The Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Held at Dauphine Université, Paris, 2-3 September 2010
ISBN 978-1-84219-619-9 © RICS 12 Great George Street London SW1P 3AD United Kingdom www.rics.org/cobra September 2010

The RICS COBRA Conference is held annually. The aim of COBRA is to provide a platform for the dissemination of original research and new developments within the specific disciplines, sub-disciplines or field of study of:

Management of the construction process
• • • • • • • •

Cost and value management Building technology Legal aspects of construction and procurement Public private partnerships Health and safety Procurement Risk management Project management

The built asset
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Property investment theory and practice Indirect property investment Property market forecasting Property pricing and appraisal Law of property, housing and land use planning Urban development Planning and property markets Financial analysis of the property market and property assets The dynamics of residential property markets Global comparative analysis of property markets Building occupation Sustainability and real estate Sustainability and environmental law Building performance

UK Glasgow Caledonian University. USA University of Pretoria. South Africa Glasgow Caledonian University. Referees were drawn from an expert panel. UK University of Cape Town. Australia University of Salford.The property industry • • • • • Information technology Innovation in education and training Human and organisational aspects of the industry Alternative dispute resolution and conflict management Professional education and training Peer review process All papers submitted to COBRA were subjected to a double-blind (peer review) refereeing process. Austria UNITEC. UK University of the West of England. UK Queensland University of Technology. UK Liverpool John Moores University. The conference organisers wish to extend their appreciation to the following members of the panel for their work. representing respected academics from the construction and building research community. Turkey Liverpool John Moores University. Ghana Curtin University. South Africa Anglia Ruskin University. UK KNUST. South Africa Texas A and M University. UK University of Wolverhampton. UK University of Bolton. USA University of Manchester. UK . UK Ahmadu Bello University. Australia TPS Consult. Australia Heriot-Watt University. UK RMIT. Australia Calford Seaden. USA RMIT University. Rifat Akbiyikli Rafid Al Khaddar Ahmed Al Shamma’a Tony Auchterlounie Kwasi Gyau Baffour Awuah Kabir Bala Juerg Bernet John Boon Douw Boshoff Richard Burt Judith Callanan Kate Carter Keith Cattell Antoinette Charles Fiona Cheung Sai On Cheung Samuel Chikafalimani Ifte Choudhury Chris Cloete Alan Coday Michael Coffey Nigel Craig Ayirebi Dansoh Peter Davis Peter Defoe Grace Ding Hemanta Doloi John Dye Peter Edwards Charles Egbu Ola Fagbenle Ben Farrow Peter Fenn Peter Fewings Sakarya University. Nigeria Auburn University. New Zealand University of Pretoria. South Africa Auburn University. Australia University of Melbourne. UK Anglia Ruskin University. Nigeria Danube University Krems. UK Covenant University. UK University of Technology Sydney. which is invaluable to the success of COBRA. Australia City University of Hong Kong University of Pretoria.

UK Virginia Tech. UK Construction IT Alliance.Peter Fisher Chris Fortune Valerie Francis Rod Gameson Abdulkadir Ganah Seung Hon Han Anthony Hatfield Theo Haupt Dries Hauptfleisch Paul Holley Danie Hoffman Keith Hogg Alan Hore Bon-Gang Hwang Joseph Igwe Adi Irfan Javier Irizarry Usman Isah David Jenkins Godfaurd John Keith Jones Dean Kashiwagi Nthatisi Khatleli Mohammed Kishk Andrew Knight Scott Kramer Esra Kurul Richard Laing Terence Lam Veerasak Likhitruangsilp John Littlewood Junshan Liu Champika Liyanage Greg Lloyd S M Lo Mok Ken Loong Martin Loosemore David Manase Donny Mangitung Patrick Manu Tinus Maritz Hendrik Marx Ludwig Martin Wilfred Matipa Steven McCabe Annie McCartney Andrew McCoy Enda McKenna Kathy Michell Roy Morledge University of Northumbria. Malaysia University of Wolverhampton. South Africa Liverpool John Moores University. UK Anglia Ruskin University. UK University of Ulster. UK . South Africa University of Northumbria. South Africa University of the Free State. UK University of Melbourne. UK University of Glamorgan. South Africa Cape Peninsula University of Technology. UK University of Salford. UK University of Cape Town. South Korea University of Wolverhampton. South Korea University of New South Wales. Ireland National University of Singapore University of Lagos. South Africa Robert Gordon’s University. USA Queen’s University Belfast. UK Nottingham Trent University. UK Auburn University. UK Universitas Tadulako. UK Chulalongkorn University. USA University of Central Lancashire. UK University of Pretoria. UK Yonsei University. Malaysia Georgia Institute of Technology. UK University of Glamorgan. Thailand University of Wales Institute. UK Robert Gordon’s University. South Africa University of the Free State. USA Oxford Brookes University. Australia Glasgow Caledonian University. UK Arizona State University. Cardiff. USA University of Manchester. UK Auburn University. UK City University of Hong Kong Yonsei University. USA University of Cape Town. Nigeria Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. South Africa Auburn University. UK Cape Peninsula University of Technology. UK University of Central Lancashire. USA University of Pretoria. UK Birmingham City University. UK University of Central Lancashire. UK University of Greenwich. Australia University of Wolverhampton. South Africa Nottingham Trent University.

