o f Love , ,

here all wa s wond e r marvel and tenderness of youth , , .

( 3 5 6 ) Wh e n he had gone a little way in he heard the


pleasant talk of the maiden s round K a dambari a s they
wandered hither an d thither Such as L avalika deck the .
,

laval i trenches with ke t aki pollen S agarik a sprinkle .


,

j ewelled dust in the tanks of scented water M r i n ali ka .


,

inlay with saff ron dust t h e pairs of toy c akrav akas in


1

the ar t ifi c i al lotus beds M akarika scent the pot pourri


-
.
,
-

with camphor j uice Raj an i ka place j ewelled lamps in


-
.
,

the dark tam a la avenues K u m u di k a cover the pome .


,

granates with p e arly n e ts to ke e p o ff the birds N ip u n i ka .


,

draw sa ff ron lines o n the br e a sts of the j ewelled dolls .

U t p alika swe e p with gold e n broom s the em e rald arbour in


,

the p lai n t ai n hous e K e sar i ka sprinkle with wine the


.
,

houses o f bakul fl o we r s M alat i ka redden with red lead .


,

the ivory roof o f K a ma s shrine N alin i ka give the tame ’


.
,

kalah am sas lotus honey to drink -


K ad alika take the .
,

1
L it .
, go i n g by m chi n y a er .

145

tame peacocks to t h e show e r bath s K am alin i ka g i ve some -


,

sap from the lotus fi b r e s to t h e young c akravfi kas C ii ta


-
.

lat i ka give t h e cag e d pigeons th e ir meal o f mango buds


,
-
.

P allavi ka distribut e to t h e tam e h ari t fi la pig e ons some


,

topmost leaves of the p e pp e r tr e e L avan gika throw som e -


.
,

pi e ces o f p i p p ali l e ave s into the partridg e s cag e s Mad


h u kari ka make som e fl o w ery ornaments M ayfi rik zi


.
, ,

dismiss t h e pairs of kin n aras in the singing room Kan -


.

dalik a bring up t h e pairs of partridges to t h e top of the


,

playing hill H ar i n i k a give the caged parrots and m ai n as


.
,

their lesson .

( 3 58 ) Then h e beheld K a dambar i herself in the midst


of her pavilion encircled by a b e vy of maidens sitting by
her whos e glitt e ring g e ms mad e th e m like a cluster of
,

1
kalpa trees ( 3 5 9 ) She wa s resting on her bent arms
.
,

which lay on a whit e pillow plac e d o n a small couch


cove red with blue silk ; she w as fanned by cowri e b e ar e rs -
,

that in t h e motion of th e ir waving arms were like swimm e rs


in the wid e fi o wi n g stream o f h e r beauty a s if it cover e d
-
,

t h e e arth w hich was only held up by the t a sks o f Mah a


,

v ar ah a .

A nd a s her re fl e c t io n t ell she se e med o n the J ewe l led ,

pavem e nt b e lo w to b e borne away by serpents ; o n the


walls hard by to be led by the guardians of spac e ; on the
roof above to be cast upwards by the gods ; to be received
by t h e pillars into their inmost heart ; to be drunk in by
the palace mirrors to be lift e d to the sky by t h e Vi dy ad
,

haras scatt e r e d in the pavilion looking down from the ,

roof to be surrounded by the universe concealed in the


guise o f pictures all thronging together to see her ; to be
,

gazed at by the palace itself which ha d gained a thousand ,

e y e s to behold her in that the e yes o f its peacocks tails


w ere outspr e ad a s th e y danc e d to the clashing of her gems ;


and to be steadily looked on by her o wn attendants who ,

s e emed in their eagerness to behold h er to have gained a


divine insight .

Her b e auty bore the impress o i awakening l ove .

1
T re e s of p ar a di s e .
1 46

though but yet in promise and sh e seemed to be casting ,

childhood a side like a thing o f no w orth .

( 36 5 ) Such wa s K fid am b ari as the prince b e held her ,


.

Before h er was seat e d K e yuraka loud in prais e o i Candr a ,

pi da s b e auty a s K a dambari question e d him saying



, , ,


Who is h e and what are his par e ntag e name app e ar
, , ,

ance and age ? What did h e say and w hat didst thou
, ,

reply 2 Ho w long didst thou see him 2 how ha s h e b e com e


so clos e a fri e nd to M ah ac ve t a 2 and why is he coming
hither 2 ’

No w on b e holding t h e moonlike b e auty o f K fi d am b ari s


,

fac e the princ e s heart w as stirred like the tide o f oc e an


,

.