UK Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Australia University of Glamorgan. UK London South Bank University. UK . South Africa MUJV Ltd. UK RMIT. UK Coventry University. Seychelles University of Uyo. Natal. UK University of Ulster. Turkey University of the Witwatersrand. UK University College London. UK University of Glamorgan. UK Ministry of National Development. Australia University of Glamorgan. South Africa Georgia Institute of Technology. Chile Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. Hong Kong Nottingham Trent University. UK Heriot-Watt University. Australia Bogazici University. UK University of Cape Town. UK Northumbria University. The Netherlands University of Pretoria. South Africa University of the Witwatersrand. UK University of the Free State. UK Queen’s University Belfast. South Africa Waterford Institute of Technology.Michael Murray Saka Najimu Stanley Njuangang Henry Odeyinka Ayodejo Ojo Michael Oladokun Alfred Olatunji Austin Otegbulu Beliz Ozorhon Obinna Ozumba Robert Pearl Srinath Perera Joanna Poon Keith Potts Elena de la Poza Plaza Matthijs Prins Hendrik Prinsloo Richard Reed Zhaomin Ren Herbert Robinson Kathryn Robson Simon Robson David Root Kathy Roper Steve Rowlinson Paul Royston Paul Ryall Amrit Sagoo Alfredo Serpell Winston Shakantu Yvonne Simpson John Smallwood Heather Smeaton-Webb Bruce Smith Melanie Smith Hedley Smyth John Spillane Suresh Subashini Kenneth Sullivan Joe Tah Derek Thomson Matthew Tucker Chika Udeaja Basie Verster Francois Viruly John Wall Sara Wilkinson Trefor Williams University of Strathclyde. UK Arizona State University. UK University of Wolverhampton. UK Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. UK University of Central Lancashire. UK University of Wolverhampton. USA University of Hong Kong. USA Oxford Brookes University. USA Leeds Metropolitan University. South Africa University of KwaZulu. UK Nottingham Trent University. South Africa Deakin University. UK Auburn University. UK Liverpool John Moores University. UK Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Ireland Deakin University. South Africa University of Greenwich. UK Glasgow Caledonian University. South Africa Northumbria University. Australia University of Northumbria. Spain Delft University of Technology. Nigeria Newcastle University.

Malaysia University of South Australia University of the Free State. UK University of Salford. UK Leeds Metropolitan University. South Africa Hong Kong Polytechnic University Glasgow Caledonian University. UK Northumbria University. UK Technion. UK Loughborough University. UK National University of Singapore University of Salford. UK University of Salford. UK Glasgow Caledonian University. Turkey University of Sheffield. Australia University of Wolverhampton. the following specialist panel of peer-review experts assessed papers for the COBRA session arranged by CIB W113 John Adriaanse Julie Adshead Alison Ahearn Rachelle Alterman Deniz Artan Ilter Jane Ball Luke Bennett Michael Brand Penny Brooker Alice Christudason Paul Chynoweth Sai On Cheung Julie Cross Melissa Daigneault Steve Donohoe Ari Ekroos Tilak Ginige Martin Green David Greenwood Asanga Gunawansa Jan-Bertram Hillig Rob Home Peter Kennedy Anthony Lavers Wayne Lord Sarah Lupton Tim McLernon Frits Meijer Jim Mason Brodie McAdam Tinus Maritz London South Bank University.Bimbo Windapo Francis Wong Ing Liang Wong Andrew Wright Peter Wyatt Junli Yang Wan Zahari Wan Yusoff George Zillante Benita Zulch Sam Zulu University of Cape Town. South Africa Leeds Metropolitan University. UK University of Helsinki. UK Texas A&M University. UK University of Pretoria. UK University of Westminster. The Netherlands University of the West of England. UK De Montfort University. UK Anglia Ruskin University. UK National University of Singapore University of Reading. UK City University of Hong Kong University of Salford. South Africa . Finland Bournemouth University. UK In addition to this. UK University of Reading. UK Sheffield Hallam University. UK Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. USA University of Plymouth. UK Imperial College London. UK TU Delft. UK University of New South Wales. Israel Istanbul Technical University. UK Cardiff University University of Ulster. UK Keating Chambers.

Australia . UK London South Bank University. UK University of Wolverhampton. UK TU Delft.Francis Moor Issaka Ndekugri John Pointing Razani Abdul Rahim Linda Thomas-Mobley Paul Tracey Yvonne Scannell Cathy Sherry Julian Sidoli del Ceno Keren Tweeddale Henk Visscher Peter Ward University of Salford. UK Universiti Technologi. Australia Birmingham City University. Ireland University of New South Wales. UK Kingston University. Malaysia Georgia Tech. The Netherlands University of Newcastle. UK Trinity College Dublin. USA University of Salford.

Seoul.Value stream mapping and simulation as integrated lean approach tool for improving productivity in the installation of natural gas pipes Mok. Seung Heon Professor. Korea. Seoul. INTRODUCTION Lean construction has long been discussed by numerous researchers. Productivity improvement 1. Woosik Master student. Korea. such as value stream mapping (hereafter . On top of that.. The current-state of the value-stream-map was drawn and analyzed to identify the waste related to lean management. Department of Civil & Environmental Eng.. form a strong integrated instrument for improving work productivity.ac. this paper attempts to apply both methods as integrated lean approach for productivity improvement.ac. Yonsei Univ. The role of value stream mapping (VSM) and simulation as tools in implementing. woosik@yonsei. Simulation models for current (as-is) and improved (to-be) natural gas pipe operations were developed using the EXTEND simulation software. mokkenloong@yonsei. seiys21@yonsei. A case study was carried out on a natural gas pipe works. Seoul. Practical examples of the lean approach in construction were conducted using developed tools. Simulation.. Hence.. Yonsei Univ. a detailed value-stream-map of individual processes against time frame was studied to extrude more hidden wastes.. Korea. Keywords: Lean construction. Value stream mapping (VSM). Eon Ill Master student.kr Han. an introduction to lean construction was given. and onto Henry Ford’s Model ‘T’. Yonsei Univ. Department of Civil & Environmental Eng.. With the contemplation of the past and the origin of the modern world’s leanthinking outlined. Ken Loong Master student.ac.ac. Department of Civil & Environmental Eng. Seoul. cogitations of pre-existing waste-reduction similar to today’s lean-thinking have been practiced by several forerunners.. Yonsei Univ. This study showed that VSM and simulation tools. Department of Civil & Environmental Eng. shh6018@yonsei. whereby the improved natural gas pipe operations showed better results in all aspects of the process utilization and productivity. analyzing and evaluating lean construction have been studied separately by numerous researchers.kr Sin. when combined together.kr Abstract From ancient Egypt’s pyramids to Qin Shi Huang’s terracotta army.kr Jang.. Korea.

analyzing and evaluating lean construction. We should encourage more participation from our very own construction academia to unmask the mystery of yet another predecessor of lean construction applicants among various world heritages and megaliths that . Then. The history of lean thinking is examined to enable a greater understanding of its development and. In part 1. was introduced as a means to reduce the waste through identification and elimination of waste which was defined under lean-management. Lean thinking. both simulation models of the current and improved states were modeled. the lean techniques are implemented in order to eliminate the waste in the current system. Instead. validated and analyzed.called VSM) and simulation. Part 3 details the procedural methodology adopted in the present study. However. This paper discusses the above mentioned matters plus some insights down the discovery lane of lean thinking. we discuss waste-reduction prior to the well acknowledged lean-thinking principle. and the relatively newer idea of lean production. 1. Finally. similar concepts that are now seen as being the key to “lean” have been discovered and practiced by manufacturers and investors in order to improve productivity and eliminate waste in their production systems. 2007).1 The forebear of lean thinking Having gained much assurance since its introduction in the last decade of the twentieth century. when the Egyptians built the pyramids (Kenneth Wong. It also reviews the literature related to the topic in question. part 5 discusses a short conclusion and suggestions for the future study. there exist numerous sources that quoted the existence of waste-reduction thinking long before the acknowledgement of the just-in-time (JIT). The external ramps were temporary ramps for transporting millions of tons of stone to approximately 2/3 of the pyramid’s mass. leanthinking continues to inspire us to attain new heights in building better system for our current world and perhaps the promising future. thus. Nevertheless. Houdin’s theory supposed that waste was eliminated during the construction of the pyramids through the reuse of the stones dismantled from the external ramps to build internal ramps for the completion of the pyramids. It has been claimed that the application of lean-thinking in mass production appeared as early as 2600 B. Over the years. its extension towards lean construction. subsequently. “lean” would carry the meaning of economical or little waste. Part 2 describes the VSM and simulation methods as efficient integrated tools in implementing. the Toyota Production System (TPS). The structure of this paper is as follows. it might be better to consider the integration of both evaluative tools in a manner whereby they could complement each other. A case study for a natural gas pipe installation works is then carried out and the current-state value stream is mapped and analyzed in part 4. In addition. For a lay man. We believe that more such historical examples of waste conservation will be discovered in the future. focus was usually placed on a single tool and its greatness onto the other.C. ‘leaner’ future-state map is proposed. Wong reported that a French architect named Houdin devised a new theory pertaining to the construction methods employed by the Egyptians at Giza (2570-2500 BCE). On the basis of ‘as-is’ analysis.