Why thought h e did not the Creator make all my
,

,

sens e s into sight o r w hat noble d e e d ha s my e ye don e that


,

it may look on her unchecked ? Sur e ly it is a w onder !


The Creator has here mad e a h o m e f o r ev e ry charm !
Whenc e have t h e parts o f this exceeding b e a uty been
gathered ? S ur e ly from t h e t e ars that fell from the

Creator s e yes in the labour of thought a s he g e ntly ,

mould e d her with his hands all t h e lotus e s in the world ,

have their birth .

( 3 66) And as he thus thought his eye m e t hers and



,

sh e thinking This is he of whom K e y fi raka spok e let ’

, , ,

her glance widened by wonder a t his e xceeding bea uty


, ,

dwe ll long and quietly on him Confus e d by the sight o f .

K et dam b ari yet illumined by t h e brightness o f her gaze h e


'

, ,

stood for a moment l ik e a rock whi l e at t h e sight of him a ,

thrill rose in K a dambar i her j ewels clash e d and she half , ,

ros e Then love cau s e d a glow but t h e excuse was the


.
,

f
ef ort of hastily rising ; tremb l ing hindered h e r steps the —
h am sas around drawn by the soun d of t h e anklets go t t h e
, ,

blame ; t h e heaving of a sigh stirr e d her robe i t wa s —


thought due to t h e w ind o f the cowries ; h e r hand f e l l 0 11
h e r heart as if to touch Can dr api d a s image that had


entered i n i t pretended to cov e r her bosom ; she le t fal l
tears of j oy—the excus e wa s t h e poll e n falling from t h e
fl o we r s i n her ear Shame choked her voice — the swarm .

o f bees hastening to the lotus sweetness o f her mouth was


1 48

of his being un seen before lay a side di ffi de n c e a s to his ,

b e ing a stra n ger cast away suspicion rising from his


,

character being unknown and b e have to him as to me , .

H e is thy friend thy kinsman and thy servant


, A t these , .

words o f hers Can dr api d a bow e d lo w befor e K a dambari and ,

a s she glanced sideways at him a ff e ctionately th e re fell


from her ey e s with th e ir b eautiful pupils turn e d towards
,

t h e corn e r o f their long orb s a fl o o d of j oyous tears a s , ,

though from w e ariness The moonlight o f a smil e whit e .


,
'

a s nectar dart e d forth a s if it wer e t h e d u st r ai se d by t h e


, ,

heart a s it hastily set o u t ; o n e e yebro w w a s raised as if t o


bid the h e ad honour w ith an answering rever e nc e the guest
so d e ar to the heart ; ( 36 9 ) her hand crept to h e r softly
parting lips and might seem a s t h e light o f an e merald
, ,

ring fl ash e d between the fi n ge r s to have tak e n some betel ,


.

She bowed d i ffi de n t ly and then sat down o n t h e couch with


,

M ah acve t éi and the att e ndants quickly brought a stool with


,

gold feet an d a covering of whit e silk and placed it near ,

the couch and Can drapi d a took his s e at thereon To plea se


, .

M ah é cve t a the portress e s knowing K fidam b zi ri s wishes



, , ,

and having by a hand placed on closed lips rec e ived an ‘

ord e r to stop all sounds ch e cked on e very sid e the sound,

o f pipe lute and song and the M agad h a wom e n s cry of


, ,

All hail ( 3 7 0 ) When t h e servants had quickly brought


water K a dambar i herself washed M ah acve t a s fe e t and
,

, ,

drying th e m with her robe sat o n th e couch again ; and ,

M adale kh a a friend w orthy o f K a dambari dear a s her own


, ,

life and the home of all h e r c o n fi d e n c e insisted on w ashing ,

Can d r ap i d a s feet un w illing though he w e r e M ah acv e t a



.
,

m e anwhil e a sk e d K é dam b ari how she was and lovingly ,

touched with h e r hand t h e corn e r of h e r friend s eyes ’

which shone with t h e r e fl e c t e d light o f her earrings ; sh e


lift e d the fl o we r s in K é d am b ari s ear all cove red with bees ’