the concept of “lean” was introduced into one of the oldest and change-resistant construction- . of the motor industry. increased the value of the products. 2006). but were only made known to the world in the 1980s. Museum of the Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses of Qin ShiHuang). Eventually. Qin Shi Huang’s Terracotta Army is the largest ceramics project ever known. 1998). Ford always showed a keen interest in the customer feedback related to the quality of the Ford’ cars. The overwhelming responses to Womack’s study led to the term of ‘lean production’ first called being coined by Krafcik in 1988 (Holweg. Vanadium was added to the steel in order to produce lighter yet stronger car parts which subsequently reduced the weight of the car. when he investigated a foreign valve strip stem made from French steel and eventually improved his steel by adding vanadium. These terracotta sculptures were claimed to be an early feat of mass production and assembly line production. in his book entitled “My life and work. with the specific parts manufactured and joined together in various combinations whilst be monitored for quality control ( J. the essence of lean-thinking. 1999).” states that he had applied the principles of waste-reduction. William A. Henry Ford. the development of lean manufacturing practices in the automobile industry was discussed in detail. Lighter parts also shorten the handling time of the parts throughout the joining process. 2007. Such lean production principles had been systematically applied by Japanese car maker Toyota for decades since the 1960s. This is similar to the “pull” philosophy of the recent customers-driven concept in lean thinking. Levinson (2002) once mentioned that the philosophy behind the revolutionized Japanese manufacturing was the same as the Ford Motor Company. 1922). we cannot deny the fact that systematic concepts of leanthinking actually surfaced in the 1980s and were outlined by a team of researchers at MIT after an extensive study of the manufacturing processes. whereby each figure was formed by joining separately created bodily sections (Asian Art Museum. and most importantly. Reducing a car’s weight is a great approach to minimizing the waste of energy and materials. For example. Though confident in the quality of his cars.” (Henry Ford. 1. “No business can improve unless it pays the closest possible attention to complaints and suggestions. “Pull” is one of the techniques in lean production involving materials being pulled through the production flow to meet the expectation of the customers (Tommelein.2 The origin of lean thinking in the modern world Despite the historical evidence present herein. under the International Motor Vehicle Program (IMVP).survived the past age. 1990). Jones and Roos. In their classic book “The Machine That Changed the World” (Womack. Portal. He also mentioned how Ford was influenced by Benjamin Franklin on issues of waste.

Re-adjustments and fine-tuning of a future map following its implementation may save us from rework and waste efforts. This practical communication tool provides a clear view of the flow of information as the production process progresses through the value stream. including both non-value added and value added activities. The Toyota engineers characterized the existing and future states of their process & operations in order to implement lean elements into their developmental system plans (Rother and Shook. One way to indentify the in-place value for the existing system is through the evaluation and validation tools of lean techniques. . Hence little research has been conducted pertaining to the improvement of value maximization in the construction industry. Following notable success in the manufacturing sector. it enables easy visual detection of sources of waste. A value stream is the combined flow of all of the operations. No other tools are more suitable than VSM for displaying the connections between information flow and material flow (Rother and Shook. Lean-thinking is the art or tactics used for command. 2. In fact. lean thinking and simulation are closely linked and indeed synonymous. required to produce the end product for a customer. the construction industry had focused mainly on waste reduction (Ballard and Howell 1998). provided that the processes are efficiently modeled and analyzed as the real operations (Halpin and Kueckmann 2002). the concepts of lean production were also imported to the construction industry. Researchers have proved the roles of simulation as an evaluation tool in shaping the very illustration of the benefits contributed by lean construction towards the industry. A good example is the computer simulation. The recommended practice is not to spend too much time ensuring every detail of the future-state map is perfectly flawless. hence. The advancement of technology. After identifying waste. EFFECTIVE TOOLS FOR LEAN CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATIONS 2. has provided the investors with the required technology to implement lean-thinking to its entirety in the construction industry. VSM is a visualization tool that was first used in the Toyota Production System and is known as “Material and Information Flow Mapping”.industries following the devisal of ‘Lean Production” by Koskela in a 1992 report. Validation tools are becoming more important in implementing lean thinking due to the rapid development of complex project under booming economies. especially in the information and computing sector. 1998). such as VSM and simulation. computer integration and automation. Such a system is first mapped out in 2-D. such as industrialization.1 The roles of value stream mapping (VSM) and simulation To date. while validation tools can be regarded as the instruments for evaluating the various maneuvers. 1998). one can design an improved future-state map by implementing lean techniques into the current value-state map. Ballard and Howell (1998) reasoned that a lean revolution in the construction industry could lead to the conceptual overthrow of the established flow and value models.

researchers investigate the process flow by tracking the direction of the product’s components or work-in-progress (WIP) on a “conveyor belt” leaving the host of an individual process behind for its next task. the idling time of a machine before its next task) or evaluate the value stream against time. Job shop is related to business that specializing in manufacture of custom made parts. In manufacturing production. al. More recently. powerful simulation tools have been developed along with strategies for their usage. Despite their contributions. Simulation technique has now further advanced to involve 3D motion paths in dynamic animations of simulated construction processes (Martinez and Ioannou 1999. and real value of lean-thinking partly due to the difficulty in implementing a lean approach. it is the other way round for construction whereby the end product is stationed at a fixed place. (2003) conducted a value stream study for a re-engineered construction supply chain for pipe supports used in power plants. They corrected the inefficiencies in the current-state value map and presented a future-state value map. They. The product passes through different sub-trade processes brought in . Yu et. even though the operators might be idle for half of the time behind the backdrop. the researchers studied the VSM workflows. Arbulu et.2. such as VSM and simulation. On the other hand. which involved the engineering firm and its supplier in one single connected stream. (2005) applied lean production concepts and VSM for make-to-order products in a job shop environment. however.2 Review of lean construction applications The construction industry has not paid enough attention to the benefits. These authors successfully identified opportunities for improvement through the VSM. further research based on effective tools. ignored the development at each individual host in the understanding that it was not necessary to map the value stream of the engineering firm for its other daily works. Quite a numer of lean construction simulation studies now exist thanks to the advancement of computing technology. Such studies have focused mostly on the resource supply chain or the flow of components in a manufacturing-cycle domain. there were no VSM studies for individual operations against time. However. As the use of simulation is now some four decades old. there are only limited studies that have employed the VSM technique along with the implementation of lean construction. Hence. thus emphasizing the visualization and technical aspects of the tools. al. Alves et al. Kamat and Martinez 2007). This study described three alternatives of supply chain models and provided simulations that reflected the significant difference in the output of a ‘lean’ model and a control model. In their research. (2009) mentioned the lack of practical examples of a VSM in lean construction. is required to practically extend lean thinking in construction society. Thus they did not track the course of upright lateral processes (for example. Tommelein (1998) used simulations to improve “pull’ technique construction processes. Halpin and Kueckmann (2002) concluded that lean-thinking provides a structured format while its performance and advantages can be evaluated through simulation.

VSM has been called a static snapshot that is unable to express the dynamic nature and uncertainty inherent to an interconnected system. different tasks cannot be carried out simultaneously. This is worsened by variation of sub-trades or crews who tend to follow their own working schedules. We think that VSM and simulation is not separable when dealing with the context of indentifying waste and subsequently modified for improvement. The waste or values that are lost invariably occur at the interfaces between processes (Arbulu et. al. We did not test VSM and simulation as if they were two isolated tools. However. we combined both to form a single integrated tool. “If VSM is a snapshot. you will see the process motion. Any understanding towards a process or scratch of idea for value-waste detection would have long been executed initially in a mind-map. With good management through the application of the JIT method or a sufficient inventory. 2001). Not only the vision and model come from the value-stream-map. 2003).” Wang et. The supervisors’ opinions were obtained pertaining to the sequence of natural gas pipe works and likely . the process of identifying waste prior to simulation is no other than practicing VSM itself. This mean that one resource is idle on the “conveyor belt” before its forerunner completes an earlier task. Instead. VSM snapshots therefore act like the individual frames of an animation: if you flick through the snapshots in sequence.” The main factor contributing to a smooth flow is the efficiency of this moving belt to deliver the available resources. simulation is the movie. A case study is then conducted to obtain real field data together with the advice of experienced personnel. Wang et al.through the “conveyor belt. METHODOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROCEDURES The current paper begins with a brief literature review pertaining to the development of lean-thinking in lean construction. There is much to be studied behind the scenes for every host of a process while they were placed on the “belt. before transferring into a visualized form of computer simulation. We then tested this integrated tool as a means for implementing the lean approach to improve construction productivity. not to mention the different interests of individual parties. 3. (2009) argued that simulations are more practical and powerful than VSM as a modeling and evaluative tool for complex and dynamic systems. did not explain how they identify waste in the current process map before they started using simulation models for improved state (future state). We interviewed the supervisors responsible for the installation works. Often in construction. Hence.” (Donatelli and Harris. the data gathered thru VSM make information for simulation setup available (Donatelli and Harris 2001). al. it is necessary to study the characteristics of the virtual “conveyor belt” in order to provide a smooth supply of resource for a fixed place product in the construction industry. Indeed. mass production in manufacturing today is able to ensure the continuity of the resources delivered by the “conveyor belt” to each process host without much delay.

. The Pyong Taek – Yongin pipeline construction site was particularly observed. This project began in June 2008 and is scheduled to be completed in December 2011 (3. Natural gas pipe works by KOGAS (Korea Gas Corporation) were selected as the case study for this paper.739 km. Hence. Models were developed using EXTEND simulation software. process modeling.2 million in total and involves two main contractors: Daerim Engineering & Construction and Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction. KOGAS was incorporated by the Korean government in 1983 and has grown to become the world’s largest LNG importer. Simulations were conducted to assess the results of our improvements after the implementation of the lean approach. Our data was analyzed by both the VSM and simulation methods. with a nationwide pipeline network of 2. Thus. The construction and operation of LNG terminals and its natural gas distribution network are among the main business concerns of KOGAS. The cost of construction is approximately estimated at USD 61.duration of certain operations. a good and efficient way of building the pipelines would be of great benefit to the gas company. Simulation model was made and validated to represent the real operation. the integrated VSM and simulation methods were used to devise a framework for the systematic implantation of the lean approach. we have been able to suggest improvements in productivity. Next. Similar identification for improvement opportunity was again conducted. CASE STUDY In this paper. The simplicity and repetitiveness of this operation became the main reason for it to be selected as the case study in our research. The construction work processes under study included the interactions of all of the construction elements from the materials to the equipments to the work force. a case study was conducted in a natural gas pipe works in Korea. the cycle time of a natural gas pipe installation can be observed easily. The process system was first represented by a value-stream-map and any opportunity for improvement through the elimination of waste was identified. hence increases the chances of detection of opportunity for improvements. An improved model was made based on the suggestions obtained from the VSM. and operational reengineering.5 years). On top of that. through field observations. As a result. 4. a more detailed value-stream-map was delineated to show the specific types of waste generated by individual operations against time. These were compared to the real process.