, ,

and softly stroke d th e coils of h e r hair roughen e d by t h e ,

wind o f t h e cowries And K é d am b ari a shamed from lov e


.
, ,

to her friend of her o wn well being as though feeling that


,
-
,

in still dw e lling at hom e she had committed a cri m e said ,

w ith an eff ort that all was well with her Th e n though .
,
1 49

fi lle d with grief and intent on gazing at M ah acve t a s face ’

yet h e r e ye with its pupil dark and quivering a s it looked


,

out sid e ways wa s und e r the in flu e nc e o f love with ho w


, , ,

fully bent irr e sistibly drawn by Can d rapi da s fac e and sh e


,

could n o t turn it away A t that same moment she f e lt .

j ealousy of his being pictur e d on t h e cheek of her friend


1


standing n e ar the pain o f abs e nce as his r e fl e c t i o n faded .

away on her own brea st pierc d by a thrill the ange r


e — ,

of a rival wife a s the image o f the statues fell o n him t h e —


sorrow of despair a s he closed his e y e s and blindness a s hi s ,

image wa s veil e d by tears o f j oy .

( 37 1 ) A t t h e end of a moment M ah acve t a said to


“ ‘

K a dambari as she was intent on giving b e tel : Dear


'

K 5 d am b ari the moment has approach e d for u s to show


,

honour to our newly arriv e d guest Can dr api da Ther e , .

for e give him some B ut averting her b e nt face K a dam


.

b arI replied slowly and indistinctly D e ar friend I am , ,

ashamed to do so for I do n ot know him Do thou tak e , .

i t f o r thou can st without the for w ardness there would be


,

in me and give it him and it wa s only after ma n y p e r


,

suasions that with d i ffi c u lt y and like a Villag e mai de n


, , ,

she resolved to give i t Her e yes were neve r drawn from .

M ah acve t é s face her limbs trembled h e r glance wave r e d


, , ,

she sighed d e eply she was st u nn e d by L ove with his ,

shaft and she seemed a prey to t e rror a s she str e tched


,

forth h e r hand holding t h e bet e l a s if tryi n g to cling to


,

som e thing under the i dea she w a s falling The hand .

Can dr api d a stretched o u t by natur e pink a s if red lea d , ,

had fallen upon it from t h e fl app in g of his triumphal


elephant wa s darkened by the scars of the bowstring and
, ,

seemed to have dr op s of collyrium clinging to it from


touching t h e eyes o f his enemi e s Lakshmi weepin g a s h e ’

drew h e r by the hair ; ( 3 7 2 ) its fi n ge r s by the forth


fl ash i n g rays o f his nails seem e d to run up ha stily to ,

grow long and to laugh and the hand seemed to raise ,

fi ve other fi n ge r s in the fi ve senses that in desire to touch ,

h e r ha d j ust made their entry full o f love


, Then contend .

1
R e ad z rshyan vya t hd m an d i sh a j as t h e C al c u tt a e di t i o n
' '

z, ,
'
o i i , .
150

ing f e e li n gs t o o k possession o f K a dambari as i f they had


1

gathered togeth e r in curiosity to see the grace at that


moment so ea sy o f a ccess Her hand a s she did not look .
,

w hither it was going wa s stretched vainly forth , and the ,

ray s of its nails seemed to hasten forward to se e k Candr a


p i da s hand ; and with the murmur of the line o f brac e lets

s t irred by h e r trembling it seemed to say a s drops o f , ,

moistur e arose o n i t L et this slave o ff er e d by L ove be ,


2
accept e d a s if she were o ff ering herself and Hence
,

,

forth it is in thy hand a s if sh e were making i t into a ,


living being and so she gave t h e b e tel A nd in drawin g


, .

back her hand she did not notice the fall of her bracelet ,

which had slipped down her arm in eag e r n e s s to touch


him like her heart pi e rced by L ove s shaft ; and taking
,

another piece o f betel she gave it to M ah zi cve t a


'

.
,

( 3 7 ) Then there came up with ha sty st e ps a maina


f
3 ,

a very fl o we r in that her feet were yello w a s l otus fi lam e n t s


, ,

h er beak wa s l ike a c am p ak bud an d her wings blue a s a ,

lotus peta l Close behin d her cam e a parrot slow in gait


.
, ,

e merald wing e d with a beak lik e coral and neck bearing a


-
,

curved three rayed rainbo w Angrily the maina began


,
-
.


Prin cess K a dambari why dost thou n o t r e strain this ,

w retched il l mann e red conceited bird from follo w in g me 2


,
-
,

If thou o ve rlo o ke st my b e ing O ppr e ssed by him I will ,

c e rtainly destroy myself I swear it truly by thy lotu s