In case of restraints due to underground utilities or during asphalt clearing. Therefore. Whenever the trucks came or departed. it is important for us to study the operational system carefully in order to identify possible improvements. The proportion of non-value added activities (NVAA) were found to be very low compared to the value added activities (VAA). the operation took place at the existing double lane road whereby one lane was closed to allow for the construction. Hence. Therefore.17 minutes per trip.8 minutes. protection board placing. the issues of safety. the service time would range from 12 to 30 minutes. . backfilling of suitable material (earth) and land mark setup. Though not as many trades are involved as with the building construction. the laying of the pavement was excluded from this study. following the excavation of the trench. The operation started with excavation of a trench. the traffics in the remaining open lane was disturbed to some extent. The welders started their next task if no further touch up of welding was needed. After the pipe connections passed the NDT. The welding process took approximately 135 minutes before the joint was ready for inspection by the non-destructive test (NDT) technicians.4. the task of pipe loading (pipes being load down to the trench by crane truck). could only commence when the length of the trench was sufficient (> 12m). Since the natural gas pipes were to be buried under the road. The travel time to and from the dumping site was around 12 . 2 shows the current-state value-stream-map representing the production flow for a natural gas pipe installation. The NDT took approximately 30 minutes and the test results were available after an hour. Workers were assigned to control the traffic as only one way traffic was available. The average rate of fail results is relatively low at less than 2%. That is largely because this current-state valuestream-map cannot fully represent the value stream of the actual operation and thus accurately identify the existence of waste. Figure 1 shows the work flow diagram for installation of natural gas pipes excluding the asphalt-repave works at a later stage.1 Work flow diagram and current state map The natural gas pipes facility setup is an operation involving multiple processes and the coordination of different parties. The covered trench was not repaved as there was not enough length of accumulated sub-base to be paved until one or two weeks ahead. Three welders were needed to weld the joint between two pipes. Backfilling of the completed pipeline involved several stages of sand filling. and non-flexible sequences. Gas pipes were fixed in 12 m length. lengthy inspections. Fig. land. and the publicly used environment have presented limitations to the operational flow of the natural gas pipe installation. grinding and coating began for approximately 40 minutes to be followed by backfilling activities. A more detailed value-stream-map is thus required such that more detailed and breaks down individual processes can be laterally displayed against time. Other limitations include space. Two dumping trucks were served by an excavator with a service time of 5 . Productivity goals cannot be achieved at the expense of control factors such as safety and public interest.

4.2 Findings from the current system and suggestions for improvement Figure 3a and 3b show the breakdown of the value stream for the individual sub-processes conducted on the study against time. The percentage of non-value added and unnecessary activities for welders and grinders-coaters were 30% and 76. There might be an alternative way of reducing the .5% respectively.

We thus proposed that the pipes be loaded into the open trench which would then be filled in with sand so as to increase the stability of open trench.3 hours before there is enough space for pipes to be loaded and connected by welding. Currently. Although the welding for this new loaded pipe cannot be done on the same day. However. hence. Simulation is a good complement to VSM when evaluating the lean approach for a construction process. However. 4. NDT. Hence. which last for 2 . especially in operations involving interrelated tasks and common operators assigned with multiple-tasks. A simulated model for a natural gas pipe operation was produced using EXTEND simulation software. the danger of leaving open trench exposed overnight must be considered. Moreover. An alternative way to improve the labor utilization and reduce the idle time for workers is by reducing the waiting time of third parties (welders. overall productivity can be improved over the downstream activities. the grinders are semi-skilled labor and the welders are skilled labor. In our case study. hence increase the possibility of treating three connection points per day. hence.idling time of workers by merging their tasks and allocating a team of multi-taskers. We suggest utilizing the idle time of the excavator on the day before while waiting for the completion of the welding.3 Simulation as an evaluative tool complementing VSM In the previous part.) for the completion of trench excavation before the pipe can be set up and welded. the waste generated and opportunities for improvement were identified through VSM as part of our lean approach. it enables the welders to commence work early the next day. Figure 5 shows the proposed future-state value-stream-map. concurrent welding and coating of different joints cannot be carried out if the welders are required to complete all of the treatments to a joint. the grinding and coating were done by the same team of grinders. the trucks and will allow welding to start concurrently with the excavation on the following work day. the excavator and dumping trucks were needed for both excavation and backfilling. Utilizing welders to do the grinding and coating jobs would be a waste of wages. Figure 4(a) and (b) show the current and proposed revision of the pipe works over a period of three days respectively. the grinders are not able to do the welding jobs. The increase of the open trench buffer to one extra pipe length per day will eliminate the idling of the excavator. the first task of the day is the excavation of the pipe trench. and coating process. Normally. including grinding and coating. In this case study. both tasks could not be carried out concurrently at different places. the contractor is able to connect and treat two connection points per day. The excavator could excavate additional lengths of the buffer trench for the following day’s pipe works. The proposed revision of this procedure calls for an extra excavation for one pipe length and the unloading of an additional pipe per day. The model was designed to provide an algorithm for making sure the upstream tasks . in the case of natural gas pipe operations. NDT technicians. However. the static nature of VSM has limits its ability as an evaluative tool for the dynamic system of a real construction site. etc.

As only two pipes were installed per day. a minimum (24 m /1. The third hierarchy block is the ‘Backfilling’ block involving the backfilling of sand and suitable materials into the excavated pipe trench. or subsystem. Manpower is needed along with machinery during sand filling to avoid damaging the installed gas pipes with the machinery.were given priority for the resources. Figure 10 shows the backfilling subsystem nested in the hierarchy block. The ‘Unload Earth’ block entails the dumping truck unloading its load for backfilling.” Each hierarchy block contains other blocks that represent a portion. The duration of the work day was 8.5 minutes.5 m) = 16 trips were required per day. The welders are required to standby while the test takes place. The ‘Daily Program’ block fixed the daily start time for work across three consecutive days. Other sequences of different events were also tested for potential improvement. The first hierarchy block for the excavation involved two numbers of dump trucks and an excavator. The service time of the excavator was set at 6. Figure 9 shows the sub-system for pipe treatment in the hierarchy block. The trucks were held at the stack block until they were needed according to ‘FIFO (first-in-first-out)’ order. The capacity of the dumping trucks corresponds to the run length of the half-open trench at approximately 3 m of trench per truck. after the rest time had been eliminated (refer Figure 7).5m)’ block represented the number of dump truck trips required per day (excavation). of the model. The ‘Excavation’ block represents the operation of the excavator serving the empty trucks. welding is carried out followed by the nondestructive test (NDT). After the loading of a pipe into the open trench. the grinders start coating the joints. . Figure 6 shows the natural gas pipe operational model (As-is) which consists of three hierarchy blocks named “Excavation. Sand filling and compaction is followed by laying down protective board and then filling in the trench with earth. The fill-in capacity of dump truck corresponding to the run length of the open trench was approximately 1.5 hours or 510 minutes. If the connection joint passes the test.” “Pipe Treatment” and “Backfilling. The resource pool of the ‘Trench (1. External sand resources are used for the backfilling. The second hierarchy block consists of the treatments applied to the connection joints of the natural gas pipes. The space required for one pipe was 12 m in length. Figure 8 shows the subsystem for the excavation involved in the first stage of natural gas pipe operations.5 m of trench per truck.

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4 Simulation-based evaluation of the current system Our results showed that the excavator and dump trucks were utilized as 51% and 47% respectively.4. the utilization of welders and grinders-coaters were 58% and 16%. The excavation of the trench was completed at six counts with six connection joints welded and five pipes coated and buried at the end of three days (refer Figure 6 and Figure 9). These percentages are relate to the non-idling time of machineries. In actual construction site. Our simulation showed that the welders and grinders-coaters were utilized at 53% and 15% respectively. These percentages are relate to the non-idling time of workers and these figures are similar to those we .

treated six joints completely and bury five pipes in three days. Figure 11 shows the utilization graph for the welders (first and highest graph in blue). Six peaks (six pipes treated in . The excavator and dump trucks were utilized at 71% and 66% respectively. The resource pool named ‘Trench (1. there were only five joints being coated in three days (five peaks). projected an improvement of 15% and 20% respectively compared to the old system. However. in the new system. only two pipes were installed and treated per day. NDT technicians (green). In the old system. respectively. Our VSM showed that this process could be improved by loading an additional pipe into the trench per day so that welding could commence at the start of the following work day. both projected an improvement of around 40% compared to the as-is model. coaters (grey) and grinders (red) for the to-be model. In this way. coaters (third graph in grey) and grinders (lowest graph in red) in the current system. NDT technicians (second graph in green). a minimum (36 m /1. Figure 13 shows the utilization graph for the welders (blue).5 m) = 24 trips of earth removal works are required per day. Hence. Two peaks (two pipes welded per day) can be found for each work day of welders.5 Improved model (To-be) The revised model was set to have a resource pool named ‘trench’ to be excavated to a length of 36 m (three pipe lengths).5m)’ represents the number of dump truck trips required per day in order to excavate the required length of the open-space trench. Figure 12 shows the revised model excavated eight pipe lengths. The length required for 1 pipe is 12 m. 4. delays due to uncompleted trench excavations could be reduced.obtained from our VSM. which corresponded to two numbers of pipe joints treated per day in actual construction site. The welders and grinders-coaters were utilized at 61% and 18%.

three days) can be found. Table 1 shows the comparison between the Model “as-is” and model ‘to-be”. The welding works will be continued and commence at the start of the following day without delay. hence increasing the chance of treating three joints at the following day again. which corresponded to two numbers of pipe joints treated per day. an additional joint or 20% improvement compared to the Model “as-is”. . There were six joints being coated in three days (six peaks). An additional peak (additional joints) is not properly formed at the end of welders’ graph due to the end of the time period.

queue time. On top of an original flow value-stream-map.5. The current study has presented a clearer picture for the use of lean though in construction. The current-state value stream for the site was mapped and the opportunities for improvement ware identified. the laying of gas pipes to be specific. The natural gas pipes . The case study described herein involved a natural gas pipe laying site. The latter showed improved results in all aspects of process utilization. We believe that any simulation model would have started as a systematic value-stream-mapping whereby the values and waste were identified when re-designing an improved (to-be) operational system. The simulations for our current (as-is) and improved (to-be) work schedules for the laying of natural gas pipes were modeled using the EXTEND simulation software. The ‘pull’ signals from downstream were not being captured to increase the inventory or to buffer the excavated trench upstream for immediate pipe treatments. maximum wait time and productivity. a more detailed value-stream-map was drawn up that broke down the individual processes against time in order to identify those sources of waste that the plain flow map missed. CONCLUSION The current study reviewed the pre-existing methods of waste-reduction that precede lean thinking in achieving a more efficient operational system. Our proposed improvements require validation in a real operational environment. The idling of the excavators and dump trucks was reduced when they were assigned an increased excavation load in order to provide a buffer in terms of the pipe loading space. Thus. the present study examined the possibility of systematically implementing a lean framework using an integrated VSM and simulation method. The downstream operators were found to be idling.

1703. “What kind of production is construction?” Proceedings IGLC. Henry Ford. San Jose. Tommelein. “Lean Construction and Simulation. M.” Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference. “Value stream analysis of a re-engineered construction supply chain. Future studies. I. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of KOGAS personnel and Dr.org> .. K. J.gutenberg. W. 161-171. I. (1922).” Asian Art Museum. and Ballard. “Value stream mapping for make-to-order production in a job shop environment. R. Arbulu. “Combining Value Stream Mapping and Discrete Event Simulation.. 25 (2007) 420-437 Alves. Inc. and Harris. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF).. J. “EXTEND v6 User Guide. A.. (2001). (2002). (2006). J. A. Perhaps future research could propose temporary solutions to increase the safety of open-trench buffers. D. (2003). and Kueckmann.” Construction Research Congress. (2003) 31(2). 2005.” Proceedings of the Huntsville Simulation Conference.” Building Research & Information. (2005).experts have stated that it is the safety issue involved in leaving an additional open trench exposed overnight that is the main drawback to our suggested improvements. pg. 1697. D. D. a grant funded by the Ministry of Education. Donatelli. < www. However. and Hershauer. C.. Sean Ramnarine for their valuable feedback on this text.” Imagine That. Ballard and Howell. pg. C.” J. Operations Manage. (1998).com > Halpin. therefore. L.. CA. USA. G. Walsh. Science and Technology (2009-0081326). 38-40 Holweg. Tommelein.” Project Gutenberg <www. References “Ancient China: From the Neolithic Period to the Han Dynasty. “The genealogy of lean production.. this study has shown that the VSM and simulation methods can be functionally integrated to provide a stronger instrument in the search for solutions to productivity shortfalls. D.imaginethatinc. G. could focus on developing more potential applications for the integrated VSM and simulation method in operations of greater complexity. “My Life and Work.

kogas. Standford.” Productivity Press. Tommelein. P. Hussein..T. “ 2600 B. Stanford University. pg. D. 1027-1038. Mohamed. M..” Terchnical Report #72. Constr.” J. J. Eng. 17 (2008) 188-200. Eng. Brookline. Kenny Wong.. < www.. C. M. “Generic representation of 3D motion paths in dynamic animations of simulated construction processes. 782-790. Constr. Womack. I.” J. A. 135(10). 21. (1998). 323. 124(4). Wang.” J. J. and Shook. 265-276.com. J. Eng. . (1998). (2007). “Development of Lean Model for Housing Construction Using Value Stream Mapping. Constr. “ General-purpose system for effective construction simulation. “Pull-driven scheduling for pipe-spool installation: Simulation of lean construction technique.Kamat. and Ioannou. “Flow Production of Pipe Spool Fabrication: Simulation to Support Implementation of Lean Technique. 167 Rother. S. Lean Manufacturing (Tech Trends Feature).or.” The British Museum Press. A. H. T. (2007). vol 24. V. Manage. (2007). Manage. and Rawa.” Rawson Associates.C. CIFE. issue 7. Levinson (2002). 125(4). William A.bmy. Manage. Eng... < www. R. L.. “The first emperor: China’s Terracotta Army. P. 279-288.” J. M. Constr. C. 135(8).. and Roos. “The Machine That Changed the World. J. “Learning to see: Value Stream Mapping to Add Value and Eliminate Muda. R. (1999).. Yu. D.. “Henry Ford’s Lean Vision: Enduring Principles from the First Ford Motor Plant. Jones.D. (1992). CA.kr > Koskela. Korea Gas Corporation.” Lean Enterprise Institute . T. Museum of the Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses of Qin ShiHuang.. Abourizk.” CADalyst [0820-5450]. New York. “Application of the new production philosophy to construction. 14-17. (1990).P.cn > Portal.. Tweed. Martinez. (2009). pg. G. J. Manage. and Nasseri. Y. R. and Martinez.” Automation in Construction. (2009).

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